Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete?

© All Rights Reserved

11 vistas

Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete?

© All Rights Reserved

- Vedanta and Quantum Physics
- M.sc. Chemistry
- Science of Oneness
- The Bridge of Aether
- Chapter 5 - Ion-Atom Collisions
- Slater
- Relativistic Quantum Mechanics
- Angular Momentum
- Quantum Technology Popdescr 171114 Eng
- Bohr, Medical Research and Natural Phy
- Quantum Mechanics homework and solution
- Entanglement Treating Leick With Like
- Vol4Num2
- Schroedinger wave equation
- What is the Difference Between Classical Physics and Quantum Physics
- Hamiltonian Dynamics of a Quantum of Space - Hidden Symmetries and Spectrum of the Volume Operator and Discrete Orthogonal Polynomials 1301.1949
- Qt Lectures
- Operations on States
- Nano Computing
- 273-302-1-PB

Está en la página 1de 4

of lanthanum is 7/2, hence the nuclear magnetic This investigation was carried out under the

moment as determined by this analysis is 2.5 supervision of Professor G. Breit, and, I wish to

nuclear magnetons. This is in fair agreement thank him for the invaluable advice and assis-

with the value 2.8 nuclear magnetons deter- tance so freely given. I also take this opportunity

mined, from La III hyperfine structures by the to acknowledge the award of a Fellowship by the

writer and N. S. Grace. 9 Royal Society of Canada, and to thank the

' M. F. Crawford and N. S. Grace, Phys. Rev. University of Wisconsin and the Department of

4'7, 536

(1935). Physics for the privilege of working here.

A. EINsTEIN, B. PQDoLsKY AND N. RosEN, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey

(Received March 25, 1935)

In a complete theory there is an element corresponding quantum mechanics is not complete or (2) these two

to each element of reality. A sufFicient condition for the quantities cannot have simultaneous reality. Consideration

reality of a physical quantity is the possibility of predicting of the problem of making predictions concerning a system

it with certainty, without disturbing the system. In on the basis of measurements made on another system that

quantum mechanics in the case of two physical quantities had previously interacted with it leads to the result that if

described by non-commuting operators, the knowledge of (1) is false then (2) is also false. One is thus led to conclude

one precludes the knowledge of the other. Then either (1) that the description of reality as given by a wave function

the description of reality given by the wave function in is not complete.

conzp/eEe, the following requirement for a com-

of a physical

A NY serious consideration

theory must take into account the dis-

plete theory

element

seems to be a necessary

of the physical reality must

one: every

have a counter

tinction between the objective reality, which is

independent of any theory, and the physical part in the physical theory We shall ca. 11 this the

concepts with which the theory operates. These condition of completeness. The second question

concepts are intended to correspond with the is thus easily answered, as soon as we are able to

objective reality, and by means of these concepts decide what are the elements of the physical

we picture this reality to ourselves. reality.

In attempting to judge the success of a The elements of the physical reality cannot

physical theory, we may ask ourselves two ques- be determined by a priori philosophical con-

tions: (1) "Is the theory correct?" and (2) "Is siderations, but must be found by an appeal to

the description given by the theory complete?" results of experiments and measurements. A

It is only in the case in which positive answers comprehensive definition of reality is, however,

may be given to both of these questions, that the unnecessary for our purpose. We shall be satisfied

concepts of the theory may be said to be satis- with the following criterion, which we regard as

factory. The correctness of the theory is judged reasonable. If, without in any way disturbing a

by the degree of agreement between the con- system, we can predict with certainty (i.e. , with

clusions of the theory and human experience. probability equal to unity) the value of a physical

This experience, which alone enables us to make quantity, then there exists an element of physical

inferences about reality, in physics takes the reality corresponding lo this physical quantity. It

form of experiment and measurement. It is the seems to us that this criterion, while far from

second question that we wish to consider here, as exhausting all possible ways of recognizing a

applied to quantum mechanics. physical reality, at least provides us with one

778 E I NSTE I N, PODOLSKY AN D ROSE N

such way, whenever the conditions set down in In accordance with quantum mechanics we can

it occur. Regarded not as a necessary, but only say that the relative probability that a

merely as a sufficient, condition of reality, this measurement of the coordinate will give a result

criterion is in agreement with classical as well as lying between a and b is

quantum-mechanical ideas of reality.

To illustrate the ideas involved let us consider = dx=b a. (6)

of the

P(a, b) PPdx= I

the quantum-mechanical description

behavior of a particle having a single degree of

freedom. The fundamental concept of the theory Since this probability is independent of a, but

is the concept of state, which is supposed to be depends only upon the difference b a, we see

completely characterized by the wave function that all values of the coordinate are equally

P, which is a function of the variables chosen to probable.

describe the particle's behavior. Corresponding A definite value of the coordinate, for a par-

to each physically observable quantity A there ticle in the state given by Eq. (2), is thus not

is an operator, which may be designated by the predictable, but may be obtained only by a

same letter. direct measurement. Such a measurement how-

If P is an eigenfunction of the operator A, that ever disturbs the particle and thus alters its

is, if state. After the coordinate is determined, the

A/=ag, particle will no longer be in the state given by

Eq. (2). The usual conclusion from this in

where a is a number, then the physical quantity

quantum mechanics is that when the momentnm

A has with certainty the value a whenever the

of a particle is known, its coordhnate has no physical

particle is in the state given by P. In accordance reali ty.

with our criterion of reality, for a particle in the More generally, it is shown in quantum me-

state given by P for which Eq. (1) holds, there chanics that, if the operators corresponding to

is an element of physical reality corresponding

two physical quantities, say A and B, do not

to the physical quantity A. Let, for example, commute, that is, if AB/BA, then the precise

'p e (pre/ p) ppg (2) knowledge of one of them precludes such a

knowledge of the other. Furthermore, any

where h is Planck's constant, po is some constant attempt to determine the latter experimentally

number, and x the independent variable. Since will alter the state of the system in such a way

the operator corresponding to the momentum of as to destroy the knowledge of the first.

the particle is From this follows that either (1) t' he guanturn-

mechanical description of rea1ity given by the wave

p = (h/2rri) 8/Bx, function is not cornplele or (2) when the operators

we obtain corresponding . to two physical qlantities do not

p' = pp = (h/2iri) 8$/Bx = p pp (4) commute the two quantifies cannot have simul-

taneous reality. For if both of them had simul-

Thus, in the state given by Eq. (2), the momen-

taneous reality and thus definite values these

tum has certainly the value pp. It thus has values would enter into the complete description,

meaning to say that the momentum of . the par- according to the condition of completeness. If

ticle in the state given by Eq. (2) is real. then the wave function provided such a complete

On the other hand if Eq. (1) does not hold, description of reality, it would contain these

we can no longer speak of the physical quantity values; these would then be predictable. This

A having a particular value. This is the case, for not being the case, we are left with the alter-

example, with the coordinate of the particle. The natives stated.

operator corresponding to it, say g, is the operator In quantum mechanics it is usually assumed

of multiylication by the independent variable. that the wave function does contain a complete

Thus, description of the physical reality of the system

in the state to which it corresponds. At first

DES CRI PT ION OF PH YS I CAL REALITY 779

sight this assumption is entirely reasonable, for infinite series (7) is reduced to a single term

the information obtainable from a wave function )t h(xg)uh(x().

seems to correspond exactly to what can be The set of functions u(x() is determined by

measured without altering the state of the the choice of the physical quantity A. If, instead

system. We shall show, however, that this as- of this, we had chosen another quantity, say B,

sumption, together with the criterion of reality having the eigenvalues b~, b2, b3, and eigen-

given above, leads to a contradiction. functions v((x(), v2(x(), v3(x(), we should

have obtained, instead of Eq. (7), the expansion

2.

4'(x), xm) =Q ((),(x2) v, (x(),

For this purpose let us suppose that we have s=l

two systems, I and II, which we permit to inter-

act from the time t =0 to t = T, after which time where y, 's are the new coeAicients. If now the

we suppose that there is no longer any interaction quantity 8 is measured and is found to have the

value bwe conclude that after the measurement

between the two parts. We suppose further that

the first system is left in the state given by v(x()

the states of the two systems before t=0 were

and the second system is left in the state given

known. We can then calculate with the help of

Schrodinger's equation the state of the combined

by (.()

We see therefore that, as a consequence of two

system I+II at any subsequent time; in par-

different measurements performed upon the first

ticular, for any t)T. Let us designate the cor- system, the second system may be left in states

responding wave function by +. Ke cannot, with two different wave functions. On the other

however, calculate the state in which either one hand, since at the time of measurement the two

of the two systems is left after the interaction. systems no longer interact, no real change can

This, according to quantum mechanics, can be take place in the second system in consequence

done only with the help of further measurements, of anything that may be done to the first system.

by a process known as the reduction of the wave This is, of course, merely a statement of what is

packet. Let us consider the essentials of this meant by the absence of an interaction between

process. the two systems. Thus, it is possible to assign two

Let a~, a2, a3, be the eigenvalues of some different wave functions (in our example )Ih and

physical quantity A pertaining to system I and e) to the same reality (the second system after

u((x(), u2(x)), us(x(), ~

the corresponding the interaction with the first).

eigenfunctions, where x& stands for the variables Now, it may happen that the two wave func-

used to describe the first system. Then +, con- tions, )th and e, are eigenfunctions of two non-

sidered as a function of x~, can be expressed as commuting operators corresponding to some

physical quantities P and Q, respectively. That

+(x(, xm) = Q ))(.(xm)u. (x(), this may actually be the case can best be shown

by an example. Let us suppose that the two

where x2 stands for the variables used to describe systems are two particles, and that

the second system. Here P(x&) are to be regarded

merely as the coefficients of the expansion of + +(x& x2) e(2&&ih) (&s&2+&o) ndp

co

into a series of orthogonal functions u(x)).

Suppose now that the quantity A is measured where x0 is some constant. Let A be the momen-

and it is found that it has the value af, . It is then tum of the first particle; then, as we have seen

concluded that after the measurement the first in Eq. (4), its eigenfunctions will be

system is left in the state given by the wave e(2m(/h) yes,

function uh(x(), and that the second system is (x ) (io)

left in the state given by the wave function corresponding to the eigenvalue p. Since we have

ph(x2). This is the process of reduction of the here the case of a continuous spectrum, Eq. (7)

wave packet; the wave packet given by the will now be written

780 EINSTEIN, PODOLSKY AND ROSEN

disturbing the second system, either the value

%(x(, xg) = P(x,)u, (x))dP, of the quantity P (that is p)) or the ~alue of the

4

(x ) s

(sw(l h) (zg zo) P criterion of reality, in the first case we must

(12)

consider the quantity I' as being an element of

This Phowever is the eigenfunction of the reality, in the second case the quantity Q is an

operator element of reality. But, as we have seen, both

P = (8/2')(7/Bx2, wave functions P), and q, belong to the same

(13)

reality.

corresponding to the eigenvalue p of the Previously we proved that either (1) the

momentum of the second particle. On the other quantum-mechanical description of reality given

hand, if 8 is the coordinate of the first particle, by the wave function is not complete or (2) when

it has for eigenfunctions the operators corresponding to two physical

quantities do not commute the two quantities

cannot have simultaneous reality. Starting then

corresponding to the eigenvalue x, where with the assumption that the wave function

()(xq x) is the well-known Dirac delta-function. does give a complete description of the physical

Eq. (8) in this case becomes reality, we arrived at the conclusion that two

physical quantities, with rioncommuting oper-

ators, can have simultaneous reality. Thus the

negation of (1) leads to the negation of the only

where other alternative (2). We are thus forced to

conclude that the quantum-mechanical descrip-

e(21r i/h) (xF2+$0) gldp tion of physical reality given by wave functions

is not complete.

One could object to this conclusion on the

= h()(x xp+xo). (16)

grounds that our criterion of reality is not suf-

This q, however, is the eigenfunction of the ficiently restrictive. Indeed, one would not arrive

operator at our conclusion if one insisted that two or more

(17) physical quantities can be regarded as simul-

taneous elements of reality only +hen they can be

corresponding to the eigenvalue x+xo of the simultaneously measured or predi cted. On this

coordinate of the second particle. Since point of' view, since either one or the other, but

not both simultaneously, of the quantities I'

PQ QP = 1(/2mi,

and Q can be predicted, they are not simultane-

we have shown that it is in general possible for ously real. This makes the reality of P and Q

P~ and p to be eigenfunctions of two noncom- depend upon the process of measurement carried

muting operators, corresponding to physical out on the first system, which does, not disturb

quantities. the second system in any way. No reasonable

Returning now to the general case contem- definition of reality could be expected to permit

plated in Eqs. (7) and (8),. we assume that P), this.

and yare indeed eigenfunctions of some non- While we have thus shown that the wave

commuting operators P and Q, corresponding to function does not provide a complete description

the eigenvalues pI, and q, respectively. Thus, by of the physical reality, we left open the question

measuring either A or 8 we are in a position to of whether or not such a description exists. We

predict with certainty, and without in any way believe, however, that such a theory is possible.

- Vedanta and Quantum PhysicsCargado porsudhakar_sudha2003
- M.sc. ChemistryCargado porkunalprabhu148
- Science of OnenessCargado porEarthcat
- The Bridge of AetherCargado porstormrunner002
- Chapter 5 - Ion-Atom CollisionsCargado porCalinescu Ionut-catalin
- SlaterCargado porHernando Caicedo
- Relativistic Quantum MechanicsCargado porbehsharifi
- Angular MomentumCargado porelika
- Quantum Technology Popdescr 171114 EngCargado porarya
- Bohr, Medical Research and Natural PhyCargado porPala Pili
- Quantum Mechanics homework and solutionCargado porTrung Vo
- Entanglement Treating Leick With LikeCargado porDr. Nancy Malik
- Vol4Num2Cargado pornutsguitar
- Schroedinger wave equationCargado porAjay Kumar
- What is the Difference Between Classical Physics and Quantum PhysicsCargado porApple
- Hamiltonian Dynamics of a Quantum of Space - Hidden Symmetries and Spectrum of the Volume Operator and Discrete Orthogonal Polynomials 1301.1949Cargado porforizsl
- Qt LecturesCargado porjoachin
- Operations on StatesCargado portau_tau
- Nano ComputingCargado porDebra Fernandez
- 273-302-1-PBCargado porVenu Sdharan
- 1009.0444v1Cargado porqpro
- FrontMatter_Giancoli7e_Manual.pdfCargado porAndi Rodik
- 031_048.pdfCargado porRaj Saumya
- Fei Zhou- Spin Correlation and Discrete Symmetry in Spinor Bose-Einstein CondensatesCargado porPomac232
- Dispense.pdfCargado porChristian L'importanteèloslapsulbasso Dioguardi
- www.iiserpune.ac.in_~sdube_phy202_lecture11_12Cargado porNitinKumar
- Seth T. Rittenhouse et al- Hyperspherical description of the degenerate Fermi gas: s-wave interactionsCargado porLomewcx
- PhysRevA.57.120.pdfCargado porAnkush Gaur
- Quantum Geometry and InterferometryCargado porATP_101
- 100 Yeasr for Science TechnologyCargado porCik Miza Mizziey

- SOP CaltechCargado porAndy Ho
- taylorCargado porAndy Ho
- Chord Chemistry by Ted GreeneCargado pori'mwithstupid
- 312022233-Guitar-Book-The-Beatles-Fingerpicking-HAL-LEONARD-Guitar-Tablature-15-Songs-pdf.pdfCargado porAndy Ho
- 6797_chap03Cargado porAndy Ho
- 05. Basic Concepts 3Cargado porAndy Ho
- Classical MechanicsCargado porAndy Ho
- 357624009-Fretboard-Logic-Volumes-I-II-III-pdf.pdfCargado porAndy Ho
- Taylor Guitars Guitar Buyers Guide 2017Cargado por歐育孟
- Childress HansonCargado porAndy Ho
- Practice Book PhysicsCargado porAndy Ho
- Network ScienceCargado porAndy Ho
- Entanglement, Decoherence and the Quantum:Classical BoundaryCargado porAndy Ho
- Entanglement Guides Quantum ComputationCargado porAndy Ho
- Remark for Exercise Class 6Cargado porAndy Ho
- PHYS3031 Homework 12 SolutionCargado porAndy Ho
- Quantum Information in a NutshellCargado porAndy Ho
- Quantum Information TheoryCargado porAndy Ho
- Quantum Theory, The Church-Turing Principle and the Universal Quantum ComputerCargado porAndy Ho
- GE Course Outline Logic 1Cargado porAndy Ho
- Feynmann Diagrams ExerciseCargado porAndy Ho
- 11. From proposal to publications.pdfCargado porAndy Ho
- 02. HistoryCargado porAndy Ho
- 13. Higgs DiscoveryCargado porAndy Ho
- Ph106ab NotesCargado portjdjswo
- 01071000179Cargado porAndy Ho
- 218603416 Electronic Structure Basic Thoery and Practical Methods Richard M 1 Martin CambridgeCargado porAndy Ho

- High Energy Rate Forming ProcessCargado porjasonmani90
- Dimension 8 operatorsCargado porRafael Lopes de Sa
- 57_60_winter2002[1]Cargado porapi-3808925
- soln53_Ch39Cargado porgaura11
- QM Lecture NotesCargado porDiego Suárez
- Quantum Lect 4Cargado pornewspaper
- Squeezing and statistical properties of light by Michael Anakwah.Cargado porMichael Anakwah
- The String TheoryCargado pormariosergio05
- POGIL Answer Keys.pptxCargado porHolden Kodish
- chern (2017_12_24 16_14_20 UTC).pdfCargado porSuvajit Majumder
- Introduction to Quantum Noise, Measurement and AmplificationCargado porfractin
- Structure of the AtomCargado porgrazianir
- Quantum annealing algorithm descriptionCargado porAlfonso
- Hiroyuki Matsuura, Masahiro Nakano and Katsumi Wasaki- Quantum Circuits,Lots, Interference and Basis of Neuro-ComputationsCargado pordcsi3
- lecture slideCargado porTidal Surges
- PHOSTATECargado pordwalker7838
- EOMF Vol2 (D-H)Cargado porChandler Robert Spencer
- Salasnich.pdfCargado poranon_340252924
- Structure of Atom.Cargado porkavithanakkiran_3003
- Term SymbolCargado porRirin Zarlina
- Faster Than LightCargado porAnita Patel
- The Thermodynamic Meaning of Negative EntroCargado porAlan Rios Fukelman
- HW6.nbCargado porbigdrew89
- Sarkar BBNCargado porRohin Kumar
- Nuclear Physics_D. C. TayalCargado porDarshan Bhansali
- A Gateway State for Electron TransferCargado porchama_goz
- Notes_ Quantum Theory of Light and Matter WavesCargado porphysics olympiad
- The Truth - The Innerstanding of Our Physical Reality - What Are WeCargado porΦίλιππος
- Black Body radiationCargado porSafnas Kariapper
- 08 Chapter 1Cargado porbinifs