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Reading 4 Read this news article and explain what the words below refer to.

Systems Seventy or more kilometres the nearest land. They got into satellite system. When the boat
from land, your boat strikes 20 their life raft, but their radio was sank, the beacon automatically
an unseen object and sinks lost when the boat went down. detached itself from the
1 Rescue quickly. You have no time to At 09.30 the coastguard 40 yacht and floated to the
5 send a radio message. You received a signal from the surface. There it switched on
jump into your life raft. You boats emergency beacon. The automatically and transmitted
Start here 1 Work in pairs. Answer the questions about the safety have flares in your life raft, but 25 coastguard forwarded it to the an emergency signal on the
devices in this illustration of an air-sea rescue. they are only visible from a rescue centre and by 11.00 406 MHz wavelength to the
distance of about 5 km. How (only 90 minutes later) the crew 45 satellite. The satellite then
How the survivors satellite 10 do you send an emergency of the helicopter found the two forwarded the signal to the
were rescued signal to the nearest rescue sailors and winched them into coastguard.
centre? 30 the helicopter from the life raft. The free-floating beacon
This happened to two sailors How was the emergency signal and the Cospas-Sarsat
on 18 July this year. They were transmitted? 50 satellite system can increase
15 sailing in the Indian Ocean Fortunately, the Tiger was the chances of saving lives in
when their boat, the Tiger, fitted with a 406 MHz free- any air-sea rescue, in which
struck a sharp object. The boat 35 floating beacon, which was the most important thing is to
quickly sank 77 kilometres from linked to the Cospas-Sarsat locate the survivors quickly.

B winch

1 They (line 14) the two sailors

2 it (line 25)
3 which (line 35)
4 itself (line 39)
C life jacket
5 There (line 41)
D life raft E beacon 6 in which (line 52)

kilometres flares visible emergency signal coastguard beacon

F radio free-floating satellite automatically megahertz wavelength 03

Which ones:
5 Complete this incident report form.
1 stop you from sinking?
2 tell the rescuers where you are? Incident report form
3 rescue you from the water?
Name of rescue helicopter pilot: Ricardo Moussa Date of rescue:
Listening 2 02 Listen to this news report and put the six safety
devices from 1 in the order the reporter mentions them. Name of boat:

1 2 3 4 5 6 Distance of boat from land:

3 Put these statements in the order the events actually Number of people rescued:
happened. Then listen again to check your answers.
Time of first emergency signal:
A  he helicopter winched the sailors out of the
life raft. Type of emergency beacon:

B The sailors inflated the life raft and jumped in. Time of rescue:
C 1 The boat struck an object in the sea. Method of rescue:
D The sailors fired two flares into the air.
E The boat sank.
F The beacon sent a signal to the satellite. Speaking 6 Work in pairs. Take turns to be the rescue pilot and a safety officer. The safety officer
G The beacon detached itself from the boat. interviews the pilot and asks questions based on the form.
H The rescue team saw the flares. Examples: Whats your name? When did the rescue take place?

4 1 Systems Systems 1 5
2 Transmission Language The relative pronoun (for example, which, who, where) is a useful way to join two
sentences together.
Start here 1 Complete this description of how a satellite communication system works, using the
the satellite. The satellite
correct form of the verbs in the box. Signals are transmitted to then sends the signals to Earth.
the satellite, which
receive convert detach activate carry out transmit locate the warehouse. Here
The goods are taken to they are stored safely.
the warehouse, where
The satellite 2. Search and
the city centre. From here
communication rescue satellites
If a plane crashes, or a ship sinks, the survivors try to This is roads lead in all directions.
the city centre, from where
system (1) their personal emergency beacons
Waleed. Waleed
manually. In addition, an automatic beacon (2) Ricardo reports to is the operations manager.
Waleed, who
itself from the plane or ship and switches on automatically.
The beacon then (3) a signal to one or more
1. Signal from satellites. The satellites (4) the beacons 4 Join these pairs of sentences into single sentences. Use which, where, from where and
transmission and then send the beacons signal to their who to replace the words in italics.
ground station. The ground station then processes the Example: 1 to the satellite, from where
satellite signals (that is, it (5) the signals into 1 The beacon sends a signal to the satellite. From here the signal is transmitted to
3. Ground useful data), and then passes on the data about the beacon the ground station.
to a national centre. The national centre forwards this data 2 The rescue centre contacts the helicopter pilot. He or she then carries out the
to the rescue centre nearest to the crashed plane or sinking
4. National 3 The sailor activated his beacon. This sent a 406 MHz signal to the satellite.
centre ship. The rescue centre then (6) the beacon 4 The sailors were winched into the helicopter. Here they were given blankets and
and sends out a rescue team, which then (7) hot drinks.
5. Rescue
centre the rescue. 5 The sailors were taken by helicopter to the rescue centre. From here, they were
driven by ambulance to the nearest hospital.
6 Hundreds of survivors are saved every year by the Cospas-Sarsat system. This
was first launched in 1982.
Listening 2 04 Listen to this discussion and check your answers to 1.
Speaking 5 Look at the table. Read out items ah in full.
Reading 3 Part of this text is missing. Write the letters of phrases AG below in the correct
spaces. Use the illustration in 1 to help you. Example: (a) (from) two to five kilograms

The Cospas-Sarsat system is an international search and rescue Some facts and figures about the emergency beacon and the satellite system
LEOSAR satellites
system which consists of a network of satellites in space, and control 1 Radio frequency of beacon a) 25 kg
centres on Earth.
2 Power (wattage) of beacon signal b) 260 mm (h) x 102 mm (w) x 83 mm (d)
The components of the system are:
radio beacons, which (1) 3 Length and frequency of beacon signal c) GME 203FF 18756
satellites, which (2) 4 Dimensions d) 35,000 km
ground stations, where (3)
5 Weight e) 406 MHz
national centres, from where (4)
rescue teams, who (5) 6 Operating range (temperature) f) -40C40C

The system uses two types of satellite: 7 Model number g) 5W

GEOSAR satellites
satellites in geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), which (6) 8 Altitude of GEOSAR satellite h) 0.5 sec every 50 sec
satellites in low-altitude Earth orbit (LEO), which (7)

A are closer to the earth and cover polar regions. Task 6 Match items 18 with the correct items ah in the table in 5.
B information about the emergency is sent to the rescue teams.
geo- = Earth
Geostationary satellites move C are at a high altitude and cover a wide area. Scanning 7 Practise your speed reading. Look for the information you need on the SPEED SEARCH
at the same speed and in the D transmit 406 MHz signals in an emergency. pages (116117). Try to be first to answer these questions.
same direction as the Earth.
E signals from the satellites are processed. 1 When was the first Cospas-Sarsat satellite launched?
When we observe them, they
seem to be stationary or not F pick up the signals from the beacons. 2 Which four countries started the Cospas-Sarsat system?
moving. G receive the information and carry out the search and rescue. 3 How many countries now operate the Cospas-Sarsat system?

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3 Operation Writing 4 With your group, write the How It Works section of an operating manual for the
emergency beacon. Use all the information from the previous page. Complete the
sentences to explain the seven stages in the diagram in 1.
Start here 1 Work in small groups. Study the diagram and discuss these questions.
Produce a single copy for your group. Each group member should work on different
stages. Check and correct each others work before you finalise the complete document.
The free-floating Inside the HRU 7. Beacon transmits
emergency beacon membrane signal to satellite
spring Free-floating emergency beacon for Cospas-Sarsat rescue system 3 This releases
light How it works
water 4 The lever arm then

1 If the boat sinks, and the beacon is submerged below four metres 5 The beacon then
of water, the water pressure activates the HRU (hydrostatic release
unit) automatically.
6 As a result, the beacon
1. Water pressure 6. Beacon
4m activates HRU activates itself 2 The water pressure inside the HRU
7 When it reaches the surface
3. Spring pushes
2. HRU cuts rod beacon away
Vocabulary 5 Study the illustrations and supply the missing verbs in the instructions below.
ensure tear off touch remove slide place pull push
spring 5. Beacon moves out
of range of magnet How to activate the beacon manually
lever arm
cover R-clip
1. Tear tab
a/w 1.6 clear view
of sky
PH tab
R 2. Push and slide left light
HRU = hydrostatic release
4. Cover is ejected U

174mm wide x 67mm deep switch
base cover
hydro- = water
hydrostatic = operated by
1 Why is it important for the beacon to detach itself and activate itself automatically?
water pressure
2 How do you think it works?

Vocabulary 2 With your group, match synonyms ae with the words in italics in 15. beacon

1 the beacon is submerged a) frees it (allows it to move away)

How to activate the emergency beacon manually
2 the rod breaks and this releases b) away from the force of
If the vessel is not sinking, but there is some immediate danger, you can activate the
the cover c) sinks under water
beacon manually. Follow these instructions:
3 the cover is ejected from the base d) switches itself on
4 the beacon moves out of range of e) is pushed away 1 Pull the R-clip.
the magnet 2 the cover and detach the beacon from its base.
5 the beacon activates itself 3 the tab. Underneath the tab is the switch.
4 the switch down and __________ it to the left.
Task 3 With your group, match questions 15 with answers ae. 5 the beacon on a flat surface and that the antenna is
1 What does the rod do? a) Pressure from the spring and the upright. Check that the antenna has a clear view of the sky.
2 What makes the knife cut the rod? lever arm. 6 Do not the antenna while it is transmitting.
3 After the knife has cut the rod, b) Because it moves out of range of
what pushes the cover away from the magnet. Writing 6 Produce an operating manual with your group for a device you know about.
the base? c) It fixes the cover to the base. 1 Agree on the device you want to write about.
4 What does the magnet do? d) It prevents the beacon from switching 2 Divide up the work. Each group member produces a different section of the
5 When the beacon floats away from on when it is inside the cover. operating manual: (1) how it works, (2) operating instructions, and
the base, why does it switch on e) The pressure of the water and the (3) labelled diagrams.
automatically? force of the spring in the HRU. 3 Check each others work, and then produce a single manual from the group.

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