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EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK

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Death Kritik Index 1/3

Death Kritik Index........................................................................................................................................1

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**1NC’s.......................................................................................................................................................4

Death K 1NC................................................................................................................................................5

Death K 1NC................................................................................................................................................6

Death K 1NC................................................................................................................................................7

Death K 1NC................................................................................................................................................8

Death K 1NC................................................................................................................................................9

Death K 1NC..............................................................................................................................................10

Death K 1NC..............................................................................................................................................11

Death K 1NC..............................................................................................................................................12

Pure War 1NC............................................................................................................................................13

Pure War 1NC............................................................................................................................................14

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**Overviews..............................................................................................................................................15

2NC Overview............................................................................................................................................16

2NC Pure War Overview............................................................................................................................17

2NR Overview............................................................................................................................................18

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**Links.......................................................................................................................................................19

Link- Nuclear War......................................................................................................................................20

Link- Obsession..........................................................................................................................................21

Link- Nuclear Death/Extinction..................................................................................................................22

Link- Hegemony.........................................................................................................................................23

Link—Opposition to Death........................................................................................................................24

Link—Panic................................................................................................................................................25

Link—Bukimi..............................................................................................................................................26

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EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK

CROSS-X.COM JAIPAUL

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**Link Blocks.............................................................................................................................................27

AT: We Have Other Justifications...............................................................................................................28

AT: Death Bad/Life Good............................................................................................................................29

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EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK

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Death Kritik Index 2/3

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**Impacts..................................................................................................................................................30

Impact—Dignity.........................................................................................................................................31

Impact—Destroys All Resistance...............................................................................................................32

Impact—Numbing.....................................................................................................................................33

Impact—Consumerism..............................................................................................................................34

Impact—Extermination.............................................................................................................................35

_____________.........................................................................................................................................36

**Impact Blocks.........................................................................................................................................36

AT: Nuclear/War/Death Imagery Good 1/2................................................................................................37

AT: Nuclear/War/Death Imagery Good 2/2................................................................................................38

AT: FoD Makes Life Meaningful..................................................................................................................39

AT: Cold War Proves FoD Good..................................................................................................................40

AT: Violence Good......................................................................................................................................41

AT: Ketels...................................................................................................................................................42

AT: Fear Key to Prevent Nuke War (Futterman).........................................................................................43

AT: Stopping Nuclear War Key 2 Solve FOD................................................................................................44

AT: FoD Key 2 Treat AIDS............................................................................................................................45

AT: FoD Fuel Peace Movements.................................................................................................................46

AT: Denies Reality......................................................................................................................................47

AT: You Defend Extinction..........................................................................................................................48

AT: How Does the Alt Change the World?..................................................................................................49

AT: How Does the Alt Change the World?..................................................................................................50

AT: You Ignore Suffering.............................................................................................................................51

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**Alternative.............................................................................................................................................52

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...............................................................................................58 AT: No Alternative/Causes Nihilism 2/2..................................61 AT: Permutation 1/2....................65 -4- ...................................................................................64 AT: Permutation – Coalitions..................Transpersonal Solvency..............................................................................................................COM JAIPAUL Alternative......................................63 AT: Permutation 2NR....................................................................................................Mortality Solvency...................................................................................54 Alternative.....................................................53 Alternative.............................................................................................56 ________________.......................................................................................................57 **Alternative Blocks......................................................................................................................57 AT: No Alternative/Causes Nihilism 1/2.........60 AT: Radical Alternative Destroys the Movement................................59 AT: Alternative Doesn’t Solve Case......................................EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X....................................................................................................................................................................................................Nuclear War Solvency.....................................................................................................55 Alternative—Move Beyond Nuclear War.........................................................................................................................62 AT: Permutation 2/2..........................................................................................................................................................

..74 AT: Threats Are Real................................................................................................................................................COM JAIPAUL Death Kritik Index 3/3 ________________.......................................................................................................77 AT: Performative Contradiction – Kritik’s Impact is Death.........................................................................67 AT: Fiat Good 2NC 1/2...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................78 AT: PIKs Bad.............................71 AT: Realism Good 2NC 1/2...........................................................................EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X.................................................................................................................................................................................................79 -5- ..................................................................................................75 _____________.....................................................................................................................................................................................................72 AT: Realism Good 2NC 2/2..................................................................................................71 **Realism Blocks........................69 AT: Fiat Good 2NR......................................................................................................................................70 ______________..................................................................................................................................................................76 **Theory Blocks........................73 AT: Realism Good 2NR..66 Framework 2nc...............................................................68 AT: Fiat Good 2NC 2/2..................................................................................................66 **Framework Blocks..............................................................76 AT: Performative Contradiction – Other Positions........................................................................................................................................................................................................................

COM JAIPAUL 1NC’s -6- .EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X.

COM JAIPAUL -7- .EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X.

47 There are two separate but interdependent ideas here. Killing gives me a feeling of relief. And now today. Louis Rene Beres. by or holocaust. I have killed death. “Collective Suicide?”. is captured by Ernest Becker's paraphrase of Elias Canetti: "Each organism 48 The death fear of the ego is lessened by the killing raises its head over a field of corpses.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. ? . Spring 19 94 Humankind is different. This political logic is based on the supposition of total power and knowledge. it is fitting to ask whether what is in progress is a new genocidal and sacrificial illusion. This is a salvific and sacrificial destruction. of death as a zero-sum commodity. to prevent him from killing me. it is due. committed in the name of the need to radically materialize all the possibilities opened up by a given social and political reality over which it is supposed to have total power. the West has repeatedly been under the illusion that it should try to save humanity by destroying part of it. Prof at Univ of Coimbra. and under Nazism. This is how it was in colonialism. and on the radical rejection of alternatives. and that the problems and difficulties confronting it arise from failing to take its logic of development to ultimate consequences. If there is terrorism. The first is the rather pragmatic and mundane observation someone who would otherwise kill you is a life-supporting action Why assume that your intended victim would . " . with the Holocaust. it is no longer a source of anguish. with the collective sacrifice of the periphery and even the semiperiphery of the world system. perpetuating the drive towards immortality. according to Otto Rank. the West has experienced three versions of this -8- . International Law and Survival on Planet Earth. Boaventura de Santos. and the African slaves. of warding off one's own death. and what its scope might be. and that cry out for "self-determination. this is how it is in neoliberalism. but also from 46 How do these States sustain the promise of immortality States that have deigned to represent God in his planetary political duties. by every war or epidemic. war and destruction. This is how it was under Stalinism." . This kill to save mentality is part of a broader system of neoliberal violence. Where do ? It is . it is the outcome of market laws not having been fully applied." ? One way is through the legitimization of the killing of other human beings . Of course ." 49 The drive to secure ourselves against death demands The process of securing life demands the slaughter of the Other. If there is unemployment. rather. far more complex idea. It is above all appropriate to ask if the new illusion will not herald the radicalization and the ultimate perversion of the Western illusion: destroying all of humanity in the illusion of saving it. And why is such killing the ostensible protection of one's own life? An answer is offered by Eugene Ionesco as follows: I must kill my visible enemy. of course. the spectacle of catastrophe and annihilation has been with us from the beginning. smiles into the sun. with the Gulag. and declares life good. Professor of International Law at Purdue. This is how it was in the period of imperialist struggles. of the other.COM JAIPAUL Death K 1NC Short The affirmative replicates the evangelism of fear through its constructions of violence. holocaust and genocide are all past examples of the lesson the United States federal government has apparently missed. With the war against Iraq. Sacrificial genocide arises from a totalitarian illusion manifested in the belief that there are no alternatives to the present-day reality. My enemy's death cannot be held against me. each of us is we turn to promises of immortality unwilling to accept a fate that points not only to extinction. humanity cant be saved by destroying itself. the Sacrifice through the death of the other one buys oneself free from the penalty of dying. April 2003. this is not due to the violence of the conditions that generate it. to be sure. Yet. Issue # 63 According to Franz Hinkelammert. And from where do we hear such promises? From religion. hunger and death in the Third World. Self-Determination. The current death drive is not new as the gulag. of being killed. if I killed him with that killing the approval of society: that is the purpose of war. which caused millions of deaths in two world wars and many other colonial wars. with the genocide of indigenous peoples. otherwise be your assassin Because government has [*17] clarified precisely who is friend and who is foe. it is ultra-conservative in that it aims to reproduce infinitely the status quo. Bad Subjects. but also to extinction with insignificance. Killing is a way of relieving one's feelings. Or. is that This idea. and the seeming insignificance of individual life appears confirmed by every pestilence to be every earthquake or typhoon. your own killing in general confers immunity from mortality. the one who is determined to take my life. to the fact that total violence has not been employed to physically eradicate all terrorists and potential terrorists. During the last hundred years. Arizona Journal of International and Comparative Law. because I am dimly aware that in killing him. instead. The second. Inherent to it is the notion of the end of history. this is not the result of market failures.

with its logic of insuperable efficiency of the plan. and taboos come in many different forms. Fuchsberg Law Center at Touro College. is quite clear on two facts: according to reliable calculations by the Non-Governmental Organization MEDACT.COM JAIPAUL logic. from the idea of "discardable populations". to refer to the deaths. gender paraphrased There is also a direct relationship between our attitude toward death and its status as a taboo subject . catastrophic heroism.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. with its logic of insuperable efficiency of the market. then death becomes the subject of a linguistic prohibition -. only preventable by the massive destruction of the other. and. The first two periods involved the destruction of democracy. Professor of Law and Medical Ethics at the Jacob D. a death drive. worldwide. Much like a formal legal system.a taboo. referring to citizens of the Third World not capable of being exploited as workers and consumers. seen three versions of the end of history: Stalinism. the war will cost 100 billion dollars. Nazism. The last one trivializes democracy. Its death drive takes a number of forms. n201 By referring to the subject of death. They may be proscriptions against certain behaviors. Louise Harmon. between 48 and 260 thousand civilians will die during the war and in the three months after (this is without there being civil war or a nuclear attack). in London. of thousands of innocent civilians. I have described this situation as a combination of political democracy and social fascism. n194 or against eating certain foods. neoconservatism and Christian fundamentalism. A taboo is something forbidden. Text: Vote negative to shatter the silence surrounding death through an absolute rejection of the Affirmative’s fantasies of life absent death in order to embrace hope in the uncertain present. against the war is found to be incapable of halting the war machine set in motion by supposedly democratic rulers. certain words or subjects may be forbidden to be spoken of in public discourse. with its logic of racial superiority. as a result of war. the idea of a looming collective suicide. The last. the broader the definition of the other and the efficacy of its destruction. therefore. n200 There are risks in violating a taboo. n198 Geoffrey Gorer has theorized that there has been a shift in prudery during the last century. At all these moments. neoliberalism is a mixture of market radicalization. n199 His explanation for the linguistic prohibition on the subject of death is the same as mine: People no longer have a system of belief that includes spiritual immortality. November 1992. the more likely collective suicide becomes. The duty of those who judge is to relentlessly tear down the taboo surrounding death at every turn – a Negative ballot signifies an important political stance. and begins the deconstruction of the deathwatch. to the concept of "collateral damage". may consider the mention of sexual activity or birth to violate a taboo. traditional codes of conduct often [*110] carry sanctions for the breaking of unwritten rules. 77 Minnesota Law Review 1. and neoliberalism. n195 or touching certain sacred or [*108] profane objects or persons. Paradoxically. Someone with Victorian sensibilities. with the subject of death replacing the subject of sex as the forbidden topic on life's agenda. In its sacrificial genocide version. disarming it in the face of social actors sufficiently powerful to be able to privatize the state and international institutions in their favor. our informal. enough to pay the health costs of the world's poorest countries for four years. predominates. for example. n196 But taboos can also be what Levi-Strauss called "linguistic prohibitions. a catastrophic heroism. and in particular to -9- . The reasoning goes something like this: If the predominant attitude toward death in a culture is one of fear." n197 In a given culture. One current manifestation of this combination resides in the fact that intensely strong public opinion.

rather than on projecting success or failure. an uncertainty about where you might be able to go. confronting the taboo must be more than just an aspiration. then there is no reason for silence on the subject. to borrow a phrase from science. It is an open threshold . It gives you the feeling that there is always an opening to experiment. It would be an improvement in the human condition. Seek hope in an uncertain present rather than try to avoid impending disaster. 211- 212 Yes . Those people who orchestrate the deaths of others -. and if we see pessimism as the natural flow from this. This brings a sense of potential to the situation. Simply put. this is not a very ambitious claim.the idea of hope in the present is vital . In this instance. we might be able to confront the taboo. who design death spaces -. p. the less fear we have about something. then the subject can be openly spoken of. The present's `boundary condition'. the less likely we are to talk about it. But for the people in power. President of the Czech Republic. [*115] who judge death talk. the more likely we are to talk about it. Philosopher and Ph. Yes. This duty runs not only to the dying person.once you realise that it gives you a margin of manoeuvrability and you focus on that. in cooperation with each other or at cross-purposes. Otherwise we endlessly look to the future or toward some utopian dream of a better society or life. There's always a sort of vagueness surrounding the situation. You may not reach the end of the trail but at least there's a next step. As this aspect grows in importance. the speaker endangers himself [themselves] by making himself [them self] vulnerable to the evil that prompted the taboo. if the appearance of death does not rattle our bones.D in Cultural Theory. If you look at it that way you don’t have to feel boxed in by it. a pillar providing it with both excusatory legitimacy and an inner coherence. and Mary Zournazi. The criticism calls into question the ideology that forms a basis for their action. We must separate hope from solvency claims and calculability. and something to aspire to. which can only leave us disappointed. because in every situation there are any number of levels of organisation and tendencies in play. The Post-Development Reader. and no matter what. 1997.who have jurisdiction over the human body. but is more important than the action itself. and as it . you expect will come. and making for better deaths would help alleviate the horrors of the late twentieth-century-deathwatch. that's `hopeless'. If that risk is of no threat to the speaker.a threshold of potential. You are only ever in the present in passing. The way all the elements interrelate is so complex that it isn't necessarily comprehensible in one go. It's utopian thinking. and what you might be able to do once you exit that particular context. is never a closed door. Associate Professor of Communications at the Université de Montréal. as we have seen. Hope: New Philosophies for Change. Vaclav Havel. no matter what its horrors. we can only be paralysed as you suggest. New York: Routledge. Once again. The question of which next step to take is a lot less intimidating than how to reach a far-off goal in a distant future where all our problems will finally be solved. p. 20 02. rationally. Brian Massumi.10 - . but also to those who gather around him. one runs the risk of conjuring up death's appearance . ideology becomes at the same time an increasingly important component of power. The converse is true as well: the more fear we have about something. [Continues] If we could shatter the silence that surrounds the subject of death. 340 Yes. for me. This uncertainty can actually be empowering . n202 In breaking the taboo. a benefit for us all. to try and see. Their thought process not only constitutes reality.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X.COM JAIPAUL one's own death.have a duty to confront the taboo. Confronting the taboo would make for better deaths.

11 - . Increasingly. . power begins to serve ideology. but from their locus as concepts in the ideological context. The significance of phenomena no longer derives from the phenomena themselves. Reality does not shape theory. serving power.COM JAIPAUL gradually loses touch with reality. to a paradoxical result. or rather ideology. It then appears that theory itself. It becomes reality itself albeit a reality altogether self-contained. ritual itself. the virtuosity of the ritual becomes more important than the reality hidden behind it. and not the other way around. of course. one that on certain levels (chiefly inside the power structure) may have even greater weight than reality as such. ideology itself. it acquires a peculiar but very real strength. but rather the reverse . makes decisions that affect people. Thus power gradually draws closer to ideology than it does to reality: it draws its strength from theory and becomes entirely dependent on it. It is as though ideology has appropriated power from power. as though it had become dictator itself. This inevitable leads.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. rather than theory.

to prevent him from killing me. war and destruction. 10 J. And from where do we hear such promises? From religion. n67 which. n68 <CONTINUES>A narrative of avoidance characterizes modern American society's view of death. which is in part fueled by our obsession with health and our fear of death. because I am dimly aware that in killing him. has served to obfuscate and distort the narrative of death. Spring 19 94 Humankind is different. This narrative has become dominant for several reasons. The fight against aging shows up in many different ways in our society. someday Alzheimer's disease will be beaten as well. If typhoid fever was eliminated. Americans are fighting a new war on the western front. Shepard Broad Law Center. 46 and that cry out for "self-determination.COM JAIPAUL Death K 1NC Long Contention One: Thanataphobia Our society is held in the grip of intense thanatophobia. in turn. one against death itself." How do these States sustain the promise of immortality? One way is through the legitimization of the killing of other human beings. 1995/19 96 The demise of the belief in the good death has prompted the adoption of a new form of heroism. Friedland. and the removal of death from the personal realm have enhanced a fear of death that underlies much. Our fear of dying is so prevalent in every aspect of our lives that it is constantly repressed into the subconscious. Fighting it at all costs . by every pestilence or epidemic. then so can heart disease. if not all. International Law and Survival on Planet Earth. n64 As society strives for a health care system that works. My enemy's death cannot be . Cleveland State University Journal of Law and Health. society hopes that death will be conquered through a massive research effort. chemotherapy. correctable with enough money. conducts unrelenting wars against death. The medical part is the potent assumption that death is essentially an accident. the spectacle of catastrophe and annihilation has been with us from the beginning. I have killed death.L. And why is such killing the ostensible protection of one's own life? An answer is offered by Eugene Ionesco as follows: I must kill my visible enemy. Americans' desire for immortality that is propelled by continuous scientific discoveries. Of course. This obsession has two parts: one moral. This fear of death. to be sure. each of us is unwilling to accept a fate that points not only to extinction. and the rise of cryogenics. Arizona Journal of International and Comparative Law.never giving up . From infomercials hawking return-to-youth products to antibiotics. it is distracted by the need to prolong and delay dying. The affirmative replicates this evangelism of fear through its constructions of violence. medicine has become side-tracked. the other medical. but also to extinction with insignificance.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. That is essentially the mission of biomedical research. and the seeming insignificance of individual life appears to be confirmed by every earthquake or typhoon. Professor of International Law at Purdue. Louis Rene Beres. inexorable grip. Killing gives me a feeling of relief. transplants. The moral part is the belief that we have an unlimited obligation to combat death and lethal disease. Professor of Law at Nova Souteastern University.12 - . n66 Instead of recognizing the futility of this mission. not accepting it with dignity. As a result. one that involves beating death. the one who is determined to take my life. Americans choose to wage war against death.has become a rallying cry of the new heroism. Where do we turn? It is to promises of immortality. perpetuating the drive towards immortality. of life's experiences . has spurred its avoidance. n65 [*109] Rather than constructing a dialogue of death. The promise of extended longevity through the miracles of medicine. will and scientific ingenuity: if smallpox could be conquered. considerable energy and passion is dedicated to avoiding death and its creeping. by every war or holocaust. Self-Determination. with enormous public support. but also from States that have deigned to represent God in his planetary political duties. if nothing else. Steven I. Yet. which. & Health 95.

EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. of death as a zero-sum commodity. temporal one. States have become gods and must be desacralized if our terrible wars are to end . This idea. Dreading. War itself is not the issue but rather the death drive behind it. but if we listen carefully we can hear the real music that will transform ourselves into purposeful beings and our states into purposeful communities. They should find their true identity in personal virtue. As for states. 1999 Behind the play of nations and their wars lies the wish of individual citizens. your own government has [*17] clarified precisely who is friend and who is foe. of being killed." their ceaseless search for power is spawned by the primal terror of individuals. far more complex idea. they are also trivial. through the death of the other one buys oneself free from the penalty of dying. humankind sees salvation in an endless display of holy wars disguised as the natural expression of global competition. is captured by Ernest Becker's paraphrase of Elias Canetti: "Each organism raises its head over a field of corpses. The first is the rather pragmatic and mundane observation that killing someone who would otherwise kill you is a life-supporting action. Why is an entire planet now in jeopardy? The usual answers are cast in terms of the language of world politics.COM JAIPAUL held against me. And without the assurances of authentic world authority structures. The post-War polarity of East and West has been transformed into an era of exceedingly cruel ethnic conflicts. of warding off one's own death. should be viewed as sacred. Insufficient resources and hopes are committed to arms control. I refer to the individual human being's all-consuming fear of death and to the corollary drive of individuals for immortality. The nations of the world continue to defer to the primacy of Realpolitik. 47 There are two separate but interdependent ideas here." 49 In a paradoxical attempt to rebel against death. Although these answers are certainly correct. No.13 - . not states. they inevitably make life impossible. the Sacrifice. But as these wars could require millions to pass through fire. "The death fear of the ego is lessened by the killing. but even a short. they can only ensure the very evil they have been invented to dispel. each state's uncertainty about the intentions of adversary states encourages growing membership in the nuclear club. according to Otto Rank. Professor of International Law at Purdue. Louis Rene Beres. but it is their fate to create necropolis. to achieve immortality. While these excursions into organized barbarism are designed to reveal potency and overcome earthly limitations. It is not enough to have God on our side. September 1st. of the other. The second. . Why assume that your intended victim would otherwise be your assassin? Because. more than anything else. it is no longer a source of anguish. Killing is a way of relieving one's feelings. This calls forth a terrible irony. smiles into the sun. if I killed him with the approval of society: that is the purpose of war. acting like a herd in denying their own finitude. Volume 16. The world is full of noise. what animates competition between states. which are always an expression of faith and which have always (even long before Hegel) regarded themselves as the "march of God in the world. The struggle for world power is always epiphenomenal. is that killing in general confers immunity from mortality. We demand the slaughter of our enemies as part of an impossible quest to destroy death itself. International Journal on World Peace. The whole world contradicts not only eternal life." 48 Or. 3. animality decomposition and decay. not in a blind loyalty to a state which promises immortality but leads them down the path to extinction. Individuals. that represents the authentic source of unconventional war and terrorism. and declares life good. It is what underlies this struggle. humans turn to promises of immortality through absolute loyalty to political ideology. of course.

with the Gulag. and what its scope might be. it is the outcome of market laws not having been fully applied. I have described this situation as a combination of political democracy and social fascism. the idea of a looming collective suicide. against the war is found to be incapable of halting the war machine set in motion by supposedly democratic rulers. Its death drive takes a number of forms. is quite clear on two facts: according to reliable calculations by the Non-Governmental Organization MEDACT. Nazism. with its logic of insuperable efficiency of the market.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. of thousands of innocent civilians. With the war against Iraq. predominates. Boaventura de Santos. from the idea of "discardable populations". and. referring to citizens of the Third World not capable of being exploited as workers and consumers. Inherent to it is the notion of the end of history. Prof at Univ of Coimbra. . to refer to the deaths. Bad Subjects. which caused millions of deaths in two world wars and many other colonial wars.COM JAIPAUL The process of securing life and developing means to destroy in order to save is part of a broader system of neoliberal violence. The last. a death drive. holocaust and genocide are all past examples of the lesson the United States federal government has apparently missed. the West has experienced three versions of this logic. only preventable by the massive destruction of the other. and the African slaves. instead. and that the problems and difficulties confronting it arise from failing to take its logic of development to ultimate consequences. with its logic of insuperable efficiency of the plan. with the Holocaust. this is not the result of market failures. disarming it in the face of social actors sufficiently powerful to be able to privatize the state and international institutions in their favor. If there is unemployment. it is due. the more likely collective suicide becomes. hunger and death in the Third World. and under Nazism. catastrophic heroism. rather. the West has repeatedly been under the illusion that it should try to save humanity by destroying part of it. and neoliberalism. And now today. with the collective sacrifice of the periphery and even the semiperiphery of the world system. This is how it was under Stalinism. with the genocide of indigenous peoples. This is how it was in colonialism. worldwide. In its sacrificial genocide version. a catastrophic heroism. to the fact that total violence has not been employed to physically eradicate all terrorists and potential terrorists. Sacrificial genocide arises from a totalitarian illusion manifested in the belief that there are no alternatives to the present-day reality. At all these moments. this is not due to the violence of the conditions that generate it. seen three versions of the end of history: Stalinism. it is fitting to ask whether what is in progress is a new genocidal and sacrificial illusion. The last one trivializes democracy. “Collective Suicide?”. The first two periods involved the destruction of democracy. If there is terrorism. During the last hundred years. with its logic of racial superiority. the war will cost 100 billion dollars. This is a salvific and sacrificial destruction. this is how it is in neoliberalism.14 - . Issue # 63 According to Franz Hinkelammert. neoliberalism is a mixture of market radicalization. to the concept of "collateral damage". One current manifestation of this combination resides in the fact that intensely strong public opinion. between 48 and 260 thousand civilians will die during the war and in the three months after (this is without there being civil war or a nuclear attack). in London. neoconservatism and Christian fundamentalism. It is above all appropriate to ask if the new illusion will not herald the radicalization and the ultimate perversion of the Western illusion: destroying all of humanity in the illusion of saving it. therefore. the broader the definition of the other and the efficacy of its destruction. Paradoxically. as a result of war. The current death drive is not new as the gulag. humanity cant be saved by destroying itself. it is ultra-conservative in that it aims to reproduce infinitely the status quo. This is how it was in the period of imperialist struggles. and on the radical rejection of alternatives. April 2003. This political logic is based on the supposition of total power and knowledge. enough to pay the health costs of the world's poorest countries for four years. committed in the name of the need to radically materialize all the possibilities opened up by a given social and political reality over which it is supposed to have total power.

time-destroying freneticism). in which Angkarn's aesthetic temporal philosophy. As Norman O. the loss of humanity’s openness for being is already occurring. among other things. If humanity avoided nuclear war only to survive as contented clever animals. it may be the individualized person's knowledge and fear of death. silence and passivity of death which lurks within the uniquely temporal human psyche. The German writer is clearly at odds with the culture of unlimited consumption that was gestating in Europe in the latter part of the nineteenth century. 1999 It becomes particularly significant when we realize that the fear of death (thanatophobia). Further.15 - . which primarily drives the hyperactive consumer culture.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. since modernity’s one-dimensional disclosure of entities virtually denies them any “being” at all. and Frederic Maurel. Michael E. that actually render the human so vulnerable to that seduction . Loss of this relation would be even more dangerous than a nuclear war that might “bring about the complete annihilation of humanity and the destruction of the earth. that same psychological war plays a significant role in driving the irrational and exponential growth of a globalizing free market. and material acquisition. a response to the will-less. though it pushes death into the margins of cultural consciousness. As we have attempted to demonstrate here. Modernity’s background mood is horror in the face of nihilism. Zimmerman. which is consistent with the aim of providing material “happiness” for everyone by reducing nature to pure energy. Contesting Earth’s Future: Radical Ecology and Postmodernity.” This controversial claim is comparable to the Christian teaching that it is better to forfeit the world than to lose one’s soul by losing one’s relation to God. So when Angkarn's "The Eye of Time" alludes to the seduction of humans by precious objects towards which they "rush to their deaths". There is an important sense. His philosophy of the will represents. “Voyages Across the Web of Time. ironically. presents a more profound alterity to the increasingly pervasive market and productivity-centred global culture than does Nietzsche. This drive to constantly acquire and consume transforms the world into a materialist wasteland. The greatest threat is not nuclear war – it is avoiding nuclear war only to fall prey to an eternity of counterfeit existence. Marc Weeks. not Eros.COM JAIPAUL The Aff’s discourse of apocalyptic scenarios absent plan action motivates a desire for frenetic action. white noise. but it is far less likely that there will ever again occur an ontological clearing through which such life could manifest itself. combined with the eclipse of being. Nietzsche and Temporal Colonization. forming the philosophical foundation for consumerism. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. and the vain desire to defeat mortality through material self-aggrandis ement (or through mindnumbing. is absolutely critical in determining the prodigious hyperactivity of postmodemity. unrestrained desire of a human conceived principally as producer-consumer. devoid of meaning. the exaggerated and apparently limitless desire for more material wealth . masquerading as material paradise. 1994 Heidegger asserted that human self-assertion. epitomizes that culture in which the individual is at war with time. . the domination of death. Angkarn. it is Thanatos. September 1st. life might once again emerge. Professor of Philosophy at Tulane. more noise and more activity is an unconscious phobic overreaction to the absence. Heidegger apparently thought along these lines: it is possible that after a nuclear war. Yet Nietzsche's promotion of the superhuman individual who relentlessly pursues the mastery of time. The unleashing of vast quantities of energy in nuclear war would be equivalent to modernity’s slow-motion destruction of nature: unbounded destruction would equal limitless consumption. Heidegger believed we would exist in a state of ontological damnation: hell on earth. then. Brown suggested some four decades ago in the United States in a book entitled Life Against Death. though not immune to nostalgia. we should remember that. with mortality. threatens the relation between being and human Dasein. [33] Appearances to the contrary.

EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. While the Affirmative builds the walls of fear ever higher. But the existence in question is no longer the juridical existence of sovereignty. Michel Foucault.16 - . causing so many to be killed. subjecting it to precise controls and comprehensive regulations. This form of control is the root of all 20th century atrocities as the sovereign sword has diminished in favor of the violence of the population. entire populations are mobilized for the purpose of wholesale slaughter in the name of life necessity: massacres have become vital. and all things being equal. at stake is the biological existence of a population. the decision that initiates them and the one that terminates them are in fact increasingly informed by the naked question of survival. the species. 1978 Yet wars were never as bloody as they have been since the nineteenth century. . The History of Sexuality – Volume One. And through a turn that closes the circle. this is not because of a recent return of the ancient right to kill. never before did regimes visit such holocausts on their own populations. the power to warn and strike fear. If genocide is indeed the dream of modern powers. they are waged on behalf of the existence of everyone. of bodies and the race. and ensure safety of the population is based on the power of death and its underside. manage. as the technology of wars has caused them to tend increasingly toward all-out destruction.COM JAIPAUL The attempts to control. The atomic situation is now at the end point of this process: the power to expose a whole population to death is the underside of the power to guarantee an individual’s continued existence. the race. the negative offers a different approach: Text: Vote negative to shatter the silence surrounding death through an absolute rejection of the Affirmative’s fantasies of immortality in order to embrace hope in the uncertain present. that so many regimes have been able to wage so many wars. The principle underlying the tactics of battle – that one has to be capable of killing in order to go on living – has become the principle that defines the strategy of states. Wars are no longer waged in the name of a sovereign who must be defended. It is as managers of life and survival. it is because power is situated and exercised at the level of life. and the large-scale phenomena of population. Contention Two: Hope The repression of mortality is sustained in political reality by a series of linguistic prohibitions and taboos concerning the subject of death. But this formidable power of death – and this is perhaps what accounts for part of its force and the cynicism with which it has so greatly expanded its limits – now presents itself as the counterpart of a power that exerts a positive influence on life.

if the appearance of death does not rattle our bones. n199 His explanation for the linguistic prohibition on the subject of death is the same as mine: People no longer have a system of belief that includes spiritual immortality. Confronting the taboo would make for better deaths. confronting the taboo must be more than just an aspiration. and taboos come in many different forms. 211- 212 Yes . Once again. . who design death spaces -. Philosopher and Ph. may consider the mention of sexual activity or birth to violate a taboo.a taboo. Otherwise we endlessly look to the future or toward some utopian dream of a better society or life. Much like a formal legal system. our informal. Hope: New Philosophies for Change. n196 But taboos can also be what Levi-Strauss called "linguistic prohibitions.who have jurisdiction over the human body. then the subject can be openly spoken of. then death becomes the subject of a linguistic prohibition -. [Continues] If we could shatter the silence that surrounds the subject of death. But for the people in power.have a duty to confront the taboo. 20 02. Professor of Law and Medical Ethics at the Jacob D. Brian Massumi. The reasoning goes something like this: If the predominant attitude toward death in a culture is one of fear. in cooperation with each other or at cross-purposes. we might be able to confront the taboo. and Mary Zournazi.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. Yes. the speaker endangers himself [themselves] by making himself [them self] vulnerable to the evil that prompted the taboo. with the subject of death replacing the subject of sex as the forbidden topic on life's agenda. certain words or subjects may be forbidden to be spoken of in public discourse. If that risk is of no threat to the speaker. Associate Professor of Communications at the Université de Montréal. and something to aspire to. We are asking you to seek hope in an uncertain present rather than try to avoid impending disaster. The converse is true as well: the more fear we have about something. the less fear we have about something. but also to those who gather around him." n197 In a given culture. because in every situation there are any number of levels of organisation and tendencies in play. and in particular to one's own death. [*115] who judge death talk. this is not a very ambitious claim. n202 In breaking the taboo. n201 By referring to the subject of death. Those people who orchestrate the deaths of others -. In this instance. It would be an improvement in the human condition. We must separate hope from solvency claims and calculability. They may be proscriptions against certain behaviors. and making for better deaths would help alleviate the horrors of the late twentieth-century-deathwatch. and begins the deconstruction of the deathwatch. which can only leave us disappointed. p. November 1992.COM JAIPAUL The duty of those who judge is to relentlessly tear down the taboo surrounding death at every turn – a Negative ballot signifies an important political stance. A taboo is something forbidden. then there is no reason for silence on the subject. Louise Harmon. the more likely we are to talk about it. n198 Geoffrey Gorer has theorized that there has been a shift in prudery during the last century.the idea of hope in the present is vital . n194 or against eating certain foods. Simply put. n200 There are risks in violating a taboo. one runs the risk of conjuring up death's appearance . New York: Routledge. 77 Minnesota Law Review 1. traditional codes of conduct often [*110] carry sanctions for the breaking of unwritten rules. Someone with Victorian sensibilities.D in Cultural Theory. This duty runs not only to the dying person. the less likely we are to talk about it. for example. a benefit for us all.17 - . Fuchsberg Law Center at Touro College. gender paraphrased There is also a direct relationship between our attitude toward death and its status as a taboo subject . we can only be paralysed as you suggest. n195 or touching certain sacred or [*108] profane objects or persons. and if we see pessimism as the natural flow from this.

but the behaviour of which they are unable to predict. that's `hopeless'. The best political stance is to reject calculations of probability and policy outcomes. and instead embrace a personal stance of hope. right. Again. through a set of variables which will remain invariant. Professor of Philosophy at the Université Libre de Bruxelles. and that there needs to be a certain tenderness in understanding different traditions of thought (for instance.D in Cultural Theory. If you look at it that way you don’t have to feel boxed in by it.at school many ideas we try to transmit are dead. So this creates the possibility of hope and the creativity to think and feel in life? You have written about the importance of the capacity to feel in critical practices. you Probability is very can throw the dice and have a succession of nine and six . and the future which. an uncertainty about where you might be able to go. include telling the past in such a way that it seems to explain the event. for me. Such a future may. one way or another.COM JAIPAUL The way all the elements interrelate is so complex that it isn't necessarily comprehensible in one go. It gives you the feeling that there is always an opening to experiment. It is an open threshold . and you must just be grateful as long as you are able to hope or to think. I think.and what that means is that true thinking is about transforming yourself. no matter what its horrors. They induce `events'.the one I retain emphasises the difference an event makes between the past. is a matter of hope. This uncertainty can actually be empowering . The question of which next step to take is a lot less intimidating than how to reach a far-off goal in a distant future where all our problems will finally be solved.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. As a teacher I can only celebrate with a student the fact that I `felt' it was happening for him or her. and what you might be able to do once you exit that particular context. I call possibility what cannot be calculated a priori. It's utopian thinking. because you can’t predict the outcome? Yes. Possibility is connected to what I call `events'. And you cannot tell someone else that he or she should ~ have this experience. The present's `boundary condition'.18 - . Hope: New Philosophies for Change. rather than on projecting success or failure. and often will. but no-one has the right to say `I know how things are. Whitehead himself made the distinction between dead ideas and ideas which are alive .the capacity to feel and what that capacity enables. It does not promise anything. For instance. In the best case. they are hopeless'. rationally. You may speak of chance when you calculate the chance for something to happen. have true thinking without feeling . But the very fact that we can be transformed by what we encounter. so choose wisely. 20 02. takes it into account. You cannot students will learn them and then forget about them.once you realise that it gives you a margin of manoeuvrability and you focus on that. or with ideas. The philosopher Henri Bergson is the one who best described this `retroactive power' of what happens. You are only ever in the present in passing. to try and see. not simply an encounter with chance? The word `chance' has many meanings. / am wondering about that . interesting for all the people who spend time describing systems they can define. . For me. a Philosopher and Ph.so do you mean something else here. They are devoid of any importance because they do not force you to think and feel. New York: Routledge. When I read Whitehead I do not just examine his ideas. to borrow a phrase from science. 245-247 I think probability is often associated with the idea of ch an c e . explained and amply justified is despair.. This brings a sense of potential to the situation. or what we participate in. is never a closed door. and no matter what. Isabelle Stengers. I think so. Again. p. I mean it does enable a kind of hope. There's always a sort of vagueness surrounding the situation. You may not reach the end of the trail but at least there's a next step. but their connection refers to experience as something which is not first `my' experience. but which is forced by encounters which make me think and feel. It is thus a static notion. And you cannot calculate that.and you can calculate the probability of this particular succession. which made it possible but which cannot explain it. and hope the one for whom what I produced were dead ideas will encounter other opportunities. But it implies a closed definition. feeling and thinking are closely connected. and then it is probability. the only thing which can be understood.. It may be encounters with things or with people. in revisiting thinkers like Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud). because it implies the fact that the very description of the system itself can change. Predictability and the uncertainty of hope are mutually exclusive. to think and feel. they oblige me to feel and think in a new way.a threshold of potential. the term `event' may have many meanings . you expect will come. and Mary Zournazi. This hope is an unknown quality. I think hope is itself an event.

COM JAIPAUL Embrace the current world. DO NOT link this joy of the present to a solution for future based on our fear of death or all hope is lost. But. on the other hand. and it's your participation that makes it real. 1997. which is the same thing as our belonging to each other. I think.. Increasingly. it is not a hope that has a particular content or end point . though. the virtuosity of the ritual becomes more important than the reality hidden behind it. or for more to life. It's liberating. What it means. go with it. for example. but is more important than the action itself. even a small thing can become amplified and can have a global effect which is life. in the context of a bodily becoming. trying to get outside or underneath the categories of language and affective containment by those categories. and as it gradually loses touch with reality. Just like good for Nietzsche is not the opposite of evil. Vaclav Havel. Hope: New Philosophies for Change. it's not a belief in the sense of a set of propositions to adhere to or a set of principles or moral dictates . As this aspect grows in importance. wherever it leads. empirical . really experience our belonging to this world.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. Associate Professor of Communications at the Université de Montréal. as we have seen. live it out. Their thought process not only constitutes reality. Ethical. Joy can be very disruptive . The significance of phenomena no longer derives from the phenomena themselves. warts and all. The idea is that lived intensity is self-affirming. where he says that what we need is to be able to find a way to `believe in the world' again . ideology becomes at the same time an increasingly important component of power. it is a being in the world. he ended up mad.affi rming . The Post-Development Reader. or a better world of the future. the body bursting out through an opening in expression. it can even be very painful. for all its faults. trying to pack vast potentials for movement and meaning in a single gesture. p.which is where we are coming from . but . and so did Nietzsche. to find the joy in it.D in Cultural Theory. It's not a belief that's `about' being in the world. That can be an experience that overcomes you. a belief in the world. because your participation in this world is part of a global becoming. and I guess it's about having a kind of faith in the world which is simply the hope that it continue. I think that joy is not the same thing as happiness . It's an ethical statement . a babble of becoming. It's on a different axis. which are all mechanisms for holding oneself separate and being in a position to judge or deride. but at the same time the charge of that potential can become unbearable and can actually destroy. It can't be a total scepticism or nihilism or cynicism. There is a phrase of Deleuze's that I like very much. What are your thoughts on this ethical relationship in everyday existence? And in intellectual practice . the status quo. Philosopher and Ph. its assuming of a posture that intensifies its powers of existence . joy for Spinoza (or `gaiety' in Nietzsche's vocabulary) is not the opposite of unhappy. it's an empirical kind of belief. Brian Massumi. 340 Yes.what are the affi rmations of joy and hope? Well. is accept the embeddedness.. and that's your reality. The criticism calls into question the ideology that forms a basis for their action. and not some perfect world beyond. New York: Routledge. an assuming by the body of its potentials. The moment of joy is the co-presence of those potentials. It doesn't need a god or judge or head of state to tell it that it has value. an ethic of joy and the cultivation of joy is an affirmation of life . Take Antonin Artaud. that the practice of joy does imply some form of belief. If we take Spinoza and Nietzsche seriously. 2002. President of the Czech Republic.19 - . 241-242 Yes. That's what Deleuze is saying belief is about. I do think. So it is not just simple opposition between happy and unhappy or pleasant or unpleasant. it acquires a peculiar but very real strength. becoming like a scream of possibility. or in words that burst apart and lose their conventional meaning. But again. hope and the idea of joy. In the sense of what you are saying.and creative. Artaud himself was destroyed by it. p. and there is a relation between this ethics. and live that so intensely together that there is no room to doubt the reality of it. for that matter. it's the only reality you have. one that on certain levels (chiefly inside the power structure) may have even greater weight than reality as such. His artistic practice was all about intensifying bodily potenti al. It becomes reality itself albeit a reality altogether self-contained. So it's about taking joy in that process. What it is saying is that we have to live our immersion in the world. Because it's all about being in this world. a pillar providing it with both excusatory legitimacy and an inner coherence.or an anti -theological statement. What I think Spinoza and Nietzsche are getting at is joy as affirmation.it's a desire for more life. It's not at all a theological statement . and Mary Zournazi.

but rather the reverse . Reality does not shape theory.20 - . Thus power gradually draws closer to ideology than it does to reality: it draws its strength from theory and becomes entirely dependent on it. . serving power. or rather ideology. ideology itself. of course.COM JAIPAUL from their locus as concepts in the ideological context. to a paradoxical result. ritual itself. It is as though ideology has appropriated power from power. rather than theory. power begins to serve ideology. makes decisions that affect people. It then appears that theory itself.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. and not the other way around. This inevitable leads. as though it had become dictator itself.

the judge’s duty is to decide between competing frameworks. Our alternative offers a different approach. 3 Impacts: 1. Bioplitical Control.Within both the framework of fiat and discursive performance. Additionally. The need to talk about saving lives to cover up the silence and passivity of death that lurks beyond their conscious thought contributes to the repression of death in society.just as guards maintain control of their subjects through fear of punishment. Our Friedland and Beres evidence indicate that the motivation for their desire to preserve life is a fantasy of immortality sustained by the repression of death’s inevitability. This mentality dooms us to an eternity of counterfeit existence which outweighs extinction. and adopt whichever framework best exposes the repressed life in death . Negates the Value to Life. The implication of this form of biopower is constant comparison and subjugation through all means of violence and extermination. we must confront that repression with hope in the current through a rejection of the Aff’s fantasies of immortality. in an externalization of the weakness they perceive in themselves and to cover up death. 3. They demand continuous destruction of the Other.COM JAIPAUL 2NC Overview The 1AC represents the status quo as doomed to widespread death absent plan action. so does the affirmative keep actual change at bay and promote violence on the subjects of their affirmative. fear of death drives individuals to absolute obedience to the State they see as capable of ‘protecting them’. Kill to Save. 2.In an attempt to create permanent meaning in a temporary world. individuals try to define themselves though material acquisition.21 - . The repression of death goes hand in hand with the senseless drive to constantly accumulate and self-preserve.rather than utilize discourses based on the repression of death. This rejection not only avoids all the links – it also presents the only way possible to solve the Affirmative.The panopticon is most applicable in this situation. ensuring destruction of all life on Earth. extend our Havel evidence .EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X.

a necessary step to genocide and nuclear annihilation. they conceded our consumerism implication.this is impacted by our Zimmerman evidence.COM JAIPAUL 2NR Overview We’ll do our impact analysis here- The conceded Foucault evidence means their case impact can’t make any sense. which turns case. they conceded our Havel and Stavrakakis evidence. No matter how much offense they win. That calculation makes humans an object.22 - . Even if they win the result of our alternative is nuclear war and extinction. it is preferable to a world devoid of meaning. This also takes out any risk of their permutation. EVEN IF THEY WIN THEIR ARGUMENTS ABOUT REPRESENTATIONS BEING GOOD.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. which is comparative. they don’t have a credible counter-interpretation. Additionally. . which makes it like a conceded topicality interpretation. The duty of the judge is a constant criticism of attempts to cover up the lack in the symbolic order. This means questions of desirability of the plans implementation take a backseat to concerns of justification.Ideology creates the reality we live in and is more important than the action itself. they can’t assign an objective value to human life within their ethical system based on survivability. This is the only evidence that speaks to the relative importance of action and theory. Also.

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. and I believe everyone from about the age of six or seven in some measure does. shattering the strive for immortality Michael C. we are faced with the prospect of being severed from virtually an of our symbolic paths to immortality" (b. The contemporary manifestation of this megadeath fear is a nuclear holocaust. the state.[sic] a phenomenon not only manmade [sic] but accomplished by the highest level of social structure. All modes of immortality. one's genetic continuity. whether by pogrom or plague.COM JAIPAUL Link. whether they be of induction into some professional hall of fame. 61. or religious genealogical files. As Lifton observed: "For. the ultimate death fear has undoubtedly been the death of one's collectivity.Nuclear War The avoidance of nuclear catastrophes represents the ultimate fear of death. 23-4). Social Forces. if we anticipate the possibility of nuclear weapons being used. questia Historically. 1983. Kearl. one’s collectivity. Vol.24 - .EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. are now at the mercy of the state.

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. Robert Jay Lifton." 35 I would emphasize in obsessive states the lifelong inner terror of disintegration. encompassing all thoughts within a frame of how to avoid their own. violence. . that of meaning. with the tendency for bowel training to become an arena of parent-child struggle.Obsession The 1ac is obsessed with preserving life. 38 He recognizes that other obsessional neurotics behave similarly: "Their thoughts are unceasingly occupied with other people's length of life and possibility of death.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. “Broken Connection: On Death and the Continuity of Life” All this takes us to an evolving concept of obsessional states that relates them to intolerance for and therefore preoccupation with "death. Instead." These others need not have experienced family death at an early age as the source of that death imagery. Keeping in mind the association of feces and disintegration. of course.COM JAIPAUL Link. States in which the orientation in time becomes more difficult--dusk or long evenings in winter or even long days in summer--are feared by many compulsion neurotics. he drew back. . collective. decay. was thus only possible where a disintegration of the personality was already present" (and it was Freud himself who underlined that phrase). and our. Actual death imagery and death equivalents come together around a troubled relationship with time. death imagery must always be secondary--in this case to the obsessive's inability to come to decisions. That trinity has much to do. annihilation. destruction. Fenichel writes: "Orientation in time" is a typical reassuring measure." The primary significance of annihilation for obsessional neurosis becomes clear when we turn to our third principle. In an important two-page sequence toward the end of the theoretical section he notes the patient's "quite peculiar attitude towards the question of death. Many a fear of death means a fear of a state where the usual conceptions of time are invalid." † Freud dealt more with death imagery in this case than in most of his writings. did much to develop the image-triad of obsession-fecesdeath. individual. along with other writings of Freud. 1979. But at a key point. avoiding death and emphasizing destruction. this case. we understand both the imagery and the struggle to have to do with elements of life-power and "falling apart." For Freud." 36 Moreover.26 - . in the midst of an exchange concerning conscious and unconscious aspects of his obsessive ideas: "Such an occurrence. This fear of death comes to encompass the entire politics of the viewer. 39 ." Causation is brought back to instinct: "For we must remember that in every neurosis we come upon the same suppressed instincts behind the symptoms. and emphasizes (in passages we have already quoted) the importance for the patient of the early death of his older sister and longstanding thoughts about his father's death. "these neurotics need the help of the possibility of death chiefly in order that it may act as a solution of conflict they have left unsolved. remarked upon by a number of writers. "especially in matters of love. and seemed to be on the brink of elevating that imagery to some conceptual significance." mentions his nickname and its significance. he continued. Professor of Psychiatry and Psychology at the Graduate School University Center. Freud's patient as much as told him so when he remarked to his analyst. anything dealing with unaccountable elements of human existence.

Unfortunately.Nuclear Death/Extinction Representations of death are the most cynical form of voyeurism. . Gorer stresses a shift in prudery--the unmentionability of sex giving way to the unmentionability of natural death. † But they are no more excessive than.COM JAIPAUL Link. “Broken Connection: On Death and the Continuity of Life” Geoffrey Gorer was groping toward that distortion when he spoke of the "pornography of death." 18 He was referring to what he took to be the twentieth century replacement of sex by death as an underground sphere of conflict. the identity of the meaninglessly doomed. all the time. etc. Robert Jay Lifton. perhaps appropriate to. Professor of Psychiatry and Psychology at the Graduate School University Center. 1979.27 - . But the source of the pornography--of our shared fantasies of runaway violence--may reside in the state of mind we have been discussing.e. everyday through renditions in various forms i. and the eruption of previously taboo lurid private fantasy into public discourse in the form of extravagant mass media rendition of death and violence.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X.they serve to influence the masses on taboo subjects. and the equation of death with extinction. the ultimate nuclear pornography: the equation in our minds of death with extinction. As we move further along the aberrant sequence we find that specific nuclear relationships to totalism and victimization can be understood around imagery of "security" and "secrecy. new advantages. Our public depictions of violent death can be exploitative and repulsive in the extreme. We have been discussing various forms of dislocation in connection with impaired symbolic immortality." We can consider these in their collective significance and then turn to individual psychological counterparts. cases. they are all merely a product of the same pornographic dealings with the fear factor that make the impacts possible.

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29 - . forward deployment and coherent national security presents a move towards totalism in which fear is conquered. Secretary of War Henry Stimson not only suggested that the weapon brought about a new relationship of man to the universe but said: "It must be controlled if possible to make it an assurance of future peace rather than a menace to civilization. 1979. “Broken Connection: On Death and the Continuity of Life” And since the development of nuclear weapons. Morgenthau. This vulnerability was recognized very early by some of those originally closely associated with making the first atomic bomb. Professor of Psychiatry and Psychology at the Graduate School University Center.COM JAIPAUL Link.Hegemony Hegemony IS the drive towards immortality.the 1ac’s presentation and sustenance of a strong. Even as he in effect rejected scientists' petitions against the dropping of the first atomic bomb without warning on a populated city." 21 The most constructive approach to that vulnerability would be to acknowledge it and work universally to overcome it. But the more frequent national response resembles that of an individual who fends off his imagery of threatened annihilation by means of more aggressive and more total measures to assert his power. for instance. perhaps especially bomb-possessors. are likely to move toward totalism in both foreign and domestic policies. measures which may in turn enable him to believe his illusion of invulnerability. we may speak of a pervasive sense of vulnerability to annihilation. describes a dangerous American tendency toward globalism. Thus nations. paving the way for a transcendence of mortality Robert Jay Lifton.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X." which he sees as isolationism "turned inside out": . Hans J.

and to expose the metaphysical prejudice at the heart of all such valuations. Baudrillard's postmodern-primitive symbolic. the dead. and they were undeniably primitive in their belief that God. it is subtracted from the value of those who remain living – this way of understanding death as the end of consumptive utility underlies the value system of postmodern capital. on the other hand. But Americans are not "primitives"--we do not value death symbolically. Postmodern Culture 13. find their logic foretold in Baudrillard's references to the primitives. but having erased the difference between the two. there was never any guarantee that others wouldn't take such theoretical "violence" to its literal ends. then a symbolic sacrifice to a dead person is every bit as binding as a gift to a living person. in every ad campaign and marketing strategy. Americans will doubtless commemorate the deaths of those killed on 9/11 as long as our nation exists. can be seen in animistic practices such as voodoo. in economic or military terms. fundamentalists of all sorts. its symbolic singularity.S. and the living would somehow honor and benefit them in the afterlife. they employ the rule of prestation in symbolic exchange with the gift of their own deaths. Most Christians believe in and employ this same mechanism when they pray to the resurrected Christ. and they reciprocate by somehow honoring or benefiting the living. Capitalism's implicit promise. His wager was that this would be done through aesthetic violence and not real violence.30 - . as if through accumulation we achieve mastery over the qualitative presence of death that haunts life. the Affirmative defines and defends life in opposition to death – death is the absence of life. but we know that our gifts to the dead are only symbolic. The obligation to return is placed upon the dead. Our official holidays honoring the dead serve no other function than to encourage consumption. Literalists and extremists.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. and if the sign is what it stands for.COM JAIPAUL Link—Opposition to Death By contrast. and we know the loved one is not really contained in the lock of hair. but even they do not believe that their symbolic gestures are anything but metaphors. scarification and tattooing are just the benign counterparts of true terrorism. We no longer believe in the one to one correspondence of signifier and signified. If the dead are only humans of a different nature. responded to this challenge collectively through symbolic exchanges with their dead and deities. Their belief in the sign's transparency. What the terrorists enacted on 9/11 was what Baudrillard would call a symbolic event of the first order. Butterfield Department of English – University of Wisconsin 2002. which takes ritual sacrifice and initiation to their extremes. . aimed to obliterate the difference in value between the imaginary and the real. We score up life against death as gain against loss. but rather only as a subtraction from life. Unable to defeat the U. which for us means imaginary. is that to consume is to live. where the enemy's hair is thought to contain his or her spirit. the signifier and the signified. Baudrillard maintains. Graffiti art.1 The primitives.

Local Fox News promises the viewer "Stories that Affect You. Issue # 64. mapped. The weapons don't need to be there. Much of life centers on making sure we avoid being attacked. local formats adhere to a national formula for what constitutes newsworthiness. In addition. In February 2003. for example. The past may inspire panic attacks. can inspire a state of panic. the wilderness of childhood has been planned.31 - . Panic has dominion over the future. an illness generally treated on an individual basis. Get scared. The much-heralded individualist spirit of American society relies on nurturing a fear of other people. The collective dimensions of panic disorder. the suggestion of a gun's potential is enough. Be alert." but the news itself offers such in-depth detritus as exposés on the dangers of car airbags and "that Duluth prostitution ring we've been keeping you informed about. followed by his realization that there's no place he feels comfortable having her ride it. September 2003 Panic is our national pastime." I'm not suggesting that danger doesn't exist. if you will. Awful things often do happen. describes how high school in America is defined by the possibility of panic attacks lurking around every corner. but only as the harbinger of what may perhaps come again. In the course of one generation." The individualization of panic disorder corresponds to the media-savvy militarization of American politics. This anxiety constitutes a sort of pre-emptive strike. the end result of what psychiatrist Robert L. The rhetorical necessity of slogans such as "United We Stand" are countered by the ongoing national zeitgeist of "Leave Me and My Family Alone. but they like us to routinely consider the possibility that something awful might happen if we do not maintain a healthy level of anxiety — and keep watching the news for updates. treating its viewers like children in need of constant rules and warnings. A smoking gun does not need to be fired.COM JAIPAUL Link—Panic The Affirmative is the society of panic – WMD are everywhere and coming to get us – this is the mode of symbolic exchange by which the government creates a simulatenously passive docile citizenry to facilitate violence CAROLLO Assistant Professor of English 2003 Bad Subjects. Panic inspires pre-emptive attacks on whatever violates the sanctity of private life. and regulated by the fears of adults. People feel uncomfortable leaving their children alone to explore their surroundings. The very possibility of weapons of mass destruction. recently featured in Bowling for Columbine. DuPont refers to as the "what if?" of horrific possibility. their ability to inspire terror becomes . and what should affect local populations. is the subject of this essay. so we map out the appropriate parameters of adulthood. We locate panic at the extreme end of the anxiety spectrum. A suggestive correlation between the isolation of mental illness and political isolationism can be found in the rhetoric of "going it alone.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. Television often plays on the prevalent anxieties of adolescence. Fear of public transportation means more and more privately owned cars on the road. covers a much broader band of the spectrum. Americans are strangely united by their isolation from one another." The implication embodied in "United We Stand" is that we have some (un-American) Other to be united against. Paul Feig's memoir. Fear of public spaces — where anyone can hang out — in turn supports the proliferation of private property and restricted access locations. Pulitzer Prize-winner Michael Chabon gave a lecture about how childhood adventuring has been radically curtailed by the lack of "wilderness" to explore. on the panic state. The news media may not want panic attacks to actually occur. The possibility of panic. however. but local television news has largely become a venue that creates a catalogue of fears for citizens everywhere. As we regulate childhood. Kick Me: Adventures in Adolescence. as the awful truth of a phobia. As we get further away from cataclysmic events. Witness coverage of the scare of African killer bees a few years ago. Chabon spoke of his daughter learning to ride a bicycle.

If we don't act now. or an entertainment industry that wants us to believe that "a nation lost its innocence" after Pearl HarborTM.32 - . Hence the pandemic of global terrorism. This means government. the entertainment industry. a phenomenon that sees 9/11 as a significant event in a never-ending continuum of potential danger. . The current government encourages us to believe that no historical precursors exist to muddy the squeaky-clean innocence of America. but it also must instill in us the sense that America's illusory innocence could be our undoing.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. we find ourselves in the business of selling and consuming panic of one sort or another. so we must honor our worst fears. then our worst fears may well be realized.COM JAIPAUL attenuated. Whether the hand that rocks the cradle is the government wishing to sell a new military solution to the world's problems. Though post-9/11 panic no longer governs America in the same way it did in late 2001. or news media need to regularly create new things to fear. Just as we ritually lose our innocence. the government still uses the Trade Center bombings as a way to gain support for future military initiatives.

and to the real suffering and annihilation of its victims. Sontag seems to have been among the first to posit what we might call the hysteron proteron of the nuclear condition: the literally preposterous phenomenon of traumatic symptoms—denial. They are about disaster. the more attenuated national trauma experienced by non-hibakusha Japanese. 2 In certain respects. the filmic spectacles of monster-suited men wrecking model cities likely did more to act out than to work through the trauma engendered by the past nuclear bombing of cities . that a mass trauma exists over the use of nuclear weapons and the possibility of future nuclear wars. Such a feeling of weird anticipation or uncanniness may have been allied to the symptom as return-of- the-repressed insofar as it arose from an experience not of singularity but of repetition—the repetition. Having noticed the passing-over of Hiroshima. the kind of conditional traumatic space that registered as bukimi was unique to human-made devastation. conventional aerial bombardment) while also . One might also object that by compulsively repeating a particular scene of traumatic violence. what I have called the conditional space of catastrophe that gave rise to feelings of bukimi in Hiroshima became a general characteristic of Cold War urban experience. To link the real devastation of Hiroshima to the potential devastation of Cold War [End Page 60] target cities may seem to do a violence to the specificity of the former. repression. had been returned from one of two futures: one culminating in the nonevent of preservation. Hiroshima might finally have been spared rather than razed if conditions had been different on the day of the drop. would become familiar to everyone living in a targeted city during the Cold War: the sense that the present survival and flourishing of the city were simultaneously underwritten and radically threatened by its identity as a nuclear target." Susan Sontag wrote suggestively that "Science fiction films are not about science. the other in the limit event of catastrophe.COM JAIPAUL Link—Bukimi The Affirmative enacts bukimi – the performance of an uncanny certainty that one has been targeted for nuclear destruction – this process creates an unassimilable trauma that ultimately anesthetizes the subject. and. but in the shadow of a future one. Sontag ventures a traumatic referent for that aesthetics: "One gets the feeling. But one might want to stop short of claiming that the bukimi experienced by inhabitants of Hiroshima constituted a symptom in advance of its originary traumatic event. forcing us to constanty reenact our trauma on others SAINT-AMOUR Assistant Professor of English – Pomona College 2000 Diacritics 30. or that induced by the possibility of a future nuclear war. however. In her 1965 essay "The Imagination of Disaster. In this.4 (2000) 59-82 The people of Hiroshima who experienced bukimi had detected the opening up of the conditional space of catastrophe—conditional because. is not that the inhabitants of Cold War cities exhibited post-traumatic symptoms akin to those of the atomic bomb survivors. despite the signs that informed its citizens' sense of uncanniness.33 - . which is one of the oldest subjects of art. Those signs. and the worldwide response to the looming specter of nuclear war. or hibakusha. attempt to exorcise it" [461-63]. its survivors underwent a historically specific. When that limit event occurred. Sontag's formulation does not adequately distinguish among the intense trauma of hibakusha. as a structuring condition of everyday life. those who registered the nuclear uncanny in Hiroshima were also the first to experience a condition that. My claim. unique traumatization. and the escalating likelihood of their use. dissociation. the compulsive repetition of extreme violence—that exist not in the wake of a past event. fragmentation. Most of the science fiction films bear witness to this trauma.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. But in the period of eerie suspension before the explosion." In the course of discussing the "aesthetics of destruction" in Cold War science fiction films. say. to its status as event rather than eventuality. Nonetheless. The careful sparing of atomic bomb target cities from conventional bombing bespoke American military commanders' confidence in the destructive potential of the bomb and their desire to demonstrate that destructive power in the theater of relatively undamaged cities. that inheres in awaiting an expected catastrophe others have experienced (for example. but that they became accustomed to a more overt and permanent variant of the uncanny frisson felt in Hiroshima before the bombing. its citizens strove to read the intention of the enemy in the signs that constituted that passing-over. particularly in Japanese films but not only there. in a far more explicit incarnation. In other words. their devastating effects. in a sense. and particularly to early nuclear weapons. in a way. Sontag's observation allows that certain traumatic responses to the use of nuclear weapons might not have been limited to the survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki but rather shared by all who knew of nuclear weapons.

in relation to nuclear weapons. it was not the future nuclear catastrophe that anachronistically "returned" to a moment before its occurrence. Such a suggestion may accord a secondary witness status to most of the Cold War world and thus erode distinctions between different degrees of witnessing and indeed between the survivor-witnesses and bystanders of a traumatic event.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. or exists. its inaugural event might not be a future conditional nuclear holocaust but the completed events of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Surely if something repressed were returning in bukimi. 60 . Similarly. But the traumatic cause of repression.COM JAIPAUL repeating what must once have been their hopes to be exempted through some special dispensation. a different trauma. it must have been something anterior to the feeling of uncanniness.34 - . had not yet occurred. certainly. with its immediate effects. if a mass traumatization existed. But at least it does not posit the seeming temporal impossibility of a pretraumatic stress syndrome. the explosion of the bomb.

EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X.35 - .COM JAIPAUL ___________ .

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If they had said racism good and something else. Additionally. they should still lose regardless of other justifications of the plan. 2. . we’ll win that the fear of death makes all your other implications fall short. Even if this argument is true. our criticism is a reason to reject the affirmative.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. Our link arguments indicate that valuing life as death deferred undermines other means of living life since it requires the annihilation of ALL that does not fit within the simulation of immortal life.37 - .COM JAIPAUL AT: We Have Other Justifications 1.

and only the strong can forgive. which I see as an implicit conclusion to his thought. this metaphysical claim." Nietzsche outlines in six concise steps the decline of western metaphysics and its belief in a "True world" of essences. it has no relation to any reality whatsoever. beyond the Imaginary world of appearances (Portable 485). only forgiveness.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. that the threat of globalization.38 - . I suggest that his unspoken stand on the issue of justice concerning 9/11 would have to be what Nietzsche's would have been: that there is no justice.1 Embedded in Jean Baudrillard's almost incomprehensible prose is the shocking assertion that terrorism is justifiable. (Simulacra 6) . we must be sure to understand the script well so we can decide how to act on it . Freudian and structuralist traditions. Our Harmon evidence indicates that this allows us to engage in a rational discourse about death. any critical theory in the name of such projected "real" values ultimately reinforces the fetishized relations it criticizes. but irrelevant. as Kellner would have it. Postmodern Culture 13. Baudrillard's four-part history of the image (commonly referred to as his four orders of simulation) closely mirrors Nietzsche's history of the "'True' World": it [the image] is the reflection of a profound reality. on the other hand. In light of his past writings. it masks the absence of a profound reality. reproduction. Baudrillard explicitly states that "if we hope to understand anything we will need to get beyond Good and Evil" ("L'Esprit" 15). According to Baudrillard. The law of value effectively produces "reality" in each system as both its effect and its alibi. We don’t think that death is a good thing– that would be asinine. as Nietzsche held. But Baudrillard does not explicitly state this claim. In the presentation of the 1AC. The fact that 9/11 was arguably the most potent symbolic event since the crucifixion of Christ has inspired Baudrillard to dress up his old ideas about the symbolic and symbolic exchange. He therefore relocates the law of value within his own Nietzsche-styled history of the "image"--a term used as a stand-in for all that the words representation. Baudrillard wants to seduce us into following his script. metaphysical projection of the mind which allows us to measure the worth of things. was found in the concept of use value. justified the World Trade Center attack. For Marx this reality. 4) Average Harper's readers may be spared blame for not comprehending Baudrillard's theoretical prose. and simulation have in common. and for Saussure it was the signified (and ultimately the referent). To understand what he means by "symbolic dimension" and "strategic symbolism" in the quotation from "L'Esprit" above. the Affirmative felt compelled to speak out about the necessity of preserving life. Baudrillard's Symbolic and Death Baudrillard's theory of the symbolic serves as a response to what he saw as the metaphysical underpinnings of the Marxist. All three. The negative. but that. which was their greatest weapon. If." a bifurcating. let us consult the origins and uses of the concept of the symbolic in his earlier work. it is its own pure simulacrum. In "How the 'True' World Finally Became a Fable: The History of an Error. uphold the fetishization of the "law of value. for Freud it was the unconscious. it masks and denatures a profound reality. true justice must end in its "self-overcoming" (Genealogy 73). where we can act to avoid nuclear war without repressing death’s inevitability. (Kelly et al. Our Friedland and Beres evidence indicates that this desire occurs due to a phobic overreaction to death’s passivity.COM JAIPAUL AT: Death Bad/Life Good That’s interesting. he claims. Our claim is not that we deserve to die – but rather that we need to lay claim to the logic of death and terror so that we can respond to it Butterfield Department of English – University of Wisconsin 2002. but the point of "L'Esprit" is not that 9/11 was justifiable in any moral sense. as visualized by Baudrillard. Instead he plays the provocateur by laying claim to the terrorists' logic. accepts death’s inevitability and confronts the repression.

but indifference is the attitude du jour (indifference having long been associated with the postmodern). Baudrillard imagines that from within the fourth order.39 - . which he outlines in his conceptions of the symbolic and symbolic exchange. the more erratically their values fluctuate. Hyperreality thus describes the extreme limit of fetishization. the hyperreal. has one more step to take before it completes its circle. Freud and Saussure were stuck in the second order. where all metaphysical distinctions of value have disappeared. But Baudrillard's history. it seems.COM JAIPAUL Marx. We have since turned from the critique of appearances to the critique of meaning and of reality itself (the third order). wherein re-presentation eclipses reality . where the critique of appearances was thought to yield a glimpse of a deeper reality. This is because we live in profoundly mediated environments. there will emerge a type of postmodern primitivism (I propose to call it). Here the spectacle continues to fascinate.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. wherein coded images are produced and exchanged far more than material goods. until at last they can no longer be traced to their origins. . and from here can only enter into the fourth order. and the more these codes are exchanged throughout the culture.

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and Life Sciences.COM JAIPAUL Impact—Dignity As long as the Affirmative works within a framework that subscribes to the fear of death. During World War II. then there is no moral reason why an effort should be made to ensure that survival. all manner of social and political evils have been committed against the rights of individuals. if not treated sanely. no rights. but only about the need to defend the fatherland. Dictators never talk about their aggressions. both biologically and psychologically. of wiping out all other values. Director of the Institute for Society. 1973 The value of survival could not be so readily abused were it not for its evocative power. destroying everything in human beings which makes them worthy of survival? To put it more strongly.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. suppress or destroy other fundamental human rights and values. This policy was later upheld by the Supreme Court in Korematsu v. it is possible to counterpoise over against the need for survival a “tyranny of survival. But my point goes deeper than that. Edward Callahan. The potential tyranny of survival as a value is that it is capable. It is directed even at a legitimate concern for survival. It is easy of course to recognize the danger when survival is falsely and manipulatively invoked. native Japanese-Americans were herded. without due process of law. The alternative alone is capable of placing an absolute value on human rights. In the name of survival. The Vietnamese war has seen one of the greatest of the many absurdities tolerated in the name of survival: the destruction of villages in order to save them. no matter what the cost to other social needs. when that concern is allowed to reach an intensity which would ignore. Survival can become an obsession and a disease. But abused it has been. gross violations of human rights and dignity are inevitable. If. It would be a Pyrrhic victory to end all Pyrrhic victories.42 - . including the right to life. the government of South Africa imposes a ruthless apartheid.” There seems to be no imaginable evil which some group is not willing to inflict on another for the sake of survival. The survival of the Aryan race was one of the official legitimations of nazism. into detention camps. Ethics. in the process. United States (1944) in the general context that a threat to national security can justify acts othwerwise blatantly unconstitutional. to save it from destruction at the hands of its enemies. The purported threat of communist domination has for over two decades fueled the drive of militarists for ever-larger defense budgets. the need for survival is basic to man. We come here to the fundamental moral dilemma. and if no other rights make much sense without the right to life-then how will it be possible to honor and act upon the need for survival without. and if survival is the precondition for any and all human achievements. The Tyranny of Survival. Under the banner of survival. . heedless of the most elementary human rights. provoking a destructive single-mindedness that will stop at nothing. For all these reasons. if the price of survival is human degradation. liberties or dignities which it is not ready to suppress.

pushing off and running away fast. or the collective adrenaline surges of crowds in protests (e. fear of color. race. fear of blood. lynching. xenophobia. enslavement. sexist and global capitalist orders in the United States and other Euro-western nation-states. The propagation and internalization of fear in the social body attempts to keep people docile. fear of non-straight sex. fear of desire. patriarchal and neocolonial orders. anti-gay violence. fear of "illegals". colonialism.g. fear of workers. the denial of imperial guilt. and annihilation of "unruly" subjects whose class. California's Proposition 187. military. co-optation. Bad Subjects Issue 50. sex. Prof @ A. patriarchy.U. are threats to bourgeois. the Christian right. Fear drives the repression. abortion clinic bombers. & fellow @ UCSB.S.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. fear of disease. schools) and the intended effects on the body politic. Fear is both the justification that drives the disciplinary apparatus of the nation-state (police. Arturo J. biopower. NSA. resistance to racism. police. fear of touch.COM JAIPAUL Impact—Destroys All Resistance As long as the Affirmative works within a framework that subscribes to the fear of death. the WTO demonstrations). the CIA. and migra shootings. to name a few. Bush's presidential campaign. anti-affirmative action policies. provoking a fight or flight response with varying intensities in the physiology of the individual. fear of women. fear of subaltern rage. for example. June 2000 When bodies feel sudden fear. fear of uprising. fear of race. the adrenaline curve in the nervous system spikes in the first milliseconds. numb. capitalist. . containment. and capitalism will all be co-opted and will continue to form the basis for our actions. fear of crime. Aldama. The constant fear of death is what justifies some of the worst acts of violence in history. Do You Fear Fear?: Docile Bodies and Fear of the Other. INS. torture. and afraid to challenge the status quo of racist. the sustained proliferation and normalization of fear in the "nervous system" of the body politic has different effects. ideological and religious differences. Fear drives the militarization of borders. Fear of non-conformity. Unlike the spontaneity of an individual lashing out. silent.43 - .

equates (with Böll) the artist's relationship to death with the priest's to his breviary. that of challenge and even muse. unacceptable. as premature. It is also connected with early exposure to specific forms of the kind of imagery (school children subjected to drills as preparation for nuclear war) that brings about the equation of death and holocaust. of course. Professor of Psychiatry and Psychology at the Graduate School University Center. discussed later in connection with imagery of extinction that haunts contemporary man. as a form of organic and psychological destiny. that of life imitating death: the idea of "death in life. But even in the absence of holocaust. However that basic perception is resisted. A third meaning of death. part of the "natural history" of each of us." or loss of vitality. But death. never ceases to be a many-sided.COM JAIPAUL Impact—Numbing As the desire to represent death increases. . It is partly a product of our holocaust-dominated age. are probably present in much of our death imagery. 3 The first and most fundamental is the perception of death as the end of life. it continues to underlie whatever additional constructs or gaps we call forth in our symbolizing activity. That symbolization depends upon a heightened awareness of the natural function of death as a counterpoint to life.constant representations of death becomes piecemeal building blocks in a larger construction of internal and external psychic numbing to death Robert Jay Lifton. One's individual death cannot be separated from the sense that (as Hiroshima survivors put it) "the whole world is dying. both necessary and highly dangerous. All four meanings. The relative importance of each of these meanings varies greatly. absurdity. right? Not really. so does awareness. holocaust. in fact. “Broken Connection: On Death and the Continuity of Life” From this unitary perspective there are a number of ways of symbolizing death. and others as well. for the human imagination. † The reversal is perceived as "unnatural"--life becomes deathlike precisely because of the numbed negation of death. seemingly contradictory yet ultimately unitary psychological form. irrespective of age and circumstances." But this seemingly unnatural reversal is. Death is rendered formative by its very naturalness. A fourth meaning is that of death as inseparable from disaster. a continuous (and therefore "natural") potential of the organism. and only the dead possess "vitality." This perception is truly unnatural. distanced by means of psychic numbing.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. Much of this book will concern this relationship between holocaust and individual-psychological struggles. and as an ever-present limitation that gives shape to existence and grounding to wisdom. Where this latter tendency is present.44 - . A second perception of death is mimetic. one's own death is anticipated. 1979. people can equate the end of the self with the end of everything. especially around the issue of death as natural or unnatural. denied. absurd. In real psychological ways one must "know death" in order to live with free imagination. or being frozen in some form of death terror as mentioned earlier.

except ourselves. As awareness (of our common human condition) calls for . Narcissism. 2000 “Fear and Denial of Death”. greed. the social organization of modern life precipitates widespread oblivion and denial: Modern man is drinking and drugging himself out of awareness. for Becker. power. personal lives. self-admiration and idolization. and death are pushed to the periphery of cultural experience. the more unable we are to face up to the facts of death in our daily activities. David Wendell Moller. Becker makes the argument that the evolution of capitalism as an economic and social system is a modern form of death denial.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. They provide for a base of honor in our materialistic society. Power accrues as wealth and possessions amass. When one matters more than anything or anyone else.baywood. self-absorption does not allow for the possibility that one will no longer exist. Thus.com According to Becker. the more oblivious we become. In this regard. the death of oneself becomes increasingly inconceivable. the facts of death and suffering are inconsequential to their daily. That is to say. the more we become oblivious to our inevitable fate. the argument of Becker is remarkably similar to Moore and others who have made the case that one of the great afflictions of modern life is spiritual emptiness and soullessness. Professor of sociology at School of Liberal Arts. Up to a point. in this cultural context of denial. we become hopelessly absorbed with ourselves. modern society has exploded onto a dangerous and irrational course. and extraordinary technological achievement. While the suffering and dying sit on the periphery of cultural integrity. and the associated development of destructive capabilities. material gratification. which is the same thing. Death is accordingly hidden and denied.COM JAIPAUL Impact—Consumerism The quest for immortality and the conquest of death is inescapable from the drive towards material acquisition. power. in capitalism it is through the thrill of acquisition and the pursuit of wealth that human frailty is overcome. or he spends his time shopping (or admiring and entertaining himself). As a culture. In an age of individualism. Although we know that death is an unavoidable reality. the white noise offered up by the affirmative’s adv’s serve to overcome the emptiness associated with mortality. In this way. In the modern context. and these rituals enriched the life of the community. In the absence of meaning systems and rituals. and asserts that the dread of death and emptiness of life in the twentieth century have been responsible for cultivating unprecedented evil through the pursuit of greed. In this environment of self-glorification. and wealth endows immortality as it is passed on to one's heirs. dying. and heroic use of science and technology have become prominent forces that shape daily life. narcissism facilitates the self-delusion that practically everyone else is expendable. Individuals are seduced into believing the illusion that. Becker takes this argument to its logical extreme. another prominent fact of American cultural life. self-seeking materialism. In this era of individualism. Materialism is a prominent value in American life. the deeper we plunge into narcissistic. new patterns of death denial have emerged and have become dangerous and dehumanizing. traditional cultures creatively designed rituals to "deny" death. is also related to the denial of death. Thus. and generate an illusion of omnipotence and immorality. Narcissism. shallowness and emptiness have created a crisis of legitimacy. and wealth have become the modern response to vulnerability and insecurity inherent in the human condition. ww. the stupidity and inhumanity of humanity lies in the nature of our social arrangements. suffering.45 - .

46 - .EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X.COM JAIPAUL types of heroic dedication that his culture no longer provides for him. New York. Becker/ Escape From Evil. 1975. The Free Press. . society continues to help him forget [E. 81-82]. pp.

to an obsession with death that can be felt in the media fascination with catastrophes like 9/11. Baudrillard would suggest. and we are all dreaming. but in events like 9/11." We may not think we identify with the terrorists' superstitions about honor in the next life. that is. we ourselves are not so innocent. Ultimately. artificial death is a symbolic event witnessed collectively . and that's the secret of hostage-taking. We become fascinated with death and because our society cannot integrate the rupture and violence of death by accepting the link between life and death.or herself). until they haunt our every moment. In these events we experience an artificial death which fascinates us. White Noise. even in public. As Baudrillard points out. the greater they become. which rids death of all the indifferent negativity it holds for us in the "natural" order of capital. until "reason itself is pursued by the hope of a universal revolt against its own norms and privileges" (162). The terrorist spectacle is an example of such a revolt.COM JAIPAUL Impact—Extermination The devaluation and rejection of the dead and death are merely the flipside of the fear of our OWN deaths – in devaluing the dead. we do so in private . When we posit death as the negation of life. that we insult by denying their value . while the primitives live with their dead under the auspices of the ritual and the feast" (134-35). we view them only as a dreaded caste of unfortunates. and yet. The more we devalue our death-imagoes. according to Baudrillard. instead of dying stupidly working oneself to the ground.1 When it comes to actually dealing with death and the dead. Giving and receiving constitute one symbolic act (the symbolic act par excellence). as in Don DeLillo's darkest comedy. however. It therefore inspires insurrection. our negative doubles. death becomes interesting once again since willed death has a meaning" (165). we bifurcate our identities and begin a process of mourning over our own eventual deaths . it is not so much the dead but our own deaths. non natural and therefore willed (ultimately by the victim him. Postmodern Culture 13. Desire invests the very separation of life and death" (147). bored as we are by the routine order of the system and the "natural" death it prescribes for us. This is the role played by images of death – they feed our covert need to give and receive death. "This entails a considerable difference in enjoyment: we trade with our dead in a kind of melancholy. Natural death represents an unnegotiable negation of life and the tedious certainty of an unwanted end. we must endlessly simulate death. "Technical. . we nevertheless identify despite ourselves with both with the terrorists and their victims: We are all hostages. Was 9/11 willed by the victims? Obviously not. (166) Violent. Butterfield Department of English – University of Wisconsin 2002. in our identification with both the killers and those who died. of receiving death and of giving death . a process which lasts our whole lives. and not as continuing partners in exchange. Political economy's inability to absorb the rupturing energy of death is thus compensated by the symbolic yield of the media catastrophe. This leads us. in which death gains symbolic distinction and becomes more than simply "natural. Death "becomes the object of a perverse desire. we are devaluing ourselves. Baudrillard would suggest.47 - . Because we devalue death and thereby the dead.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X.

EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X.48 - .COM JAIPAUL _____________ .

49 - .EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X.COM JAIPAUL **Impact Blocks .

.e. Schwebel. The logic of this globalized system of state-sanctioned cruelty negates the value to life and justifies universal destruction and the worst acts of violence in history. everywhere. Jacobs and M. Beardslee and Mack. 1986). Escalona. the most primitive layers of unconscious fantasy are mobilized. questia Segal ( 1986) regards the nuclear threat as an impetus for the distortion of language. fragmentation of ego functions) serve to render oblique the actual meanings of communication. Primitive psychotic defenses (i. and a sense of technology rushing out of control ( Mack and Snow. In an attempt to rebel against death. 1982.COM JAIPAUL AT: Nuclear/War/Death Imagery Good 1/2 First. Boone. B) Representations of destruction and death must exist to pacify the masses. denial. An analogue to this is the regressive dedifferentiation of structures within the human psyche which the threat of nuclear weapons . Beres. anger.g. doubt about the future. powerlessness. Also. producing terror of a different kind than the normal fear of death. humans turn to immortality and promises of salvation through demands on the state. and their threat of extinction of the human species. pose (see Wangh. it is not entirely clear exactly what the nuclear threat actually means to children and adolescents. the problem with nuclear imagery is not so much death but the meaningless rendered by a weapon without personality and a death without valor . 1989. 1986). rather then the bureaucratic apparatus responsible for its production Marilyn S. 1982. Investigators have concluded that the threat of nuclear war has created in the minds of young people a sense of fear. leading to profound anxiety and other disturbances in psychological function. These demands are not only funneled into the same system of violence the 1ac’s harms are rooted in but generate new imperial controls as this fear of death grants legitimacy to all state solutions. Nuclear weapons are the ultimate form of this as they are the only weapons capable of bringing the fear of collective annihilation to the everyone. massive projections. concern has been directed toward the relationship between the imminence of nuclear death and a "live for now" attitude among children and adolescents. Second. there have not been enough reliable data to make definitive conclusions ( Mack and Snow. 1982. extend our Friedland. Brewster Smith. “American Psychology in the Quest for Nuclear Peace”. 1985). and Santos evidence—they have conceded a few arguments which circumvents most of their offense- A) The attempt to breed apathy and concern through death imagery is a blunder in and of itself.it instills notions of powerlessness and outrage at the Bomb itself. However.50 - . 1986). It is a terror of annihilation without symbolic survival. They conceded this forms the basis for collective suicide with the only answer to problems is the massive destruction of the other. and outrage. In an effort to hide the threatening reality posed by nuclear weapons. Third.. be it holy or nuclear wars. One of the areas most intensively investigated in the last several years concerns the impact of living with nuclear weapons on the minds of young people (e. the threat of extinction does not exist as such but rather is a distortion of the methods one represents with.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X.

Prof of Politics and Sociology. we believe. while there seem to be more life choices available.COM JAIPAUL Robert Jay Lifton. a central theme in modern art. Cultural life thus becomes still more formless. fewer are inwardly compelling. But crucial. Professor of Psychiatry and Psychology at the Graduate School University Center.51 - . 1974. and Eric Olsen. appears to have any ultimate claim. The psychological implications of this formlessness are not fully clear. and politics. Meaninglessness has become almost a stereotyped characterization of twentieth-century life. “Living and Dying”. death from such weapons is without valor .EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. questia The ultimate threat posed by nuclear weapons is not only death but meaninglessness : an unknown death by an unimaginable weapon. is the anxiety deriving from the sense that all forms of human associations are perhaps pointless because subject to sudden irrational ends . No one form. The roots of this meaninglessness are many. theater. no single meaning or style. War with such weapons is no longer heroic. .

New advantages. the affirmative seeks to replicate the logic of the Herd mentality in which crises are viewed solely in terms of populations rather then individuality. The idea that we should threaten death is the underside of the attempt to ensure continued survival. crushing the possibility for death to be viewed in its mortality. Through extending the fear of death to grander and larger schemes ie.2 arguments A) The problem with war and death is not so much the actions themselves but the ideologies behind them. etc.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X.52 - . . cases. Foucault and Santos say this thinking produces a kill to save mentality which destroys all humanity in the illusion of saving it.COM JAIPAUL AT: Nuclear/War/Death Imagery Good 2/2 Finally. extend our Foucault evidence from the C subpoint.. B) This proves our argument that they are the constant mobilization for war.

53 - . The justifications you use for the action you think you are partaking in are like we shouldn’t jump off the bridge because I wanted to get a new cell phone.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. The grip of my fingernails. I was successful because nothing happened to the airplane. Self-Determination. I knew the 'right' answer to the only question on the test. significantly. Bad Subjects Issue #50. 3. to fewer untimely deaths? One answer lies in the ethics of Epicurus. not only cripples life. but was it my answer? Apparently by whatever standard not wanting to die can be measured. An absolutely devouring sense of certainty and hysteria surged within and around me. caught in some sense. or between myself and myself. June 20 00 About three years ago I spent the entirety of a three-hour flight convinced it was up to me to prevent the plane from plummeting down out of the sky and sending all its passengers to a noisy and fiery death. But how can we be reminded of our mortality in a productive way. our ideological motivation for survival is built around the walls of consumerism. I remember a deep sense of having been found out. several of which were torn by the end of the trip. my eyes alternately bulged and screwed themselves shut and I was compelled to remain utterly still except for the sweat and tears flying off me. There was surely a conversation taking place within my head. Our argument is not that life has no meaning but that the motivation for surviving should not be to prevent our extinction. as well as on subsequent flights. indicated how hard I was trying not to want to die. Arizona Journal of International and Comparative Law. 2. I think I might once have managed to convince the flight attendant that I did not require attention. Fearing death destroys all meaning to life. deepening ideology and suppressing criticism. . and challenged to really choose to make my innermost will a reality. I have always enjoyed flying and was fine on another flight two weeks later. International Law and Survival on Planet Earth. I have never felt more intensely. Somehow I was responsible for the fate of the vehicle and I felt it as a test. I descended.COM JAIPAUL AT: FoD Makes Life Meaningful 1. I can't now say for sure if it was a conversation between myself and some other. Professor of International Law at Purdue. The Abyss and You: A Brief Anatomy of Fear. Rather than recognize the beauty of life. Spring 1994 Fear of death. to summarize. viscerally afraid . A momentary lapse in my conviction of the wish not to die would prove fatal. This fear of death serves as the ultimate conservative one. we were all going down the second I decided I didn't mind living or dying. Louis Rene Beres. The fear of death makes us docile bodies. The boarding and takeoff found me only slightly out of sorts. a field of premature corpses. an enlightened creed whose prescriptions for disciplined will are essential for international stability. forcing us to constantly look over our shoulder fearing anything that could be a potential threat. As the plane climbed. an irritating whining noise near the gate was troubling me. a way that would point to a new and dignified polity of private selves and. it also creates entire fields of premature corpses. Nora Connor.

inasmuch as the US has had no difficulty including in the "free world" several dozen other states whose respect for human dignity was always substantially worse than that of the former USSR. and that opposition to particular policies-. then. September 1st.54 - . did America hate the Soviet Union? Because that country was a despotism? This is hardly likely. Living in what Camus called an "unsacrosanct moment in history.even in the most democratic of societies--represents not dissent but "blasphemy. Although superpower competition had always been explained in learned journals and popular magazines as a purely secular expression of the struggle for power." we have nonetheless finalized the transfer of sanctity to governments. only citizenship in the United States.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. one that was based on goodness. More precisely. The answer lies elsewhere. . Volume 16.COM JAIPAUL AT: Cold War Proves FoD Good Not true Louis Rene Beres. mysticism and desperation. No. There were no special requirements for membership in this elite. The problem is always one of individuals." Why. Professor of International Law at Purdue. International Journal on World Peace. Americans affirmed that they belonged to an elite. 3. its real origins must be found in an entirely different region--a region defined by myth. no standards of excellence that had to be met. 1999 Consider the desolate metaphysics of our time. Our leaders could sustain an anti-Soviet theology only because it satisfied the particular cravings of people. it can be discovered in a population that saw such hatred as the sacred obligation of a properly God-fearing population to oppose the forces of darkness. By treating the Soviet Union as a pernicious society. It follows that ideology in most states has become theology.

This is answered on the overview. While in extremity and under the threat of our lives we may not have any means other than violence to secure our survival. not to mention more violent perpetrators. Susanne Kappeler. Associate Prof @ Al-Akhawayn University.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. most of us most of the time are not in such situations. whatever else it may achieve. 1995. whose ranks we have decided to join. 258 Resistance to violence however cannot consist of violence. acts of violence. The Will to Violence: The Politics of Personal Behavior. however well-meaning.COM JAIPAUL AT: Violence Good This links to our criticism.55 - . but it necessarily affirms the principle of violence. And it adds new victims to the world — victims of our own making.we have 3 different disads to this argument. Their assertion that violence is critical to prevent further violence is EXACTLY the type of logic that justifies wholesale slaughter of entire populations. Instead. pg. invert the roles of violator and victim. we would have ample opportunity in situations of no such threat to challenge the legitimacy of violence and to practise alternatives — above all by deciding not to use violence ourselves. Violence can never constitute an effective act of resistance to violence. Violence may change the direction of violence. though we glibly speak of ‘survival’. . reaffirm the principle of violence and make us directly complicit with the violence we seek to prevent. Rather.

. the plan could still be advocated or passed. I dare you to find me ONE warrant in that article for any of the ridiculous claims she makes. The kritik does not preclude plan action.this evidence isn’t offense against our criticism. as long as the justification didn’t utilize the survivalist framework we critique.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. Under the framework of the alternative.we’re criticizing certain justifications for action presented in the 1AC – do NOT let the affirmative paint our kritik as a generic statism or capitalism argument.56 - . Our alternative is in no way the French philosophical nihilism that she criticizes.COM JAIPAUL AT: Ketels 1. Not responsive. 2. We don’t preclude action. Also KETTELS IS DUMB and possibly a nazi.

Nuclear annihilation has already occurred— the bomb is merely a metaphor now. That is the real bomb. The moment we begin to believe that the only way to prevent nuclear war is to constantly fear it. This argument is cyclical. What more do you want? Everything has already been wiped off the map. enlightenment and intelligence reign. and the next after that. . done. faraway. Imagination reigns. In an amnesic world like ours. and the greater the bomb’s capacity.the fear of nuclear war is what CAUSES nuclear war. We are already experiencing or soon will experience the perfection of the societal. It drives one to despair. The heavens have come down to earth .EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. 2. everything living is projected into the past as though things had been over-hastily plunged into a dimension in which the only meaning they acquire is that wrested from time by a final revolution. changed. they are there. Everything is there.COM JAIPAUL AT: Fear Key to Prevent Nuke War (Futterman) 1. the argument Futterman is making is that nothing is worth starting a nuclear war over because the horror outweighs. the one no one speaks about. Our link evidence is on point saying that thought process is what justifies nuclear policy and redemptive violence in order to prevent the threat of nuclear war. (IF THEY READ FUTTERMAN) Their Futterman evidence says “only catastrophe forces people to take the wider view. that constant fear will only replicate when the next threat arises. This evidence is also mistagged. 34- 5 Look at the two great events: [the advent of] nuclear power and revolution. do not panic. It is useless to dream: the clash has gently taken place everywhere. The temporal bomb. but what should one do? No future . everything is suddenly blown into the past. It is utterly pointless to hope for the one or fear the other since both have already occurred.57 - . Everything has already become nuclear. the further into the past they go.” Looking Back on the End of the World. Nevertheless. Even if we prevent a nuclear war now. We sense the fatal taste of material paradise. some weird French guy. The aff criminalizes the symptoms while they spread the disease.” We’ll win that constant fear of annihilation makes life not worth living. 19 89. Vote negative to stop fearing and start living. The explosion has already occurred. is the bomb that is not content to strew things in space but would strew them in time. The last bomb. Our alternative is the only option for any long term solvency and to give life meaning. Everything has already been liberated. what more do you want? It is useless to hope: things are there. Jean Baudrillard. Look around: this explosion has already occurred. undermined. nuclear war becomes inevitable. the bomb that immobilizes things in eerie retrogression . Where it explodes. “The Anorexic Ruins. 3. vaporized. the bomb is only a metaphor now. born or stillborn.

3. There’s only a chance our alternative can solve. Functionally this argument is that we should stop nuclear war so we aren’t afraid of dying from nuclear war. 2. . If this argument was true. History disproves this argument. We’ve done MULTIPLE things in the past to prevent nuclear war and we’ve still been on the “brink” for the last 50 years. This argument assumes fear of death in terms of the fear of death from nuclear war. Don’t let them spin this as stopping nuclear war solves the entirety of our fear of death.58 - .COM JAIPAUL AT: Stopping Nuclear War Key 2 Solve FOD 1. which makes no sense.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. post cold war there should never have been a threat of nuclear war. The affirmative can never completely eliminate the possibility of war. They can’t solve this argument. not our fear of death rooted in our subconscious. Fear of death cant stop fear of death.

They can’t win our ethic of hope and joy would prevent people from treating aids. WOULD reject the idea that AIDS should be treated to prevent terrorism and for national security purposes.COM JAIPAUL AT: FoD Key 2 Treat AIDS This argument is a joke. Our alternative wouldn’t reject any sort of AIDS research or treatment. Our alternative.59 - . however. Our argument is that AIDS victims should get treatment. but still not live their lives in constant fear of death. .EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X.

This is empirically denied and non unique. Our Beres and Santos evidence indicate that the fear of death drives individuals to absolute obedience to the state in demand for immortality. It’s on the overview. It also takes out the solvency to this argument. If your argument is true. they would be trumped by the destruction that follows.the fear of death is prevalent in the status quo. your representations prove these peace movements aren’t working.even if social peace movements would occur. We internal link turn this argument. 2. .COM JAIPAUL AT: FoD Fuel Peace Movements 1.60 - . 3. then social peace movements would have and should be propping up countlessly.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. The Nuclear Freeze proves your movements will fail. That act has been use to justify the worst acts of violence in history and destruction of the Other in order to prevent the threat of war.

Norris's warnings as to the dangers of dissociating theory from praxis are.19 Baudrillard also appears to be aware of these criticisms.61 - . violence can only take place as a sterilised simulation of itself. minimalist war with little "collateral damage"? Why stop there-- war? what war? (Patton 7). its credibility or degree of reality" (The Gulf War 67). the tone of Baudrillard's essays is far from equivocal. Be meteorologically sensitive to stupidity. The Gulf War 28) . Rather. Be more virtual than events themselves. (Baudrillard.COM JAIPAUL AT: Denies Reality Our argument doesn’t deny the possibility of dealing with reality – it merely refuses to contest the war on its own terms and instead engages the question of how images of violence are politically constituted CHESTERMAN Oxford 1998 Postmodern Culture But Baudrillard goes much further than this. we do not have the means. 66).16 He argues that Baudrillard's essays constitute a definitive exposure of the political bankruptcy of postmodern scholarship and "the depth of ideological complicity that exists between such forms of extreme anti-realist or irrationalist doctrine and the crisis of moral and political nerve" that presently afflicts Western intellectuals (27). The logic of deterrence (the sustained denial of the possibility of war) has come to supplant the actuality of war. Attacking the "frivolous" exercise of making the Gulf War into a pretext for arcane disputes about the "politics of theory. however. Assuming a position for or against the war denies inquiry into "the very probability of the war. that the proposed war would not take place. He argues that more than simply questioning the nature of this war and the media's complicity in its exposition. but a rigorous resistance to the acceptance of the virtual as or in place of the real: Resist the probability of any image or information whatever. do not seek to re-establish the truth. For the challenge that Baudrillard presents is not the rejection of political purchase. is a stupid gamble. there is a need to interrogate the very notion of truth qua simulacrum itself. he acknowledged the dangers of such an approach in a postscriptum: To demonstrate the impossibility of war just at the moment when it must take place. and precluding any form of ethico-political accountability that depends upon a notion of the "real" (194). as he did just a few weeks before the UN deadline expired. when the signs of its occurrence are accumulating. Nevertheless. (Baudrillard. but do not be duped." he links such theoretical exercises to a prevailing mood of "cynical acquiescence" that fails to contest the official version of events (29). veridical knowledge and its semblance" (12). important. it is necessary to resist the probability of the image (26-7.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. But his reading of Baudrillard's scepticism as demonstrative of moral and political nihilism (194) assumes an opponent of straw. Moreover. But it would have been even more stupid not to seize the opportunity. It is this argument that provoked a book-length response from Christopher Norris.18 In an extended sexual metaphor. The prevailing tone is ironic. In stating. and to that end re-immerse the war and all information in the virtuality from whence they come. The Gulf War 66-67) Norris reads this reference to "stupidity" as denying any "operative difference between truth and falsehood. Turn deterrence back against itself. Baudrillard's position is more properly seen as denoting a profound and abiding suspicion of a "reality" whose primary referent is the simulations of American war games. At times his writing exhibits a very black reductio ad absurdum humour: So you say this was a clean. the military--which thrives on particular forms of male sexuality--is emasculated by its dependence on virtual pornography. of course.

. in Gane 203). by contrast. Nevertheless. he argues.better strategically to play with apt critiques of the powerful new forces unleashed by cyberwar than to hold positions with antiquated tactics and nostalgic unities. (178) . it may be possible to read The Gulf War Did Not Take Place as if it were a science fiction novel (qtd. Der Derian states that theorists who attempted to construct a critical and universal counter-memory were easily isolated as anti-American and dismissed as utopian (177). James Der Derian.62 - . argues that such an approach may be more effective than that presented by the modernist school of criticism. He has subsequently suggested that in time and with a little imagination..EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. Adopting a poststructuralist approach to such political encounters may well bring with it the danger that no new pragmatic basis for justice and truth will emerge.." Baudrillard plays upon his own belief that writing should be less a representation of reality than its transfiguration (Patton 6).COM JAIPAUL In pursuing such a "fatal strategy.

involving the real deaths of real people.2 Though he states clearly "I am a terrorist and nihilist in theory as the others are with their weapons. ." he has taken it upon himself to decipher terrorism's symbolic message. which he describes as a combination of "fascination.COM JAIPAUL AT: You Defend Extinction Our argument isn’t a defense of terrorism or a defense of the SQ – it comes to understand the symbolic order that gives the spectacle of suffering its power – this theoretical critque enables an effective praxis Butterfield Department of English – University of Wisconsin 2002. a revolution of symbolic exchange against the system. he ascribes apathy and inertia to the universe. In the 1970s and 80s. He does so in the wake of such scathing critiques as Douglas Kellner's Jean Baudrillard: From Marxism to Postmodernism and Beyond (1989). and in his post-9/11 "L'Esprit du Terrorisme.has the power to pour everything. and perhaps also because ambivalence is Baudrillard's own brand of theoretical terrorism (Simulacra 163). were destined to be absorbed by the system's own narrative. a praxis that includes theoretical and aesthetic "terrorism." Against the system and its passive nihilism." In Simulacra and Simulations (1981). (180) To be sure. into indifference. as his theory predicted. Did Baudrillard seduce 9/11 into being--is he terrorism's theoretical guru?--or did he merely anticipate and describe in advance the event's profound seductiveness? To Kellner and other critics. Postmodern Culture 13. a misfortune Baudrillard warns against.63 - . Baudrillard proffers his own brand of what might be termed active nihilism. Baudrillard again suggests that terrorism is one such force... Baudrillard wrote that systemic nihilism and the mass media are to blame for the postmodern human condition. and the other moment is one of profound pessimism: "The system." "melancholy." and "indifference. that is. neutralized by the very mass media they sought to exploit. The terrorist acts of 9/11. terrorists and hostages was a major theme in Baudrillard's work on the symbolic and symbolic exchange. which attacked Baudrillard's theory as "an imaginary construct which tries to seduce the world to become as theory wants it to be. Terrorism can be carried out in theoretical/aesthetic terms. and that it functions according to the rule of symbolic exchange. in the end. the hyperreal event.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. Baudrillard's scripts and scenarios have always been concerned with the implosion of the global capitalist system. the terms Baudrillard would obviously prefer. As in Symbolic Exchange and Death (1976) and Simulacra and Simulations (1981). our collective fascination with things like car crashes. But while Baudrillard's tone at the end of "L'Esprit du Terrorisme" can certainly be called apathetic--"there is no solution to this extreme situation--certainly not war"--he does not suggest that there are no forces in the universe capable of mounting at least a challenge to the system and its sponsors (18).1 From Princess Diana to 9/11. Jean Baudrillard has been the prophet of the postmodern media spectacle. Baudrillard attributes implosion and entropy to the experience of (post) modernity. dead celebrities. the bloody acts of actual violence his theory accounts for. including what denies it. since the real is always in question." he is characteristically ambivalent in relation to "real" terrorism. Imploding into entropy. One moment of his thought is the utopian dream of radicality and reversal. Baudrillard's theory of postmodernity is a political as well as an intellectual failure: Losing critical energy and growing apathetic himself. or in real terms." but not. to follow the scenario scripted in the theory" (178).

" which never appeared. finally covering the globe (164). Memoires remains for us something that "would be experienced not as things at all. it becomes a work that questions the immediate possibility of that project by presenting that history from the perspective of an unrealized Situationist future. and the Situationist International http://www.I. journal. or its status as a founding text. "situationist" civilization.I. forced to absorb the instrumental meanings of this totalizing . I want to begin by invoking Debord's concept of the spectacle. The images (TV.I. It would be a constructed situation . <20> That the Situationists failed in 1968 is not surprising. In Lipstick Traces Marcus explains that as a memoir.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. It would be something that no one had ever seen before. the events of 1968 provided the S. or the détourned pages of the S. shared by millions. rather it is a social relationship between people that is mediated by images" (12).a new. <25> To understand Memoires.I. individuals would have had to actualize a complete transformation. the spectacle is akin to Adorno's concept of the culture industry or Jameson's culturalized horizon.reconstruction. etc. was advocating a revolution that operated totally outside the alienated forms of the spectacle. Activist Desire. To follow its story one needed information Debord withheld -. Debord's book was also a prophesy. Ostensibly a history. for the revolution to have succeeded in the S.'s terms.I. members of the S.reconstruction. Debord isn't so much taking on the prevalence of the image itself as he is the particular form of mediation images constitute. an opportunity to reach a larger audience at a volatile point. film. but the way in which this organizational principal is undercut. Without the realization of that world. had a slightly better chance to to find an audience that could hear what they had been advocating all along. they hoped for a revolution that would not only actualize a shift in power.I. had experienced in any form that could be articulated.) are one-way identic communications that provide no possibility for a dialectical engagement or response. Cultural Criticism.htm <20> At best. As if this were not enough. was still calling for the development of alternative forms of subjectivity and social organization that would transform the very roots of how individuals constituted themselves as subjects within and against the spectacular society that had produced them . and the Situationist International http://www.even the words "L'Internationale Lettriste.. Activist Desire. the S.ws/021/Activist. but as possibilities" (166).. Cultural Criticism. a literal.'s endorsement of the worker's occupation of the factories would seem to align their theory with a practical politics. intelligible history. and to argue for its absolute relevance to our own moment.I.ws/021/Activist. Each individual subject is silenced. For Debord. Consider that the Situationists were not simply in favor of a revolution that would shift power into the hands of the disenfranchised. even thwarted. Debord states that "the spectacle is NOT a collection of images. Rather. But one also needed the ability to imagine a reinvented world. and they could give no more than hints of what such a change might look like. It would be something like the maps of psychogeography. Certainly the S.I. Criticizing the production of the spectacle is good – necessary prerequisite to reconstructing society BANASH University of Iowa 2002. but transform the processes of power itself. but they didn't fundamentally alter its role. advertisements. In essence.htm However. given the social upheaval. The S. merely intensified its efforts to present an alternative that. Just as in the pre-1968 days. the S. by the fragments that are brought together presumably to tell that very story.I. had no clear conception of how to effect such a change. which only select members of the S. what is most interesting in the text is not its ostensible content. As anyone who has read The Society of the Spectacle will remember.COM JAIPAUL AT: How Does the Alt Change the World? We don’t know what a world without spectacle would look like – but that’s the point BANASH University of Iowa 2002.64 - . However.

being subsumed under those spectacular discourses. On the other hand.COM JAIPAUL system. Thus it is not identical with any subject." Jorn's line spreads out into a blob just above this fragment. "by means of the spectacle. as Adorno would approve. The images that perfected separation and political impotence could now assume nonidentic meanings. As a history it must. to conduct terrorist raids on the particulars of those discourses and liberate the particulars of those works holds the potential of creating revolutionary sense and desire. intelligible meaning. To produce new works of art within the traditional categories means playing by the rules. for Memoires is a profoundly political work. top to bottom. the ruling order discourses endlessly upon itself in an uninterrupted monologue of self-praise" (19). there is no indication of its original source. though not in any readily instrumentalizable register.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. <26> If Debord had not so clearly formulated these concepts during the creation of Memoires. they nonetheless animate the book. but they both highlight the tense relationships of form that animate the entire work. These pages are far more spar than many of the collages in the book. which reads "it is a subject profoundly soaked in alcohol. <27> To take Debord's project in terms of Adorno. Memoires is the creation of an autonomous artwork. fail. The critique that animates this concept is one of cooption. that this sentence has been ripped out of its original context.65 - . Debord was negatively gesturing at the spectacle in the concept of détournement. Though I don't have the space to execute a cover to cover reading of Memoires. I want. it is also a unique example of enigmatic political commitment within the horizon of postmodernism. As early as the Letterist International. this fragment invokes the concepts of memory and desire without specific objects. One of Jorn's lines carries the eyes from this fragment to another. from the title page. And yet. in Adorno's sense. The use of détournement shifts the emphasis to the nonidentic possibilities of the given collage elements. Continues… . I would like to look closely at both its first and final pages. it is to be taken in terms intoxication. in the middle of the page. never content to carry on a single. Whatever the subject or object of this memory or desire. <28> The first line of Memoires (reading right to left. both literally and metaphorically." Though the reader knows. As Debord puts this. since the collaged particulars are always outstripping their function. creating a block that puts the emphasis on this second fragment. meanings that allowed one to both construct a critique and imagine a reinvented world. Instead. which is composed of fragments of the spectacle itself. a convention the book doesn't impose) is a fragment of two sentences: "A memory of you? Yes.

but the emphasis is not with this line. it creates a critical difference which questions the one-dimensional sense that coordinates our spectacular lives. However. At best. another line of Jorn's descends from this fragment. in red. if only for a moment. The fragment reads "I wanted to speak the beautiful language of my century. a marker of the traditional desire for wholeness and understanding that the book undercuts. crossing others. Yet.I. this is not politics in the activist sense we have come to value through our fear of anything that might be labeled. or. If critics invoke the Debord of 1968 as an example of heroic activism. Rather. <30> The emphasis on the right side of the page rests in the middle.the play of the fragments and lines invites multiple readings. the left side of the page contains two other fragments: "people observe the thresholds of silence" and "this curious system of narrative. the color associated with the most intense collages of the text. Memoires resists an easy translation into a practical choice. However. such a total organizing structure can only fail. however speciously. this fact should not tempt us to label this a quietist work. Though the fragments may constitute recognizable figures at points. it is an ironic gesture at the failed totality of the work. constitute different figures depending on how they are read. If Memoires is more than a history. I will." associates the asubjective. quietist. reinscribing it within the spectacle. the speaker or addressee of the first fragment. <32> In Adorno's sense. represent these events and explain the considerations. that history slips in and out. calling into question the very possibility of it speaking to anyone intelligibly. separates it from its active powers. because it is itself nothing other than a deceleration by a subject of his own choice or failure to choose (304).COM JAIPAUL AT: How Does the Alt Change the World? Continued… <29> The second line of Memoires. exactly." This fragment. but something that leads to the discord and dread of nonidentic becomings. forces one to think from the perspective of a Situationist world that does not exist. . or even the best. perhaps the desires of the text itself centrifugally creating a kind of critical mass. However. "full of discord and dread. and trailing off at the page's final deceleration: "Listen well." it is not the office of art to spotlight alternatives. the space created by a book like Memoires allows us to take the gun from our heads." The "you" of this first fragment is wonderfully ambiguous. the decisions themselves become interchangeable . but it does so by creating the sense of a future that has not been realized. Jorn's line takes this desire and holds it in tension with other fragments and their gestures towards the nonidentic. In short Memoires does not present a totalizing climax. In its original context no doubt it referred to a specific individual." This line gestures at the totality of the work as the literal history that Marcus reduces it to. Again.66 - . This curious narrative is not something just different. It suggests that each fragment could be read in terms of its original context or colloquial meaning.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X." underscores the indeterminacy of the elements of the text. Literally. But. nonidentic confusion of the speaker and referent of this ambiguous "you. this is a project that exists only as theory. How. at the level of the aesthetic. or even the speaker of the final line of the page. As Adorno explains in his essay "Commitment. within that moment. its form gestures at an alternative engagement with the materials of the spectacle. which permanently puts a pistol to men's heads. it is less than a political program. they will do so only transiently. However. To reduce Memoires to an intelligible history as the founding moment of the S. more than that. as soon as committed works of art do instigate decisions at their own level. Resonating with this very play. the curving lines invoke motions culminating in an amorphous shape. even an oppositional program. . but that these will shift into shadow or light. of figures. marks an alterian desire. and this is precisely its success." which also gesture at the construction of the work itself. suggesting the reader of Memoires. of shadows. <31> I would not say that this is the only possible. Memoires is political to the extent that it breaks up the monolithic discourse of the spectacle and its powers of identic thought. the work of art becomes an appeal to subjects. Like Adorno's committed work of art. it invokes a play of the identic and nonidentic. but it has become a figure that slips in and out in the play of light and shadow. there is the chance to imagine a world otherwise. would one translate this sense into an activist practice? Neither Memoires nor later Situationist writings or practices answer this question. all the same. The relative neglect of Memoires underscores the difficulty cultural critics have when the concepts of a work cannot be readily aligned with a political project. In short. Such representations of it are less than attentive to the literal force field of antagonisms it creates." Mirroring these three middle fragments. As the fragments enter into becomings with one another. as Jorn's lines begin at them as almost nothing and move toward the right half of the page. but the emphasis is not on these fragments. to make it beautiful in Debord's sense requires that this statement shudder at the spectacle. but to resist by its form alone the course of the world. What is a practical political program. I would resist the temptation to reduce these fragments to an intelligible history. and that possibility surely plays a role in developing the desire necessary to someday realize such a world. "of lights. the fragment below. and the fragments themselves always destabilize or overreach their identic roles in such a narration. a point where the reader could make sense in the mode this fragment suggests. its power and potential indexed by the silence of the critics. The beautiful language of traditional art. Underneath this fragment. Here. at the least. . To push Adorno's metaphor. that. <33> The final page of Memoires is composed of one fragment and a simple series of Jorn's painted lines. In this it does rupture the discourse of the spectacle. However. they all but suppress the moment of Memoires where theory is the only expression possible. it is this failure that constitutes Memoires as a political moment. at the crossings of lines that accumulate into another shape. Rather. reading of the page -. the mysterious Barbra of the fragment further up the page. Looked at closely. as Marcus points out. but an intelligible choice already available to the extent that it is articulate? Memoires lives on because it is inarticulate. rife with irony. In fact. the endless discourse of the spectacle. all that is certainly invoked in this statement. two fragments exist close to one another: "it is for you" over "full of discord and dread. and these pages are transformed by the pages that follow. it now enters into the play of light and shadow. It isn't that history is not present. by the resonances the book creates as it is read.

the HIV pandemic. forced migration. Images of suffering are appropriated to appeal emotionally and morally both to global audiences and to local populations." as the French sociologist Luc Boltanski tellingly expresses it. Indeed. crime. their potential to mobilize popular sentiment and collective action. those images have become an important part of the media . Daedalus. and distorted.(1) It is also a master subject of our mediatized times. it is a defining quality. and through this cultural representation of suffering. substance abuse. political conflict.67 - . . domestic abuse.Medical Anthropology and Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School 1996. famine. images of victims are commercialized. "though at a distance . which is a leading edge of global popular culture. As "infotainment" on the nightly news. Video cameras take us into the intimate details of pain and misfortune. thinned out. they are taken up into processes of global marketing and business competition. a limiting experience in human conditions.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. is routinely appropriated in American popular culture . Wntr 1996 v125 n1 p1(23) SUFFERING IS ONE OF THE EXISTENTIAL GROUNDS of human experience .COM JAIPAUL AT: You Ignore Suffering Commodifying suffering distorts is social meaning KLEINMAN AND KLEINMAN Professor and Research Associate . experience is being remade. The existential appeal of human experiences. chronic illnesses of dozens of kinds. and even their capability to witness or offer testimony are now available for gaining market share. Suffering. Images of victims of natural disasters. and the deep privations of destitution are everywhere.(2) This globalization of suffering is one of the more troubling signs of the cultural transformations of the current era: troubling because experience is being used as a commodity.

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or religious belief. Ecology. we might reach a level of consciousness evolution that will bring us to the point of deserving the name given to our species--homo sapiens. Ireland” We seem to be involved in a dramatic race for time that has no precedent in the entire history of humanity. language. constituting a reconnection with everything. International Journal of Humanities and Peace. whether they are related to sex. Vol. Our form of interpersonal and transpersonal connection is the only method for self actualization of violence and destruction Stanislav Grof.Transpersonal Solvency Our alternative of reconnecting with the individual of politics seeks to transcend psychological predispositions. It is based on an almost cellular awareness that the boundaries in the universe are arbitrary and that each of us is identical with the entire web of being. political conviction.COM JAIPAUL Alternative. Ecology. and Native Wisdom in Killarney. 20 01 “Consciousness evolution and planetary survival: psychological roots of human violence and greed: paper presented at the Thirteenth International Transpersonal Conference entitled Spirituality. However. 17.70 - . 20 01 “Consciousness evolution and planetary survival: psychological roots of human violence and greed: paper presented at the Thirteenth International Transpersonal Conference entitled Spirituality. People who connect to the transpersonal domain of their psyche tend to develop a new appreciation for existence and reverence for all life. It is suddenly clear that we cannot do anything to nature without simultaneously doing it to ourselves.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. if a sufficient number of people undergoes a process of deep inner transformation. . color. It is obvious that a transformation of this kind would increase our chances for survival if it could occur on a sufficiently large scale. race. and ensuring survival Stanislav Grof. Differences among people now appear to be interesting and enriching rather than threatening. and Native Wisdom in Killarney. What began as psychological probing of the unconscious psyche now automatically becomes a philosophical quest for the meaning of life and a journey of spiritual discovery. it is unlikely that the human species will survive. If we continue the old strategies which in their consequences are clearly extremely destructive and self-destructive. One of the most striking consequences of various forms of transpersonal experiences is spontaneous emergence and development of deep humanitarian and ecological concerns. Vol. 17. International Journal of Humanities and Peace. What is at stake is nothing less than the future of life on this planet. Ireland” These changes deepen and extend even farther when the process of experiential self-exploration reaches the transpersonal level.

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Other writers recommend the transformation of the Democratic party to achieve political ends related to peace ( Burns. Similarly. influencing public opinion through persuasive communication. and commitment over the issue of nuclear war that occurred in the late seventies and early eighties was considered by many psychologists to hold promise for the only realistic role they could play in the prevention of nuclear war. 1984.72 - . Thus. the role of mutual ignorance. He favors the international community of psychologists working together. questia Also related to psychology's role in public interest and advocacy is the attitude of citizens toward nuclear war as reflected in public opinion polls. 1984). and the idea of self-fulfilling prophecy. the role of national Stereotypes.. He regards the following areas of psychology as potentially useful in influencing public opinion: the role of perception in international relations.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. Klineberg ( 1984. the question of the USSR must be coped with.COM JAIPAUL Alternative. .. a more effective political coalition must be built. Schofield and Pavelchak ( 1985) have suggested ways in which psychology can contribute toward the prevention of nuclear war through persuasive communication research. 1985) asserts that psychology should become involved in organizing public opinion through work with peace organizations. this area has gained importance as a means of gauging advocacy based interventions. the psychological aspects of the "window of vulnerability" theory. Jacobs and M. and realistic alternatives to current policy must be formulated ( McFadden. 1985. Klineberg. 1985). 1984). 1984). B. These authors also suggest that psychology might find a role in the development of materials concerning nuclear war to be used by educators. the public directly. involvement. 1984) has been interpreted as being a psychological one (e.g.e. and politicians.our public participation seeks to educate and influence Marilyn S. i.Nuclear War Solvency Only by breaking down taboos and representations of death imagery can the chances of nuclear war be lessened. The dramatic change in opinion of the American electorate regarding the arms race from a strong anti-Communist sentiment to the belief that it is time to negotiate with the Soviets ( Yankelovich and Doble. The substantial increase in public concern. Smith. which might inform advocacy organizations that direct public information campaigns. using public opinion. an educational effort must be devised that is connected to people's lives. 1989. The task for psychology was seen as empowering the public and opinion leaders ( M. Brewster Smith. “American Psychology in the Quest for Nuclear Peace”. Such research also has implications for fundamental decisions related to whether public information campaigns are useful interventions. the effect on mental health of living with the nuclear threat. Markey. the dehumanization of the enemy.

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We must move past fantasies of immortality by accepting the meaningless of our own demise." 50 This. . in the Spanish philosopher Unamuno's words. says Santayana. shattering the frame sustaining immortality Louis Rene Beres. Spring 1994 But we are back at the beginning. then. the more convinced and penetrated we shall be by the experience of death. Arizona Journal of International and Comparative Law. but death is deprivation of sensation. . Self-Determination. "to consider our mortal destiny without flinching. nature has revealed to us a truth utterly unimaginable to the unreflective creation . For all good and evil consists in sensation. The ironies are staggering. . is easier said than done because the human instinct that clings to life flees from death as the very prototype of evil. lamentably. Arizona Journal of International and Comparative Law. this very conviction and experience will have raised us.74 - .COM JAIPAUL Alternative. without our knowing it. each moment of life may become vastly more rich in joy. Self-Determination." an opportunity to accept the knowledge of natural death as an occasion to "live in the spirit. one that "quickens his or her numbered moments with a vision of what never dies. we must first understand them as manifestations of humankind's unwillingness to accept personal death. Such solipsistic boasts have been identified by George Santayana as follows: Continues… [*18] How. but because it takes away the craving for immortality. above mortality. not because it adds to it an infinite span of time. in a way. he counsels: Become accustomed to the belief that death is nothing to us. . yet. Professor of International Law at Purdue. the more we live in memory and idea. so it is also memory that opens to us all an ideal immortality. International Law and Survival on Planet Earth." Through the acceptance of death. How may we be instructed to accept our own personal mortality? Epicurus had an answer. but the connections persist and remain unexamined. . an [*19] "immortality in representation. The more we reflect. Detached from the falsehood that existence can conquer temporality. each individual may experience an authentic notion of immortality. do we end these terrible wars? Most important. the truth of those moments and their inalienable values." 55 . meaning and potentiality.Mortality Solvency The time has come to embrace our own mortality and break down the drive for immortality. Professor of International Law at Purdue. then.this itself changes the prospect of war Louis Rene Beres. perhaps. and because each singular individual is able to counter the observed fact of mortality with entire categories of exceptions. Santayana settled upon similar conclusions: In endowing us with memory. Death defines world politics because individuals wish to escape death.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. 53 More than two thousand years later. the truth of mortality. And therefore a right understanding that death is nothing to us makes the mortality of life enjoyable. 54 As it is memory that makes mortality an incontestable truth. Spring 1994 It is time. In his Letter to Menoeceus. International Law and Survival on Planet Earth.

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and often unassimilable. As Cathy Caruth and others have noted. and perspective. and working through. of the temporal and causal assumptions [End Page 61] basic to current understandings of historical trauma. then what becomes of the goals of restoring the pastness of the past. one is able to distinguish between past and present and to recognize something as having happened to one (or one's people) back then which is related to. distancing oneself from haunting revenants. are inaugurated by experiences of shock or violence so extreme as to be unassimilable in their present tense . violence. however." is one of the high sociopolitical stakes of working through. would appear to make nonsense. enacts just such a reversal of the conventional temporality in which symptoms point back to their origins in unassimilated past traumas. rather than evidence that symptoms might "really" precede traumatic causes? Zizek's account of traumatic symptoms in The Sublime Object of Ideology." where its "exceptional presence" is bound up with the fact that it has not been fully or conventionally experienced [537]. thanks to the symbolic progress which takes place in the analysis. one has begun the arduous process of working over and through the trauma in a fashion that may never bring full transcendence of acting out (or being haunted by revenants and reliving the past in its shattering intensity) but which may enable processes of judgment and at least limited liability and ethically responsible agency. it is "something which will be realized in the Symbolic. These processes are crucial for laying ghosts to rest. but not identical with. or even the merely possible future. LaCapra later makes explicit that " ethically responsible agency. gestures. traumatic dreams and flashbacks that replay the repressed event or image differ from other dreams and fantasies in their literalness. including consideration for others.76 - . or kill fellow prisoners on threat of their own deaths or the deaths of those they cherished) may be less capable of such agency in the present: When the past becomes accessible to recall in memory. something which. [Writing 91. Lacan asserts that the unconscious is made of "imaginary fixations which could not have been assimilated to the symbolic development" of the subject's history. is "registered rather than experienced. possession. and being able to engage memory in more critically tested senses. here and now" [66]. The survivor who experiences this return often acts out the trauma. Traumatic neuroses. and fantasies associated with the traumatic event. Dominick LaCapra asserts that "Through memory work. and if temporality and causality are reversed. In part because of its literal and insistent return. critical distance.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. and falls directly into the psyche. their seeming exemption from the distortive. is spatialized. will have been" [Lacan 158. reinvesting in the present. exploit. 3 Such anachronisms and time travels might powerfully suggest. according to Freud. how the singularity of a traumatic event can manifest itself in a perceived leveling of past and future into identical orientations of the symptom: time. It seems to have bypassed perception and consciousness. the impact of the traumatic event is felt belatedly. In Writing History. the proper work of mourning should at least partially restore the pastness of the past and enable the survivor of trauma to reinvest in the present. Zizek's discussion of the time travel of the symptom begins with Lacan's reference to a Norbert Wiener parable in the first Seminar.COM JAIPAUL Alternative—Move Beyond Nuclear War Only moving beyond the fear of nuclear destruction can create the grounds for ethical action – the unassimilable and repetitive trauma of our own future deaths eliminates the possibility for responsibility SAINT-AMOUR Assistant Professor of English – Pomona College 2000 Diacritics 30. then. remembering. among other things. Working largely from the Freudian lexicon of repression. interestingly. and reconstituting the trauma survivor as ethically responsible agent? What becomes of the ethical stakes of working through traumatic symptoms [End Page 62] if we imagine that at least some of those symptoms might precede trauma. the process and the stakes of working through are not solipsistic but importantly social. after a period of latency. There. As a result. the field of trauma studies has oriented itself around memory work that restores a conventional temporal sequence and hierarchy by seeking to reduce the domination of the present by the past . persecute. for the survivor. dominating the present rather than receding. more precisely. such a hysteron proteron occurs with a marked frequency in fictional treatments of historical trauma. According to this model. as a result. such that the traumatic event can seem to scatter the shrapnel of its symptoms evenly across the past and the future.The orientation of analysis. the survivors of death camps who were forced to expose. qtd. through symptoms that often include the return of repressed memories and the compulsive repetition of behavior. or. as Geoffrey Hartman puts it. the traumatic past remains transgressively present as revenant. of a repressed that returns from the future. 90] If a symptomatic effect can precede its traumatic cause. especially the socially engaged memory work involved in working through. as it should. haunting. into the past. renewing an interest in life. is not fundamentally toward the recuperation of a past traumatic event but rather . repetition. But aren't such reversals and recursions either deliberate literary conceits or observations about the pathological temporality perceived by the trauma survivor. repeating in the present scenes or behavior whose origins are in past instances of unassimilated. and the repressed returns from a past to which it can be at least partially reaffixed through memory work. too. traveling back through time as it were from the future. insofar as the survivor trapped in acting out past scenes of traumatic violence and ethical impossibility (for example. encryptive operations of the dreamwork. to the present? To be sure. Writing Trauma. The traumatic event. in Zizek 55]. and when language functions to provide some measure of conscious control. dreams.4 (2000) 59-82 The notion of a proleptic traumatic symptom. Furthermore.

and in working through the symptom we are precisely "bringing about the past"—we are producing the symbolic reality of the past.COM JAIPAUL toward a future in which the islanded traumatic symptom will have been encompassed within a retrospective sense. that is. Symptoms are meaningless traces. their meaning is not discovered. [55-57] . but constructed retroactively— the analysis produces the truth. paradoxically: From the future.. its meaning).EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. Zizek continues: The Lacanian answer to the question: From where does the repressed return? is therefore.. the "will have been" that proleptically crystallizes a view of the past as seen from the vantage of the future. the signifying frame which gives the symptoms their symbolic place and meaning [. excavated from the hidden depth of the past.77 - . in other words. If working through has a tense. long-forgotten traumatic events.] the symptom as a "return of the repressed" is precisely such an effect which precedes its cause (its hidden kernel. it is the future anterior.

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by the temporal mode in which they operate. Under the framework of the alternative. Our Friedland and Beres evidence warrants that the manifestations of the Aff’s repression of death is a culture that desires to create meaningless action to prevent a confrontation with death. Everywhere You Want to Be: An Introduction to Fear. They bring specificity to the general condition of possibility of deterrence by applying it to a particular found body. 25-minute flight before landing. Massumi and Zournazi say that only by separating hope from our fear of death and calculability of life can we empower ourselves. 3.COM JAIPAUL AT: No Alternative/Causes Nihilism 1/2 1. Brian Massumi. 5.80 - . discipline. . The affirmative’s methodology alleviates specific symptoms with a treatment whose side effects make the disease of capitalist bio-power even worse. Associate Professor of Communications at the Université de Montréal. inches from the runway. Or they may seize upon its dimension of anteriority. conditioned to respond to crisis again and again. 2002. It is the avoidance of the accident on the basis of its past occurrence. The past tense in the Timex ad went along with a fixation on numbers: 85-foot fall. One side of it faces the subject-form. 4. Power under late capitalism is a two-sided coin. the plan could still be advocated or passed. Looking at the world as door that can close only boxes us in a world of horror and disempowerment..500-foot altitude.textz. Santos says the belief that there is no alternative forms the basis for genocidal fascism. http://www. power is determining. It is power turned toward the event: in other words. and testing give disaster a face. 27 days and 345 miles. 2. aged 52. as it approaches the subject-form. the virtual. They have conceded that our alternative embraces a different type of politics. Deterrence by nature determines nothing (but potential: the potential for the multiform disaster of human existence). a politics of hope. There. 2. It turns the everyday self into an active nihilist. On that side. Uncertainty about the future allows us to embrace maneuverability of our future and bring a sense of potential to the situation. A power word for prediction is deterrence. as long as the justification didn’t utilize the survivalist framework we critique. This frenetic activity destroys the possibility for truly progressive action. Mechanisms of surveillance and of statistical probabilization buckle into prediction. perhaps more fundamentally. They may seize upon the futurity of the future-past. Deterrence is the perpetual co-functioning of the past and future of power: the empty present of watching and weighing with an eye to avert. 160-pound sled. rather than reject it. it is deterrence. Cycles of violence and exploitation are perpetuated in the name of their inevitability – the ultimate conclusion to the affirmative’s logic is the suicidal destruction of the world. On the other side. three blizzards .com Power mechanisms can also be defined. in which case they are statistical and probabilistic: analyze and quantify the event as it happened. The kritik does not preclude plan action – we’re criticizing certain justifications for action presented in the 1AC – do NOT let the affirmative paint our kritik as a generic statism or capitalism argument.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. biopower.. in which case they can be characterized as strategies of surveillance: on the look-out for the event.

And destiny in the final analysis is only the necessity of chance: the inevitability of the event. . The in-between of the subject-form and the self. a life spent.COM JAIPAUL They give a life-form content. Power is coincident with capital as social selection and probabilistic control (Deleuze 1990). Power is capitalization expressed as a destiny. disorder is the motor of control. A self is selected (produced and consumed). of the generic identity and specific identity--the come and go between deterrence and discipline/biopower/testing. But in this postequilibrium world of deterrence in which the accident is always about to happen and already has. between the virtual and the actual--is the same intensive and extensive terrain saturated by the capitalist relation. the evanescence of consumptive production.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. death.81 - .

lacan. Slavoj Zizek. the Affirmative participates in interpassive action. today.they are tolerated and supported as long as they do not get too close to a certain limit. Repeating Lenin. this act will not be performed in an empty space . constantly speaking about change and progressive action as a replacement for actual action.it will be an act WITHIN the hegemonic ideological coordinates: those who "really want to do something to help people" get involved in (undoubtedly honorable) exploits like Medecins sans frontiere. Greenpeace. one follows a direct call to act. things will remain the same!” . politically correct. globally. activity fits the formula of "Let's go on changing something all the time so that. really changing . www. If. which are all not only tolerated. feminist and anti-racist campaigns. Claiming not to be nihilist merely because they speak out on behalf of action. 1997 One is therefore tempted to turn around Marx's thesis 11: the first task today is precisely NOT to succumb to the temptation to act. even if they seemingly enter the economic territory (say. but to PREVENT from something really happening. All the frenetic humanitarian. etc. Prof Philosophy @ U. but to question the hegemonic ideological coordinates. denouncing and boycotting companies which do not respect ecological conditions or which use child labor) .EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. Turn – Interpassivity – The plan doesn’t actually get done if the judge votes Aff.. Ljubljana. to directly intervene and change things (which then inevitably ends in a cul de sac of debilitating impossibility: "what can one do against the global capital?").82 - . This kind of activity provides the perfect example of interpassivity: of doing things not to achieve something.com/replenin. but even supported by the media.COM JAIPAUL AT: No Alternative/Causes Nihilism 2/2 6.

express our unconditional hope for the future. Under the framework of the alternative. Our argument is that by refusing to engage in calculability games and. as long as the justification didn’t utilize the survivalist framework we critique. Our ethic is a straight turn to their case because fear calculates difference in attempts to destroy otherness. which is impacted by our Santos.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. 2.COM JAIPAUL AT: Alternative Doesn’t Solve Case 1. . the plan could still be advocated or passed. Zimmerman. which restores value to life through freeing us of the shackles of the ascetic ideal. we can prevent atrocities. Our alternative of rejecting these fear based calculations and embracing hope allows for an ethic of love and joy towards difference. rather. and Foucault evidence.83 - . The kritik does not preclude plan action – we’re criticizing certain justifications for action presented in the 1AC – do NOT let the affirmative paint our kritik as a generic statism or capitalism argument.

Our alternative isn’t that radical. chilling out and having faith that we won’t blow up if we talk about something meaningful seems pretty damn easy to me. as long as the justification didn’t utilize the survivalist framework we critique. . The kritik does not preclude action – we’re criticizing certain justifications for action presented in the 1AC – do NOT let the affirmative paint our kritik as a generic statism or capitalism argument. 2. action could still be advocated or plans passed. Under the framework of the alternative.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X.. They haven’t proven an internal link to this argument.84 - ..COM JAIPAUL AT: Radical Alternative Destroys the Movement 1.

of an antagonism that cross-cuts the social field. in fact. The centrality of political dislocation is always repressed in favor of the second moment. It could be argued of course that Homer’s vision of psychoanalytic politics does not foreclose the recognition of the impossibility of the social but that in his schema this recognition and the promise to eliminate it (as part of a quasi-utopian regulative principle) go side by side. People. The success of the alternative is dependent on its ability to avoid fantasmatic politics. more than anything. in the ‘local sense of politics’ in Beardsworth’s terminology: In its affirmative refusal to advocate a politics. Since utopian or quasi-utopian constructions function through identification it is legitimate. In that sense. When presented with the choice. and increases good text writing. Something not entirely surprising since. the text of your “do both” permutation still has the judge vote negative in addition to advocating plan. the impossibility of society. the radicality and political importance of the lacanian critique depends on its ability to keep its distance from the fantasmatic politics. Only if presented against the background of this ‘disorder’ the final harmonious ‘order’ promised by a utopian fantasy acquires hegemonic force. but alienating. <He Continues. If analysis resists the ‘reoccupation’ of the traditional strategy of identification – although it recognizes its crucial. Collier’s argument is that since It is capitalism that shatters our wholeness and disempowers us (as if without capitalism we would be on the road to utopia. The problem is that all this schema is based on the elimination of the first moment. Is it really possible and consistent to point to the lack in the Other and. a combination of psychic repression and confrontation can only deform the disruptive aspects. the moment of impossibility is only acknowledged in order to be eliminated. the latter part is necessarily deformed: if it is not recognized in its radical constitutivity.> What I want to suggest is that in Homer’s schema psychoanalytic politics ‘reoccupies’ the ground of traditional fantasmatic politics. the irreducibility of the real within the social. Lacan and the Political. Yannis Stavrakakis. it would be self-defeating. Second. the same lack that utopian fantasy attempts to mask.the Affirmative’s presentation is dangerous PRECISELY because fantasies of immortality have so much appeal. I think. The result is that this fantasmatic conception of politics ends up imposing its demands on the psychoanalytic part of the argumentation. it becomes . Since the projection of any decision has ethical implications. and not get out lines crossed’ (Collier. deconstruction in fact generalizes what is meant by the political well beyond the local sense of politics. constitutes the starting point for almost every political ideology. to attempt to fill it in a quasi-utopian move? Such a question can also be posed in ethical or even strategic terms. want to believe they will live forever. rejecting cure or happiness as possible goals’. identifactory politics. obviously. Utopian fantasy can sound appealing only if presented as the final solution to the problem that constitutes its starting point . But this coexistence is nothing new. At least this is the strategy that Lacan follows on similar occasions. 1996: 19) Similarly. Third.’Let us go to Freud and Klein for our psychotherapy [Lacan is of course excluded] and to Marx and the environmental sciences for our politics. capitalism occupies the structural position of the antichrist in this sort of leftist preaching). (Beardsworth. to engage itself in utopian or quasi-utopian fantasy construction. ‘reoccupy’ their ground? This rationale underlying the Lacanian position is not far away from what Beardsworth articulates as a political reading of Derrida. to draw the analogies with the social field. the lack in the Other. Thus Lacan has nothing to offer radical politics. . Lacan located the end of analysis beyond identification.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X.85 - . but psychoanalytic political theory has nothing to gain beyond its own deformation.COM JAIPAUL AT: Permutation 1/2 First. Research Fellow at the School of Politics at the University of Nottingham. . according to Collier. In fact. psychological theory in general has no political implications whatsoever. the ultimate consequence of Homer’s argumentation is the following: the absorption of Lacanian political theory by radical quasi-utopianism will offer left-wing radicalism the hegemonic appeal entailed in the articulation of one more signifier (‘psychoanalysis’) in this signifying chain. normalizing capitalist damage. In that sense. 1998 41-3). the utopian promise. which is not the same as saying that psychoanalysis is apolitical: in fact. In this sense it becomes a radical ‘critique’ of institutions. at the same time. nearly anyone would choose the fantasmatic construction over its transversal – only the alternative alone can possibly cause change. firstly. Well. which makes the discussion more educational. deconstruction also refuses to implicate itself in traditional politics. Faced with the alienating dimension of every identification. my emphasis). it doesn’t sound like a very good deal. deconstruction forms.-loses all its power. from politics in the traditional sense. precisely because alienation is so deep for Lacan that nothing can be done to eliminate it (‘Lacan is deeply pessimistic. The alleged irrelevance of Lacan for radical politics is also the argument put forward by Collier in a recent article in Radical Philosophy. of the recognition of impossibility. role in the formation of subjectivity – why should psychoanalytic politics. then Lacan’s theory is. Surprisingly enough this is almost identical with Homer’s conclusion: Lacanian theory is OK as an analytical tool but let us go back to Marx for our ideological seminar and our utopian catechism! It is clear that from a Lacanian point of view it is necessary to resist all such reoccupations of traditional fantasmatic politics . Thus. fantasmatic. that in fact this political promise is legitimized by the conclusions of psychoanalytic political theory. Sticking teams to texts is key to check abusive rebuttal clarifications to spike out of block responses. if not absurd. The conclusion is predictable: . articulating Lacanian theory with fantasmatic politics is equivalent to affirming the irrelevance of lacanian theory for radical politics since this articulation presupposes the repression of all the political insights implicit in Lacan’s reading and highlighted in this book. after unmasking the crucial but alienating character of traditional. For Beardsworth. 1999 Since. an account of why all political projects fail. however. This recognition of the ‘impossibility of society’. Lacanian political theory aims at bringing to the fore again and again.

86 - . our alternative has the judge reject the affirmative to shatter the silence surrounding death in order to tear down the taboo. the political is located beyond the utopian or quasi-utopian sedimentations of political reality. which we didn’t. as argued in the previous chapter. Advocating the alternative in any way stops them from advocating their discourse. the perm severs.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. exactly because. but that’s only true if we make a defensive link argument.COM JAIPAUL political precisely by being critical of traditional politics. Fourth. which is a voting issue for fairness and education. . They will make the argument that they can kick advantages. making the affirmative a moving target. allowing them to spike out of links.

its fundamentally a concession to demands on the state and the sacrilization of mortality. September 1st. moronizing everyday life. “Voyages Across the Web of Time. However. Both pieces of Beres evidence. Sixth.COM JAIPAUL AT: Permutation 2/2 Fifth. Angkarn. The thanatophobic mode of thought they subscribe to not only creates the reality we live in – it is also independently more important than the action taken itself. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. B. political and economic domains. Ben Agger.the permutation is essentially conservative politics as it gives into the West’s current war on death. acutely conscious of its dramatic shift from rural cycles to the linearity of "progressive" urban development. Massumi.The permutation is fundamentally a plea for “just one more” try at representation. suppressing critique. C. 1999 Angkarn is referring here to a repetition of sounds. It does so by changing -. Stengers. which has undergone the transition from agrarian to technological free market more gradually and yet no less profoundly. become peculiarly complex in the context of a globalizing free market that imposes a seemingly ineluctable momentum. [11] Recent problematics of time and movement in the West. extend the 1NC Havel evidence. increasingly force analysis outside the dichotomy of present versus past tense. constituting the same neurotic pleas that undermine progress away from current ideologies Marc Weeks. the dynamic versus the static.87 - . an intoxication with rapid movement and transformation for its own sake may actually undermine progress by rendering considered resistance impossible: "My problem is how the world stays the same. for example. The permutation’s attempt to coopt the radical potential of our alternative is just another piece of the road towards immortality.the permutation inevitably collapses upon itself as the same types of representations of violence and fear that promote the herd mentality and state centric thought are advanced in the permutation. while we would not defend the kind of nostalgia Angkarn does indeed occasionally indulge in. like everything else. When this structural metaphor is transferred to contemporary social. they’re conceding our distinction and hierarchy between ideology and action which means they can’t win the permutation. it is readily conceptualized as an inertia or resistance to change." [12] The French philosopher of postmodemity Jean . a cyclicity which may or may not impede progression. and Frederic Maurel. Our friedland evidence.deepening ideology. Nietzsche and Temporal Colonization. This means the permutation can never engage in the act of affirmation of life because linking our hope and joy for the present to a solution for the future based on our fear of death destroys the disruptiveness of our ethic. and Zournazi say predictability and the uncertainty of hope are mutually exclusive. Seventh. The permutation is incapable of transcending a politics of fear because fear opposes difference.The Obsession Disad.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. particularly in a culture such as Thailand's. it appears that the question of time and its relationship to progress has.It doesn’t solve- A. in elaborating his theory of "fast capitalism" observes that an obsession.

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Baudrillard has likewise discerned a paradoxically conservative effect in the culture of speed, of "movement
for movement's sake".

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AT: Permutation 2NR

(ONLY IF YOU HAVE TIME) Extend our number 1, the theory argument. As per the text of their
permutation, you’d do the plan and VOTE NEGATIVE to reject the affirmative to shatter the silence
surrounding death. This means we still win the round in the world of their permutation.

Extend the #3- The Stavrakakis evidence.
The obsessive action we criticize is most effective when combined with a disturbing kernel of the Real
that it can cover up. The perm allows the Aff to present a total lack of order, exposing people to
the holes in ideology, but at that crucial moment of confrontation and anxiety, offers to fill in the holes
with fantasmatic demands continuing the west’s war against mortality. The portrayal of our ability to
avoid death makes the comfort of illusory order all the more desirable.

The Number Four- Advocating the alternative in any way necessarily stops them from advocating
the plan- makes them a moving target, allowing them to spike out of all our offense mid-round, which
is unpredictable.

It’s also infinitely regressive with no limit on how much we can sever- that is a voting issue for fairness
and education.

The Number Five- They conceded ALL of our reasons why the perm can’t solve
a. Friedland says the perm co-opts our alternative. It only feeds into the West’s war on death. For
them to win the perm they gotta win they don’t link.

b. Beres says the perm will collapse on it self. Their representations only promote the herd mentality
and state centric thought that is functionally a concession to demands for immortality.

c. Stengers, Massumi, and Zournazi say predictability and hope are mutually exclusive. The perm can’t
transcend fear because fear and hope are dichotomous by nature. Linking hope and joy to our
fear of death destroys the disruptiveness of our ethic.

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AT: Permutation – Coalitions

1. Turn – The attempt to unite different groups together into a harmonic coalition is predicated on a
set of fantasies. The ideas of harmony through difference and cooperation through liberal-democratic
structures not only ensure the structural failure of any coalition – they also are the supplement to an
abandonment of the fight against liberal-democratic consumerism itself.

Slavoj Zizek, Professor of Philosophy at the University of Ljubljana, The Plague Of Fantasies. 1998
When one is dealing with a universal structuring principle, one always automatically assumes that – in principle, precisely – it is possible to apply
A
this principle to all its potential elements, so that the principle’s empirical non-realization is merely a matter of contingent circumstances.
symptom, however, is an element which – although the non-realization of the universal principle it appears to hinge on contingent
circumstances – has to remain an exception, that is, the point of suspension of the universal principle: if the universal
principle were to apply also to this point, the universal system itself would disintegrate.
In the paragraphs on civil society in his Philosophy of Right, Hegel demonstrates how the growing class of ‘rabble [Pobel]’ in modern civil society is not an accidental
result of social mismanagement , inadequate government measures, or simple economic bad luck: the inherent structural dynamic of civil society necessarily gives
rise to a class which is excluded from its benefits (work, personal dignity, etc.) – a class deprived of elementary human rights, and therefore also exempt from the
duties toward society, an element within civil society that negates its universal principle, a kind of ‘non-Reason inherent in Reason itself – in short, its symptom. Do
we not witness the same phenomenon in today’s growth of an underclass which is excluded, sometimes even for generations,f rom the benefits of liberal-
democratic affluent society? Today’s ‘exceptions’ (the homeless, the ghettoized, the permanent unemployed) are the symptom of the late capitalist universal
system, the permanent reminder of how the immanent logic of late capitalism works: the proper capitalist utopia is that through appropriate measures (affirmative
action and other forms of state intervention for progressive liberals; the return to self-care and family values for conservatives), this ‘exception’ could be – in the long
term and in principle, at least – abolished. And is not an analogous utopianism at work in the notion of a ‘rainbow coalition’: in
the idea that, at some utopian moment to come, all progressive struggles (for gay and lesbian rights; for the rights of ethnic and
religious minorities; the ecological struggle; the feminist struggle; and so on) will be united in a common ‘chain of equivalences’?

The necessary failure here is structural: it is not simply that, because of the empirical complexity of the situation, all particular progressive fights will
never be united, that ‘wrong’ chains of equivalences will always occur (say, the enchainment of the fight for African-American ethnic identity with patriarchal and
homophobic attitudes), but, rather, that occurrences
of ‘wrong’ enchainments are grounded in the very structuring principle if
today’s progressive politics of establishing ‘chains of equivalences’: the very domain of the multitude of particular
struggles, with their continuously shifting displacements and condensations, is sustained by the ‘repression’ of the
key role of economic struggle. The Leftist politics of the ‘chains of equivalences’ among the plurality of struggles is
strictly correlative to the abandonment of the analysis of capitalism as a global economic system – that is, to the
tacit acceptance of capitalist economic relations and liberal-democratic politics as the unquestioned framework of
our social life.

2. Obviously those who oppose the fear of death aren’t going to be joining forces with those who
support it. . .We could have brought my dog in to tell you that. That, however, does not mean we
reject all Leftist politics different from ourselves.

3. There argument assumes a completely different forum. The purpose of a coalition is to work
through traditional structures of political power to influence legislation. However, this form of
political participation is obsolete in a post-modern world – politicians will ignore the demand, elites
will create loopholes to bypass it, and the media will spin it as anti-patriotic. Only by reconstructing
debate as a site of micropolitical resistance, and ignoring the supposed benefits of representative
politics, can we reclaim the political sphere, solving the rightist takeover their evidence refers to and
avert extinction through biopolitical control.

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93 - .EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X.COM JAIPAUL **Framework Blocks .

frameworksinstitute. both the negative frames and the potential positive reframes that can further an issue's salience. the effectiveness of the recommendations we make can be demonstrated. not the other way around. and demonstrate this across the research. 03. We can explain what works and why it works. framing refers to the subtle selection of certain aspects of an issue in order to cue a specific response.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. messengers. while we hope we are "creative" in our approach to communications. Frameworks Institute. stereotypes.COM JAIPAUL Framework 2nc They have conceded our last piece of evidence in the 1nc. This framework for the debate of evaluating claims based on representations serves to test the affirmative’s truth claims by subjecting them to both negative and positive claims. which damns them. ideology IS reality. . serving to shape policy implications. http://www. methodology and ideology is ripe with implications all its own. and metaphors.94 - . The affirmatives method of thought process. through different disciplines.org/strategicanalysis/index. Contemporary ideology has come to replace the power of the sword as ideology provides power its legitimacy and coherence. The advantage of strategic frame analysis is that it allows the research to document and deconstruct the frames currently in the public consciousness and to understand their impact on public policy preferences. Additionally. our Havel evidence. In short.shtml Quite simply. it allows us to test and validate. Finally. more important then action itself. our findings are rooted in the social and cognitive sciences. as researchers have shown. the way an issue is framed explains who is responsible. and suggests potential solutions conveyed by images.

COM JAIPAUL AT: Fiat Good 2NC 1/2 1. A. Turn. . B. An unfair debate about important issues is still better than an absurd well-played game.we are impact turning the fundamental justifications for the plan TO BE passed.another predictable framework is necessary for negative ground. Policymaking skills can be learned under our interpretation equally well. You would still vote neg as a policy maker because their policy has a bad impact calculus. the way we think.our criticism interplays with the 1AC.95 - . 4. External predictability – the word resolved is on the left side of the colon. and align ourselves politically will have actual value in terms of policy making and read world. 2. Our interpretation increases affirmative ground equally to negative ground. No reason it has to be policymaking. 6.The affirmative should have to defend the justifications for the 1AC before we evaluate fiat. 5.affirmatives can be run such that they have impacts in our framework. Education – A. B.Defending the Status Quo forces us to defend things like racism and sexism. act. We’ll win the race to the middle. Counter Interpretation. Not responsive. The issues pertinent now won’t be pertinent by the time we might have positions in office. C. However. Congressional bills aren’t 2 sentences long without funding recommendations. It’s best for education.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. This solves all their judge intervention arguments. Extend Stavrakakis 3. They do not teach a THING about real policymaking. giving us all knowledge we can use in day-to-day operations and is the only way to prevent government atrocities from being committed through fantasmatic policymaking. means we the debaters must stand resolved and the reasons why are to be justified.

B. it requires that we look anew at traditional participatory activities and evaluate their performative potential. Consequently. Kulynych. it widens the parameters of participation to include a host of new actors. Polity. Even if they win fiat is good– A. Our Santos evidence indicates this logic lies at the root of the case harms and negates the value to life. If we win our link argument. Jessica J. The framework links to our criticism – The drive to save traditional debate from the radicals who threaten it IS the logic of Western colonization and extermination of the Other. and therefore allows us to see a much broader range of political actions.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. “Performing politics: Foucault. (ONLY READ IF YOU HAVE TIME) 9. and locations for political action. Habermas. 8. ensuring alienation of citizens from the political sphere and guaranteeing biopolitical control. although much more humble opportunities for citizens to "take part" in their own "governance. activities. enables action in the face of that power. it is possible. and thus allows us to see the world of political action differently. fundamentally missing the real. and more meaningful.96 - . Turn – Biopower Utilizing fiat denies the possibility for debate to be used as an instrument of micro political resistance. The failure to reconceptualize political participation as resistance furthers an illusion of democratic control that obscures the techniques of disciplinary power and their role in global strategies of domination. .COM JAIPAUL 7. We read solvency evidence saying that allots space for hope. and postmodern participation. which is impacted by our Foucault evidence. A performative concept redirects our attention away from the normal apparatus of government and economy. First. to conceptualize contemporary participation as a performative rather than a representative action." Accepting the idea of participation as resistance has two broad implications that fundamentally transform the participation debate. Winter. enables innovation in deliberation. Second. Still evaluate our impacts – The plan’s result in a perpetuation of status quo harms. we’ll win their impacts replicate. 1997 Performative resistance recognizes disciplinary power. Still endorse our alternative– even within the framework of policymaking you can vote negative for your own symbolic death.

Our interpretation is the most inclusive. solves narratives and judge intervention arguments. They have no offense- 1. AND Our interpretation only forces you to defend your 1AC. Our criticism gives you knowledge you can use now and in the future in terms of policymaking and real world. Our interpretation is inclusive of theirs.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X.it forces us to defend racism and sexism. . Here’s our Offense- 1. solves policymaking because we allow for a world of uniqueness based policy debate too. 3. Our kritik proves the plan is a perpetuation of the status quo harms and their impacts will only replicate in the future. The plan is useless without knowing how to achieve it without destroying meaning. Our interpretation just fiat plus. so they have to win inclusion of anything else is bad to win.97 - .we’ll still win. you can still vote negative as an acceptance of your own symbolic death. means debaters must stand resolved and the reasons why are to be justified.COM JAIPAUL AT: Fiat Good 2NR Go to the bottom of the fiat debate first. Go to the counter interpretation.even if we lose our counter interpretation. 2. The only argument they can go for is fairness but they concede that our interpretation is more externally predictable because the word resolved is on the left side of the colon. Political issues change. Additionally. which would open up space for hope and joy in the present. so we’ll win the race to the middle. we open equal ground for the affirmative and negative. 2. Defending the Status Quo destroys negative ground. The kritik proves that how we frame a policy proposal is as important as the policy itself. There’s no speaker points to dock in out rounds.the aff should defend their justifications. Absent our alternative. They concede affs can be run with impacts in our framework.

EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. Counterfeit existence outweighs fairness and ground. This allows ethical claims to be ignored and negates the value to life.COM JAIPAUL 3. Stavrakakis says that our inclusion is key to stand up against the government and prevent governmental atrocities from being committed through fantasmic policymaking.98 - . . 4. Santos says the drive to save “traditional debate” from the radicals justifies WESTERN COLONIZATION and EXTERMINATION of the other.

COM JAIPAUL ______________ .99 - .EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X.

EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X.COM JAIPAUL **Realism Blocks .100 - .

there is nevertheless a growing tendency. Underlying is a behaviourist model which prefers to see human action as the exclusive product of circumstances.COM JAIPAUL AT: Realism Good 2NC 1/2 1. even if this decision was made in circumstances of limited choice. yet they not only fail to combat such inequality. but the method of explanation remains the same. Santos and Foucault evidence outline that wars can ONLY be waged based on the process we are describing. Our kritik takes out the ability to engage in these wars. but the connections persist and remain unexamined. (Compare the question. this does not automatically make it an adequate or sufficient practice for political analysis. namely the agent’s decision to act as he did. 2. every polis could become a cosmopolis. But we are back at the . ‘What is considered to be part of the circumstances (and by whom)?’ Thus in the case of sexual offenders. 3. under the pressure of mainstream science and a sociological perspective which increasingly dominates our thinking. Death defines world politics because individuals wish to escape death. 1999 How. pg. individuals could finally agree upon a descralization of states. but as the actions of people in relation to other people and beings or things. an understanding which is rapidly solidifying in the scientific model of a ‘cycle of violence’. every person and action could potentially do harm to us. while a crucial factor in the present context is ignored. The ostensible aim of these arguments may be to draw attention to the pervasive and structural violence of classism and racism. But violence is not a phenomenon: it is the behavior of people. Even though we would probably not underwrite these propositions in their crass form. Intl Journal on World Peace. The Will to Violence: The Politics of Personal Behavior. Susanne Kappeler. They overlook . has analysed the preconditions of violence. that the perpetrator has decided to violate. Their focus on structural violence wholly misses the point . ‘Does pornography cause violence?’) The circumstances identified may differ according to the politics of the explainers. the turn has no impact. in particular. Louis Rene Beres. in other words. all conflicts in the 20 th century rely on this process. With such an agreement. 2-3 Violence is perceived as a phenomenon for science to research and for politics to get a grip on. to explain violent behavior by its circumstances. This card’s on fire. Consequently. Over time. It begs the question. as well as other political critiques. not just in social science. Even politically oppositional groups are not immune to this main stream sociologizing. author. and the "realism" of power struggles between states could be revealed for what it has always been. do we end these terrible wars? Most important. and teacher in England. implying in turn that circumstances virtually dictate certain forms of behaviour.if we reorient violence as a behavior then it is quite likely that we can avert realism itself. Law at Purdue. a "religious" myth.101 - . Prof of I. 4. September 1st. freelance writer. that is. No. they actively contribute to it. However. While consideration of mitigating circumstances has its rightful place in a court of law trying (and defending) an offender. the passion for "victory" would be greatly abridged. it is becoming standard to argue as if it were these power relations which cause the violence. That is. Some left groups have tried to explain men s sexual violence as the result of class oppression. What is missing is an analysis of violence as action — not just as acts of violence. the relevant factors are sought in the distant past and in other contexts of action. 3. Prefer the specificity of our evidence. there is a routine search — on the part of the tabloid press or the professionals of violence — for experiences of violence in the offender’s own past. 1995. the unequal power relations which enable it to take place. these ‘explanations’ ignore the fact that not everyone experiencing the same oppression uses violence. Although such oppression is a very real part of an agent’s life context. human action which may be analysed. upon a covenant with all other individuals to treat the political as a secular realm of unalterably mundane limits. The ironies are staggering. Our Beres. that these circumstances do not ‘cause’ violent behavior. Volume 16. ignoring the personal decision of the agent to act. and the rationale of war between states severely impaired . Our alternative solves realism and restors the value to life. Freed from their unwillingness to accept the finitude of life.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. we must first understand them as manifestations of humankind's unwillingness to accept personal death. The fear of death negates the value to life because we would constantly have to look over our shoulders. then. Feminist critique. while some Black theoreticians have explained the violence of Black men as the result of racist oppression. or the cause of its effects.

then. an "immortality in representation. meaning and potentiality.The more we reflect. but because it takes away the craving for immortality . each moment of life becomes vastly more rich in the knowledge of natural death as an occasion to "live in the spirit. perhaps... not because it adds to it an infinite span of time.. For all good and evil consists in sensation. the more we live in memory and idea. yet. he counsels: Become accustomed to the belief that death is nothing to us. one that "quickens his numbered moments with a vision of what never dies. the truth of mortality. In his letter to Menoeceus.. How may we be instructed to accept our own personal mortality? Epicurus had an answer. above mortality. More than two thousand years later. says Santayana." an opportunity to accept By accepting death. As it is memory that makes mortality an incontestable truth. without our knowing it." .EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X.. each individual may experience an authentic notion of immortality. Detached from the falsehood that existence can conquer temporality.COM JAIPAUL beginning. Santayana settled upon similar conclusions: In endowing us with memory." joy. And therefore a right understanding that death is nothing to us makes the mortality of life enjoyable. the more convinced and penetrated we shall be by the experience of death. this very conviction and experience will have raised us.102 - . in a way. nature has revealed to us a truth utterly unimaginable to the unreflective creation. so it is also memory that opens to us all an ideal immortaliy. but death is deprivation of sensation. the truth of those moments and their inalienable values.

their argument assumes some kind of political or policy action in order to merit and impact.COM JAIPAUL AT: Realism Good 2NC 2/2 5. . There’s no link. Santos says the belief that there is no alternative to realism forms the basis for genocidal fascism. If we win the framework debate it become a non-issue because it is not a representation we employ ie it requires policy level action to have an impact. In a world of our alternative. They just won’t wage wars.103 - . Our alternative is not to abandon the state. states would still exist and would be able to pursue their own interests. 6.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. Cycles of violence and exploitation are perpetuated in the name of their inevitability – the ultimate conclusion to the negative’s logic is the suicidal destruction of the world.

our evidence is more on point than there’s. they haven’t got a single answer to this evidence.104 - . Our alternative transforms realism. Negates the value to life. Extend our Beres evidence from the 2NC. all conflicts in the 20 th century rely on this process. Extend Santos- a) Their argument is what allows for genocidal fascism to be perpetuated through the belief in its inevitability. Reorienting behavior averts the bad parts of realism.here is where we’ll win.COM JAIPAUL AT: Realism Good 2NR Our Kappeler evidence is DAMNING for them.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X.it indicates that violence is personal rather than institutional and realism and any other structural institution cannot force people to fight. They concede our alternative doesn’t abandon the state. The status quo realism makes life meaningless. Beres says that only when we abandon our fear of death. States can still exist and would be able to pursue their own interests. justifies state-sanctioned cruelty and destruction of the other to save oneself. (If you have time. . can we build bridges of understanding that make the realist power struggles between states unnecessary. YOU GOT NOTHIN. b) Also realism forms the basis for neo-liberal violence. They concede wars can ONLY be waged based on the process we are describing. read the rest) Additionally. just not wage wars. Our kritik takes out the ability to engage in these wars.

they wouldn’t be a threat.51 That security might be. material conditions that help to create particular interpretations of threats. It [sic] is not a thing that exists independently of those to whom it may become a threat. In insurance. pg. the category of risk is a category of the understanding. Professor of Politics at UC Santa Cruz. but their targeting is a function of what we imagine their possessors might do to us (I return to this point in chapter 4). Nothing is intrinsically more dangerous for insurance technology than anything else. 2. Also we’ll win that even if threats were real. We’re not running threat construction. As Kant might have put it.105 - . considers the event. “Nothing is a risk in itself. But enemies often imagine their Others into being.COM JAIPAUL AT: Threats Are Real 1. or unproblematic relation to the action or event from which it is said to derive. threats to each other acquire a material character. but a specific mode of treatment of certain events capable of happening to a group of individuals. This is interesting. There is no objective condition of danger David Campbell. 1-2 Danger is not an objective condition. .. 1998. their relationship is intersubjective. consider the manner in which the insurance industry assesses risk. No interpretation is universally true Ronnie D Lipschutz. 3. nuclear-tipped ICBMs are not mere figments of our imagination. according to this logic. but rather the operation of a schema of rationality distinguished by the calculus of probabilities. or that such conditions are irrelevant to either the creation or undermining of the assumptions underlying security policy. therefore. it cannot be given in sensibility or intuition.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. socially constructed does not mean that there are not to be found real. there is no risk in reality But on the other hand. anything can be a risk. more accurately. In other words. professor of international politics at the university of Newcastle. it all depends on how one analyzes the danger. Writing Security. To illustrate this.”2 In these terms. via the projections of their worst fears onto the Other (as the United States did with Japan in the late 1980s and with China in the 1990s).but irrelevant. necessary. danger (or. if you didn’t fear them. Danger bears no essential. insurance is a technology of risk the principal function of which is not compensation or reparation. To the extent that each acts on these projections. danger is an effect of interpretation. for the technology of risk in insurance. After Authority 20 00 p.” In other words. In this respect. . In Francois Ewald’s formulation. Danger is not an objective condition. risk) is “neither an event nor a general kind of event occurring in reality. except when interpreted as such.

COM JAIPAUL .106 - .EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X.

107 - .COM JAIPAUL _____________ .EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X.

COM JAIPAUL **Theory Blocks .108 - .EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X.

4.COM JAIPAUL AT: Performative Contradiction – Other Positions 1. This answers their multiple contradictory worlds and strategic skew arguments. rejecting the disad doesn’t mean we lose.109 - . 2. We only advocate ONE gateway argument off ONE link. it just proves we gave you extra ground and you failed to use it strategically. If your performative contradiction argument is true. or conceded the other position didn’t link to the kritik and impact turned it. not for the team that read it.we cant say that the affs impact calculus is both death good and death bad and ctiticize both. but rejecting the case means you do lose. No impact to contradiction. These gateway arguments NEED to be conditional statements—otherwise these types of arguments wouldn’t be read because the time trade off isn’t fair between the aff and the neg. If you grant us the disad. then the kritik links to both equally and you vote negative on presumption. . 3.This is the definition of a gateway argument: the aff has to prove their impact calculus is a good one before we can continue. and then link turned the K. If you think it is a double turn. concede one of the two and see if you win. this is merely a critical disad with an alternative – don’t hold us to a higher standard than you would a counterplan with politics net benefit. If we win the impact to the K we win it’s educational to debate it. then the judge rejects the disad along with the Aff case. 5. There is no abuse – you could’ve just cross-applied our kritik to the position you think it linked to. Vote for the alternative. This only means we can’t go for both in the 2NR. 6. Unfortunately for you. there is zero impact to our performance being tainted. We aren’t performing anything. If you grant us the kritik.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X.

because it is specific to state action in the name of preventing death. Our Harmon evidence indicates that this allows us to engage in a rational discourse about death. You obviously weren’t paying much attention to the 1NC. Using death prevention as a justification for state action creates a framework that makes perpetual war inevitable. . The Beres evidence is still a net benefit to the alternative.COM JAIPAUL AT: Performative Contradiction – Kritik’s Impact is Death 1. In the presentation of the 1AC. We don’t think that death is a good thing – that’d be asinine. C. Our Weeks and Maurel evidence indicates that this desire occurs due to a phobic overreaction to death’s passivity.110 - . on the other hand.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. the Affirmative felt compelled to speak out about the necessity of preserving life. B. where we can act to avoid nuclear war without repressing death’s inevitability. it isn’t a reason to reject us. Even if they win that both teams link to the Weeks and Maurel evidence equally. 2. We don’t have to win that no evidence we read links to our alternative – just that it is preferable to the plan. You wouldn’t reject a counterplan with a politics net benefit because it linked to federalism as much as the plan. The negative. accepts death’s inevitability and confronts the repression.

Under our framework for the round. The alternative is not a PIK. We aren’t advocating your plan – we just think it’s irrelevant. The net benefit i. PIKS are Sweet A. You said preserving death was good for a reason.EVAZON FEAR OF DEATH KRITIK CROSS-X. Our framework for the round is that only justifications are important. so obviously plan good arguments aren’t offense for you.we don’t rely on the PIC to win the round. 2. then we can not possibly claim your plan as offense. And there’s literature on the net benefit. . and we’ll stick to it throughout the whole round. If you somehow let them pin us with this.COM JAIPAUL AT: PIKs Bad 1. which proves that it’s predictable and viable. critical questions will almost never be examined. right? Defend it! B. the judge doesn’t decide based on whose plan is better. which is fiat. Ground – The aff gets the entirety of their defense of the 1AC advantages as offense against us. our criticism impact turns your affirmative. which makes all of our fiat good answers offense. We can concede the endpoint of the plan but criticize the way that you get there. We have a text that advocates NONE of your plan.111 - .e. C. If you win your framework for the round. Education – If the aff gets to use the plan as offense. And it is legitimate.