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WWW.IRANMEET.COM CHECK YOUR ENGLISH VOCABULARY FOR OEE. by Rawdon Wyatt THIRD EDITION A&C Black * London “COM won First edition published in Great Britain 2002, Second edition published in 2008 This third ecition publishes in 2007 A&C Black Publishers Lic 38 Soho Square, London W1D 3H. @ Ravicon Wyatt 2007 All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form without the permission of the publishers, A.CIP entry for this book is available from the British Libary. ISBN-10: 07136 8474 3 Is8N-13: 978 0.7136 84148 eISBN-13: 978-1-4081-0235-0 Text typeset by A & C Black Printed in Great Britain at Caligraving Ltd, Thetford, Norfolk Tis books produces using paar thats made from wood grown in managed, sustainable ores ts natural renewable snd "ecjlble. The logging and manufacturing processes conform tthe eraonmentareguletons othe county of rh WW.IRANMEET.COM Introduction Introduction If you are going to take the TOEFL®, you will find the vocabulary exercises in this workbook very heloful. They will help you to review, practice and acquire a lot of the words and expressions that you might need to use in the Writing and Speaking sections, or that you might come across or be tested on in the Listening and Reading sections. A greater command of vocabulary is one of the key factors that will help you raise your TOEFL® score Structure of the workbook The workoo0X is divided into 2 sections. The first section deals with general vecabulary, including synonyms, idioms and phrasal verbs. The second, smaller section is topic-specific, and focuses cn some of the topics that regularly appear in the TOEFL®. Each topic is accompanied by a typical TOEFL® Writing question; which will give you the chance to use the key vocatulary in an essay. There is a comprehensive answer key at the back of the book How to use the book You should not go through the exercises mechanically. It is better to choose areas that you 2re unfamiliar with, or areas that you feel are of specific interest or importance to yourself Remember that you should keep a record of new words and expressions that you learn, and review these trom time to time so that they become an active part of your vocabulary. There is a vocabulary record sheet at the back of the book which you can photocopy as many times as you like. Use this to build up your own personal vocabulary bank. It is essential to have @ good dictionary with you when you are doing the exercises, For basic vocabulary, we recommend the American English Study Dictionary (|S8N 978 1 9016 5969 6). For a more advanced and in-depth coverage of vocabulary, the Macmillan English Dictionary (ISBN 978 1 4050 2628 4), from which many of the samp e sentences in this book are taken, is ideal. Extending your vocabulary Also remember that there are other methods of acquiring new vocabulary. For exemple, you should read as much as possible from a different variety of authentic reading materials (books, newspapers, magazines, etc). Practicing for the TOEFL There is a lot of TOEFL material available, but we particularly recommend Barron's TOEFL IBT (ISBN 978 0 7641 3374 9), which provides comprehensive practice for all sections of the exam, as well as offering essential language skills development and useful studying strategies. It also gives lots of vital information on the test itself and how it works, The book has been written for the Internet-based TOEFL, but is also useful if you are going to take the older, standard computer-oased TOEFL. uol}2NpowU| WWI, Z IEET.COM Information about the TOEFL? The purpose of the TOEFL is to evaluate a non-native English speeker's proficiency in the English language. Almost one milion students every year from 180 countries register to take the TOEFL®: the majority of universities and colleges in North America as well as in other English-speaking countries require official TOEFL® score reports for admission. The testis also used by institutions in other countries where English is the language of instruction. in addition, government agencies, scholarship programs and licensing / Certification agencies use TOEFL® scores to evaluate English proficiency. An acceptable score depends on the articular institution or agency involved, About the Check your English Vocabulary series ‘Check your English Vocabulary for TOEFL® is one of several books in the Check your English Vocabulary series. These books are designed to helo students of English (and those who are working or who want to work in an English-speaking environment) to develop and practice the essential vocabulary that they would need to know or use on a day-to-day basis, or in order to get a'better grade in an exam. ‘There are currently 16 books in the series: Check your Vocabulary for Academic English Check your English Vocabulary tor TOEFL® Check your English Vocabulary for TOEIC Check your English Vocabulary for IELTS Check your English Vocabulary for FCE+ Check your Vocabulary for English for the PET Examination Check your English Vocabulary for Phrasal Verbs and Idioms Check your English Vocabulary for Business and Administration Check your English Vocabulary for Law Check your English Vocabulary for Medicine Check your English Vocabulary for Computers and Information Technology Check your English Vocabulary for Leisure, Travel and Tourism Check your English Vocabulary for Human Resources Check your English Vocabulary for Banking and Finance Check your English Vocabulary for Living in the UK Check your Vocabulary for Natural English Collocation For more information, visit WWW.IRANMEET.COM oO Contents ° a g Page Title Page Title zt 4. Addition, equation, and conclusion 60. Spelling 5 “American” English 61. Starting and stopping 8. Charges 63. Task commands 10. Comparing and contrasting 65. Time 1 Condition and requirement 67. — Word association: Adjectives 12. Confusing words and false friends 69. Word association: Nouns 15. Idioms and colloquialisms 1 72. Word association: Verbs 17. Idioms and colloquialisms 2 7. Word forms: Nouns from verbs 19, Idioms and colloquialisms 3 77. Word forms: Nouns from adjectives 21 Idioms and colloquialisms 4 79. Word forms: Adjectives from verbs 23. Metaphors: 80. “Working* words 26. Numbers and symbols 82. Topics 1: Children and the family 27. Obligation and option 84. Topics 2: Education 28. Opinion, attitude, and belief 86. Topics 3: Food and diet 31 Oppesites: Verbs 88. Topics 4: The media 34, Opposites: Adjectives 90. Topics 5: Money and finance mw. Phrasal verbs 1 93. Topics 6: Nature and the 38. Phrasal verbs 2 environment 40. Phrasal verbs 3 ‘95. Topics 7: On the road 43. Prefixes 97. Topics 8: Science and technology 45. Presenting an argument 98, Topics 9: Town and country 47. Proncuns and determiners 101. Topics 10: Travel 43. Similar meanings: Adjectives 1 103. Topics 11: Work 50. Similar meanings: Adjectives 2 105. Mini topics 51. Similar meanings: Nouns 110. Vocabulary record sheet 53. Similar meanings: Veros 1 111. Vocabulary record sheet sample 57. Similar meanings: Verbs 2 112. Answers 3 General Vocabulary WWW.IRANMEET Addition, equation, and conclusion This exercise will help you to review more of the important words that we use to join ideas in an essay, a verbal presentation or sometimes in everyday speech Exercise Put the following words and expressions into their correct place in the table depending on their function. & tosumup briefly + alongwith + aswellas » ‘it can be concluded thet likewise similarly + aso + 100 + sinaddition + besides + 4-10 conclude inbrief + —in the semeway * thus ** what'smore + » furthermore s moreover * ~ alongwith + “to summarize + therefore * correspondingly Addition » Equation — anclusion example: arch (For example: equal) (For example: in conctasion) Exercise 2 Complete these sentences with one of the words or exoressions from above. In most cases, more ‘than one answer is possible. 1, Tourism brings much needed money 10 developing countries. ‘employment for the local population Ik provides 2 bringing much needed money to developing countries, tourism provides employment forthe local populaticn, 3. Tourists should respect the local environment, customs, they should respect the local incustrial waste, pollution from car fumes is poisoning the environment. 5. Inorder to travel, you need a passport shots, and written permission to visit certain areas, you might need a vise, immunization 6. Drugs are banned in Britain. ‘weapons such as guns and knives. 7. All power corrupts, absolute power corrupts absolutely. 8. You shoulda’t smoke, drink, take drugs, or eat unhealthy food. . you should lve a more healthy lifestyle, 8. The ozone layer is becoming depleted, the ar in the cites is becoming 100 dirty to breathe, and our ‘8825 and rivers are no longer safe to swim in, pollution is slowly destraying the planet, 10. Your grades have been very poor all year. Yyu need to work really hard if you want 10 pass your exams next month, WWW.IRANMEET.COM American English This exercise looks at some common “American” words (words which are used in the U.S.A. and Canada). You might find it useful if you have been learning “British” English (the English which is spoken in the United Kingdom and in other countries around the world). Generally, “American” words are understood by “British” English speakers (largely as a result of imported television programs and movies), but many North Americans are unfamiliar with some “British” English words. ‘AS result, it important to use the “American” words rather than the “British” words in the TOEFL. Look at the sentences below, which all contain a “British” English word in bold. Decide what word North Americans would normally use in the same context. In some cases, the word will remain the same, but there will be a difference in spelling, Write your answers in the crossword grid on page 7. To help you, the word that you need has been put at the end of each sentence, with most of the letters removed, but with some of the letters included. Across (0) 2. The pleyis in two acts, with a short interval between the two, 1_T _-eN 6 IF you make @ mistake in your calculations, you'll need to do them again. _V__ 8 The post normally arrives before lunchtime. ‘The government refused to recognise the new republic 11, The theatre received an unexected grant which helped to prevent it losing down. _ = 13. The rous outside the school is very busy, so students are avised to use the subway in crs it 16. The olcrisis resulted in 2 28% rise in the cost of petrol. __S 18, Takerthe lift xo the top floor. 20, Estate agents are some of the most unscrupulous people in the country. 24. The N40 is closed, so you will need to take the A40, which is the main road connecting London. with Oord. HW 26, Their request for @ $2 rise in the hourly rate was firmly rejected by the management, 27. The werkshop wil ast for § hours, with a break for lunch at midday. _€ 29, Unions realy ike Mr. Golaberg, He's great bloke. 30. tAra seroo, colege, or univeip) A staff meeting hasbeen called fortwo o'clock. 32. In mycpinion, the best time of the years autumn. __L 35. The automobile company’s fist attempt to design a family saloon that can on diesel was @ resounting faire, __D_N 36, The campushas a shop where students can buy stationery and essential tems. 37. Government spending on defence was reduced by 23%, Asejnqesoj jesauan General Vocabulary (m» 38: He gave me just enough money to buy a retum bus ticket to Portland. R_ (2 words which oe hyphenated Do no ieavea gep or use a hyahen inthe eressword oi) 40, He's a graduate of Berkeley College, MNL_ 41. These days is not unusual to see children as young as five carving @ mobile phone to school Down (>) 1. The posteode for the company is MA04532. 1 _ (2 word: do no leave @ gap between the words in the Gosswore gid) 3. Classes start at nine o'clock every moming Mondsy to Friday. T_R____ 4 There are several museums and galeries in the cy, but most students prefer to spend ther evenings at the cinema, vieL 5. Have you got any change for a $20 note? 7.* Strict labour laws have had an adverse effect on small businesses, f 10. Im afraid we've got slightly behind schedule. __TT_. 12. Several flats were leased to private agencies, who in tuin leased them to small companies. 14, 15. The Dean's office is on the ground floor. 17. The first thing the council did was cig up the pavement outside the front door 2 19. My favorite film of alltime has to be the classic 1958 comedy ‘Some Like it Hot 21. The best way to get from one part of the city to another isto use the dual carriageway. Ewe 22. (On the tlenhone, when you are cating someone) Hello, is that Harrison Keane? 23. In the event of a marital divorce or separation, there is a clear need for dialogue between the parents end thei children, A 25, if you want to stop smoking, the best place to starts by going to your local chemist D__G__ 28. Services on the underground start zt five in the morning and finish at half past midnight obey 31. Before buying a house, itis essential to employ the services of a good solicitor. TT _____ 33. You should use @ pencil todo the test, and use a rubber to remove any mistakes. 34, Most Americans tend to stay in the country for their holiday. V___T___ 38. You don't need to ask me for permission to use the toilet! 3 WWW.IRANMEET.COM a 8 8 ic 2 mG | |e 5 s g z 8 : , & . = = ; TTT 2 — o 5 . SEE : g General Vocabulary Changes Exercise 1 Look at these sentences and decide if th fe statement which follows each one is true or false. Use the words and expressions in bold to help you decide. 1 1s, 16. 20, The population of she country has treble inthe ast 25 yeas, ‘There hos been 2 dramatic increas in the number of peo fig nthe county. unemployment hes cropped by about 29% every yer forthe lst si year, ‘There has been a steady decrease inthe number of pevcle aut of neve ‘The government has spent 3 lt of money improving 1036s around the courtly. There has been a deterioration in tne national road system ‘The numberof exem gasses achieved by the schoo’ pupils has risen by almost $0%, There has been 2 decline im the number of exam passes ‘American travelers abroad have discovered t There hes been a weakening of the dol. hey can buy more foreign cuercy with thet dole, Its pow much easier 0 impor goods inte the county than twas a few years ago. There has been a tightening up of border controls We're increasing our stocks of coal before the winter beoins, We're running down our stocks of coal Prices have gone up by about 4% every yer since 1998. There hes been 2 constant rise inthe rate of inflaton, The pass ate for the exam was 3% lower this yeer than it was last yes, There has been 2 sharp fal inthe poss ate. ‘The allance are going to reduce the numberof conventional weapons in ther stmed forces The aliance are going to build up the number of weepors they have. Deflation has adversely affected indusvies around the county. There has been 3 growth in industrial ectinty. ‘The rules are much stricter new than they were before, There has been a relaxation ofthe rules. {est year, 12% of the population worked in industry and 10% worked in agriculture, This year, 149% of the population workin industy and 8% work in agrcuture. There has been 2 narrowing of the gap between those working in different sectors of he economy, Some management les in the company will ct exist tise neat yer. ‘Some management roles are going to be phased out. ‘Mare people are shopping a arge supermarkets rather than small local stores. There has been an upward trend in the numberof people shopeing in smo local stores Her English i leary better now than it nas when she fst artved There has been marked progress in her English People Ine in better houses, ve nicer cars, and eat higher-quality fod than they did twenty years 260. There hes been 2 general improvement in the standard of ivng, (Our company has opened nev factories in Detri, Houston, end Des Moines in the lst five yeas (Our company hes witnessed considerable expansion inthe last five years The government will spend less onthe healthcare services next yar, There are going tobe cuts in healthcare spending next year. ‘Americans nowadays want to S82 more ofthe world. ‘Americans nowadays went io narrow their horizons. WWW.IRANMEET.COM Exercise 2 The box below contains 31 more words used to describe change in different situations. These are all verbs, and they can be found by reading from left to right and from right to left, starting in the top-left corner and following the direction of the arrows. Separate these words, then use some of them to complete sentences 1 - 10 below. In some cases you will need to change the form of the verb (for exemple, by putting it into its past simple or post participle form) Sadaptrepieceexpandpy® Pater eee ese eterno ea etre arent iar Mt er vt Ree oligos cn or we a actos ell wise! arc ia ae l\feppesidemet | aeetomedeys Bare ei ygratsetlawerexnte® Sega cn se eee eeriicteg ane dg gee eae CG anette ected Hi eepaiCetchp eg ea tey cea cig taanitag! fotructdnemaesiv-verhetere BH ts ear ce dere i foram s a ae cede eet eee an eee cece Be eO a ese eo eee Meee nae scliee aries ewe 1. The company cannot refune customers’ money, and goods can only on production of & receipt or other proof of purchase. 2 We have made racical changes to college regulations, and students are exoected to 10 these over the next few weeks. 3. The discovery of ol the country from a small emirate to a major economic power. 4, The science building is currently being . ut will remain open while building work is carried out 5. After only three weeks on the History course, she decided to to something more practical 6 Fees ‘according to the length of the course: the longer the course, the more you pay. 7. Aswater freezes, it The eccnomic situation is ‘rapidly, and the entire economy is in danger of collapse 9. Course fees will be (on January 14: some will come down, but most of them will 90 up. 10. Elastic becomes weaker the more itis Alejngeso, je1auag General Vocabulary 10 Comparing and Contrasting Complete these sentences with the most appropriate word or expression in bold. In one case, all three options are possible 1 10. u 12, 3 15, The contrast / compare / comparison in working conditions between our Denver department and ut department in Chicego is very noticeable, and employees are now demanding equalty in thie area, ‘The two engines differentiate / differ / different considerably from each other: one runs on (gasdline, end the other isa gasoline-electrie hybric Its often cificult to differentiate / differ / contrast between students who are absent because they ere genuinely sick, and those who are just enjoying a day in bed ‘The new software program shered some common characters / characterizes / characteristics with those that were already on the market There's @ clesr distinguish / distinctive / distinction between studying at college and working from home on 3 correspondence course. ‘Compared / Compare / Comparing with 15 years aco, home PCs are cheaper, faster, and have s ‘much bigger memory ‘The two, courses are gifferent in every way: there's ebsolutely no compare / comparison / contrast between them. (Our digital photography course is similar to / alike / resemble our traditional photography course, except that itis obviously more computer-oriented There were several similarities / similarly / similar to between the two novels, except ohe wes ‘aimed at a younger market while the other targeted twenty-somethings. Serious computer hackers can access your personal files and destroy or alter them. Exactly /In the ‘same way / Just as, they can gain access to your Internet banking faciity and steal your money. ‘The quality of his work is excellent. Likewise / Alike / Likeness, his attitude and commitment. The TOEFL covers a variety of academic and general English tasks. In contrast to / Although / By way of contrast, the TOEIC focuses more on business and professional issues, Grades have not been good over the last semester. Nevertheless / Even so / However, the collage still nas one of the best academic records in the state There currently seems to be a large discrepancy / discrimination / differential between the ‘umber of peaple employed in service industries, and those employed in the primary sector. The Impressionists used light and color to give the general feeling of a scene, unlike / whereas / whereby the pre-Rephaelites used a lot of detail and bright colors, and showed a romanticized view of ite WWW.IRANMEET.COM Condition and requirement Rearrange the letters in bold to make words and expressions related to condition and requirement. The first one has been done as an example 1 u 2 14, 16. ‘a ngo sa there is sufficient demand for healthy food such as salacs and soups in the schoo! cafeteria, we will continue to provide it, (Answer = As long as) seusin | receive your assignment within the next couple of days, | will have to give you a lower grade for the course, Aleinqeso, jesauay Students may use the college computers for personal emis no incotnido atth they agree to give Up their computer if someone needs it for coursework i Everyone should get 2 good mid-term grade vogrnipid ttha they hand in all their work on time, ‘The main retncopiinsed for a heslthy economy are controlled consumer spending and low tunemployment. (Wotieon a tre alarm: ni eacs fo fire, breek glass ni het nvete fo a tie between the two teams in tonight's game, there will be a repley on ‘We agreed to sign the contract, the only sputonstili being that it would run for atleast five years ‘The teachers have nidneoslitoun trust in ther students: they know they will do their best at all times, even if things get di sumsagin hatt the fight ison time, we will meet you at LaGuardia airport at ten o'dlock, His argument was based no teh autonmsspi att people are basically decent and honest Good language skill are one of the quereesisitpr for a job in an international orgarization. Before you accept 2 job, itis important that you agree with the remst an contract \ctnsodin set out in the 1 isa nmreiretque of the college that students attend at least 95% of their course and complete all their asignments on time. Ifyou Fave a query, please telechone us at the number above. niifagl ttha, send us3 fax or email ‘We need to involve at least 20 people on this project, ehewottrs it n't go ahead. 11 General Vocabulary 12 Confusing words and false friends ‘Confusing words are two or more words which have a similar meaning to each other but are used in 2 different way. or are related to the same topic, but have a different meaning or look similar, but have a different meaning False friends are words in English which have 2 similar-looking word in another language but which have a different meaning, Complete the following sentences with the eppropriate word in bole. 1. action / activity : The police tock immediate when they realised the situation was getting out of hand. Economic __ stagnated ag the recession took hold, 2 advice / advise Can you me on the best course of action to take? He offered me some excellent 3. affect/etfect Cuts in spending will have a serious fon the healthcare services The strike will seriously ‘Wain services, 4. appreciable/ appreciative There isan difference between manslaughter and murder. She was very of our efforts to help 5. assumption / presumption They raised taxes on the that it would help control spending It's sheer for the government to suggest things have improved since they came to power. 6 avoid / prevent Rapid government reforms managed to a revolution taking place. He's always trying to taking a decision if he can helo it 7. beside / besides The office i just the railway station their regular daytime job, many people do extra workin the evening & briefly /shortly before the conflict began, the army pulled down the border posts. The senator spoke about the need for political reform. 9. channel /canal The television received a formal complaint about the program The Suez ‘was builtin the second half of the nineteenth century 10. conscientious / conscious Most people are of the need to protect the environment. ‘workers should be rewarded for ther harc work 11. continual / continuous A trade embargo has badly affected the economic infrestructure ‘The computer has given us problems ever since we installed it, WWW.IRANMEET.COM 14, 18 6 7 18 19, 20 a 22, 2 24, control / inspect Environmental health officers regul kitchens and other food preparation areas, ‘The government plans to the price of meat to make sure it doesn’t go up too much criticsm(s) / objection(s) They didn't reise any when we insisted on inspecting the figures. ‘The government's plan was met with severe Arejnqes0q je1auay damage / injury / harm twas severe which needed immediate hospital reatment. Alot ef Was caused to buildings along the coast during the storm. There's a0. in taking a break from your job now and then, discover invent When did he the telephone? Did Alexancer Fleming _— penicilin? during /for / while Storeswere closed _the duration of the contlct. the transition from a dictatorship to democracy, the country experienced severe strikes and riots, The bemb went off the President was making his speech however / moreover The plan wes good in theory, The plan wes excellent success. in practice it was extremely cifficlt to implement, {wes clear from the beginning that it wes going to be & considerate / considerable He made a ‘amount of money from his datcom enterprise She's avery Person, s0 she would never intentionally upset anyone, intolerable /intolerant | consider his behavior to be quite The government is, oF other political parties, job/ work Everybody has the right 1o @ decent with good pay. Following the recession, many people are stilloaking for lay(s) iets) The city of Quito near the equator. ‘The menager made it clear Fe intended to down some strict rues. look at/ watch We must the situation in Lugumba carefully, and be prepared to act ifviolence flares again We need 10 the problem carefully and decide if there is anything we can do about it Permission / permit Fm afraid we can't photography in here. They received 10 attend the sessions as ong as they didn't interrupt. possibility / chance “There is always the that the government will reverse its decision. I we act now, we have @ good ‘of finding a cure for the diease. ral General Vocabulary 14 25, 26. 2, 28. 28. 30. 3 22, 33, 34, priceless / worthless paintings by artists like Van Gogh should not be in the hands of private collectors. Asinflation ssiraled out of control, paper money suddenly became principal(s)/ principle(s) Many people refuse 10 eat meet on The of the college is an ardent non-smoker. The county's products are paper and wood, Not many people are famiier with the of nuclear physics. process / procession The made its way cown the avenue ‘Applying for avisa can be along and frustrating. raise / rise As prices demand usually drops. in response to the current cl shortage, most airlines plan to____their fares. respectable / respectful The delegates listened in silence as the chairman spoke, ‘They want to bring up their children in an area which is considered to be treat /cure Hospitals ere so understaffed that they find it almost impossible to, patients with miner injures, They were unable to. the disease, and hundreds ied as a result subjective / objective ‘Your report should be as possible: just present the facts and try to avoid saying what you think about them. ‘The newspaper article was extremely ‘and ideas on his readership, the journalist more or less forced his own views disinterested / uninterested In order to end the cispute, we need some impartial advice from a/ an third party, | thought they would enjoy my talk, but they were completely imply /infer From what you just said, can | ‘that you think I'm interfering? {didn't mean 10 ‘that you were interfering, | merely said that | needed a bit of time 10 myset complimentary / complementary In.western societies, acupuncture and hypnosis are seen as____medicines, All new students will receive 2 study pack and dictionary. WWW.IRANMEET.COM Idioms and colloquialisms 1 Idioms and colloguialisms (spoken expressions) are a common feature of the TOEFL Listening Comprehension. There are a lot of them, and each one has to be learnt individually. Often, but not ‘ahways, its possible to identify the meaning of an idiom or a colloguialism from the context in which iti being used The idioms and colloquialisms exercises in this book focus on some of the most commonly-used expressions Exercise 1 Complete the dialogs with an expressioy Auejngeso, jesauay mn the box. coulen't agree more, © Icoudh't careless. really dont mind. i's upto you ] Idoes nothing forme. * Letmesleeponit, + Never mind. ttcan’t be helped No way! Nota chance! + You've got to be kidding!» Why not? Go for it! Wow! Way to got + Youshould really get alife. » You're welcome, but it was nothing relly 1A. Shallwe eat out or do you wart me to cack something? 5 A. OK that case, ers eat Out 2. A. The economic seminar has been canceled yet again 8 ‘im altad not. Professor Parkhill sure seems tobe absent alot these days (ur history lessons are really boring aren't they, Fight: Perhaps we shouldn' have chosen i as an option. "We're going to Mo's bar tonighn, Want to come? Come on, don't be ike that! Wlbe fun | eed 2 decision a soon a8 posible pep ‘Wall to be Honest, Fd rather you told me row. 6 A. Are you intrest in scence? . A We rather. Ting realy bong 7. spent most ofthe weekend lying in bed and watching Tv. 8 |. Tinga You're not the fst person to say that. if you don't work harder, youl fal your exams, ‘8 Wall you should. Your whole future might depend on them, "ve gassed all my exams ~ grade A's all round! Do yeu think I should spply tothe University of West Virginia? ‘light, rw, Thanks, 11. A. Than you so much forall your helo. | could 8 A. No, ally, really appreciate ft have done it without you. ‘A tm cell sorry that lost your dictionary. ®. A. Nevatheless, | promise to replace WWW.IRAN Exercise 2 Instructions as above. / Letmelendahend. © How'sit going? + How should knew? ''m a bitties up for the te being, © rm going to give itall ve got, Ist ary wonder? Oh rmuseatoR, © Sure Whynow? * Whatacregl + Whatdoyou havele ming? Youbet! * You're out of luck. | General Vocabulary A. Cen have 2 look a your essay to get a few ideas? 8 ‘A, Thanks. do the same for you nen time 2 A.'m working really hard for my exam atthe moment. 5 eiesitinciets ‘A. Oh, nat bad. fail confident of passing, 3. A Where's ura today? 8, A. Don't be like that. | was only asking 4° A Weneed to finish this asignment by Monday, There goes our weekend, A. Hknou, but weil make up frit next weekend. 5. A. Want 10 come to the concert tonight? 8 A. That’ great go and get us some tikes. 6 A Do you thing you'l pass your exems? 8. ‘A That's the spit! Wel, goed luck 7. A Do you find it dificult geting up a 6 o'clock every morning? A. suppose you must be. You've Been doing it for so long 8. A We're thinking of coing something to celebrate the end of the semester. ‘A Vr rotsure, realy, Peibaps a Barbecue, or something like thet. 9. A. Are there any tickets lft for tonight's show? ‘A. thought s0. Oh wel, never mind 10. A. haveto get the hal 0y for toright's lec. A That's relly kind of you, 11,1 was wondering if you could help me with my assignment. ‘A. Yes, thought you might be a Bit busy ight now. oar Sarah failed to get a good grade in her TOEFL once again Right. She never seems to do any preparation fori. pep 16 - WWW.IRANMEET.COM Idioms and colloquialisms 2 Exercise 1 Complete these dialogs with an appropriate expression from the box. Alle bid told me, = Bemy guest.» Frea I'mhaving second thoughts, + I'm keeping my fin Now you're taking! * Ratheryou than me. © That'lbe the day! « ‘Who let the cat out of the 229? Velbe eladto 1 My ips are sedi. 5 tee you! 12, ‘A. Would you mind looking after my bag while 1 go to the rest com? 8 ciiecerees beeeebiain ‘A.D0 you mind sithere? @ see eeeeaaeias ‘A. How do you know the test has been cancelee? BEE |A.1'd be cell gratetulf you did't tell anyone aboutit 8 eee A. Do you thnk you'l pass the exam? 8 seb SESS ‘A. ve signed up for extra sociology classes with Professor Dulmen, 6 a got some relly interesting news 8. See eee ‘A. You don't want to work tonight? OK, le's go tothe theater instead, 8 maRianeeniiins thn ght yu mre gsing to apply for a place on th A. | promise to work herder from now on A. | hear that you're going to throw a sure party fr my birthday. 8. eae eee eee A. ve jst eaten six hot dogs, and now Ive gota terible stomach ache, 5 xercise 2 Instructions as above, Congrawlations. “= Couldn't be betier, » Holden. > TWlovete. > Thanks. Wake yourself athome. ¢ Therame doesn't ring any bela, © ‘Yes. Take care and keee in touch, A leant atford i go tothe concert tonight. 8 ea EL EEE ES ‘A. Ive managed to get a place on the Advanced Stuces program, 8 eee eer eee ‘A. Would you lke 1 come 10 Gino's tonight? 6. yOu very much forall our hele ee eee ener EEE ‘A. Oh wow! What 2 orezt room. t's wondertl a eee eee CeCe cory oF Knweige course 1d rather you didn Oh, that's toobed. + Oh, thisisonme. * Sure, couch wood. You're wekeme, Areingedoq jesauay 17 General Vocabulary +18 6 A. We'd better leave now ~ ur tain leaves in hal A. Rs been rice seeing you again, Let's get together fe eea eee etc Ee ccee Eee 8 AH, Tom, How are you? 8 ee 9. A. Doyou mind if smeke in here? 0. ALI did't do 100 wellin the end of semester exams. 8 eee 1. A Have you ever heatd of the Oanwin Awards? 8 ‘A Do you think you'll do well in tomorrow's test? Instructions as above. (“teen = keipigr « aang ween SWS: eee ee SelguenyareOmteseusgolt C Siig tae steele ne Wok net toyouncle” Wl ate Wy. Dor Eye ‘Aim about halfway through my esa 8 ‘A thought the lecture on the Declaration of Independence was great. Did you enjoy i? 6 3. A Snake i considered a delicacy in some countries. Would you ever consider eating i? 5 4. = A. Professor de Gruchy has extended the deacline for our essays to Thutsday, so you don't need ta worry about ot finishing ton time 8 5. A Did you know that our economics teacher has left the questions for tomorrow's test ving on his desk? 6. 6. A. Could you give me abit of help with ths assignment? eee 7. -ACenicomein? eee eee 8. A. Lhave so much to do by Monday; two essays to write, @ presentation to prepare, and | have 10 do some: research ca the history of the UN, e 3. Am 3 depressed, That's the third time Ive failed my divers test, e 10. Am off to Niagara Falls forthe weekend, See you Monday. 5 ‘A. forgot my boytieng's birthday last week 8 12. A, Aaachocoocoo0! 8 WWW.IRANMEET.COM Idioms and colloquialisms 3 Connect the first part of each sentence in the first box on this page with the second half in the ‘second box on the next page. Use the expressions in bold to help you make the connection. 7 p 2, 2 26 25 26 if you come late, could you please let me. | was rather unhappy when she made a. The project was more or | Just need to complete this essay, and then my coursework will be over once and. His lectures ae generally really dul, ut once in "ve never been too. There 7€ parts ofthe course which are a bt boring, but on the. Don't ry 10 co everything at once. Try to do things step by There'sa chance that sooner or. When you first start anew job, it can take @ while fo learn the. | know you have a lot of work, but look on the bright ‘The President can't in his right You shouldn't go over his You've kidding. You're pulling my. Ie can be difficult to make ends. Try to make the most of your, | asked Ron to get the computer fixed, and he promised to take. | understand the theory, but | get mixed. Don't worry about the exam. Just give it "Ym not sure whether to take a vacation this summer. Il decide one way or. | wasn’t sure whether 10 apply fora Ph.O. course, but in the end | decided to go. | got a grade A for my first assignment of the year. That's a good. For years he was ignored, then all at Many geople believe that it’s about. Ive changed. He had some excellent plans, but they never really got off, Areingero, jeiauay 19 General Vocabulary 20 8. athe ground sawed eat gon |». ep unt youre rhe |). -auphen 1 to dete paper ar ofan heres cpp neg. My nnd about tering esr Mavs ese Wor ian ee whathpgens #.” tert stadens wl demand soe al ge |. "ropes and become familiar with the way things work. bad and mat our own dc, |s. point of ening me abou my previous rae lu. Know in advance. i time when you're in New York. Wat lea you wor et bred sweeten Yin ote money snes neato |2 ane, lesan jing tention what hha WWW.IRANMEET.COM Exercise 1 Choose the correct underlined word to complete each of the idioms in bold, The meaning of each idiom is in breckets after the sentence. 1 R 3 15, 16 "7 18, Idioms and colloquialisms 4 You shovlcn't try to burn the match / lighter / candle at both ends; you'll exhaust yourself. (to get op zal jn the merning and 90 t0 bed late at night ona regular bass) Once he started looking into the details. he realized what a can of worms / beans/ beer they ‘were opening. (2 citficut and com situation) Alejnqesoa je1auay It was dificult Gecision, but he decided to take the goat / cow / bull by the horns and tell his boss that he wanted to leave the company, (to deal bravely or confidently with adil situation) Some insurence companies mal services. (to pay s ot of money) heir customers pay through the ears / rose / mouth for their He knew that what they were doing was wrong, but turned a blind / closed / cole eye to it. (10 pretend not to notice, 10 ignore) Many people like to get off the beaten road / path / track when they take 8 vacation, Gomeunere quit, wnere not a lt of opie oo) If you'te pressed / crushed / squeezed for time, we can talk later (busy, ina hurry) lve been feeling a bit under the thumb / weather / table recently, but I'm feeling better now, (slighty sick) He's 2 rathar boring person, but once in @ blue /red / grees muon, he'll come out with something really amazing. very rae) I'm afraid your request is out of the answer / statement / question. (not posible, noccentable) He gave us some information that was strictly off the books / record / list. (unofic, to be kept secret) We don't want to lose land / ground / place in the baseball competition. (to become less success then the others) Let's have a party at the beginning of the year. it will help to break the ice / mold Fair. (io mate _Beople ‘eel more friendly and wing t0 tek To each other) Everybody should say exactly how they feel, That should clear the room / air / feelings, (to help end an argument or cisagreement) I's very rude to talk shop work J jobs when you're out with other people (to eisciss your jb with 2 coworker, usualy in a socal station where shee ae others present) Don't let him stop you; stand your land / place / ground and tell him you won't change your ‘mind. to refuse to change your mind about something, even when people oppose you) | only just passed my exam. It was a very farJ close / exact thing. (something almost id or didn't hopper! ‘What's happened? Put me in the picture / story / scene. (to let somebody know winet has nappenes, usualy when other people already know) : 21 General Vocabulary 22 Fxercice 2 Instructions as above. 1 10. n 12 1B 14, 18, ‘You've really made a name / title / place for yourself, haven't you? (to become wellknown, famous and or respected) Have you seen his house? It's out of this pl sarth J world. (extremely good, wonderful etc) He knew | wes friendly with his boss, and asked me to pull a few legs / strings / ropes for him (Go use your iniuence with somebody in order to get something) Donna played / did / went hooky again today; that’s the third lecure she's missed this week, (to miss 3 lesson, cass, et, for no good reese) My bank account's in the black / red / pink again, (to owe money to the bank because you've spent 20 much) ''ve completed three out of my five essays already. So far, so good /fine / acceptable. (until now, everrting is going well I'm realy angry with Jery. I's time | had it in / out / over with him. (to tel somebody you are angry with them, and explain why) his theories broke fresh earth / ground / land and changed the way people thought about science. (0 d0 something orignal or innovative) He seid thet he had missed his lecture because he had to visit a sick relative, but rdon’t really think he was on the alt ground / level. (being honest and teling the truth) It wasn’t my fault! Why am | always the one to carry the can / tin / box? (being the person who is considered responsible for something that has gone wrong) University life can seem strange at fist, but my advice is to go with the snow/ fl and see what happens. (to do wins seems the easiest thing in apariculo situation) | thought my last essay was really good, so old Professor Clack realy rained on my show / ‘carnival / parade when he told me he thought it was terrible. (1 spol something or make it much less enjoyable) The Dean has told me that unless! turn over a new leaf / book / paper. | might be asked to leave 1 cOUrSe. (to change your life by starting 1 be a better person or stopping 8 bed Mobi) ‘There are some good restaurants nearby thet won't bankrupt / break / rob the bank. (not expensive) | con't talk to you now, I'm afraid. 'm running / walking / jumping 2 bit late. (to be slightly later than normal) He con be e bit unfriendly, but by and big /larae / huge he's OK. (generally) Allright, everyone. We've achieved a lot in the last hour oF $0, Let's take three / four / five. (to have a short break) | don't know execily what he's up to, but my fifth / sixth / seventh sense tes me he trying to get ‘out of doing his assignment. (a secia/ abit to feel things that you cannot see hear, touch, smell or taste) WWW.IRANMEET.COM o Metaphor 2 3 A metaphor is a word or phrase that means one thing and is used to refer to another thing in order o 1 emphasize their similar qualities. For ‘example, in the sentence “Picasso wes the father of the es uit movement. te word father isnot use nis sual serse ‘0 mean someone'smelepoent tS ‘means that Pcasso was the person who started the Cubist movement, or that he was the first one 8 10 do it successfully. Father is being used in a metaphorical way. Metaphors are a bitlike idioms (see > ages 15 — 22), Because the words and expressions are not being used with their literal meaning, e 5 ‘The following exercises look at some common metaphors thet are used in different situations. < i 1s ideas. and theavies Metaphorcely actieverens, dees, and theories are often seen as buldings, with an idea or the process of achieving something being similar to the process of building, and the failure of something Being similar to the destruction of a building. Metapnorcaly ideas ae also lies plows ang developing an idea is ke geting plants to grow Compete sentences ~20 with a word or expresion from the box. n several cafes you wil need to change the form of the words. The first one has been done for you. 1 drcttect bein buildon buidup buives colapte constuct” epvoona demelsh efce fenie ttl groundbreaking lay the foundations eine | sow the seeds ser fom take root towering under constuction | 1. The newspaper ate trestened the whcle dice of govenment. rom he Presiden a the way down ogres palicans 2. The company directors were convinced people would want their new rod, but then erly ‘esarth and negate feedbeck began to of doubt inter minds 3. Hs argument was earetly and was extemal dificult dspute 4 Heras were careful _ 2 2 series of resus showing that they ha ean put ino practice and actualy word 5. Supetstous betes are in many eres, and nothing con change these beets 6 Wewasth cet ofthe county's new economic pte % —heseegovenmen for aia changes othe voting system allt which would be implemented over he not eyes 8 Theimamtion ofthe misoehip was a achievement 3. Thecontactaced asa for future cooperation beeen the two egnisions 10, The busines was started in 1986, and oer he net 20 years was into ane of he Imes poverulcomparisin the county 11. Thenew consthon ws "ations values anda deste for prose 12, Thewebsteis but we hope to ave up and running by the end of he month : 23. General Vocabulary 24 13, The idea seemed good in theory, but when practical tests were frst carried out 14. The new technology was revolutionary and but was initially seen as a simple novelty 15. His life's work was in . Dutt did not deter him from starting again, 16. | put forward several ideas, but to my anger and cisappointment each one wes comprehensively by the board, 17. His books were very popular because he had 2 imagination and a talent for teling 2 00d story 18, Nobody believes him at frst, Out a series of unexplained events meant that his ideas quickly and people were more prepared to listen to him. 19. Her ideas her belief in the existence of ife on other planets. 20. The discussion was vey and we all came away from it believing that at last we were going to achieve something worthwhile Exercise 2: Oiher metaphor Look at sentences A, 8, and C in the following groups, and look especially at the words and expressions in bold. Then rearrange the letters in italics in the final sentence to make another word or words. The final sentence shauld then explain what the metaphors in the first three sentences are Gescribing. Note that two of the final sentences use the same word. The first one has been done as an example, 1 (A) Your point of view is indefensibie. (B) Tere was 2 ot of conflict over what to do nest. (C) The team clashed over what steps to Take nent ‘Metephorically, an muntrages ike 2 fight ora war, with people “attacking” and “defencing” (Answer = argument) (A) She was ong of the brightest students inthe cls. (B) Asa chia Einstein was believed to have 2 rather dull mind (C) She had 3 sudden flash of inspiration and Began writing down her thoughts. ‘Metaphoricall /ngceicneiltis ikea fght. The more you have, the brighter the lights (A) las woncering if could rely on your support {B) Woule you mind lending me's hand with my esignmert? (C) The government helpes to prop up the collage by offering ta financial orent "Meraphoricaly, when you sisas someone, Its ike supporting them physically (or examole, with your boc (A) He's often regarded as the greatest writer ofthe twentith century. (8) eveyone agreed that there were some weighty issues to De oscussed atthe meetin. (C) The novel received some good reviews, but many peorle thought it was raver lightweight. ‘Metephoricaly, something thats taprmotniis ike something thats big or heavy, and something that is ‘mtaprmotniais small or igh. (A) They only succeeded by using their poical muscle (B) She cid’ have the backbone to accegt his chalenge, (C)¥ know i's dificut, but you have to put your bac 0 it if you want to succees “Metaphoricaly, making an totes like using a part ef your bocy. (8) You ook confuses: let me throw some light on the matter. (@) Her work reat illuminated this aspect of the subject. (C)1don't want tobe kept in the dark, so pleese lt me know what is happening WWW.IRANMEET.COM Metephorically. when you have guiednioke about something it ‘this i ke engin darkness) is ke shining a tight on it and when you lack (a) His rew cereer opened the door to a whole new wey of ite (@) Having 8 Unversy deoree is arguably the key to succes in ite (©) Age should be no barrier to success. "Metaptoricaly, having the raitooytupn to do something is ike having 2 door or other entrance opened for you. Areinges0q jesauay (8) We unearthed some useful facts and figures, (3) Herlatest book's a goldmine of useful information, (Ci Weleft no stone unturned in our search forthe truth feteptorcaly, when you oeidra things such a facts and information, itis simile o finding hem by going (or searching inthe grouna (8) He originally set out ro become priest, but became involed in palit instead, (@) At the age of 24, things took an unexpected turn for him (C) After six years in the same job, | dacges to move on, Metaphoricaly, aie er reecer paths like 3 journey (a) They put alot of pressure on him to make change his mind, (8) The country was dragged celuctanty into war (C)1"m sony to press you for an answer, but we need to know your plans ‘Metaphoricly, when you ecto someone to do something, tis ke putting physical pressure on them for ‘example, by puling oF pushing them, (a) Ne was very sharpawitted and could ahvays be relied on te come up with an astute comment when asked. (B) She 125.2 keen intelect and makes sure that everyone knows it. (C) He was an incisive ete who always researched his subject tnoroughly before passing comment oni Motaphorialy, eengineciis ike a knife, a blade, or another sharp object. (A) We covered 2 lot of ground at the mesting (8) '0 like to return to the point | was making eatin (C) After tree hours, we finally arrived at 2 decsion, Metapharisly, 2 veaantcrasn or nossoScu ike @journey, with the people who are speeking going from ‘one place 10 another (A) We need to address the socal ils that are at the root of crime, (8) The country was paralyzed by 2 series of natural and man-made disasters {C) Oruss such as heroin and cacsine are seen a5 2 cancer atthe very heart of society, Metephoricaly, a beprmo's ike an ies (A) The speaker ceived a very warm welcome from the audience. (6) We tad several good ideas, but they poured cold water on all of ther, (Cl was diseppoinied because his response was rather lukewarm, Metephcricaly. anesismutt and nicetretem ace like heat, and lack of these i ke cold or wet (8) The biography mainly deak with his years at the top. (2) Mans people commented on his rand ascent up the ladder. (O tis greed and lack of integrity eventually le to his downfall ‘Mecephericsly, being fucsuscses like being high up, and urease fling er being low down, ramin, General Vocabulary 26- Numbers and symbols How do you say the numbers and symbols in bold in these sentences? 1 2 3 10. n 2 13 14 15. 16 20. a 2 23, 24, 25, 26, ” 28, 29 30. 2006 vies the company's most profitable year since 1994, The acventage of Internet banking is that you can check your account 26/7 Despite a rigorous adverising campaign, demand has only risen by 0.8% inthe last two months. We've meeting in his.ofice at 3:45 this atterncon ‘Your flight for Zurich leaves at 1800 from Logan international airport, | expect to be back in the country on June 30. Our next range of products will be released on 103 She completed the test in a record 27% minutes. % ofall our employees thin the canteen food could be imgroved, The neve desk measures exactly Gf. x 3ft. x 3ft '5 this printer really only $1,997 Oh, sory sir, that’s a mistake, The sticker should say $100.9, ‘And that computer doesn't cost $120.75, it actualy costs $1120.75. Flease quote reference ACBBI - 25/8, ur new telephone number is (212) 909-7540, For more information, call 1-800-528-4800, Alternatively, ring 1-800-AxP-1234. The emergency telephone number in the U.S.A. is 812, In the U.K. it's 999, In Australia it's 000. ‘To access the information you require, press the # key, followed by the O key, and finally the * key. He earns a salary of over $200K a year! In fact, he’s making so much money that he plans tor in his mid-50°s ‘We have invested over $6M in new technology, ‘The union held 2 ballot to see if the workers wanted to stiike, The result was 2:1 in favor. My email adress is merkbarrington@snailm: Hi Tod. GR8 news on the promotion. I'm really =) for you! CULBR for a celebratory drink? He drives to work in a big, fuel-guezling 4x4, ‘The Denver Deadbeats won the match against the Washington Washouts by 2:0. In the came against the Los Angeles Layabouts the following week, they tied 3:3. At the last census, the population of the country was 37,762,418 It's important to send your 1099 form to the IRS on time. This book is © Rawcion Wyatt, 2007. The “Ultimafone®” has just won a “Product of the Year” award WWW.IRANMEET.COM Complete sentences 1 ~ 17 with a suitable word from the box. More than one answar is possible in some cases. Obligation and option 12, 14, 15, 7 ahernatve compelled compulsory entail essential exempt forced have liable | mandatory must need obligation obliged optional require voluntary aa A valid passport and visa are__y all visitors to the country. Unless you have these, you will not be alowed in, Areinqeso, jesauay Attendance at all classes is You may not miss a class without prior avangement with your course leader. Note to new students: all fees be paid no later than one week before the ‘commencement of the course. Your place an the course may be forfeited if you fail to satisty this requirement. Before you make an appointment with the college doctor, you to resister your name 2t the dinic, which you will fing in the Administrative Block lf you cause any damage to property, whether accidentally or on purpose, you will be held for any costs incurred, The college was, 10 refund part of its student fees after they announced thet several of the course modules would no longer be cunning Books, clothes, and food are currently from government tax, 3s they are considered necessities rather than luxuries police security checks ere carried out on all students and members of staff who will be warking or associating with minors (i.e. those under 18), Entrance to the museum is free, but vistors are asked to make & donation of $5. Evening lectures and presentations are_____ itis up to you whether you attend or not 11. Unless your attendance improves, the college will haveno______but 10 ask you to leave the course ‘Manufecturers of packaged foods are__to stall the ingredients contained clarly on the box or package. This should include any artificial colorings and adcitives You are under no _ to work overtime, but we hope that you would be prepared to ‘work late at least once 2 week. When Frofessor Ranscomibe was accused of making sexist eemarks in his lectures, he felt to write @ public letter of apology to those he had offended. ‘The project is very excting, but everyone realizes that it wil alot of work. There's no. to1make an appointment to see me. Just turn up at my office anytime after lunch. itis absolutely that the two liquids are kept separate, otherwise 2 chemical reaction could trigger an explosion.