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A1800 ALPHA Meter

Technical Manual
Rev.02
10-2011

www.izmerenie.ru
Technical manual i Contents

Contents

1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
A1800 ALPHA meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Standards Compliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
IEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Contents

IEEE/ANSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
DIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Maintainability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
ANSI standard communication open protocol . . . . . . 1-4
Adaptability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Technical manual

Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Meter types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Meter series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6

2 Product description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1


Physical description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Optical port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
LCD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Nameplate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Utility information card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Cover tamper detection switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Terminal configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Communication protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
System architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
General theory of operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
Power supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
Main power supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
Auxiliary power supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
Current and voltage sensing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
Meter engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
Microcontroller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
EEPROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
Billing data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Metered energy and demand quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Average power factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Demand calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Rolling interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
Block interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
Thermal time constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
Maximum demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
Cumulative maximum demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
Continuous cumulative maximum demand . . . . . . . . . 2-11
Coincident demand or power factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
Technical manual ii Contents

Demand forgiveness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12


Primary and secondary metering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
TOU data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
Power failure data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13
Logs and data sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13
Event log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14
History log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14
Self reads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14
Load profiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
Load profiling pulse divisor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
Instrumentation profiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
TRueQ Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17
Voltage sag log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17
User-defined tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17
Physical dimensions and mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18

3 Operating instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1


Indicators and controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
LCD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Quantity identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Display quantity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Phase indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Energy direction indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Power/energy units identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Alternate display indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Error indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Low battery indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Active COM port indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Display indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Push buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
RESET button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
* button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Using the backlight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Operating modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Normal mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Alternate mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Test mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Demand reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
Demand reset lockout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Demand reset data area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10

4 Meter tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1


System instrumentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
System service tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Service voltage test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
System service locking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Initiating service voltage tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Restarting the service voltage test in diagnostic mode 4-9
Service current test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
Initiating the service current test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
System service error codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
TRueQ monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
TRueQ timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
TRueQ display items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
TRueQ and relays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
TRueQ log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13
Voltage sags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13
Voltage sag counter and timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13
TRueQ tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13
Technical manual iii Contents

TRueQ event counters and timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15


Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-25
Meter passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-25
Antitampering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-26
Program protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-26

5 Outputs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Relay outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Energy pulse outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Using pulse divisor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Using pulse value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
Relay-related alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
LED pulse outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
Output specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6

6 Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Meter self test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Codes and warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Error codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Warning codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Communication codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8
Meter shop testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
Test equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
Test setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
Meter testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-10
Using relay outputs for testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-10
Using LCD pulse count for testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-10

7 Installation and removal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1


Preliminary inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Placing the meter into service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Installing a TOU battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Initial setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Marking the utility information card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
Removing the meter from service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6
Removing the battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6

8 Loss compensation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
What is Loss Compensation? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
Software support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
Calculating the correction values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
Gather necessary data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
Calculate the meter configuration parameters . . . . . . . . 8-2
Calculating line loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5
Gather necessary data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5
Calculation example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7
Gather necessary data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8
Enter Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12
Internal meter calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12
Meter outputs affected by compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-15
Testing a meter with compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-15
Technical manual iv Contents

A Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1

B Display table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B-1


Display format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B-1
Display list items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B-2
Default display formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B-3
LCD test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B-3
General meter information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B-4
Meter configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B-4
Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B-5
Metered quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B-6
Average power factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B-8
Coincident demand and power factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B-8
Cumulative demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B-9
System instrumentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B-9
System service tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B-11
Errors and warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B-12
Communication codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B-12

C Nameplate and style number information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-1


Nameplate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-1
Utility information card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-2
Style number information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-3

D Wiring diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-1


Direct connected . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-1
CT-connected meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-2

E Technical specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .E-1


Absolute maximums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .E-1
Operating ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .E-1
Operating characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .E-1
General performance characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .E-2
Dimensions and mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .E-2
A1800 ALPHA Meter Family
Technical Manual v .

Disclaimer of Warranties and Limitation of Liability


There are no understandings, agreements, representations, or warranties either expressed or
implied, including warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose, other than
those specifically set out by any existing contract between the parties. Any such contract
states the entire obligation of the seller. The contents of this technical manual shall not
Technical Manual

become part of or modify any prior or existing agreement, commitment, or relationship.

The information, recommendations, descriptions, and safety notices in this technical manual
are based on Elster Metronica, OOO experience and judgment with respect to the operation
and maintenance of the described product. This information should not be considered as
allinclusive or covering all contingencies. If further information is required, Elster
Metronica, OOO should be consulted.
A1800 ALPHA Meter

No warranties, either expressed or implied, including warranties of fitness for a particular


purpose or merchantability, or warranties arising from the course of dealing or usage of trade,
are made regarding the information, recommendations, descriptions, warnings, and cautions
contained herein.

In no event will Elster Metronica, OOO be held responsible to the user in contract, in tort
(including negligence), strict liability, or otherwise for any special, indirect, incidental, or
consequential damage or loss whatsoever, including but not limited to: damage or loss of use
of equipment, cost of capital, loss of profits or revenues, or claims against the user by its
customers from the use of the information, recommendations, descriptions, and safety notices
contained herein.

Safety Information
Installation, operation, and maintenance of this product can present potentially hazardous
conditions (for example, high voltages) if safety procedures are not followed. To ensure that
this product is used safely, it is important that you:

Review, understand, and observe all safety notices and recommendations within this manual.

Do not remove or copy individual pages from this manual, as this manual is intended for use
in its entirety. If you were to remove or copy individual pages, cross references and safety
notices may be overlooked, possibly resulting in damage to the equipment, personal injury, or
even death.

Inform personnel involved in the installation, operation, and maintenance of the product
about the safety notices and recommendations contained in this manual.

Within this manual, safety notices appear preceding the text or step to which they apply.
Safety notices are divided into the following four classifications:

Notice is used to alert personnel to installation, operation, or maintenance


information that is important but not hazard related.

Caution is used to alert personnel to the presence of a hazard that will or can cause
minor personal injury, equipment damage, or property damage if the notice is
ignored.
A1800 ALPHA Meter Family
Technical Manual vi .

Warning is used to alert personnel to the presence of a hazard that can cause severe
personal injury, death, equipment damage, or property damage if notice is ignored.

Danger is used to alert personnel to the presence of a hazard that will cause severe
personal injury, death, equipment damage, or property damage if the notice is
ignored.
Technical manual 1-1 Introduction

1 Introduction

A1800 ALPHA meter


The A1800 ALPHA meter family provides a platform that supports a variety of metering
requirements. The A1800 ALPHA meter family is a totally electronic polyphase electricity
meter and integral register for commercial and industrial applications. The meter is available
in 3- and 4-wire configurations for 3 phases.
Technical manual

See Figure 1-1 for an illustration of an A1800 ALPHA meter.

Figure 1-1. A1800 ALPHA meter

+ Q
-P
- Q
+P
L1 L2 L3
COM 0 1 2

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 EOI LC TC TST

5,000 imp/kWh
T YP E A1800 5,000 imp/kVarh
M ODEL

3x 58/100...277/480V, 50Hz
0 .2 S
1(10)A

ELSTERSAMPLE CT A

VT V

imp/kWh(kVARh)
Technical manual 1-2 Introduction

Standards Compliance
IEC. The A1800 ALPHA meter meets or exceeds the following IEC standards for electricity
metering.
Table 1-1. IEC standards supported by the A1800 ALPHA meter
Number Date Edition Title
62052-11 2003 1 General requirements, tests and test conditions.
62053-21 2003 1 Particular requirements-static meters for active
energy (Classes 1.0 and 2.0)
62053-22 2003 1 Particular requirements-static meters for active
energy (classes 0,2 S and 0,5 S)
62053-23 2003 1 Particular requirements-static meters for reactive
energy (classes 2 and 3)
62053-31 1998 1 Particular requirements-pulse output devices for
electromechanical and electronic meters (two
wires only)
62053-61 1998 1 Particular requirements-power consumption and
voltage requirements
62056-211 2002 1 Electricity metering-data exchange for meter
reading, tariff and load control-direct local data
exchange
62052-21 2004 Electricity metering-tariff and load control-
particular requirements for time switches
1
Complies with optical port requirements only.

IEEE/ANSI. The A1800 ALPHA meter meets or exceeds the following IEEE/ANSI
standards for electricity metering, and it is intended for use by commercial and industrial
utility customers.
Table 1-2. IEEE/ANSI standards supported by the A1800 ALPHA meter
Number Date Title
IEEE 1701/ 1996 Protocol Specification for ANSI Type 2 Optical
ANSI C12.18 Port
IEEE 1377/ 1997 Utility Industry End Device Data Tables
ANSI C12.19
IEEE 1702/ 1999 Protocol Specification for Telephone Modem
ANSI C12.21 Communications

DIN. The A1800 ALPHA meter meets or exceeds the following DIN standards for
electricity metering.
Table 1-3. DIN standards supported by the A1800 ALPHA meter1
Number Date Title
DIN 43857 Part 2 1978 Watthour meters in moulded insulation case
without instrument transformers, up to 60 A
rated maximum current; principal dimensions for
polyphase meters.
1
For meter width and location of lower mounting holes
Technical manual 1-3 Introduction

Benefits
Reliability. The A1800 ALPHA meter, part of the ALPHA line of meters, uses the patented
ALPHA meter technology for measurement and accurate calculation of energy quantities.
With over 3 million ALPHA polyphase meters in operation throughout the world, the
A1800 ALPHA continues the tradition of reliable electronic meters.

The power supply in the meter operates from any available phase. A three-phase, four-wire
A1800 ALPHA meter maintains operation if the neutral line and any one or two of the line
voltages become disconnected. The meter can also operate using the auxiliary power supply,
which can power the meter from an independent power source in the situation where main
power is unavailable.

The A1800 ALPHA meter can use its internal crystal oscillator or the power line frequency
to maintain time and date functions. The crystal oscillator can be used when the power line
frequency is known to be too unstable for accurate timekeeping.

The A1800 ALPHA meter has been designed to function to provide long battery life.
Because of the low current drain, the service life of the lithium battery can exceed the life of
the meter.

The A1800 ALPHA meter uses nonvolatile memory to store billing and other critical data.
The data is preserved even if the power fails.

Maintainability. The A1800 ALPHA meter is easy to maintain. Meter register functions
and communication interfaces are fully integrated on a single, surface-mount technology
circuit board.

The meter firmware resides in flash memory, allowing the firmware to be upgraded in the
field.
Technical manual 1-4 Introduction

ANSI standard communication open protocol. The A1800 ALPHA meter complies
with the ANSI C12.18, C12.19, and C12.21 standards. These standards include
communication protocols for a wide range of metering products. They are the basis for
common industry data structures and a common protocol for transporting the data structures.
Supporting the ANSI protocols makes it easier to add products to existing systems and
provide an open standard for meter data communications.

Adaptability. The A1800 ALPHA meter allows configuration for custom TOU rates
(tariffs), offering a broad range of demand and TOU operations.

Most common services and mounting configurations are supported, and functional upgrades
are easily performed as new situations arise. The wide operating range allows installation at
any of the common meter voltages. Additionally, the factory-configurable optical port
accommodates IEC standard. The 16-segment character liquid crystal display (LCD)
improves readability and provides flexibility for displaying meter information. As an added
feature, the main meter circuit board provides selectable, independent, serial remote
interfaces for RS-232 or RS-485 communication.

Economy. The A1800 ALPHA meter saves both time and money. It can increase personnel
productivity because of the following features:

no user calibration required (factory calibrated)


reduced testing times
fewer styles to learn and maintain
dual serial communications interfaces on the main meter circuit board
automated data retrieval
system service verification
on-site instrumentation displays
tamper restraint and quality monitoring (TRueQ) tests
event logging
Security. The A1800 ALPHA meter is tamper-resistant. Passwords may be specified that
prevent unauthorized access to meter data. The standard TRueQ feature or the optional
instrumentation profiling (or both) can be used to detect possible tampering of energy
measurements.

All A1800 ALPHA meters provide auditing capabilities that can be used to indicate potential
meter tampering like terminal cover open detection and per phase outage recording.

The A1800 ALPHA meter can be ordered with a partially-transparent terminal cover, making
it easier to see obvious tampering.

Accuracy. The A1800 ALPHA meter meets or exceeds requirements of IEC standards.

IEC 62053-21
IEC 62053-22 IEC 62053-231
/GOST R 52322-2005/
Configuration /GOST R 52323-2005/ /GOST R 52425-2005//

Class 0.2 S Class 0.5 S Class 1.0 Class 1.0 Class 2.0
1
direct connect
transformer-rated
1 Actual reactive energy accuracy is substantially better than required by the standard.

The meter precisely measures demand and energy across a wide range of voltage and current
despite variations in temperature and power factor.

The low current sensor burden may also improve the accuracy of external current
transformers when measuring light loads.
Technical manual 1-5 Introduction

Meter types
Different meters within the A1800 ALPHA meter family have specific capabilities (see
Table 1-4 and Figure 1-2).

Note: Throughout this manual, the term A1800 ALPHA is used to describe any meter in
the meter family. When necessary, a specific meter designation will be used to
indicate that the description applies to only one meter in the meter family.

Table 1-4. Meter designations of the A1800 ALPHA meter family


Meter Market segment Class Standard features Optional features
A1802 Interchange meter/ 0.2S 1 communications port (RS-232 or transformer and line loss
Large C&I RS-485) compensation (V)
internal 128 KB (256KB) memory 4-quadrant metering (A)
auxiliary power supply extended 1 MB memory (X)
4 relays load and instrumentation profiling
TRueQ (L)
multitariffs add 1 communication port
LCD backlight Multi-protocol communications
Class 0.2 accuracy (Modbus, DNP 3.0)
A1805 Large C&I/ 0.5S 1 communications port (RS-232 or transformer and line loss
Mid C&I RS-485) compensation (V)
internal 128 KB (256KB) memory 4-quadrant metering (A)
auxiliary power supply extended 1 MB memory (X)
4 relays instrumentation profiling (L)
TRueQ load and instrumentation profiling
multitariffs (L)
LCD backlight add 1 communication port
Class 0.5 accuracy Multi-protocol communications
(Modbus, DNP 3.0)
A18101 Small C&I/ 1.0 1 communications port (RS-232 or transformer and line loss
Mid C&I RS-485) compensation (V)
internal 128 KB (256KB) memory 4-quadrant metering (A)
auxiliary power supply extended 1 MB memory (X)
4 relays instrumentation profiling (L)
TRueQ load and instrumentation profiling
LCD backlight (L)
multitariffs add 1communication port
A18202 Small C&I 0.5S 1 communications port (RS-232 or extended 1 MB memory (X)
RS-485) instrumentation profiling (L)
internal 128 KB (256KB) memory load profiling (L)
4 relays add 1communication port
TRueQ multitariffs (T)
LCD backlight
Class 0.5 accuracy
A18213 Small C&I 1.0 1 communications port (RS-232 or extended 1 MB memory (X)
RS-485) instrumentation profiling (L)
internal 128 KB (256KB) memory load profiling (L)
4 relays add 1communication port
TRueQ multitariffs (T)
LCD backlight
1
Contact Elster Metronica for availability.
2
Contact Elster Metronica for DC connected meter availability.
3
Contact Elster Metronica for DC connected meter availability.
Technical manual 1-6 Introduction

Figure 1-2. A1800 ALPHA meter family application pyramid


Interchange
metering
A1802
ily
fam

Large C & I
ter
me

A1805
HA

Mid C & I
LP
0A

A1810
80
A1

Light C & I
A1810
A1820

Residential
Technical manual 2-1 Product description

2 Product description

Physical description
The A1800 ALPHA meter is designed for indoor mounting. The cover assembly of the
A1800 ALPHA meter exceeds the environmental requirements of IEC 62053-11. The case of
the A1800 ALPHA meter provides an IP54 degree of protection for the meter.

The physical components of the A1800 ALPHA meter consist of the following:
Technical manual

terminal cover
long terminal cover (see Figure 2-1)
short terminal cover (see Figure 2-2)1
partially-transparent terminal cover
meter cover assembly
inner cover assembly
base electronic assembly

Figure 2-1. Front view of the A1800 ALPHA meter

1 Contact Elster Metronica for availability.


Technical manual 2-2 Product description

The terminal cover and meter cover assembly are manufactured using a UV-protected
polycarbonate plastic. The terminal cover is available in either the long version or the short
version. The meter cover assembly has a clear plastic window that allows the meter LCD and
nameplates to be viewed.

Figure 2-2. Front view of A1800 ALPHA meter with short terminal cover (transformer rated)1

The A1800 ALPHA meter can be sealed using any or all of the following methods:

Seal location Purpose


Meter cover screws Prevents access to the meter except for the main
(certification) connections, relay connections, communication
interface connections, and nameplate. Also can prevent
reprogramming and recalibration of the meter.
Terminal cover screws Prevents non-utility access to the main connections,
(utility) relay connections, and utility information card
RESET push button Prevents unauthorized manual demand resets

The four cover screws can be individually sealed (Figure 2-1). The two terminal cover
screws limit access to the main terminals and auxiliary wiring connections only. Therefore,
only the terminal cover seals must be broken to access these connections. The two meter
cover screws are located on the lower front of the meter under the terminal cover. Sealing
these screws seals the main enclosure and limits access to the metering circuit board and
sensing elements.

For maximum protection of the metering components, seal all four screw seals.

1
Contact Elster Metronica for availability.
Technical manual 2-3 Product description

Figure 2-3. A1800 ALPHA meter with cover removed (transformer rated)

Optical port. The A1800 ALPHA meter provides an optical port that can be ordered with
IEC-compliant interface (see Figure 2-4). To use Elster meter support software to read or
program the meter through the optical port, an optical probe is required. This probe connects
from the serial port of the computer to the optical port on the meter.

Figure 2-4. IEC-compliant optical port interface

IEC-compliant optical interface

Elster Metronica recommends use of the AE-1 optical probe to reliably read the
A1800 ALPHA meter. For information on ordering the AE-1 optical probe, visit
www.izmerenie.ru or contact your local Elster Metronica representative.

LCD. The A1800 ALPHA meter is equipped with a 16-segment character liquid crystal
display. See Indicators and controls on page 3-1 for details.

Nameplate. Elster Metronica installs the nameplate at the factory. See Appendix C,
Nameplate and style number information, for details on the nameplate.
Technical manual 2-4 Product description

Utility information card. The utility information card is removable (after the terminal
cover has been removed) and allows the utility to enter meter site-specific information. See
Utility information card on page C-2 for more information.

Figure 2-5. Removing the utility information card

Communications. The A1800 ALPHA meter (-G suffix) provides remote


communications interfaces on the main meter circuit board for RS-232 or RS-485 serial
communication. Physical outputs exist for both RS-232 and RS-485 interfaces; however,
only one can be used at any given time. No configuration is necessary to switch between an
RS-232 and RS-485 selection. Additionally, the A1800 ALPHA meter (-S, -B suffixs)
provides a second, independent serial communication port that supports either RS-232 (see
Figure 2-6) or RS-485 (see Figure 2-7). See Chapter 5, Outputs, for more information on
the RS-232 or RS-485 ports.

Figure 2-6. A1800 ALPHA meter (-S suffix) with RS-232 as second communication port

RS-232 connector
(optional)*

Pulse output relay


(optional)

RS-485 terminals

RS-232 connector

*Present when optional second communication port is installed


Technical manual 2-5 Product description

Figure 2-7. A1800 ALPHA meter (-B suffix) with RS-485 as second communication port

RS-485 connector
(optional)*

Pulse output relay


(optional)

RS-485 terminals

RS-232
connector

*Present when optional second communication port is installed

Battery. The terminal block has a battery well and connector for the optional TOU battery.
Cover tamper detection switches. When either the terminal cover or the meter cover is
opened, a detection switch is activated. (See Figure 2-8 for an illustration of the terminal
cover detection switch; the meter cover detection switch is similar.) When either detection
switch is activated, the TC indicator on the LCD turns on and remains on while the cover is
removed. The date and time of the cover removal is logged in the event log. See Event log
on page 2-14 for more information.

Figure 2-8. Terminal cover detection switch

Cover closed Cover opened


Technical manual 2-6 Product description

Terminal configurations. The A1800 ALPHA meter supports the following terminal
configurations:

10 A transformer-rated (sequential)
100 A direct connect-rated (sequential)

System architecture
The A1800 ALPHA meter main circuit board contains all the electronics that make up the
meter registers and communication interfaces. See for the meter circuit board block diagram.
The circuit board as shown in contains the following:

meter engine
microcontroller
EEPROM
resistive dividers for the 3 phase voltages
load resistors for the 3 current sensors
power supply
high frequency crystal oscillator
32 kHz low power timekeeping crystal oscillator
optical port components
liquid crystal display (LCD) interface
RS-232 and RS-485 communication interfaces
option board interface
pulse outputs
Figure 2-9. Meter block diagram
Phase A voltage Non
Wide input 5 V linear
volatile
Phase B voltage power power supply
supply
supply
Phase C voltage
Battery
Precision
reference
LCD Low
power
crystal
Resistive
divider
Power Fail
Resistive
2x Line Freq
divider
A
Resistive B
divider
Meter engine C

Phase A Current Wh Del Microcontroller


current sensor Wh Rec
varh Del
Phase B Current
current sensor varh Rec

Phase C Current Clock


current sensor

Option Optical Remote Pulse


Crystal EEPROM
connector port port 1/2 outputs
Technical manual 2-7 Product description

General theory of operation


The A1800 ALPHA meters engine receives analog inputs of voltages and current to
calculate the desired metered quantities. The meter engine samples the input voltages and
current 66 to 88 times per cycle. The actual sampling frequency is based on whether 50 Hz or
60 Hz1 power systems are being measured.

Using these input signals, the meter engine calculates root mean square (rms) values of
voltage and current, and the meter engine uses the sampled signals to compute Wh, VAh, and
VArh quantities for each phase. These individual phase quantities are summed, and the totals
are transmitted to the microprocessor. The microprocessor processes and stores the data into
memory according to the user-specified program. Once stored, data values are available to be
displayed and communicated as required by the utility or other meter user.

The very high sampling rate inherent in the meter engine and the additional over sampling
techniques used in the A1800 ALPHA meter results in very high accuracy regardless of
harmonic content, phase angle, or point on the load curve. The meter engine accumulates and
recalculates all quantities after every line cycle. This provides the ability to include the effect
of harmonics up to and beyond the 33rd harmonic. Individual harmonics up to and including
the 15th harmonic are displayable items and are included in distortion measurements. Further
advanced electronic techniques are used to provide extreme stability of accuracy over time
and over an exceptionally wide range of operating and load conditions.

The A1800 ALPHA meter can accommodate various tariff structures. The meter also
supports a variety of communication options that allow the meter to be read remotely or
manually. In addition, relays may be used for pulse outputs of user-selected quantities or for
signaling the start of a tariff period.

Power supply
Main power supply. Power is supplied to the A1800 ALPHA meter using a wide voltage
range power supply that accepts voltages from 49 V to 528 V AC. At least two lines must be
present to power the meter circuitry. The output from the power supply is then fed to a low
voltage linear regulator to attain the low level voltage.

Auxiliary power supply. The A1800 ALPHA meter may be ordered with an auxiliary
power supply. The auxiliary power supply allows the A1800 ALPHA meter to be powered by
a separate AC or DC power source, such as substations independent power lines. Should the
main power supply be unavailable, the meter will be fully operational provided the
independent power is still available. The A1800 ALPHA meter can also be connected to both
the main power source and auxiliary power source, providing uninterrupted power in the
event that the main power becomes unavailable.

The auxiliary power supply accepts the following voltages:

For independent AC power, from 57 V rms to 240 V rms (115V nominal)


For independent DC power, from 80 V to 340 V
Note: When using independent DC power, the A1800 ALPHA meters auxiliary power
supply is polarity independent. The meter will operate properly without regard to
which wire is positive and which wire is negative.
The output from the independent power supply is then fed to a low voltage linear regulator to
attain the low level voltage.

Current and voltage sensing


Power line currents and voltages are sensed using specialized current sensors and resistive
dividers, respectively. Multiplication and other calculations are performed using a custom
integrated circuit (called the meter engine).

1
Contact Elster Metronica for availability.
Technical manual 2-8 Product description

The meter receives each phase current through a precision-wound current sensor that reduces
the line current proportionally. The meter engine samples the individual phase currents to
provide accurate current measurement.

The meter receives each phase voltage through resistive dividers. This ensures that a linear
low level voltage is maintained. It also serves to minimize phase shift over a wide dynamic
range. The meter engine samples the scaled inputs provided by the resistive dividers to
provide accurate voltage measurements.

Meter engine
Multiplication and other calculations are performed using a custom integrated circuit, called
the meter engine. The meter engine contains the digital signal processor (DSP) with built-in
analog-to-digital (A/D) converters capable of sampling each current and voltage input. The
A/D converters measure the voltage and current inputs for a given phase. The DSP multiplies
the signals appropriately, using the factory-programmed calibration constants.

Microcontroller
The microcontroller performs many different functions, for example:

communicates with the DSP and EEPROM


provides for serial communication over the optical port
provides for serial communication over the remote ports
generates optical output pulses
controls the LCD
controls any option boards
The microcontroller and the meter engine communicate with each other constantly to process
voltage and current inputs. When the microcontroller detects a power failure, it initiates the
shutdown and stores billing and status information in EEPROM.

EEPROM
The A1800 ALPHA meter uses electrically erasable programmable read only memory
(EEPROM) for nonvolatile storage of manufacturing data, meter configuration data, and
energy measurement values. The A1800 ALPHA meter is provided with either 128 KB or
256 KB of main board memory. See Style number information on page C-3 for information
regarding how to identify the amount of main board memory on your meter.

The EEPROM provides storage of all information needed to ensure the integrity of the
demand or energy calculations, including the following:

configuration data
billing data
all TOU data
log and profiling data
meter status
constants
energy usage
maximum demand
cumulative demand
Technical manual 2-9 Product description

Billing data

Metered energy and demand quantities


All A1800 ALPHA meters are capable of measuring delivered and received kWh energy and
kW demand. The A1800 ALPHA meters can also measure reactive and apparent energy and
demand. The meter engine samples the voltage and current inputs and sends these
measurements to the microcontroller. In the meter engine, each pulse is equal to one Ke
defined as one of the following:

secondary rated Wh per pulse


secondary rated varh per pulse
secondary rated VAh per pulse
The following list shows the available metered quantities for the A1800 ALPHA meter.
Basic metered quantities (indicated by * in Table 2-1) can be selected as a source for relay
outputs. The remaining metered quantities are calculated from 2 or more basic metered
quantities.

Table 2-1. Metered energy and demand quantities


kVAh delivered (Q1 + Q4) kvarh delivered (Q1 + Q2)*
kVAh Q1 kvarh net
kVAh Q2 kvarh Q1*
kVAh Q3 kvarh Q2*
kVAh Q4 kvarh Q3*
kVAh received (Q2 + Q3) kvarh Q4*
kVAh sum (delivered + received) kvarh received (Q3 + Q4)*
kvarh (Q1 - Q4) kvarh sum (delivered + received)*
kvarh (Q1 + Q4)* kWh delivered*
kvarh (Q2 - Q3) kWh net
kvarh (Q2 + Q3)* kWh received*
kvarh (Q3 - Q2) kWh sum*

Average power factor


The A1800 ALPHA meter can calculate the average power factor (AvgPF) using kWh and
kvarh values since the last demand reset.

kWh
AvgPF
k var h 2 kWh 2

The meter can store up to two average power calculations, which can be configured in
Elsters meter support software. Average power factor is calculated every second. Upon a
demand reset, the values used in this calculation are set to zero and the AvgPF will be set to
1.000.

Demand calculations
Demand is the average value of power over a specified time interval. The A1800 ALPHA
meter supports three different methods for demand calculation:

rolling interval
block interval
thermal time constant
An interval is the time over which demand is calculated. The length of a demand interval is
programmable using Elster meter support software, but the value must be evenly divisible
into 60 minutes. Common demand interval lengths are 15 or 30 minutes.
Technical manual 2-10 Product description

Rolling interval. Rolling demand interval is defined by two parameters:


the demand interval length - specified in minutes and may be any value that is evenly
divisible into 60
subinterval length - also specified in minutes and may be any value that is evenly
divisible into the interval length
Both of these values are configurable by Elster meter support software. The demand is
calculated at the end of each subinterval, resulting in overlapping demand intervals (or a
rolling demand).

For example, the A1800 ALPHA meter can be configured for a 15-minute demand interval
length and a 5-minute subinterval length. In this case, the demand is calculated every 5
minutes based on the 3 previous subintervals (see Figure 2-10).

Figure 2-10. Rolling demand intervals


15-minute interval
15-minute interval
15-minute interval

sub- sub- sub- sub- sub-


interval interval interval interval interval

0 5 10 15 20 25
Time (minutes)

The rolling interval calculates demand by using the following equation:

total accumulated energy


D
t hours

For example, if the demand interval is 15 minutes and the total accumulated energy is
50 kWh, then the demand is 200 kW.

50 kWh
D 200 kW
0.25 h

Block interval. Block demand interval is a special case of rolling interval demand in which
the subinterval is the same size as the interval (see Figure 2-11).

Figure 2-11. Block demand intervals


interval interval interval interval

sub- sub- sub- sub-


interval interval interval interval

0 15 30 45 60
Time (minutes)
Technical manual 2-11 Product description

Thermal time constant. The A1800 ALPHA meter can perform thermal demand
emulation. The meter calculates demand based on a logarithmic scale that accurately
emulates thermal demand meters. The thermal demand time constants vary depending upon
the operational mode of the meter.

Normal mode time constant is 15 minutes.


Test mode time constant is 1 minute.
See Operating modes on page 3-7 for more information.

Maximum demand
Maximum demand (also referred to as indicating or peak demand) is the highest demand
value that occurs in a billing period. The demand for each demand interval is calculated and
compared to an earlier maximum demand value. If the new interval demand exceeds the
previous maximum demand, then the new demand is stored as the maximum demand (see
Figure 2-12). When a demand reset occurs, the maximum demand is reset to zero. The
demand for the first full interval after a demand reset becomes the maximum demand.

Figure 2-12. Maximum demand

New maximum Earlier maximum


demand (9.9 kW) demand (9.9 kW)
Earlier maximum
demand (9.7 kW)

Interval 7
demand Interval 8
Interval 6 (9.9 kW) demand
demand (9.5 kW)
(9.2 kW)

In addition to maximum demand, the A1800 ALPHA meter also stores either the cumulative
or continuous cumulative demand. A1800 ALPHA meters can be programmed to trigger the
recording of a coincident demand or power factor (see Coincident demand or power factor
on page 2-12).

Cumulative maximum demand


Using cumulative maximum demand, a demand reset adds the current maximum demand
value to the cumulative maximum demand. This feature is used to calculate the previous
maximum demand when the demand may have had an unauthorized reset. Since the
cumulative demand is not reset to zero, unauthorized demand resets do not cause a loss of the
maximum demand data.

To determine the maximum demand for a billing period after a demand reset, subtract the
previous cumulative demand from the current cumulative demand.

Continuous cumulative maximum demand


Continuous cumulative maximum demand works similarly to cumulative maximum demand.
Continuous cumulative demand, however, is always equal to the sum of the previous billing
period continuous cumulative demand and the current maximum demand. This feature is
used to calculate the previous maximum demand when the demand may have had an
unauthorized reset.
Technical manual 2-12 Product description

Coincident demand or power factor


The number of coincident values that may be captured by the A1800 ALPHA meter depends
on whether or not the 4-quadrant metering (-A suffix) option is present.

A1800 ALPHA meters without 4-quadrant metering record 2 coincident values.


A1800 ALPHA meters with 4-quadrant metering record up to 4 coincident values.
Coincident demand refers to a demand value that occurs at the same time as another demand
reaches its peak value. For example, an electric utility may want to record the kvar demand at
the time of a maximum kW demand. This requires that kvar demand be stored and reported
during the same interval as the maximum kW demand.

Similarly, coincident power factor refers to a power factor that occurs at the same time as a
demand value reaches its peak value. For example, an electric utility may want to record the
power factor at the time of a maximum kvar demand. This requires the power factor be stored
and reported during the same interval as the maximum kvar demand.

kWh
Coincident PF
kvarh 2 kWh 2

Demand forgiveness
Demand forgiveness is the time during which demand is not calculated or stored after a
qualified power outage. Demand forgiveness has two programmable settings:

outage time: the number of minutes a power outage must last to qualify for demand
forgiveness (0 to 15 minutes)
time: the number of minutes that demand is not calculated or stored (0 to 255 minutes)
following a qualified power outage; zero disables demand forgiveness

Primary and secondary metering


The A1800 ALPHA meter can be programmed for either primary or secondary metering.

When configured for primary metering, the A1800 ALPHA meter internally converts the
measured energy, demand and instrumentation quantities to primary units using the voltage
transformer ratio and the current transformer ratio. These ratios are programmed using Elster
meter support software. The metered quantities reflect energy, demand and instrumentation
on the primary side of the instrument transformers.

When configured for secondary metering, the A1800 ALPHA meter does not use the voltage
transformer ratio or the current transformer ratio to adjust the metered quantities. The
metered quantities reflect the energy, demand and instrumentation on the secondary side of
the instrument transformers even if the voltage and current ratios are programmed into the
meter.

TOU data
All A1800 ALPHA meters store the total (single-rate) data for energy and demand. TOU
meters can store the total data and the data for up to 4 rates. TOU rates can be based on any
combination of day (up to 4 day types), time (up to 132 switch times), or season (up to 12
seasons). The switch points for energy and demand may be configured independently of each
other.

All selected metered quantities are stored according to the TOU rate. The meter stores the
energy, demand, and average power factor for each rate.
Technical manual 2-13 Product description

Power failure data


The A1800 ALPHA meter monitors and records the total power failure data. The following
information is recorded:

cumulative number of minutes of all power failures


start date and time of the most recent power failure
end date and time of the most recent power failure
These values can be programmed to display on the LCD. See Appendix B, Display table,
for more information about displayable items.

See Event log on page 2-14 for information on loss of phase voltage.

Logs and data sets


All A1800 ALPHA meters are equipped with EEPROM. As shown in Figure 2-13, a small
portion of this main board memory is permanently reserved (called reserved memory) by
the meter to store the main billing and configuration information. The remainder of the
memory (called shared memory) is used to store the following logs and data sets:

event log
history log
self reads
load profiling
instrumentation profiling
TRueQ log
voltage sag log
All of the logs and data sets share the meters memory. Using Elster meter support software,
the sizes of each log or data set can be configured to allow more room for a different log or
data set. For example, self reads can be configured to store less data so that the load profiling
can store more data.

Figure 2-13. Allocation of meter memory


Main circuit board memory Extended memory option board
(128 KB or 256 KB) (1 MB)

Event,
Billing data, Configuration Self read,
History, IP,*
data, Manufacturing info, LP,*
TRueQ, LP*
etc. IP*
Voltage sag

Reserved memory** Shared memory


Notes
*Extended memory used only when requested number of days exceeds the capacity of main
board memory. If meter support software is set to maximize data storage, then the extended
memory option board would always be used for LP and IP data storage.
**Size of reserved memory is fixed and may vary with each firmware release.
Technical manual 2-14 Product description

In most cases, the 128 KB or 256 KB option is sufficient to meet data logging and profiling
requirements. In some cases (for example, if extensive instrumentation profiling is desired),
more memory may be required. When the data storage cannot be met with the 256 KB main
memory option, extended memory can be used to add shared memory to the A1800 ALPHA
meter.

Event log
All A1800 ALPHA meters have an event log. The A1800 ALPHA meter stores the date and
time that events occur. Elster meter support software is used to define and program the
number of event log entries that the meter will record. Events that can be included in the
event log are as follows:

power fail start and stop (2 event log entries)


date and time change information (2 event log entries)
date and time of demand resets (1 event log entry)
date and time of event log reset (1 event log entry)
date and time of test mode activity (2 event log entries)
start and stop time when the current TOU rate is overridden by the alternate TOU rate
schedule (2 event log entries)
start and stop time of per phase outage (2 event log entries)
date and time of terminal cover removal (1 event log entry)
date and time of main cover removal (1 event log entry)
Note: The meter will detect and log the removal of either the terminal cover or main cover
even when the meter is not powered (provided the TOU battery is functioning).
After the maximum number of entries has been stored, the meter will begin overwriting the
oldest entries. The event log can be disabled through Elster meter support software.

History log
All A1800 ALPHA meters have a history log that stores table information and procedure ID
for configuration-altering writes to the meter. The A1800 ALPHA meter records a sequential
listing of records, along with the date and time. The meter records this information as an
audit trail, maintaining a history of programming changes made to the meter.

After the maximum number of entries has been stored, the meter will begin overwriting the
oldest entries. The history log can be disabled through Elster meter support software.

Self reads
All A1800 ALPHA meters can support self reads. A self read captures the current period
billing data and stores it in memory. The A1800 ALPHA meter can store up to 35 self reads
can be stored depending on memory requirements for logs, data, etc. This data can be
retrieved later for analysis or billing. If the meter has recorded the maximum number of self
reads, the next self read will overwrite the oldest copy.

Self reads are events that can be triggered by any of the following:

scheduled calendar events


every demand reset
communication procedure
Self reads are different from previous billing data copies. The previous billing data copy
stores only one copy of billing data at a time and only when a demand reset occurs. See
Demand reset data area on page 3-10 for more information.
Technical manual 2-15 Product description

Load profiling
For meters with load profiling capabilities (designated with an -L suffix), the
A1800 ALPHA meter is capable of recording 8 channels of information.

Table 2-2. Load profiling sources


kVAh delivered (Q1 + Q4) kvarh delivered (Q1 + Q2)
kVAh Q1 kvarh net
kVAh Q2 kvarh Q1
kVAh Q3 kvarh Q2
kVAh Q4 kvarh Q3
kVAh received (Q2 + Q3) kvarh Q4
kVAh sum kvarh received (Q3 + Q4)
kvarh (Q1 - Q4) kvarh sum
kvarh (Q1 + Q4) kWh delivered
kvarh (Q2 - Q3) kWh net
kvarh (Q2 + Q3) kWh received
kvarh (Q3 - Q2) kWh sum

Load profiling has its own, separate interval length that is configured independently from the
demand interval length. The length of the load profiling interval must adhere to the following
rules:

the length must be between 1 and 60 minutes


the time must be evenly divisible into an 60 minutes
Table 2-3 show the number of days of load profiling available. These values are estimates
and may vary depending on the firmware used in the meter.

Data in Table 2-3 are based on the following settings:

load profiling at 15-minute intervals


no instrumentation profiling
the meter is programmed for 6 metered quantities, 2 average power factors, and 4
coincident values
The first number shows the number of days of load profiling, assuming all other logs and self
reads record the maximum number of entries. The second number shows the number of days
of load profiling, assuming all other logs and self reads record the minimum number of
entries.
Table 2-3. Estimated days of load profiling storage per number of channels
Days of Number of channels
storage (max./
min.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

128 KB 199/320 106/171 81/130 60/96 51/81 41/66 37/59 32/51


256 KB 594/714 317/381 242/291 178/214 151/182 124/149 110/133 95/114
1 MB 3177 1696 1294 954 812 664 592 509

Note: The actual number of days stores varies based on meter firmware release and other
options programmed using Elster meter support software. See the documentation for
the meter support software for more information regarding memory allocation.
Load profiling pulse divisor. A pulse divisor is used to scale down the number of pulses
recorded in each load profiling interval. This allows recording of data that may exceed the
maximum number of pulses that can be stored in each load profiling interval (each interval
can store 32,767 pulses before overflowing). The range for the value of the load profiling
pulse divisor is 1 (default) to 255.
Technical manual 2-16 Product description

Instrumentation profiling
In meters with instrumentation profiling, the meter has two sets of instrumentation profiling.
Each set can record up to 16 channels from the sources listed in Table 2-4. Also,
instrumentation profiling can use the sources listed in Table 2-2 for more extensive load
profiling.

Table 2-4. Instrumentation profiling sources


frequency per phase vars (vectorial)
per phase current per phase 2nd harmonic voltage %
per phase voltage per phase total demand distortion (TDD)
per phase watts per phase PF
per phase VA per phase PF angle
per phase voltage angle with respect to line 1 voltage system watts
per phase fundamental (1st harmonic) current magnitude system VA (arithmetic)
per phase fundamental (1st harmonic) voltage magnitude system PF (arithmetic)
per phase 2nd harmonic current magnitude system PF angle (arithmetic)
per phase 2nd harmonic voltage magnitude system vars (vectorial)
per phase voltage % total harmonic distortion (THD) system VA (vectorial)
per phase current % THD system var (arithmetic)
per phase harmonic current (sum of 2nd through 15th) system PF (vectorial)
per phase current angle with respect to line 1 voltage system PF angle (vectorial)
Technical manual 2-17 Product description

Each channel can be configured to record the instrumentation profiling using any one of
following four algorithms (see Table 2-5):
Table 2-5. Instrumentation profiling recording algorithms
Item Description
Minimum The meter samples the selected quantity over the instrumentation
interval. The minimum value of all the samples is recorded.
Maximum The meter samples the selected quantity over the instrumentation
interval. The maximum value of all the samples is recorded.
Average The meter samples the selected quantity over the instrumentation
interval. The average value of all the samples is recorded.
End The meter samples the selected quantity over the instrumentation
interval. The last value of all the samples is recorded.

Each set of instrumentation profiling has its own, separate interval length that is configured
independently from the demand interval length. The length of the instrumentation profiling
interval must adhere to the following rules:

the length must be between 1 and 60 minutes


the time must be evenly divisible into an 60 minutes

TRueQ Log
The A1800 ALPHA meter has a TRueQ log that records TRueQ test failures. Elster meter
support software is used to define and program the number of TRueQ log entries that the
meter will record. Elster meter support software is also used to define which tests can record
failures in the TRueQ log.

The A1800 ALPHA meter can record the following data associated with the TRueQ test:

the date and time when the TRueQ monitor first detects a qualified failure and the
identifier of the TRueQ test (1 TRueQ log entry)
the date and time when the TRueQ monitor no longer detects a failure and the identifier
of the TRueQ test (1 TRueQ log entry)
Note: See TRueQ event counters and timers on page 4-15 for information on
qualification time
For each TRueQ log entry, the meter also records an instrumentation measurement related to
the TRueQ test.

When the maximum number of entries has been stored, the meter will begin overwriting the
oldest entries.

See TRueQ monitoring on page 4-12 for more information.

Voltage sag log


The meter has a voltage sag log. The A1800 ALPHA meter records the date, time, and phases
of any detected voltage sag. The log records a maximum of 1 entry per second. When the
maximum number of entries has been stored, the meter will begin overwriting the oldest
entries.

See Voltage sags on page 4-13 for more information.

User-defined tables
User defined tables offer specific data retrieval options for A1800 ALPHA meters. User
defined table configuration may be requested at the time of purchase, and the specific
configuration may be programmed at the factory. An AMR system can then be configured to
retrieve the user defined table information from the meter instead of individual table reads.
This reduces the total communications time.
Technical manual 2-18 Product description

Physical dimensions and mass


The approximate dimensions of the meter correspond to DIN 43-857 part 2 (excluding the
meter hanger).

See the following figures for illustrations of the meter and its dimensions.

Figure 2-14. A1800 ALPHA meter, standard terminal cover


89

22

204 224*

307

*This represents hanger


in center position.

150 5
Approximate dimensions in millimeters

170

Figure 2-15. A1800 ALPHA meter, short terminal cover1

89

22*

213* 224*
240

*This represents hanger in


center position
5
150

170 Approximate dimensions in millimeters

1
Contact Elster Metronica for availability.
Technical manual 2-19 Product description

Figure 2-16. A1800 ALPHA meter, back of meter

202

150

Approximate dimensions in millimeters.

Figure 2-17. A1800 ALPHA meter, bottom view (direct connect1 and transformer rated)
170 170

6.2

10 5.4
Direct connect meter Transformer rated meter
Approximate dimensions in millimeters.

Table 2-6. Approximate mass


Elements Direct connect Transformer rated
2-element 1.6 kilograms 1.3 kilograms
3-element 1.7 kilograms 1.3 kilograms

1
Contact Elster Metronica for availability.
Technical manual 2-20 Product description
Technical manual 3-1 Operating instructions

3 Operating instructions

Indicators and controls

LCD
The liquid crystal display (LCD) is used to display meter data and status information.
Figure 3-1 shows the dimensions of the LCD.
Technical manual

Figure 3-1. LCD dimensions


85

77
1.4 3.5

+ Q
-P +P 7
- Q
27 32

9.5

Approximate dimensions in millimeters


5 2
Viewing area

As shown in Figure 3-2, the LCD is divided into different display regions.

Figure 3-2. LCD regions


Low battery indicator
Phase Quantity identifier
Error/warning indicator indicators (3)

+ Q

Energy direction
indicator
-P
- Q
+P
L1L2 L3 Alternate mode
indicator
COM 0 1 2
Display quantity
Comm. port indicator
Power/energy
units identifier
Tariff indicators 1 to 8
(left to right)

EOI indicator Test mode indicator

Cover removed
LC indicator
indicator
Technical manual 3-2 Operating instructions

All A1800 ALPHA meters have a backlight option for the LCD. The LCD can be illuminated
by pressing one of the push buttons, making it easier to read the LCD in no-light or low-light
conditions. The backlight option must be specified at the time of ordering. See Using the
backlight on page 3-6 for more information.

Quantity identifier. This 7-digit region identifies the displayed quantity as defined and
programmed with Elster meter support software. An identifier can be assigned to most
display quantities in the display sequence. See Appendix B, Display table, for more
information.

Display quantity. This 8-digit display on the LCD shows either metered quantities or other
displayable information, depending upon how the A1800 ALPHA meter has been
programmed.

The displayable digits are definable using Elster meter support software for both energy and
demand readings. From 3 to 8 digits with up to 4 decimal places can be used. These digits are
also used to report error codes for the following error conditions:

operational errors (E1, E2, or E3)


system instrumentation and service test errors (SE)
warnings (W1 or W2)
communication codes (COM 0, COM 1, COM 2)
For instrumentation values and tests, numeric values may be replaced by or mixed with
alphabetic characters to better define the value. See Appendix B, Display table, for more
information.

Phase indicators. Each phase indicator (L1, L2, and L3) corresponds to a line voltage (Line
1, Line 2, and Line 3, respectively) present on the A1800 ALPHA meter connections. The
state of the indicators correspond to the following:

If the indicators are on, then all expected line voltages are present.
If an indicator is blinking, then that expected line voltage is either missing or below the
defined threshold for voltage sag detection.
If an indicator is off, the line is not expected for the configured meter type.
See Voltage sagsfor more details on momentary voltage sag detection and the phase
indicators.

Energy direction indicators. The energy direction indicators display the quadrant and
direction of the last Wh (active) and varh (reactive) energy flow. Positive energy flow is
energy delivered to the consumer load, while reverse energy flow is energy received from the
consumer load. Figure 3-3 shows the meaning of each energy direction indicator.

The energy direction indicators turn on to display energy flow direction when any of the
meter phases are measuring energy flow (that is, when one of the line currents is above the
meter starting threshold).

Figure 3-3. Energy direction indicators


Positive reactive energy

Reverse active energy Positive active energy

Reverse reactive energy


Technical manual 3-3 Operating instructions

On meters with the Always Positive option, the +P indicator is on continuously whenever
kWh flow of any direction is detected. The P indicator is inoperative for this meter
configuration (see Always Positive on page 2-13 for more information).

Power/energy units identifier. The power/energy units identifier is used to indicate the
unit of measurement for the quantity displayed on the meters LCD. In some cases, it may not
be possible to represent the displayed quantity using the power/energy units identifier. If this
is the case, then the power/energy units identifier will not be used. Instead, the quantity will
be identified either using the quantity identifier or appending the unit to the display quantity.

Alternate display indicator. This indicator (*) displays when the A1800 ALPHA meter is
operating in alternate mode. This indicator also displays during the all segment test of the
LCD.

See Operating modes on page 3-7 for more information on the different operating modes.

Error indicator. The error indicator flashes when any error condition is present or remains
on if a warning condition is present. When the error indicator is on, the LCD will also display
the appropriate error or warning code. See System service error codes on page 4-10 and
Codes and warnings on page 6-2 for details.

Note: This indicator also turns on during the LCD all-segments test.
Low battery indicator. The low battery indicator is turned on when the TOU battery
voltage is low or when the TOU battery is missing. Additionally, the low battery warning
display item (if included in the display list) also is displayed.

Note: This indicator also turns on during the LCD all-segments test.
Active COM port indicator. The active COM port indicator indicates that a
communication session is in progress and which COM port is being used.
Table 3-1. Port codes
Code Port
COM 0 Optical port
COM 1 Remote port 1
COM 2 Remote port 2

See Communication codes on page 6-8 for additional details.

Display indicators. The 12 display indicators () are used to more precisely identify the
information displayed on the meters LCD.

Note: These identifiers may be shown individually or in combination to describe a


particular displayed quantity.
Note: The manufacturers nameplate details the meaning of the display indicators. See
Appendix C, Nameplate and style number information.
Tariff indicators. The tariff indicators (T1, T2, T3, and T4) indicate the current tariff. If the
displayed quantity is a TOU item (for example, tariff 1 total kWh), the corresponding
indicator (T1) turns on. If the quantitys tariff is active at the time, the tariff indicator flashes.

Note: The active tariff indicators also turns on during the LCD all-segments test.
EOI indicator. The end-of-interval (EOI) indicator is used to verify the timing of the demand
interval. Ten seconds before the end of the demand interval, the EOI indicator will be turned
on and remain on until the end of the interval.
Technical manual 3-4 Operating instructions

For rolling demand, the EOI indicator turns on for 10 seconds before the end of
each subinterval.

Transformer and line loss compensation indicator. The loss compensation (LC) indicator
indicates the meter is currently compensating for transformer and line loss.

Cover tamper indicator. The cover tamper (TC) indicator indicates that either the terminal
cover or the meter cover is removed. This may indicate that tampering has occurred on the
meter. The TC indicator turns off when all the covers are in place. See Cover tamper
detection switches on page 2-5 for additional information.

Test mode indicator. The test (TST) mode indicator indicates that the meter is currently
operating in test mode. See Test mode on page 3-8 for details.

Push buttons
The following push buttons are located on the front of the A1800 ALPHA meter:

RESET (sealable)
* (ALT)
If sealed, the RESET button is only accessible after breaking the seal; the button is always
accessible.

Figure 3-4. A1800 ALPHA meter push buttons

* (ALT) button

RESET button
(sealable)

RESET button. To activate the RESET button, it may be necessary to break the seal that
locks the RESET button in the inactive position. After the seal is broken, rotate the push
button 90 in either direction and press the push button (see Figure 3-5). Pressing the RESET
button performs a demand reset (see Demand reset on page 3-9 for a description on what
happens during a demand reset). The RESET button performs differently depending on the
A1800 ALPHA operating mode, as shown in Table 3-2.
Technical manual 3-5 Operating instructions

Table 3-2. RESET button behavior


Mode Description
Normal Performs a demand reset
Alternate Returns to normal mode and performs a demand reset
Test Resets test value and remains in test mode

To seal the RESET button, rotate the RESET button 90 back to the inactive position and
apply the seal.

Figure 3-5. RESET button positions

Inactive position Active position


RESET button RESET button can be pressed
cannot be pressed

Using to lock service. Pressing the RESET button will accept and lock the detected service
when the service test lock mode has been set to manual and the system service voltage test
has just been performed by the A1800 ALPHA meter. See Manual lock on page 4-6 for
more details.

Using the RESET button to lock the service will not perform a demand reset unless
it is pressed a second time.

* button. Pressing the button normally initiates the alternate mode (see Operating modes
on page 3-7 for more information about the A1800 ALPHA operating modes). The * button
performs differently depending on the operating mode, as shown in Table 3-3.

Note: All the A1800 ALPHA meter have the backlight display option, therefore the *
button can be used to illuminate the display. See Using the backlight on page 3-6
for more information.
Technical manual 3-6 Operating instructions

Table 3-3. * button function in different operating modes


Mode Press method Description
Normal Less than 1 second Enters alternate mode, LCD displays one cycle of the alternate display list, and returns
to normal mode.
Alternate Continuous Scrolls quickly through the alternate display list while pressed; locks LCD on a display
quantity when released.
Press and release If the LCD is locked on a display quantity, each press steps to the next quantity in the
alternate display list.
Test Continuous Scrolls quickly through the test mode display list while pressed; locks LCD on a display
quantity when released.
Press and release If the LCD is locked on a display quantity, each press steps to the next quantity in the
test display list.

Using the backlight. All the A1800 ALPHA meter have the backlight for the LCD. Once
the backlight is turned on, the LCD will be illuminated for two minutes.

To illuminate the LCD, use the following process (see Figure 3-6):

1. Press either the * button or the RESET button. The backlight turns on for the specified
illumination time.
2. While the LCD is illuminated, the push buttons will operate as follows:
The RESET button operates as specified in Table 3-2.
The * button operates as specified in Table 3-3.
3. The backlight will turn off at the end of the illumination time. Pressing either the *
button or the RESET button restarts the process, beginning with step 1.

The A1800 ALPHA meter can be ordered with the backlight always turned on. With this
option, the LCD backlight will always be illuminated, and the RESET and * buttons will
operate as specified in Table 3-2 and Table 3-3, respectively.
Technical manual 3-7 Operating instructions

Figure 3-6. Using the backlight on the A1800 ALPHA meter LCD (default operating mode)

Backlight off

Any button is
pressed

Backlight on

Enter alternate Perform


mode demand reset

Button pressed
while LCD lit? Yes,
Yes, *
RESET

No

Has time
expired?
No

Yes

Operating modes
The A1800 ALPHA meter operates in one of the following modes:

normal mode
alternate mode
test mode

As part of its function, the meter performs self tests to make sure it is operating normally. The
self test ensures that the A1800 ALPHA meter is functioning properly and that its displayed
quantities are accurate. If the self test indicates an error, the LCD displays the error indicator.
In addition, the meter can be programmed to lock the error code on the display. The meter
attempts to function normally, however, the meter data may be suspect. See Meter self test
on page 6-1 for more information on self tests and errors.

Normal mode
Normal mode is the default operation mode for the A1800 ALPHA meter. It is generally used
to display billing data on the LCD. The meter is fully operational in this mode, and it will
process and store data while the LCD scrolls through the normal display list quantities.

The LCD test will always appear immediately after power is connected to the
A1800 ALPHA meter or after a power restoration from an outage.
Technical manual 3-8 Operating instructions

Typically, the normal mode display cycle begins with an LCD test which turns on all of the
display segments. This is recommended because it provides a quick way to determine if the
LCD is functioning properly. The LCD test can be disabled using Elster meter support
software. The normal display cycle will scroll through all programmed display quantities
before beginning the cycle again.

While in normal mode, the LEDs transmit pulses proportional to metered energy. See LED
pulse outputs on page 5-6 for details on the LEDs.

Alternate mode
Alternate mode can be programmed with Elster meter support software to display a second
set of quantities on the LCD. Alternate mode is most often used for displaying non-billing
data, but it can be programmed to display any of the available quantities. This mode is
activated in one of the following ways:

pressing the * button on the A1800 ALPHA meter


after power up for one cycle of the alternate display list
Note: This feature can be disabled using Elsters meter support software.
The meter is fully operational while in alternate mode. While in alternate mode, the alternate
display indicator is turned on. Additionally, the LEDs transmit pulses (see LED pulse
outputs on page 5-6).

There are several different ways to exit alternate mode. Whenever exiting the alternate mode,
the meter returns to normal mode.
Table 3-4. Exiting alternate mode
Method Description
Wait for the end of the If the meter is scrolling through the alternate display list
alternate display list automatically, the meter exits alternate mode after the last
item is displayed.
Press the RESET button Exits alternate mode and performs a demand reset.
Wait for the timeout If the LCD remains on a quantity, the meter exits alternate
mode after 2 minutes of inactivity. If the LCD remains on
a pulse line cumulative counter, the meter will exit the
alternate mode at midnight.
Power failure occurs Exits alternate mode; when power is restored, the meter's
display is in normal mode.
At midnight Exits alternate mode at the next midnight crossing.

Test mode
The A1800 ALPHA meter enters test mode by a command through the optical port. While in
test mode, the test mode indicator (TST) will flash on the meters LCD.

Test mode displays test readings without affecting the present energy usage and billing data
values in the A1800 ALPHA meter. Shorter demand intervals may be used in test mode to
reduce demand test time and will not interfere with billing data.

When normal mode is resumed, readings taken during test mode will be discarded and
present energy usage and billing data values will be restored. The status of the meter
(including billing data, profiling data, errors, and warnings) before the meter entered test
mode is restored.

While in test mode, the optical port transmits test pulses proportional to metered energy (see
LED pulse outputs on page 5-6).
Technical manual 3-9 Operating instructions

Test mode is entered using Elster meter support software. The meter exits test mode under
any of the following conditions:
Table 3-5. Exiting test mode
Method Description
Test mode expires Automatically after a programmable timeout has expired
(between 1 and 255 test mode intervals)
Send an exit command Using Elster meter support software, send an exit
command over the optical port.
Automatically after 24 hours Automatically after a programmable timeout (1-255 test
mode intervals).
Power failure occurs Exits test mode; when power is restored, the meter's
display is in normal mode.

Demand reset
A demand reset can be performed one of three ways:

pressing the RESET button


issuing a command over the optical or remote ports
as a scheduled calendar event
Regardless of how the demand was reset, the meter performs many different functions,
including the following:

the present billing data is copied to the demand reset data area
the billing datas present maximum demand is added to the cumulative demand, and
then the billing datas present maximum demand is reset to zero
the billing datas dates and times of the maximum demands are reset to zero
the billing datas present coincident values are reset to zero
all demand calculations are reset to zero and a new demand interval is started
previous interval demands are reset to zero
present interval demands are reset to zero
all average power factor calculations are restarted
pulse line cumulative counters are cleared
current conditions for certain errors or warnings are cleared

As a security feature, the meter records these values:

the cumulative number of demand resets (rolls over to zero after 255)
the cumulative number of manual demand resets (pressing the RESET button or
issuing a command)
date and time of last demand reset
number of days since the last demand reset
the method of the most recent demand reset (for example, button press, procedure, or
calendar)
if configured, the event log records every demand reset
Technical manual 3-10 Operating instructions

Demand reset lockout


Through Elster meter support software, a demand reset lockout time can be defined. The
demand reset lockout can remain in effect for up to 255 minutes after a demand reset
(regardless of the method of demand reset). During the demand reset lockout, subsequent
demand resets will be ignored by the meter. This prevents subsequent demand resets (for
example, accidental or tamper-related demand reset presses). If a power failure occurs during
the demand reset lockout period, the lockout is released upon power restoration.

Demand reset data area


In all demand reset occurrences, the meter copies the present billing data and stores it in the
demand reset data area. This data is referred to as the previous billing data because its general
purpose is to preserve the data as one billing period ends and the next billing period begins.
The meter stores only one copy of the previous billing data. The next demand reset
overwrites whatever is currently stored as the previous billing data.

Previous billing data is different from self reads, which can store multiple copies of the
billing data. See Self reads on page 2-15 for more information.
Technical manual 4-1 Meter tools

4 Meter tools

System instrumentation
System instrumentation is a collection of displayable items designed to assist in evaluating a
service by providing real time analysis of the conditions present at the A1800 ALPHA
installation. Instrumentation quantities should not be confused with billing quantities because
they are intended for an entirely different purpose.
Technical manual

System instrumentation quantities are measured instantaneously while billing quantities are
measured and averaged over a number of minutes. Instrumentation quantities are generally
provided on a per phase basis, while billing quantities represent a combination of all present
phases. This can result in discrepancies between similar billing and instrumentation data, and
this is to be expected.

The instrumentation measurements are near instantaneous. Using Elster meter support
software, instrumentation quantities may be placed in normal, alternate, or test mode display
sequences. The alternate mode display sequence is recommended because it is generally not
necessary for these quantities to be displayed at all times.

Most instrumentation quantities are true root mean square (rms) measurements over an even
number of line cycles, but others are compound quantities. Compound quantities require
multiple measurements at slightly different times with the results calculated from these
multiple measurements. Instrumentation quantities can also round or restrict the quantity to a
desirable value under certain system conditions. See Table 4-1 for more information about
how the instrumentation quantities are obtained.The quantities that are indicated by a
footnote are updated about every second; the remaining quantities are updated about every 5
seconds.
Table 4-1. Description of system instrumentation quantities
Instrumentation quantity Description
Frequency1 Measured on line 1 voltage.
System kW The signed sum of the kW measurement on each phase taken only moments
apart
System kVA (arithmetic) The signed sum of the kVA measurement on each phase taken only moments
apart
System kvar (arithmetic) Calculated using the following equation:

kvar (system kVAarith ) 2 - (system kW) 2

System power factor (arithmetic) System kW divided by system kVA (arithmetic)


System power factor angle (arithmetic) The arccosine of system power factor (arithmetic)
1
Phase kW and kVA Measured directly by meter engine
1
Phase kvar (vectorial) Calculated using the following equation (where kVA and kW are measured
simultaneously):

kvar kVA 2 - kW 2
The result is then signed based on the kvar direction.
System kvar (vectorial) Sum of the per phase kvar (vectorial)
Technical manual 4-2 Meter tools

Table 4-1. Description of system instrumentation quantities


Instrumentation quantity Description
System kVA (vectorial) Calculated using the following equation:

kVAvect system kW 2 (system kvarvect ) 2

System power factor (vectorial) System kW divided by system kVA (vectorial)


System power factor angle (vectorial) The arccosine of system power factor (vectorial)
Phase voltages and currents1 True rms values measured by meter engine
Phase voltage angle relative to line 1 voltage1 Each voltage angle is measured relative to line 1 voltage zero crossings and
rounded to 30
Phase current angle relative to line 1 voltage Each current angle is measured relative to line 1 voltage zero crossings
Phase power factor Phase kW divided by phase kVA, both measured simultaneously. Phase power
factor is set to 1.00 if phase current is less than the absolute minimum current
(twice starting amps).
Phase power factor angle1 The power factor angle is the arccosine of the phase power factor
Phase 1st harmonic (fundamental) voltage The per phase magnitude of the fundamental voltage
magnitude
Phase 1st harmonic (fundamental) current The per phase magnitude of the fundamental current
magnitude
Phase 2nd harmonic voltage magnitude The per phase magnitude of the 2nd harmonic voltage
Phase 2nd harmonic current magnitude The per phase magnitude of the 2nd harmonic current
Phase 2nd harmonic voltage percentage Per phase, the 2nd harmonic voltage magnitude divided by the fundamental
voltage magnitude
Phase total harmonic current magnitude Per phase, the square root of the sum of the 2nd - 15th harmonic currents
squared. In other words:

i 15
HCi
2
THC
i 2

where HCi = ith harmonic current


Phase total harmonic distortion percentage Calculated by using:
(voltage or current)
rms 2 - fundamental 2
THD 100
fundamental
where:
rms represents an unfiltered rms phase voltage or current
fundamental represents the fundamental rms phase voltage or current
Per phase total demand distortion Calculated by using:

i 15
HCi
2

i2
TDD
Maximum amps
where HCi represents the ith harmonic current.
1 Updated about every 1 second.
Technical manual 4-3 Meter tools

Voltage, current, kW, kvar, and kVA instrumentation quantities have an error of less than
0.25 %. Accuracy will diminish as the value of the quantity becomes smaller.

The meters LCD can be programmed with Elsters meter support software to display
primary instrumentation values.

If the LCD remains on an instrumentation quantity while in alternate or test mode,


the displayed instrumentation quantity updates once per second. See * button on
page 3-5 for more information on locking the LCD on a desired quantity.

The quantity identifier gives information about the quantity being displayed on the
A1800 ALPHA meter LCD, as indicated in Table 4-2.
Table 4-2. System instrumentation quantity identifiers
Quantity identifier Description
L123 System instrumentation measurements
L1 Line 1 measurements
L2 Line 2 measurements
L3 Line 3 measurements
L1 H2-15 Line 1 total harmonic distortion
L2 H2-15 Line 2 total harmonic distortion
L3 H2-15 Line 3 total harmonic distortion
L1 H1 Line 1 1st harmonic
L2 H2 Line 2 1st harmonic
L3 H2 Line 3 1st harmonic
L1 H2 Line 1 2nd harmonic
L2 H2 Line 2 2nd harmonic
L3 H2 Line 3 2nd harmonic
L1 TDD Line 1 total demand distortion
L2 TDD Line 2 total demand distortion
L3 TDD Line 3 total demand distortion

The display quantity will show a measurement and a unit of measure on the A1800 ALPHA
meter LCD. See Figure 4-1 and Figure 4-2 for examples showing system instrumentation
quantities. See Appendix B, Display table, for information about displayable items.

Figure 4-1. Instrumentation line 1 voltage

+P
L1 L2 L3
Technical manual 4-4 Meter tools

Figure 4-2. Instrumentation system kVA

+P
L1 L2 L3

Immediately before displaying a system instrumentation quantity, the meter begins to


measure that quantity. If the result of the instrumentation measurement is not immediately
available, dashes (-) will be shown in the display quantity until the measurement is complete.
See Figure 4-3 and Figure 4-4 for examples of system instrumentation display quantities
while the measurement is in progress and when a result is available.

Figure 4-3. Instrumentation line 2 current in progress

+P
L1 L2 L3

Figure 4-4. Instrumentation line 2 current measurement (secondary)

+P
L1 L2 L3

Figure 4-5. Instrumentation line 2 current measurement (primary)

+P
L1 L2 L3

If an A1800 ALPHA meter is programmed to display a system measurement quantity for a


phase that does not exist (for example, Line 2 on a two-element meter), then that display
quantity will be skipped automatically. This allows different meter types to be programmed
with similar configurations using Elster meter support software.
Technical manual 4-5 Meter tools

System service tests


System service tests can be performed to determine the validity of the electrical service that
the A1800 ALPHA meter is metering. The system service tests consist of a service voltage
test and a service current test.

Service voltage test


The service voltage test is intended to assist in identifying the following:

incorrectly wired or misapplied voltage transformers


open or missing line fuses
The following are validated by this test:

phase voltages
phase voltage angles
phase rotation
The meter measures each phase voltage and phase voltage angle and attempts to match the
measurements to a stored list of valid services.

If the service voltage test is successful, the validated service is shown on the meters
LCD and the meter will continue to the next display quantity in the sequence.
If the test is not successful, a warning is set. Also, the LCD will indicate a service error
by displaying SE plus a code on the LCD. See System service error codes on page 4-
10 for more information about system service error codes.
The following conditions can cause the service voltage test to fail:

phase voltage angles not within 15 of the expected service phase angles
phase voltage magnitudes not within the tolerance of the nominal service voltages
programmed into the meter with Elster meter support software
System service locking. Once a service voltage test has detected a valid service, it can be
locked into the A1800 ALPHA meter memory. A locked valid service is used as a basis for
future system service tests and TRueQ tests. The following information will be stored in the
meter when the service is locked:

service type identification


nominal service voltage
voltage phase rotation
service voltage and current limits
voltage sag detection threshold
The A1800 ALPHA meter can lock a valid service in either of these ways:

smart autolock
manual lock (on default)
To indicate that a service voltage test is complete, the LCD displays the following (an
example is shown in Figure 4-6):

phase rotation (for example, L1-2-3 or L3-2-1)


voltage magnitude (for example, 120 or 240)
service type showing the number of wires and the service type, for example:
1L is a single phase service
3 is a 3-wire delta service
4Y is a 4-wire wye service
Technical manual 4-6 Meter tools

Figure 4-6. Sample service voltage test result

+P
L1 L2 L3

The voltage magnitude and service type are surrounded by brackets to indicate that the
service is locked (see Figure 4-7).

Figure 4-7. Sample display of locked service voltage

+P
L1 L2 L3

Smart autolock. When smart autolock is enabled through Elster meter support software, the
A1800 ALPHA meter will attempt to lock the service automatically once it is determined to
be valid. Both the voltage magnitude and phase angle of the service are compared to a table
of valid relationships stored within the meter memory. The meter accepts the service that
most closely matches one of the stored values in the A1800 ALPHA meter.

The A1800 ALPHA meter periodically checks the service. Under certain conditions, the
smart autolocked service may lock on a different service. This is useful because the meter
may have been moved to a new service. The service voltage test will be performed and the
service may be changed in response to the following events:

power up
exit of test mode
after a data-altering communication session
If a new, valid service is detected, the meter locks on the new service. If a valid service
cannot be detected, the meter responds in the following manner:

the meter remains locked on the last known valid service


the LCD displays an error code
Manual lock. When configured through Elster meter support software for manual lock, the
A1800 ALPHA meter will detect and evaluate the service in the same manner as it does
when autolock is enabled. The identified service information will also be shown on the LCD;
however, the RESET button must be pressed in order to lock the detected service (see Using
to lock service on page 3-5).

When the service type has been detected, the phase rotation, voltage magnitude, and the
service type will be displayed on the LCD. If the RESET button is not pressed to accept the
service, the LCD will alternate between L1-2-3 ------ and the detected service
information until the service has been manually locked.

Once manually locked, the service never unlocks automatically. To move the
A1800 ALPHA meter to a new installation with a different type of service, the
service must be unlocked using Elster meter support software. The new service type
can then be detected and manually locked.
Technical manual 4-7 Meter tools

Initiating service voltage tests. When enabled, the service voltage test is initiated at any
of the following times:

after power up, a data-altering communications session, or exiting test mode


at midnight
Service voltage tests can also be initiated at any of these times, depending on meter
configuration:

as a display item
as a TRueQ test (for meters with TRueQ capabilities)
The behavior of the service voltage test depends on these factors:

the event that initiates the service voltage test


the state of the service lock
After power up, data-altering communications session, or exiting test mode. The following
table explains meter behavior when the service voltage test is performed after any of the
following:

power is applied to the meter


data-altering communications session
exiting test mode

Manual lock Manual lock


Smart autolock
Current state is locked Current state is unlocked
1 The meter initiates the service voltage 1 The meter initiates the service voltage 1 The meter initiates the service voltage
test. test. test.
2 The meter attempts to detect a valid 2 The phase indicator voltage threshold 2 The phase indicator voltage thresholds
service. levels are based on the currently locked are set at the default values.
If a valid service is detected, the service. 3 The meter attempts to detect a valid
meter automatically locks on the 3 The meter attempts to match the service.
detected service. The LCD displays service. If a valid service is found, the LCD
the locked valid service. If the service matches the presently displays the data for the service it
If a valid service cannot be found, locked service, then the LCD detected.
the meter displays SE 555000. displays the locked valid service. If a valid service is not found, the
The meter restarts the service If the service does not match the LCD displays SE 555000. The
voltage test in diagnostic mode (see presently locked service, then the meter restarts the service voltage
Restarting the service voltage test LCD displays the service test error. test until a valid service is found.
in diagnostic mode on page 4-9). The meter restarts the service 4 While a valid service is displayed, the
However, the meter remains locked voltage test in diagnostic mode (see user can manually lock the service.
on the last valid service until a new Restarting the service voltage test The user presses the RESET button
valid service is detected. in diagnostic mode on page 4-9). to lock the service. The LCD
displays the locked service.
If the user does not lock the service,
the meter returns to the service test
until a valid service is found and
locked.

If the service voltage test is interrupted (for example, the button is pressed or there is a
communications session), the meter restarts the service voltage test after handling the
interruption.
Technical manual 4-8 Meter tools

At midnight. If the service is locked, the meter checks the service at midnight. The meter
always does the following when the service voltage test is run at midnight:

Manual lock
Smart autolock
Current state is locked
1 The meter initiates the service test. 1 The meter initiates the service test.
2 The phase indicator voltage threshold 2 The phase indicator voltage threshold
levels are based on the currently locked levels are based on the currently locked
service. service.
3 The meter attempts to match the service. 3 The meter attempts to match the service.
If the service matches the presently If the service matches the presently
locked service, then the LCD displays locked service, then the LCD displays
the locked valid service. the locked valid service.
If the service does not match the If the service does not match the
presently locked service, then the LCD presently locked service, then the LCD
displays SE 555000. The meter displays a service test error. The meter
restarts the service voltage test in restarts the service voltage test in
diagnostic mode (see Restarting the diagnostic mode (see Restarting the
service voltage test in diagnostic service voltage test in diagnostic
mode on page 4-9). However, the lock mode on page 4-9). However, the lock
remains on the last valid service until a remains on the last valid service until a
new valid service is detected. new valid service is detected.

If the service test is interrupted (for example, the button is pressed or there is a
communications session), the meter restarts the service test after handling the interruption.

If the service has not been locked, the test is not performed and the LCD displays
SE 555000.

As a display item in a display sequence. Using Elster meter support software, the service
voltage test can be programmed as a displayable quantity in any display sequence. The
service test is initiated when the service test quantity is displayed on the LCD.

Manual lock
Smart autolock Service locking disabled
Current state is locked
1 The meter initiates the service test. The service test is performed as the 1 The meter initiates the service test.
2 The meter attempts to match the autolock. If a valid service is detected, the
service. LCD displays the valid service.
If the service detected matches the If a valid service cannot be found,
presently locked service, then the the meter displays SE 555000.
LCD displays the locked valid 2 After the LCD displays the valid
service. service or the service test error, the
If the service does not match the LCD continues to the next item in the
presently locked service, then the display sequence.
LCD displays a service test error.
3 After the LCD displays the locked
valid service or the service test error,
the LCD continues to the next item in
the display sequence.

As a TRueQ test. When the service voltage test is programmed as a TRueQ test, the service
test is performed only if the service is locked. TRueQ tests are available only on meters with
TRueQ capabilities. See Service voltage test on page 4-5 for more information.
Technical manual 4-9 Meter tools

Restarting the service voltage test in diagnostic mode. Depending on how the service
voltage test was started, the test restarts in diagnostic mode if the test fails. The
A1800 ALPHA meter uses the diagnostic mode if the service voltage test was started in these
ways:

after power up, data-altering communications session, or exiting test mode


at midnight
The diagnostic mode cycles through performing the service voltage test and displaying
information about the service that may be useful in determining why the test failed, as listed
below:

1. Perform the service voltage test.


2. Display line 1 voltage.
3. Perform the service voltage test.
4. Display line 2 voltage.
5. Perform service voltage test.
6. Display line 3 voltage.
7. Perform service voltage test.
8. Display line 2 voltage angle.
9. Perform service voltage test.
10. Display line 3 voltage angle.
If at any point a valid service is found and locked, the meter displays the locked service on
the LCD and continues to the next item in the display sequence. Otherwise, the cycle restarts
at step 1.

Service current test


The service current test validates system currents and is intended to assist in identifying the
following:

incorrectly wired or misapplied current transformers


open or missing load-side fuses
If the service current test is successful, L1-2-3 OK is shown on the A1800 ALPHA meter
LCD. The meter will continue to the next item in the display sequence. See Figure 4-8 for an
example of a successful service current test.

Figure 4-8. Service current test successful completion

+P
L1 L2 L3

If the test is not successful, a warning is set. Also, the LCD will indicate a service error by
displaying SE and a code, an example of which is shown in Figure 4-9. See System service
error codes on page 4-10 for more information. The following conditions can cause the
service current test to fail:

current remains on one phase while no current is on any other phase


current on any single phase is below the programmed low current limit
current on any phase is greater than the programmed absolute maximum
current is negative on any phase (reverse power)
power factor on any phase is less than the limit set for leading or lagging power factor
Technical manual 4-10 Meter tools

If all phases are below the absolute minimum current threshold, the low and missing current
failure will not be reported. It is assumed that this is a valid, no-load condition. In this case,
the low and zero current warnings will display if the condition exists.

Figure 4-9. Service current test error

+P
L1 L2 L3

Initiating the service current test. The service current test can be initiated in any of the
following ways:

the service current test may be placed in any display sequence. The service current test
will be performed when the quantity is displayed in the display sequence.
the service current test may be included in the TRueQ tests if the A1800 ALPHA meter
is equipped with this feature. The results of the TRueQ test will not be seen on the
LCD. See TRueQ monitoring on page 4-12 for more details on TRueQ.
the service current test may be programmed to be performed after successful service
voltage tests that perform automatically (but not as part of a display list)
If the A1800 ALPHA meter does not have a locked service, then the system service current
test will be skipped regardless of how the test is initiated.

Parameters regarding the system service current tests can be changed without requiring the
meter to be unlocked and then relocked or requiring the meter to be reset. These parameters
(configurable with Elster meter support software) include the following:

enable or disable per phase reverse power tests


absolute minimum current
per phase low currents
absolute maximum current
per phase leading and lagging power factor limits

System service error codes


When SE is shown on the LCD, the displayed quantity is a numeric code representing a
system service error. This indicates that there is a service problem detected by the
A1800 ALPHA meter. Table 4-3 and Table 4-4 show all possible system service error codes.
Table 4-3. System service voltage test error codes
Error code
Service error condition (SE) Voltage phase
L1 L2 L3
Low nominal voltage on line 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
Low nominal voltage on line 2 0 1 0 0 0 0
Low nominal voltage on line 3 0 0 1 0 0 0
High nominal voltage on line 1 2 0 0 0 0 0
High nominal voltage on line 2 0 2 0 0 0 0
High nominal voltage on line 3 0 0 2 0 0 0
Unrecognized service 5 5 5 0 0 0
Technical manual 4-11 Meter tools

Table 4-3. System service voltage test error codes


Error code
Service error condition (SE) Voltage phase
L1 L2 L3
Bad phase angle on line 1 8 0 0 0 0 0
Bad phase angle on line 2 0 8 0 0 0 0
Bad phase angle on line 3 0 0 8 0 0 0
Low voltage & bad phase angle on line 1 9 0 0 0 0 0
Low voltage & bad phase angle on line 2 0 9 0 0 0 0
Low voltage & bad phase angle on line 3 0 0 9 0 0 0
High voltage & bad phase angle on line 1 A 0 0 0 0 0
High voltage & bad phase angle on line 2 0 A 0 0 0 0
High voltage & bad phase angle on line 3 0 0 A 0 0 0

Table 4-4. System service current test error codes


Error code
Service error condition (SE) Current phase
L1 L2 L3
Missing line 1 current 0 0 0 1 0 0
Missing line 2 current 0 0 0 0 1 0
Missing line 3 current 0 0 0 0 0 1
Low line 1 current 0 0 0 2 0 0
Low line 2 current 0 0 0 0 2 0
Low line 3 current 0 0 0 0 0 2
Missing and low current on line 1 0 0 0 3 0 0
Missing and low current on line 2 0 0 0 0 3 0
Missing and low current on line 3 0 0 0 0 0 3
Low PF on line 1 0 0 0 4 0 0
Low PF on line 2 0 0 0 0 4 0
Low PF on line 3 0 0 0 0 0 4
Reverse power on line 1 0 0 0 5 0 0
Reverse power on line 2 0 0 0 0 5 0
Reverse power on line 3 0 0 0 0 0 5
Low PF & low current on line 1 0 0 0 6 0 0
Low PF & low current on line 2 0 0 0 0 6 0
Low PF & low current on line 3 0 0 0 0 0 6
Reverse power & low current on line 1 0 0 0 7 0 0
Reverse power & low current on line 2 0 0 0 0 7 0
Reverse power & low current on line 3 0 0 0 0 0 7
Excess current on line 1 current 0 0 0 8 0 0
Technical manual 4-12 Meter tools

Table 4-4. System service current test error codes


Error code
Service error condition (SE) Current phase
L1 L2 L3
Excess current on line 2 current 0 0 0 0 8 0
Excess current on line 3 current 0 0 0 0 0 8
Excess current & low PF on line 1 0 0 0 C 0 0
Excess current & low PF on line 2 0 0 0 0 C 0
Excess current & low PF on line 3 0 0 0 0 0 C
Excess current & reverse power on line 1 0 0 0 d 0 0
Excess current & reverse power on line 2 0 0 0 0 d 0
Excess current & reverse power on line 3 0 0 0 0 0 d

If service current errors are present on more than one phase, a single error code is displayed
to represent all detected errors. For example, SE 000308 indicates missing current on line
1 and excess current on line 3.

TRueQ monitoring
All A1800 ALPHA meters are equipped with the tamper restraint and quality (TRueQ)
monitoring features that can monitor circuit parameters on a cyclic basis, 24 hours a day
throughout the billing period. TRueQ tests may be turned on or off through Elster meter
support software.

TRueQ tests will recognize any deviation beyond the thresholds. When shipped, the meter is
stored with default values for the thresholds. Using Elster meter support software, these
thresholds can be edited.

Most TRueQ tests are performed individually so that circuit parameters are not being
monitored continuously. Each subsequent test will begin immediately after the previous one
has ended. The momentary voltage sag test, however, uses the per phase rms voltage
calculation which is part of the voltage sensing process within the meter engine. The rms
voltages are calculated once every 2 line cycles, so the momentary voltage sag test is capable
of recognizing any phase voltage deviation that remains below a specified threshold for as
few as 2 line cycles.

TRueQ timing
In addition to defining thresholds for each test, a minimum time may also be defined. Once
the monitored parameter falls outside the threshold and remains there longer than the
minimum time, the failure will be stored and the cumulative count will increment by one. A
cumulative timer will also be activated and will run for as long as the event is detected. The
cumulative count and timer for each test can be retrieved through Elster meter support
software.

TRueQ display items


The meter can be programmed to display a warning code on the LCD when a TRueQ test
fails. Warning codes can be enabled or disabled on a test-by-test basis using Elster meter
support software.

TRueQ and relays


If one or more relays are installed in the A1800 ALPHA meter, the relay can be programmed
to close when the failure occurs. When a failure condition is no long present, the warning
code will automatically clear; and any relays will open.
Technical manual 4-13 Meter tools

TRueQ log
All A1800 ALPHA meters record TRueQ events in the TRueQ log. Meters with TOU
capability will also record the date and time of any TRueQ failure in the TRueQ log. See
TRueQ log on page 2-17 for more information about the TRueQ log.

A qualified TRueQ failure causes the W2 020000 warning code to be shown on the
LCD. See W2 020000: TRueQ test failure warning on page 6-7 for more details.

Voltage sags
A momentary sag in voltage can reset process control equipment and computer systems. The
momentary voltage sag monitor watches for decreases in voltage that last for a measured
number of cycles. This monitor can detect any voltage decrease that falls below a
programmed threshold for as few as 2 line cycles. Threshold and duration are defined using
Elster meter support software.

The voltage sag threshold is defined as a percentage of the lowest nominal per phase voltage
and recommended to be in the range of 60 % to 99.9 %.

A sag is defined as a drop in phase voltage below the threshold for a duration greater than the
sag minimum time and less than the sag maximum time. If the condition exceeds the
maximum sag time, it will not be considered a sag event. The sag times can be configured to
a resolution of 8 milliseconds. The minimum time range can be from 32 milliseconds to 2.04
seconds. The maximum time range can be a time up to 546 seconds.

The potential indicators on the A1800 ALPHA meter LCD will indicate when voltage is
below the sag level threshold. When a phase voltage drops below the voltage sag threshold,
the corresponding potential indicator will blink.

Voltage sag counter and timer. Each phase voltage has a voltage sag counter and timer
associated with it. Each counter can accumulate up to 65,535 before rolling over to zero.
Each cumulative timer can record time for 414 days.

A voltage sag event is only counted if the voltage remains below the voltage sag threshold for
more than the minimum time and less than the maximum time. A voltage that remains below
the voltage sag threshold for longer than the maximum time is considered to be a low voltage
condition, and it is not counted by the momentary voltage sag monitor.

The counter and timer for each phase are maintained within the A1800 ALPHA meter
memory. These values can be reported and can be reset through Elster meter support
software.

See Voltage sag log on page 2-17 for more information about the log of momentary voltage
sag events.

TRueQ tests
TRueQ tests do not interfere with any meter functions related to energy measurement. These
tests run separately from the metering functions. Table 4-5 shows the available tests for
TRueQ, along with their description.
Table 4-5. TRueQ tests
TRueQ Test name Configuration based upon
Test 1 Service voltage test System service voltage test thresholds
Test 2 Low voltage test A specified low voltage threshold
Test 3 High voltage test A specified high voltage threshold
Test 4 Reverse power test & PF Service current test thresholds
Technical manual 4-14 Meter tools

Table 4-5. TRueQ tests


TRueQ Test name Configuration based upon
Test 5 Low current test Service current test thresholds
Test 6 Power factor (PF) A specified threshold for leading and
lagging
Test 7 Second harmonic current test A specified current threshold
Test 8 % Total harmonic distortion Specified THD percentage
(THD) current
Test 9 % Total harmonic distortion Specified THD percentage
voltage
Test 10 Voltage imbalance Minimum high voltage threshold and
imbalance threshold
Test 11 Current imbalance Minimum high current threshold and
imbalance threshold
Test 12 % total demand distortion Specified TDD percentage
(TDD)

The following TRueQ tests are available on all A1800 ALPHA meters programmed with
Metercat release 2.3 or later:
Table 4-6. Enhanced TRueQ tests
TRueQ Test name Configuration based upon
Test 13 Low voltage (Line 1) Specified low voltage threshold
Test 14 Low voltage (Line 2) Specified low voltage threshold
Test 15 Low voltage (Line 3) Specified low voltage threshold
Test 16 High voltage (Line 1) Specified high voltage threshold
Test 17 High voltage (Line 2) Specified high voltage threshold
Test 18 High voltage (Line 3) Specified high voltage threshold
Test 19 Low voltage and current Specified thresholds for low voltage and
present (Line 1) high current
Test 20 Low voltage and current Specified thresholds for low voltage and
present (Line 2) high current
Test 21 Low voltage and current Specified thresholds for low voltage and
present (Line 3) high current
Test 22 Current missing (Line 1) Specified thresholds for voltage and
current
Test 23 Current missing (Line 2) Specified thresholds for voltage and
current
Test 24 Current missing (Line 3) Specified thresholds for voltage and
current
Technical manual 4-15 Meter tools

During the low current and reverse power and power factor tests, there will be no
event detected if all measured line currents drop below the absolute minimum
current threshold. An event will be detected if any single phase or two phases drop
below the programmed threshold for the qualification time. This eliminates false
detection when the load is dramatically reduced or turned off.

TRueQ event counters and timers. Each TRueQ test has its own event counter associated
with it. Each counter can accumulate to a maximum of 65,535 before rolling over to zero. For
each TRueQ test, an event occurring on one phase or across multiple phases is counted as a
single event. The momentary voltage sag monitor, however, records counters and timers for
each phase. See Voltage sag counter and timer on page 4-13 for details.

The cumulative timer for each monitor can record time over 20 years. To increase the
cumulative counter or timer, the TRueQ test must fail for a period greater than the
qualification time. The cumulative timer includes the qualification time for the test (see
Figure 4-10). The qualification time is defined as zero to 60 minutes where zero causes the
event to be recognized immediately as it is detected.

Figure 4-10. Total TRueQ test failure time


TRueQ Qualification Remaining
failure time time

Time recorded by
meter

An event ends when the condition is no longer present. If an event occurs but does not last for
the qualification time, then neither the counter nor timer will reflect the event having
occurred.

The counter and timer for each monitor are maintained within the A1800 ALPHA meter
memory. These values can be reported and can be reset through Elster meter support
software.
Technical manual 4-16 Meter tools

Test 1 Name Service voltage test


Formula
(VL1 or VL2 or VL3 ) Specified low voltage threshold

Variable Based on service test thresholds


Default value Based on service test thresholds
Configuration based on System service voltage test thresholds
Description This test continually monitors service voltage. Voltage fluctuations outside the programmed limits are detected
and can indicate one of the following:
improper voltage transformer operation
inappropriate transformer tap settings
equipment failure
All voltage magnitudes and phase angles must fall within the thresholds for the locked service. The thresholds are
defined by the service voltage configuration. Programming the service voltage as a TRueQ test allows it to
continually run and create a log of the results.
Stored value None

Test 2 Name Low voltage test


Formula
(VL1 or VL2 or VL3 ) Specified low voltage threshold

Variable 0 % to 99.9 %
Default value 94.0 %
Configuration based on A specified low voltage threshold
Description This test checks the per phase voltages for values that fall below a specified limit. Each phase threshold can be set
individually and can be set at a value higher or lower than the limits selected for the service voltage test. This
allows a more thorough study of the voltage changes.
The threshold is defined as a percentage of the expected per phase nominal voltage (recommended to be in the
range of 60 % to 99.9 %). The percentage for each phase can be individually defined. The test fails if any phase
voltage exceeds the threshold.
Stored value Line 1 voltage (even if line 2 or line 3 causes the test to fail)

Test 3 Name High voltage test


Formula
(VL1 or VL2 or VL3 ) Specified high voltage threshold

Variable 100.1 % to 200.0 %


Default value 106.0 %
Configuration based on A specified high voltage threshold
Description This test checks the per phase voltages for values that exceed a specific limit. The threshold values can be set at a
value higher or lower than the limits selected for the service voltage test. This allows a more thorough study of
the voltage changes.
The threshold is defined as a percentage of the expected per phase nominal value. The percentage for each phase
can be individually defined. the test fails if any phase voltage exceeds the threshold.
Stored value Line 1 voltage (even if line 2 or line 3 causes the test to fail)
Technical manual 4-17 Meter tools

Test 4 Name Reverse power test and power factor test


Formula
Variable Based on service test thresholds
Default value Based on service test thresholds
Configuration based on Service current test thresholds
Description This test recognizes any condition where the current transformer may be wired incorrectly or where may
tampering may have occurred. The power factor (PF) threshold in this test is typically set to a very low value to
detect only abnormal conditions.
The PF thresholds are defined with the system service current test definition. Using the service current test
definition permits independent PF settings to be set for each service type. Each service type can have individual
leading and lagging thresholds.
Testing for reverse power can only be enabled or disabled for all phases simultaneously.
Stored value None

Test 5 Name Low current test


Formula
(I L1 or I L2 or I L3 ) Specified low current threshold

Variable Based on service test thresholds


Default value Based on service test thresholds
Configuration based on Service current test thresholds
Description This test checks the service current for values that fall below a specified limit. This test will check for erroneous
operation or failure of a current transformer and can detect signs of meter tampering. If all phase currents fall
below the limit on an initial no-load or test condition, then no warning or indication will be provided. A warning
will be issued when one or more phase currents fall below the threshold value for the qualification time while the
remaining phase currents stay above the limits.
This threshold is defined as a percentage of the A1800 ALPHA meter Class ampere rating from the system
service test definition. This percentage is applied on a per phase basis. The thresholds are defined by the service
current configuration.
Stored value None

Test 6 Name Power factor test


Formula
Variable 0.00 to 1.00 for minimum leading power factor (per phase)
0.00 to 1.00 for minimum lagging power factor (per phase)
Default value 0.20 for minimum leading power factor (per phase)
0.20 for minimum lagging power factor (per phase)
Configuration based on Specified thresholds for leading and lagging power factors
Description This test checks the power factor for any deviation beyond the programmed threshold. This monitor may be used
alone to monitor rate-based conditions or in conjunction with the reverse power test and PF monitor to provide a
more thorough analysis of power factor fluctuations.
The leading and lagging thresholds are individually defined for each phase. These settings may be different than
those defined in the service current configuration.
Stored value None
Technical manual 4-18 Meter tools

Test 7 Name Second harmonic current test


Formula
2 nd harmonic current 2 nd harmonic current magnitue threshold

Variable 0.00 % to 100.00 %


Default value Transformer-rated: 2.50 % of Class amps (per phase)
Self-contained: 1.25 % of Class amps (per phase)
Configuration based on A specified current threshold
Description This test checks for the presence of second harmonic current. The second harmonic current may be created by
equipment on the line or may indicate the presence of DC on the system. The threshold is defined as values in AC
amperes according to the meter class. The test fails if any phase exceeds the threshold.
To prevent the monitor from creating a false alarm from legitimate second harmonic current sources, the
recommended qualification time is 15 minutes.
Stored value Line 1 second harmonic magnitude (even if line 2 or line 3 causes the test to fail)

Test 8 Name % total harmonic distortion current test


Formula
Variable 0.0 % to 99.9 % of the fundamental current
Default value 30.0 % of the fundamental current (per phase)
Configuration based on A specified THD percentage
Description As the load on electrical systems becomes more saturated with electronic control devices (such as computers and
communications systems), there is a growing concern with the harmonics that these devices can contribute to the
electrical system. Total harmonic distortion, expressed as a percentage of the fundamental, is measurement of the
power quality of the circuit under these conditions.
The total harmonic distortion current test measures the per phase THD current and can alert the utility to
conditions that may be harmful or dangerous to the system or other equipment. The threshold is defined as a
percentage of the fundamental. The thresholds are defined by the service voltage configuration. The test phases if
any phase exceeds the threshold.
Stored value Line 1 THD (even if line 2 or line 3 causes the test to fail)

Test 9 Name % total harmonic distortion voltage test


Formula
Variable 00.0% to 99.9 % of the fundamental voltage
Default value 30.0 % of the fundamental voltage (per phase)
Configuration based on A specified THD percentage
Description As the load on electrical systems becomes more saturated with electronic control devices (such as computers and
communications systems), there is a growing concern with the harmonics that these devices can contribute to the
electrical system. Total harmonic distortion, expressed as a percentage of the fundamental, is a measurement of
the power quality of the circuit under these conditions.
The total harmonic distortion voltage test measures per phase THD voltage and can alert the utility to conditions
that may be harmful or dangerous to the system or other equipment. The threshold is defined as a percentage of
the fundamental. The thresholds are defined by the service voltage configuration. The test fails if any phase
exceeds the threshold.
Stored value Line 1 THD voltage (even if line 2 or line 3 causes the test to fail)
Technical manual 4-19 Meter tools

Test 10 Name Voltage imbalance test


Formula
(VL1 or VL2 or VL3 ) minimum voltage threshold and
lowest per phase voltage
imbalance threshold
highest per phase voltage

Variable Minimum voltage threshold: 0.00 % to 100.00 % of the nominal


Imbalance threshold: 0.00 % to 100.00 %
Default value Minimum voltage threshold: 80.00 % of the nominal
Imbalance threshold: 90.00 %
Configuration based on Minimum high voltage threshold and imbalance threshold
Description This test checks for an imbalance between phase voltages. The test first measures and normalizes each per phase
voltage. The voltages are normalized to account for different per phase nominal voltages as specified by the
locked service. To qualify as a failure, both the following conditions must exist:
The highest normalized per phase voltage must be greater than the minimum voltage threshold
The ratio of the lowest normalized per phase voltage to the highest (low/high) must be less than the imbalance
threshold
Using Elster meter support software, the minimum voltage threshold is defined as a percentage of the nominal
voltage, and the imbalance threshold is a fraction (0 to 1).
Stored value None

Test 11 Name Current imbalance test


Formula
(I L1 or I L2 or I L3 ) minimum current threshold and
lowest per phase current
imbalance threshold
highest per phase current

Variable Minimum current threshold: 0.00 % to 100.00 % of Class amperes


Imbalance threshold: 0.00 % to 100.00 %
Default value Minimum current threshold: 1.25 % of the Class amperes
Imbalance threshold: 5.00 %
Configuration based on Minimum high current threshold and imbalance threshold
Description This test checks for an imbalance between phase currents. To qualify as a failure, both the following must exist:
The highest per phase current must be greater than the minimum current threshold
The ratio between the lowest per phase current to the highest (low/high) must be less than the imbalance
threshold
Using Elster meter support software, the minimum current threshold is defined as a percentage of Class amperes,
and the imbalance threshold is a fraction (0 to 1).
Stored value None
Technical manual 4-20 Meter tools

Test 12 Name Total demand distortion


Formula
TDD threshold

Variable 0.00 % to 100.00 % of the class amperes (per phase)


Default value 10.00 % of the Class amperes
Configuration based on Specified TDD threshold
Description This test checks the per phase total demand distortion (TDD) and makes sure that the TDD is less than the
threshold. TDD measures the harmonic current distortion on each phase in percentage of the maximum demand
load current (Class amperes).
Stored value Line 1 % TDD (even if it is line 2 or line 3 that causes the test to fail)

Test 13 Name Low voltage (Line 1)


Formula
VL 1 Specified voltage threshold

Variable 0.0 % to 99.9 % of nominal


Default value 60.0 %
Configuration based on A specified voltage threshold
Description This test checks Line 1 voltage for values that fall below a specified limit. The threshold is defined as a
percentage of the expected Line 1 nominal voltage. The test fails if Line 1 voltage falls below the voltage
threshold.
Stored value Line 1 voltage

Test 14 Name Low voltage (Line 2)


Formula
VL 2 Specified voltage threshold

Variable 0.0 % to 99.9 % of nominal


Default value 60.0 %
Configuration based on A specified voltage threshold
Description This test checks Line 2 voltage for values that fall below a specified limit. The threshold is defined as a
percentage of the expected Line 2 nominal voltage. The test fails if Line 2 voltage falls below the voltage
threshold.
Stored value Line 2 voltage
Technical manual 4-21 Meter tools

Test 15 Name Low voltage (Line 3)


Formula
VL 3 Specified voltage threshold

Variable 0.0 % to 99.9 % of nominal


Default value 60.0 %
Configuration based on A specified voltage threshold
Description This test checks Line 3 voltage for values that fall below a specified limit. The threshold is defined as a
percentage of the expected Line 3 nominal voltage. The test fails if Line 3 voltage falls below the voltage
threshold.
Stored value Line 3 voltage

Test 16 Name High voltage (Line 1)


Formula
VL 1 Specified voltage threshold

Variable 100.1 % to 200.0 % of nominal


Default value 115.0 %
Configuration based on A specified voltage threshold
Description This test checks Line 1 voltage for values that exceed a specified limit. The threshold is defined as a percentage
of the expected Line 1 nominal voltage. The test fails if Line 1 voltage exceeds the voltage threshold.
Stored value Line 1 voltage

Test 17 Name High voltage (Line 2)


Formula
VL 2 Specified voltage threshold

Variable 100.1 % to 200.0 % of nominal


Default value 115.0 %
Configuration based on A specified voltage threshold
Description This test checks Line 2 voltage for values that exceed a specified limit. The threshold is defined as a percentage
of the expected Line 2 nominal voltage. The test fails if Line 2 voltage exceeds the voltage threshold.
Stored value Line 2 voltage
Technical manual 4-22 Meter tools

Test 18 Name High voltage (Line 3)


Formula
VL 3 Specified voltage threshold

Variable 100.1 % to 200.0 % of nominal


Default value 115.0 %
Configuration based on A specified voltage threshold
Description This test checks Line 3 voltage for values that exceed a specified limit. The threshold is defined as a percentage
of the expected Line 3 nominal voltage. The test fails if Line 3 voltage exceeds the voltage threshold.
Stored value Line 3 voltage

Test 19 Name Low voltage and current present (Line 1)


Formula
VL1 Specified voltage threshold and
I L1 Specified high voltage threshold

Variable 0.0 % to 99.9 % of nominal for Line 1 voltage


0.0003 to 1000.0000 amperes for Line 1 current
Default value 78.0 % for voltage threshold
0.0015 amps for current threshold
Configuration based on Specified thresholds for voltage and current
Description This test checks voltage and current on Line 1 to detect possible theft or VT problems on Line 1. This test fails if
the following conditions are present:
Current on Line 1 is greater than a specified current threshold, and
Voltage on Line 1 is less than a specified voltage threshold
Stored value Line 1 voltage

Test 20 Name Low voltage and current present (Line 2)


Formula
VL2 Specified voltage threshold and
I L2 Specified high voltage threshold

Variable 0.0 % to 99.9 % of nominal for Line 2 voltage


0.0003 to 1000.0000 amperes for Line 2 current
Default value 78.0 % for voltage threshold
0.0015 amps for current threshold
Configuration based on Specified thresholds for voltage and current
Description This test checks voltage and current on Line 2 to detect possible theft or VT problems on Line 2. This test fails if
the following conditions are present:
Current on Line 2 is greater than a specified current threshold, and
Voltage on Line 2 is less than a specified voltage threshold
Stored value Line 2 voltage
Technical manual 4-23 Meter tools

Test 21 Name Low voltage and current present (Line 3)


Formula
VL3 Specified voltage threshold and
I L3 Specified high current threshold

Variable 0.0 % to 99.9 % of nominal for Line 3 voltage


0.0003 to 1000.0000 amperes for Line 3 current
Default value 78.0 % for voltage threshold
0.0015 amps for current threshold
Configuration based on Specified thresholds for voltage and current
Description This test checks voltage and current on Line 3 to detect possible theft or VT problems on Line 3. This test fails if
the following conditions are present:
Current on Line 3 is greater than a specified current threshold, and
Voltage on Line 3 is less than a specified voltage threshold
Stored value Line 3 voltage

Test 22 Name Current missing (Line 1)


Formula
(VL1 or VL2 or VL3 ) specified voltage threshold and
I L1 specified current threshold and
(I L2 or I L3 ) specified current threshold

Variable 5.0 % to 100.0 % of nominal for Line 1 voltage threshold


5.0 % to 100.0 % of nominal for Line 2 voltage threshold
5.0 % to 100.0 % of nominal for Line 3 voltage threshold
0.0003 A to 1000.0000 A for Line 1 current threshold
0.0010 A to 1000.0000 A for Line 2 current threshold
0.0010 A to 1000.000 A for Line 3 current threshold
Default value 60.0 % of nominal for Line 1 voltage threshold
60.0 % of nominal for Line 2 voltage threshold
60.0 % of nominal for Line 3 voltage threshold
0.0015 A for Line 1 current threshold
0.0750 A for Line 2 current threshold
0.0750 A for Line 3 current threshold
Configuration based on Specified thresholds for voltage and current
Description This test checks voltage and current on all phases to help detect possible theft or CT problems on Line 1. This test
fails if the following conditions are present:
Voltage is present on any phase, and
Current is at or above a specified threshold on Line 2 or Line 3, and
Current is below a specified threshold on LIne 1
Stored value Line 1 current
Technical manual 4-24 Meter tools

Test 23 Name Current missing (Line 2)


Formula
(VL1 or VL2 or VL3 ) specified voltage threshold and
I L2 specified current threshold and
(I L1 or I L3 ) specified current threshold

Variable 5.0 % to 100.0 % of nominal for Line 1 voltage threshold


5.0 % to 100.0 % of nominal for Line 2 voltage threshold
5.0 % to 100.0 % of nominal for Line 3 voltage threshold
0.0010 A to 1000.0000 A for Line 1 current threshold
0.0003 A to 1000.0000 A for Line 2 current threshold
0.0010 A to 1000.000 A for Line 3 current threshold
Default value 60.0 % of nominal for Line 1 voltage threshold
60.0 % of nominal for Line 2 voltage threshold
60.0 % of nominal for Line 3 voltage threshold
0.0750 A for Line 1 current threshold
0.0015 A for Line 2 current threshold
0.0750 A for Line 3 current threshold
Configuration based on Specified thresholds for voltage and current
Description This test checks voltage and current on all phases to help detect possible theft or CT problems on Line 2. This test
fails if the following conditions are present:
Voltage is present on any phase, and
Current is at or above a specified threshold on Line 1 or Line 3, and
Current is below a specified threshold on LIne 2
Stored value Line 2 current
Technical manual 4-25 Meter tools

Test 24 Name Current missing (Line 3)


Formula
(VL1 or VL2 or VL3 ) specified voltage threshold and
I L3 specified current threshold and
(I L1 or I L2 ) specified current threshold

Variable 5.0 % to 100.0 % of nominal for Line 1 voltage threshold


5.0 % to 100.0 % of nominal for Line 2 voltage threshold
5.0 % to 100.0 % of nominal for Line 3 voltage threshold
0.0010 A to 1000.0000 A for Line 1 current threshold
0.0010 A to 1000.0000 A for Line 2 current threshold
0.0003 A to 1000.000 A for Line 3 current threshold
Default value 60.0 % of nominal for Line 1 voltage threshold
60.0 % of nominal for Line 2 voltage threshold
60.0 % of nominal for Line 3 voltage threshold
0.0750 A for Line 1 current threshold
0.0750 A for Line 2 current threshold
0.0015 A for Line 3 current threshold
Configuration based on Specified thresholds for voltage and current
Description This test checks voltage and current on all phases to help detect possible theft or CT problems on Line 3. This test
fails if the following conditions are present:
Voltage is present on any phase, and
Current is at or above a specified threshold on Line 1 or Line 3, and
Current is below a specified threshold on LIne 3
Stored value Line 3 current

Security
All A1800 ALPHA meters include features that help prevent unauthorized access to meter
data and record events that may indicate meter tampering.

Meter passwords
Access to the A1800 ALPHA meter is protected through the use of passwords. When
establishing communication with the meter, the meter will request a password. If the correct
password is not supplied, the meter will not communicate or perform the commands that it is
issued. Passwords help ensure that the meter data is protected and that the programming
cannot be altered without proper authorization.

The A1800 ALPHA meter uses three passwords to control access to the meter. As shown in
Table 4-7, each password allows different activities that can be performed on the meter. For
more information regarding passwords, see the documentation that comes with the Elster
meter support software.
Table 4-7. A1800 ALPHA meter passwords
Password Allowed activity
Read only The meter can be read. No alteration of data or programming is
allowed.
Billing read The meter can be read. Some basic data-altering activity relating to
billing functions is allowed.
Unrestricted The meter can be read. Full programming of the meter is allowed.
Technical manual 4-26 Meter tools

When communicating with the A1800 ALPHA meter remotely, the A1800 ALPHA meter
supports the password encryption standards in accordance with ANSI C12.21. In accordance
with ANSI C12.18, the password is not encrypted when communicating using the optical
port.

The meter records the number of failed password attempts that were used in trying to access
the meter. An internal warning will be generated if 10 failed password attempts occur since
the last demand reset. This warning can be used to control a relay output or to trigger an
alarm call.

Antitampering
All A1800 ALPHA meters provide auditing capabilities that can be used to indicate potential
meter tampering. These capabilities can record such items as the following:

programming changes
power outages
number of days since last pulse
number of manually-initiated demand resets
number of days since last demand reset
reverse energy flow
history log
cover removal detection

Program protection
As a security feature, the A1800 ALPHA meter can be ordered with program protection.
Program protection prevents metrological parameters from being altered. Some data and
configuration parameters can be altered while in program protection.1 These alterable items
must be specified at ordering and can include the following:

communication parameters
TRueQ parameters
time of day (TOU or load profiling configurations)
switch times (TOU configurations)
special dates list (TOU or load profiling configurations)
All other parameter changes require the meter to exit program protect mode.

To temporarily disable program protection:

1. Break the terminal cover seals and remove terminal cover. The TC indicator will turn
on.
2. Break the meter cover seals and lift the meter cover.
3. At this point, you can perform any of the data or program altering operations available
using the Elster meter support software.
4. Close the meter cover and install the seals.
5. Install the terminal cover and seals. The TC indicator will turn off.
If programmed to do so, changes in the state of the terminal cover and the meter cover are
logged in the event log. See Event logon page 2-14 for details.

1 On meters with a history log, it may be possible to change certain metrological parameters while in program protection. For more
information, see History logon page 2-14.
Technical manual 5-1 Outputs

5 Outputs

Relay outputs
All A1800 meters are equipped with 4 relay outputs. The A1800 ALPHA meter can be
ordered with 6 relays.1
Technical manual

A1800 ALPHA meter with RS-232 as second communication port

RS-232 connector
(optional)*

Pulse output relay


(optional)

RS-485 terminals

RS-232
connector

*Present when optional second communication port is installed


Pulse output relay default values RS-485 connections RS-232 connector
4-wire 1 2 3 4 5
Tx+ Rx-
6 7 8 9
Tx- Rx+
A B C D 1 = NC 6 = DSR
2-wire 2 = Rx 7 = RTS
A = Wh del + -bias 3 = Tx 8 = NC
B = varh del 4 = DTR 9 = NC
C = Wh rec 5 = GND
- +bias
D = varh rec

1
Support for up to 6 relays on A1800 ALPHA meter is a future option. Contact Elster Metronica for availability.
Technical manual 5-2 Outputs

Figure 5-1. A1800 ALPHA meter with RS-485 as second communication port

RS-485 connector
(optional)*

Pulse output relay


(optional)

RS-485 terminals

RS-232
connector

*Present when optional second communication port is installed


Pulse output relay default values RS-485 connections RS-232 connector
4-wire 1 2 3 4 5
Tx+ Rx-
A B C D 6 7 8 9
Tx- Rx+
A = Wh del 1 = NC 6 = DSR
B = varh del 2-wire 2 = Rx 7 = RTS
C = Wh rec + -bias 3 = Tx 8 = NC
D = varh rec 4 = DTR 9 = NC
5 = GND
- +bias

For more information about relay outputs and communications, see the instructional leaflet
(IL) that comes with the option board.

The output relays on the main circuit board can switch up to 125 VAC or 180 VDC at up to
70 mA. See Appendix D, Wiring diagrams.

With the A1800 ALPHA meter, all relay outputs are fully programmable using Elster meter
support software. Sources for relay outputs are listed in Table 5-1.
Table 5-1. Source for relay operation and output specifications
Relay source Relay output specification
Energy pulse For each pulse of the selected basic metered quantity
(see Metered energy and demand quantities on
page 2-10), the relay will do either of the following:
toggle (that is, turn on and off)
pulse for a specified length of time
Load control The relay closes when the demand exceeds the
specified demand threshold, and it remains closed for
the duration of the interval. The relay will open after
the demand remains below the threshold for one full
interval.
EOI indication The relay closes for 5 seconds after the end of each
interval or subinterval.
Technical manual 5-3 Outputs

Table 5-1. Source for relay operation and output specifications


Relay source Relay output specification
Demand forgiveness The relay closes while demand forgiveness is in
(cold load pickup) effect. The relay will open after the demand
forgiveness time has expired.
TRueQ tests failure Relay closes as long as the specified TRueQ tests
continue to fail (see TRueQ monitoring on page 4-
12).
Specified errors, warnings, and The relay closes for as long as the specified errors,
meter events warnings, or events persist (see Relay-related
alarms on page 5-4).
TOU switches to a specific tariff The relay closes for the duration of the specified
tariffs.

Figure 5-2. Toggle relay output



On

Pulse

Off
Pulse period Pulse period Pulse period

In toggle mode, a relay changes state for each energy pulse received from the meter engine.

Figure 5-3. Pulse relay output (default pulse width)


10 msec. 10 msec.
10 msec.
On

Pulse

Off
Pulse period Pulse period Pulse period

In pulse mode, a default pulse width of 10 milliseconds is generated for each energy pulse
received from the meter engine. Using Elster meter support, the width can be programmed
with a value from 1 millisecond to 255 milliseconds.

Energy pulse outputs


When a relay is used to echo energy pulses for a basic metered quantity, each pulse is equal to
a specified amount of energy.

Using Elster meter support software, there are two methods for specifying the weight of each
pulse.

Using pulse divisor. Program the energy pulse divisor with an integer value between 1 and
999.

Pulse constant
Energy pulse divisor
Relay constant
Technical manual 5-4 Outputs

The pulse constant (also known as the meter constant) for the A1800 ALPHA meter is as
follows:

For transformer rated meters: 40,000 pulses per kWh


For example, the desired relay constant is 1000 pulses per 1 kWh and the pulse
constant is 40,000 pulses per 1 kWh:

40000
Energy pulse divisor 40
1000

Using Elster meter support software, program the energy pulse divisor of 40 into the
meter.
Note: If the energy pulse divisor is not an integer, then the exact desired output is not
possible.
For direct connect-rated meters: 4000 pulses per kWh
For example, the desired relay constant is 1000 pulses per 1 kWh and the pulse
constant is 4000 pulses per 1 kWh:

4000
Energy pulse divisor 4
1000

Note: If the energy pulse divisor is not an integer, then the exact desired output is not
possible.
Using pulse value. Program the energy pulse value with a value between 0.000001 kWh
and 100 kWh to represent the amount of energy per pulse (in kilo units). For example, to
have one energy pulse represent 2 Wh (0.002 kWh), you would use an energy pulse value of
0.002.

Note: The pulse value method is available from the Tools > System Preferences >
Programming Options command in Metercat.
Note: Elster recommends that the pulse value should not be used when verifying meter
accuracy. Use the pulse divisor method when verifying meter accuracy.

Relay-related alarms
The A1800 ALPHA meter periodically performs a self test to determine if it is operating
properly. If any errors are detected, the meter can respond in any or all of the following ways:

display an error or a warning (see Codes and warnings on page 6-2)


initiate a telephone call using a modem
trigger a relay
See Table 5-2 for errors, warnings, and events that can trigger a relay.
Table 5-2. Errors, warnings, and events that can trigger a relay
Condition Description
Carryover error See E1 000001: Carryover error on page 6-3.
Clock error See E3 030000: Clock error on page 6-5.
Crystal oscillator error See E1 000010: Crystal oscillator error on page 6-4.
Demand overload warning See W1 100000: Demand overload warning on
page 6-7
EEPROM access error See E1 010000: EEPROM access error on page 6-4.
End of calendar warning See W2 200000: End of calendar warning on page 6-
8.
Event log wrap event The event log has exceeded the maximum number of
entries, and the oldest records will be overwritten.
Technical manual 5-5 Outputs

Table 5-2. Errors, warnings, and events that can trigger a relay
Condition Description
General configuration error See E1 100000: General configuration error on
page 6-4.
History log wrap warning The history log has exceeded the maximum number of
entries. Depending on programming, the meter will
either lock the history log or start overwriting the
oldest records. If the history log is locked, no further
changes to the meter are allowed until the history log
has been read.
Improper meter engine See W1 000010: Improper meter engine operation
operation warning warning on page 6-6
Instrumentation profiling set 1 Set 1 of the instrumentation profiling log is within 2
wrap imminent event days of overflowing. Data will be lost if the
instrumentation profiling log is not read within 2 days.
Instrumentation profiling set 2 Set 2 of the instrumentation profiling log is within 2
wrap imminent event days of overflowing. Data will be lost if the
instrumentation profiling log is not read within 2 days.
Internal communication error See E1 001000: Internal communication error on
page 6-4.
Low battery warning See W1 000001: Low battery warning on page 6-6.
Possible tamper warning This condition indicates possible tampering of the
meter because a specified number of invalid passwords
used to access the meter has been used (called tamper
detect warning in this manual). This condition does
not generate an error or warning code on the LCD.
Potential indicator warning See W1 010000: Potential indicator warning on
page 6-7.
Power fail data save error See E2 200000: Power fail data save error on page 6-
5.
Pulse profiling wrap imminent The pulse profiling log is within 2 days of overflowing.
event Data will be lost if the pulse profiling log is not read
within 2 days.
Rate override warning The current TOU rate is being overridden by the
alternate TOU rate schedule.
Reverse energy flow warning See W1 000100: Reverse energy flow warning on
page 6-7.
Service current test failure See W2 000002: Service current test failure warning
warning on page 6-7.
Service voltage test failure The service voltage test was unable to find a valid
warning service or the measured service does not match the
locked service.
Technical manual 5-6 Outputs

LED pulse outputs


The A1800 ALPHA meter has two energy light emitting diodes (LEDs), which are
permanently configured as follows:

active LED - indicates active (Wh) energy import or export


alternate LED - indicates alternate (varh/VAh) energy import or export
The LEDs emit pulse outputs that can be used to test the A1800 ALPHA meter in the field
without removing the meter from service or breaking the seal.

Figure 5-4. LEDs


Active energy LED

Alternate energy LED

Output specifications
The LEDs support up to 120 pulses per second.The pulse width is fixed at 8 msec.

Depending on the operating mode of the meter, the LEDs are programmed at the factory to
emit a pulse as follows:
Table 5-3. Transformer rated meter LED output specifications
Operating mode Pulse rate Pulse divisor
Normal 5000 pulses/kWh or 5000 pulses/kvarh 8
Alternate 5000 pulses/kWh or 5000 pulses/kvar 8
Test 40,000 pulses/kWh or 40,000 pulses/kvarh 1

Table 5-4. Direct connect-rated meter LED output specification


Operating mode Pulse rate Pulse divisor
Normal 500 pulses/kWh or 1000 pulses/kvarh 8
Alternate 500 pulses/kWh or 1000 pulses/kvarh 8
Test 4000 pulses/kWh or 4000 pulses/kvarh 1

For alternate pulse rates, contact your Elster Metronica representative.


Technical manual 6-1 Testing

6 Testing

A1800 ALPHA meters are factory calibrated and tested to provide years of trouble-free
service. No field calibrations or adjustments are required to ensure accurate operation of the
meter. It is normal, however, to test installed A1800 ALPHA meters periodically to ensure
accurate billing.

The A1800 ALPHA meter performs its own self tests. Additionally, the system
instrumentation and TRueQ features provide valuable information about the meter service.
Technical manual

See Chapter 4, Meter tools, for more information about the instrumentation and power
quality features of the meter.

Testing procedures are the same regardless of the type of meter being tested.

Meter self test


The A1800 ALPHA meter periodically performs a self test to determine if it is operating
properly. The self test ensures that the A1800 ALPHA meter is functioning properly and its
displayed quantities are accurate. Any errors encountered will be displayed on the LCD.
Certain errors may also initiate a telephone call via a modem or trigger a relay.

For LCD errors and warnings, see Codes and warnings on page 6-2.
For relay alarms, see Relay-related alarms on page 5-4.
The meter self test will be performed automatically under the following conditions:

when the meter is initially installed and after any power restoration
at midnight
immediately after a data-altering communication session
The self test incorporates a series of electronic analyses verifying many aspects of the
A1800 ALPHA meter. Continuity checks and communications checks are made between
various key circuits of the electronics, and parity checks are made of memory and data
locations. After the meter passes its self test upon power restoration, all of the LCD segments
will be turned on briefly before beginning the normal display sequence. The following is a
list of the specific tests performed during a self test:

verification of the configuration data and checksums


confirmation of the crystal oscillator accuracy
detection of low battery voltage
detection of low Read without Power battery voltage
maximum lifetime usage of the Read without Power battery
verification of normal microcontroller function
detection of unexpected meter engine resets (for multiple tariff configurations)
detection and identification of user-defined warning conditions
Technical manual 6-2 Testing

Codes and warnings


There are 3 types of codes:

error codes
warning codes
communication codes
The A1800 ALPHA meter displays error codes and warnings as an indication of a problem
that may be adversely affecting its operation. The meter will continue to function as normally
as possible when displaying an error or warning. The * and RESET buttons operate
differently if an error or warning is displayed. See Push buttons on page 3-4 for
information on how the push buttons operate when an error or warning is displayed.

Error codes indicate conditions that may be affecting billing data. It is not recommended to
operate the A1800 ALPHA meter for an extended time when it is displaying an error code.
Warning codes indicate conditions that may be of concern but do not affect the integrity of
billing data.

Communication codes generally indicate a condition affecting communications with the


meter through the optical port or remote port. Not all communication codes indicate potential
problems; some codes provide an indication of the present communication process.

Error codes. Error codes override any other item that is being displayed on the LCD. Using
Elster support software, error codes can be configured to lock the display, preventing other
items from being displayed, and the error indicator turns on. There are exceptions to errors
locking the display:

The normal and alternate display sequence can be viewed even when an error code
locks the display. See * button on page 3-5 for more information.
Warning codes can be programmed to display an error code. When the condition
causing the warning code is clear, the error code is no longer displayed. See E3
300000: Display locked by warning on page 6-5 for more information.
Communication codes are temporarily displayed on the LCD even when the LCD is locked
by an error code. After the communication code clears, LCD returns to showing the error
code.

Error codes are indicated on the LCD by a group code and a numerical code. The group code
makes it easier to identify the error on the LCD. The numerical code indicates the specific
condition that has occurred. See Figure 6-1 for a sample error code displayed on the meter
LCD. Table 6-1 through Table 6-3 describe the different error conditions and their codes.

Figure 6-1. Sample error code displayed on the LCD

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L1 L2 L3
Technical manual 6-3 Testing

Table 6-1. Group E1 error conditions and codes


Condition Code
Carryover error 0 0 0 0 0 1
Crystal oscillator error 0 0 0 0 1 0
Table CRC error 0 0 0 1 0 0
Internal communication error 0 0 1 0 0 0
EEPROM access error 0 1 0 0 0 0
General configuration error 1 0 0 0 0 0

Table 6-2. Group E2 error conditions and codes


Condition Code
Security configuration error 0 0 0 0 0 2
Password table CRC error 0 0 0 0 2 0
Encryption key table CRC error 0 0 0 2 0 0
ROM fail error 0 2 0 0 0 0
Power fail data save error 2 0 0 0 0 0

Table 6-3. Group E3 error conditions and codes


Condition Code
Clock error 0 3 0 0 0 0
Display locked by warning 3 0 0 0 0 0

Error codes of the same group are displayed in combination (E1 001010, for example),
indicating that more than one error condition has been detected. If errors exist in more than
one group, the meter will continually cycle through the different groups. Any problems must
be corrected before normal operation can continue. In some cases, the meter may need to be
reprogrammed or returned to the factory for repair or replacement.

E1 000001: Carryover error. This code indicates a failure of a RAM checksum test on data
stored in the meters volatile RAM during a power outage. When a loss of line voltage
occurs, the meters RAM is maintained by the super capacitor and the TOU battery. If both of
these fail, the data stored in RAM is lost. Billing data is stored in nonvolatile EEPROM and
will still be available.1 The push buttons and communications ports will function normally.

Since shipping can take several days, this error will likely be seen on meters
shipped without a connected battery.

The meter battery may need to be replaced, and the error will need to be reset through Elster
meter support software. If the error code is still shown after using Elster meter support
software, the meter must be returned to the factory for repair or replacement.

1 Billingdata is always stored in nonvolatile memory. Depending on meter configuration, other data may be stored in RAM, which
uses a battery to preserve memory. If the battery fails, this data would be lost.
Technical manual 6-4 Testing

E1 000010: Crystal oscillator error. This codes indicates a problem with the crystal
oscillator. The A1800 ALPHA meter must be returned to the factory for repair or
replacement.

E1 000100: Table CRC error. This code indicates a possible error in the A1800 ALPHA
meters programming. This code might appear if a communications interruption occurs
during meter programming. Depending on which area of the meter is affected, billing data
may not be reliably accumulated while this error condition exists. The push buttons and
optical port will continue to function normally.

Reprogramming the meter with Elster meter support software may correct the problem. If the
error code is displayed after reprogramming, the A1800 ALPHA meter should be returned to
the factory for repair or replacement.

E1 001000: Internal communication error. This code indicates the meter had an internal
communication error. The A1800 ALPHA meter must be returned to the factory for repair or
replacement.

E1 010000: EEPROM access error. This code indicates the meter had a problem accessing
its nonvolatile EEPROM. The A1800 ALPHA meter should be returned to the factory for
repair or replacement.

E1 100000: General configuration error. This code indicates a problem with the meters
configuration or program. The meter can usually be reprogrammed using Elster meter
support software to correct the errors.

E2 000002: Security configuration error. This code indicates an error is present in the
meters security configuration. Contact Elster if this error is displayed on the LCD.

If this error occurs, the meter is vulnerable to tampering. Prompt correction of the
error will maximize the A1800 ALPHA meters security protection.

E2 000020: Password table CRC error. This code indicates a CRC error is present in the
meters ANSI C12.21 password configuration table. Contact Elster if this error is displayed
on the LCD.

If this error occurs, the meter is vulnerable to tampering. Prompt correction of the
error will maximize the A1800 ALPHA meters security protection.

E2 000200: Encryption key table CRC error. This code indicates a CRC error is present in
the meters ANSI C12.19 encryption key configuration table. Encryption keys are used for
secure access to the meters data and configuration through the remote communication port.
Contact Elster if this error is displayed on the LCD.

If this error occurs, the meter is vulnerable to tampering. Prompt correction of the
error will maximize the A1800 ALPHA meters security protection.
Technical manual 6-5 Testing

E2 020000: ROM fail error. This code indicates an incomplete attempt to flash the meter
firmware. This code will exist on the meter if Elster firmware flash software did not complete
the upgrade process. All meter functionality is halted until this error is resolved. Use Elster
firmware flash software to attempt repair. If this fails, the meter must be returned to the
factory for repair or replacement.

E2 200000: Power fail data save error. This code indicates that the data saved in the
nonvolatile EEPROM during a power fail may be invalid. This error will be displayed when
power is restored to the meter, and a self check has discovered an error with the EEPROM
data. The A1800 ALPHA meter must be returned to the factory for repair or replacement.

E3 030000: Clock error. This code indicates an error with the meters timekeeping ability.
When a carryover error occurs (see E1 000001: Carryover error on page 6-3), reference to
real time is lost. The meter battery may need to be replaced, and the error will need to be reset
through Elster meter support software. If the error code is still present, the meter must be
returned to the factory for repair or replacement.

TOU features cannot be performed when time is lost. Previously accumulated data is stored
in nonvolatile EEPROM and will still be available.

E3 300000: Display locked by warning. This code indicates that one or more warning codes
(see Warning codes on page 6-5) has locked the display. The A1800 ALPHA meter can be
programmed to lock the display if a warning condition is present. Elster meter support
software is used to select the individual warnings that will cause this error code to display. If
the condition causing the warning clears, the error code will also clear.

Warning codes. Warning codes indicate conditions of concern that do not yet affect the
integrity of billing data. When the condition is present, a warning code is automatically
inserted as the last item in the normal and alternate display sequences. When the condition
clears, the warning code, is removed from the display sequence. Elster meter support
software can be used to select individual warnings that will lock the display as an error. See
Error codes on page 6-2 for more information.

Warning codes are indicated on the LCD by a group code and a numerical code. The group
code makes it easier to identify the error on the LCD. The numeric code indicates the specific
condition that has occurred. See Figure 6-2 for a sample warning code displayed on the LCD.
Table 6-4 and Table 6-5 describe the different warning conditions and their codes.

Figure 6-2. Sample warning code

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L1 L2 L3

Table 6-4. Group W1 warning codes


Condition Code
Low battery warning 0 0 0 0 0 1
Improper meter engine operation 0 0 0 0 1 0
warning
Reverse energy flow warning 0 0 0 1 0 0
Potential indicator warning 0 1 0 0 0 0
Demand overload warning 1 0 0 0 0 0
Technical manual 6-6 Testing

Table 6-5. Group W2 warning codes


Condition Code
Service current test failure 0 0 0 0 0 2
warning
Demand threshold exceeded 0 0 0 2 0 0
warning
Line frequency warning 0 0 2 0 0 0
TRueQ test failure warning 0 2 0 0 0 0
End of calendar warning 2 0 0 0 0 0

Warning codes of the same group are displayed in combination (for example, W2 202000),
indicating that one or more warning conditions are present. If warnings exist in more than
one group, the meter displays each group at the end of the display sequence before returning
to the first item in the display sequence.

W1 000001: Low battery warning. This warning code indicates a low battery voltage or
missing battery. A1800 ALPHA meters having realtime TOU functionality require a battery
to maintain date and time over an extended power outage.

For timekeeping configurations, the meter should be de-energized and the battery should be
replaced. Once the new battery has been installed and the meter is energized, the code is
automatically cleared. See Removing the battery on page 7-6 and Installing a TOU
battery on page 7-3 for instructions on replacing batteries.

Note: In addition, the low battery indicator will display on the LCD (see Low battery
indicator on page 3-3).
W1 000010: Improper meter engine operation warning. This code indicates that the meter
engine program may be corrupt or is not executing correctly. This warning condition is
typically triggered when the microcontroller reinitializes the meter engine. An unstable or
noisy electrical environment at the A1800 ALPHA meter installation can interfere with this
operation.

If the meter engine is successfully reinitialized, then the warning code will be automatically
cleared from the LCD. If the code continues to be displayed on the LCD, the A1800 ALPHA
meter should be returned to the factory for repair or replacement.
Technical manual 6-7 Testing

W1 000100: Reverse energy flow warning. This warning code indicates that reverse energy
flow has been detected equivalent to twice the Kh since the last reset. It may be an indication
of tampering with the A1800 ALPHA meter installation. If reverse energy flow is expected,
then this warning code can be disabled through Elster meter support software. If the service
being metered is not expected to return energy to the utility, further investigation is required.
In some cases, it may be necessary to return the A1800 ALPHA meter to the factory for
repair or replacement.

The code is cleared by these methods:

performing a demand reset


issuing the clear values and status command through Elster meter support software
W1 010000: Potential indicator warning. This code indicates that one or more of the phase
potentials are missing or below the defined threshold for voltage sag detection. This code
will display at the same time as one or more of the potential indicators blink. See Phase
indicators on page 3-2 and Voltage sags on page 4-13 for more details on potential
indicators and voltage sags.

The code is automatically cleared when the phase potential returns a value within the
programmed thresholds.

W1 100000: Demand overload warning. This code indicates that the demand value exceeded
the programmed overload value. It is generally intended to inform a utility when the
installation is requiring more power than the service equipment was originally designed to
handle.

If the demand overload value has been set lower than appropriate for the installation, the
A1800 ALPHA meter may be reprogrammed with a higher threshold value.

The code is cleared by these methods:

performing a demand reset


issuing the clear values and status command through Elster meter support software
W2 000002: Service current test failure warning. This code indicates that the most recently
performed service current test has failed. See Service current test on page 4-9 for more
information.

The code is cleared by these methods:

the service current test is performed again and the test does not fail
issuing the clear values and status command through Elster meter support software
W2 000200: Demand threshold exceeded warning. This code indicates that the demand has
exceeded one of the programmed demand thresholds. This warning follows the state of any
relay programmed for demand threshold operation. It is set once the demand threshold has
been exceeded and only cleared after one complete demand interval during which the
threshold is not exceeded.

W2 002000: Line frequency warning. If a meter is configured to use the line frequency
instead of the crystal oscillator as the time base, this code indicates that the line frequency is
off by 5 % of its programmed setting. When this condition occurs, the meter switches
timekeeping to the crystal oscillator.

The code will be automatically cleared once the line frequency returns to within 5 % of the
nominal frequency. This warning will never appear on meters configured for constant
timekeeping operation from the internal crystal.

W2 020000: TRueQ test failure warning. This code indicates that one or more TRueQ tests
have detected a value outside the programmed thresholds. Use the meter system
instrumentation displays or Elster meter support software to gain additional information on
the specific TRueQ test causing the problem.

The code will be automatically cleared once TRueQ conditions return to a value within the
programmed thresholds.
Technical manual 6-8 Testing

W2 200000: End of calendar warning. This code indicates that the meter calendar has
expired or is about to expire. The date at which this code appears is configurable using Elster
meter support software. Program a new calendar using Elster meter support software.

The code is cleared by these methods:

performing a demand reset


issuing the clear values and status command through Elster meter support software
Communication codes. Communication codes temporarily override any other item that is
being displayed on the LCD (including error codes). Communication codes are indicated on
the LCD by a port code and a numerical code. The port code identifies the affected port. The
numerical code indicates the status of the communication session. See Figure 6-3 for a
sample communication code displayed on the meters LCD. See Table 6-6 for the
communication codes that can be displayed.

Figure 6-3. Sample communication code

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L1 L2 L3

Table 6-6. Communication codes


Condition Code
CRC error C 0 0 1 0 1
Syntax error C 0 0 1 0 3
Framing error C 0 0 1 0 4
Timeout error C 0 0 1 0 5

For most communication errors, Elster recommends you attempt the communication again.
You may need to cycle power to the A1800 ALPHA meter or to reattempt the Elster meter
support software function. If communication errors persist, return the meter to the factory for
repair or replacement.
Technical manual 6-9 Testing

Meter shop testing

Test equipment
Typically, meter shops develop testing procedures specific to their own needs and have the
test equipment needed. Below is a list of standard test equipment required for testing the
A1800 ALPHA meter:

a stable mounting fixture for the meter and a means to temporarily make the proper
power connections to the meter
a reliable power supply that should be able to do the following:
provide a voltage source for energizing the meter at its rated voltage (if desired, the
meter can be tested using a lower source voltage if that voltage is within the wide
operating voltage range of the A1800 ALPHA meter)
provide a variable load current at unity power factor (PF)
provide a variable load current at a lagging power factor for varh testing; the power
supply should be capable of delivering load current at PF = 0.0 (90 lagging) or PF
= 0.5 (60 lagging)
a precision Wh reference standard with 0.002 % accuracy
a precision varh reference standard with 0.002 % accuracy
a phantom load device or other loading circuit capable of handling the test current
one of the following:
a photoelectric pickup to sense test pulses from the LED and a device capable of
counting pulses
a low voltage (12 VDC to 24 VDC), low-power pulse sensor to capture and count
pulses from the meter output relay (the pulse sensor should provide a low voltage
source to the pulsing relay as well as detect and count contact closures of the output
relay)
test equipment for measuring, counting, and timing pulse outputs
control equipment that can provide switching between the meter source voltage and
precision reference standard
precision voltage and current transformers
voltmeters, ammeters, phase angle meters, power factor meters, and any other
measuring equipment that might be required

Test setup
Before testing the A1800 ALPHA meter, check the nameplate for the following:

Meter class for expected accuracy


Test amperes (In or Ib)
The specific test ampere value is not critical as long as the applied current does not
exceed the Imax current rating of the meter. Normally, a value of approximately 20 % to
25 % of Imax is used for basic tests, with additional test points at 5 %, 10 %, and 100 %
of Imax also required by most legal authorities.
Note: The A1800 ALPHA meter has a flat, linear load curve accuracy response. Therefore,
when allowed by local legislation, meter accuracy testing can be accomplished by
checking the meter accuracy at two typical points. For example, test the meter with
In equal to 10 % of Imax, at both 100 % and 20 % PF. Historical data from testing the
A1800 ALPHA meter confirms that if these test points are within the required
accuracy, the entire range of loads is within the required accuracy.
Operating voltage range
Any other important specifications for the meter being tested
Technical manual 6-10 Testing

Risk of personal injury or death!


Use only authorized personnel and proper test procedures to test metering
equipment. Dangerous voltages are present. Personal injury, death, or equipment
damage can result if safety precautions are not followed.

To set up the A1800 ALPHA meter for testing:

1. Install the meter in the stable mounting fixture.


2. Place the precision Wh or varh reference standard and precision voltage and current
transformers (as required) in series with the meter being tested.
If voltage transformers are not required, then the meter source voltage should be placed
in parallel with the Wh or VARh reference standards. See Appendix D, Wiring
diagrams, for appropriate wiring diagrams for the A1800 ALPHA meter.
3. Connect the control equipment for switching the source voltage to the precision
reference standard.
4. Connect the measuring equipment for counting the standards output pulses.
5. Apply the rated test current and voltage to the terminals of the meter.

Meter testing
Since no adjustments are required for the A1800 ALPHA meter in the field, meter testing is
done primarily to verify that the meter is operating within its specifications. Typically, meter
specifications are verified by checking the meter calibration. The accuracy of the
A1800 ALPHA meter remains consistent over a wide range of ambient temperatures.
Nevertheless, for precise test results, meters should be tested in an environment where the
meter and test equipment are at the same ambient temperature, ideally 22 C (72 F).

The test voltage should be applied to the meter for at least ten seconds prior to making test
measurements. This allows the power supply circuitry to stabilize. When testing meters for
Class 0.2 accuracy, a test cycle time of at least one minute is recommended at In and with PF
= 1.0. When using current values lower than In for testing, test errors may occur because not
enough time is allowed for the test. When using a lower test In, increase the test time
proportionally.

The preferred test method is to apply full 3-phase voltage and current to both the meter and
the precision reference standard. Nevertheless, if required, polyphase meters can be tested
with single phase loading. Single phase loading is done by connecting the voltage inputs in
parallel and the current sensors in series to combine element operation. The accuracy test
results for single phase and polyphase loading will be virtually identical and well within
A1800 ALPHA meter specifications.

Using relay outputs for testing. The relay outputs can be used instead of the LED to test
meter calibration. To do so, the relay outputs need to be configured for pulse output. When
using the relay outputs for testing, testing time should exceed 20 seconds for accurate results
at normal test current values of Ib or In. If more accurate testing is required, use longer testing
times. If precision testing is required, testing times should be as long as it takes to attain a
stable accuracy level when comparing the meter under test to the precision standard. The
testing time may vary because of the characteristics of the precision reference standard and
the amount of power flowing through the test circuits. Some experimentation may be
required to determine the testing time needed to reach a stable accuracy level.

Using LCD pulse count for testing. For test shops that do not have photoelectric pulse
sensors and related counters and do not want to use relay outputs for testing, the LCD can
provide a pulse count that reflects the energy measured during a test. Use the LCD pulse
count to determine the energy measured during the test cycle and compare it with the energy
delivered by precision reference standard.
Technical manual 6-11 Testing

Wiring a portable device into an energized metering circuit must be done with
extreme care, using only authorized procedures. If high voltage connected current
transformers are accidentally open circuited, the voltages at the secondary open
terminals can rise to the primary voltage level, creating an extremely hazardous
condition, leading to possible property damage, personnel injury or death.

To test the meter using the LCD pulse count, the meter display must be configured to display
a test pulse count. Use the Elster meter support software to communicate to the meter
through the optical port and place it in test mode. In test mode, the LCD display can be
cycled to display the pulse count accumulated during a test cycle. After meter testing is
complete, use the meter software to restore the meter to normal mode.

If a meter is programmed to display energy pulse counts when it is in the alternate display
mode, a similar procedure also can be used to test a meter while it is in service at a customer
site. When testing a meter in service, follow the safety procedures specified by the utility.
Wire a portable precision reference standard into the circuit in series with the billing meter.
After the portable precision reference standard is in the circuit, the energy value determined
from the pulse count displayed on the LCD over the test interval can be compared with the
energy value displayed on the portable reference standard. If this test method is used while
the meter is in alternate mode, any energy consumed by the customer during the test is
registered in the normal manner.
Technical manual 6-12 Testing
Technical manual 7-1 Installation and removal

7 Installation and removal

Preliminary inspection
Technical manual

Circuit-closing devices must be used on current transformer secondaries.


Dangerous currents and voltages are present if secondaries are open-circuited.
Equipment damage, personal injury, or death can result if circuit-closing devices are
not used.

The A1800 ALPHA meter is calibrated and tested at the factory, and it is ready for
installation. Follow proper installation and removal procedures for personal safety and
protection of the meter.

Before installing and applying power to the A1800 ALPHA meter, a quick inspection of the
meter itself is recommended. Check for some of the following items:

no broken or missing parts


no missing or broken wiring
no bent or cracked components
no evidence of overheating
check the nameplate to make sure it is appropriate for the service
Physical damage to the outside of the A1800 ALPHA meter could indicate potential
electronic damage in the inside of the meter. Do not connect power to a meter that is
suspected to have unknown internal damage. Contact your local Elster Metronica
representative if you suspect your meter may be damaged.

Placing the meter into service


See Appendix D, Wiring diagrams, for illustrations of both internal and connection wiring
diagrams.

Circuit-closing devices must be used on current transformer secondaries.


Dangerous currents and voltages are present if secondaries are open-circuited.
Personal injury, death, or equipment damage can result if circuit-closing devices are
not used.
Technical manual 7-2 Installation and removal

Make sure to install the correct meter for the service type, maximum current, and
capacity required. Always verify that the maximum meter voltage and current
ratings are equal to or greater than the maximum service voltage and current.
Installing inappropriate meters can damage equipment.

To use the A1800 ALPHA meter effectively and safely, follow this procedure:

1. Make sure that the meter hanger, located on the base of the A1800 ALPHA meter, is in
the desired position. Sliding the hanger down to the hidden position will hide the top
supporting screw.
2. Use at least an M6 screw for the top supporting position and hang the meter on it,
making sure it is level. The meter will operate correctly in any position, but failing to
mount the meter in a proper vertical position will place the other mounting holes at the
wrong place on the mounting panel.
3. Use at least an M6 screw in each of the bottom supporting screws to secure the
A1800 ALPHA meter enclosure; the mounting holes are 7.1 mm (0.28 inches) in
diameter.

Before wiring the meter into the power circuit, use authorized utility procedures to
install proper ground connections on all appropriate VT and CT circuits and on the
meter ground terminals. Also, be certain that CTs on energized lines are securely
short-circuited either with circuit-closing test switches or with properly installed
conductors. Dangerous voltages can be present. Personal injury, death, or
equipment damage can result from wiring an ungrounded meter or mishandling
improperly grounded metering transformer circuits.

4. Install the ground connections.

A1800 ALPHA meter terminals are designed for optimum use with copper wiring.
For direct connect-rated meters, aluminum wiring can be used but if so, it is
extremely important to use proper aluminum wiring practices. Aluminum wiring
compound or wiring paste (grease) should be used when attaching the bottom-
connected terminals. Tighten the connections, allow them to relax for a few
minutes, then tighten them again. This will minimize the cold-flow effects of
aluminum cable. Failure to observe correct practices for installing aluminum wiring
could lead to overheating of the terminals, equipment failures, or damaging fires.
Where possible, Elster recommends copper-compatible meter terminals and
aluminum wire. Such adapters also can provide for use or larger aluminum
conductors that can be otherwise used in the terminals of the A1800 ALPHA meter.

5. Ensure that primary or system voltages are either disconnected from a power source or
that utility safety practices for handling live circuits are strictly followed.
6. If applicable, ensure that any current transformers are de-energized with no high-
voltage primary voltage connected to their primaries and no primary current circulating
through them. If primary current and voltage are present in the current transformers, it
is extremely important to verify that safety shorting connections are in place on all
secondary winding connections prior to handling CT connections to the meter.
Technical manual 7-3 Installation and removal

7. Wire the meter using color-coded wire according to locally applicable specifications.
The terminal block dimensions on the A1800 ALPHA meter support cable sizes of
approximately 5 mm in diameter for transformer rated connections (10 mm in diameter
for direct connect).
Standard wiring diagrams are shown in Appendix D, Wiring diagrams.
8. After wiring the meter and making any communication and relay connections,
assemble the terminal cover and apply power.
For information on communication and relay connections, see Chapter 5, Outputs.
Figure 7-1. A1800 ALPHA meter mounting screw locations

Hanger screw mount

Screw mounts

Installing a TOU battery


The TOU battery is replaceable without breaking the meter seal. Use only Elster-
recommended TOU batteries. See your Elster Metronica representative for details.

The meter should be de-energized before installing the battery. Dangerous voltages
are present; and equipment damage, personal injury, or death can result if safety
precautions are not followed. Use authorized procedures to install the battery while
power is removed from the meter.

Before installing the battery, the A1800 ALPHA meter must have been energized for at least
1 minute within the preceding 60 minutes. This ensures that the supercapacitor is properly
charged and that the battery is not immediately drained upon installation. If this is not done,
then the battery may be damaged and the meter may not function correctly. While the meter
is powered, verify that the LCD is active and functioning.

To install the battery:

1. If the meter has not been energized for at least 1 minute during the previous 60
minutes, energize the meter for 1 minute.
If the meter has been energized for at least 1 minute during the previous 60 minutes,
proceed to step 2.
Technical manual 7-4 Installation and removal

2. De-energize the meter.


3. Remove the terminal cover screws and seals.
4. Remove the terminal cover to expose the battery well.
Figure 7-2. Battery well and connector

TOU battery

5. Slide the battery leads into the connector to the right of the battery well.
6. Place the battery firmly in the battery well.
7. Replace the terminal cover.
8. Energize the meter and verify that the LCD becomes active and functioning properly.
Verify that the low battery symbol on the meter LCD is not displayed. See Indicators
and controls on page 3-1 for details.
9. Replace the terminal cover screws and seals.
10. Reprogram the meter or clear the errors (as necessary).
Troubleshooting.

Not following this procedure can cause the meter to function improperly. In case a
battery has been installed correctly and the meter is not functioning properly (for
example, display is blank but the meter is powered), use the following procedure.

1. De-energize the meter and let it sit without power for 48 to 72 hours. This provides
sufficient time for the supercapacitor to discharge and for the microcontroller to shut
down.1
2. Energize the meter for at least 1 minute. The microcontroller should power up correctly
and the supercapacitor will charge. Verify that the LCD becomes active and
functioning correctly.
3. De-energize the meter and insert the battery, following the instructions earlier in this
section.
If the meter still does not function properly, then it should be returned to the factory.

Initial setup
After installing and powering the A1800 ALPHA meter, verify the following:

The system service voltage test (if enabled) shows the valid service for this installation.
The phase rotation, service voltage, and service type should be indicated on the LCD.
Other validation information can be obtained using the system instrumentation display
quantities.

1 Ifthe battery was installed with the polarity reversed, the battery should not be damaged. If the battery was installed without hav-
ing the meter properly energized, then the battery will lose approximately 8.5 % of its service life each day.
Technical manual 7-5 Installation and removal

All potential indicators (from L1 to L3 depending on the wiring) are present and are not
blinking. A blinking indicator means that the phase is missing the required voltage or is
below the programmed minimum voltage threshold value.
The LEDs are blinking and the energy direction indicators on the LCD show the
correct energy flow direction.
Required meter seals are in place.
Any information (such as registration and location of the meter) has been recorded.

If the meter is not working correctly after it has been installed, then check for
improper installation or wiring. If the installation and wiring are correct, then verify
these other areas:

the meter installation matches the meter nameplate


the correct type of A1800 ALPHA meter is installed in the existing service
no evidence of mechanical or electrical damage to either the meter or the installation
location
the service voltage falls within the operating range as indicated on the nameplate
the optical port is free of dirt or other obstructions

Marking the utility information card


The utility information card can be removed without breaking seals and removing the meter
cover screws. Note that the direct connect meter uses a blank card.

To remove the utility information:

1. Remove the terminal cover as described above.


2. Grasp the protruding utility information card tab firmly and pull the card out slowly
from under the meter cover.
3. Mark the card as needed.
Figure 7-3. Removing the utility information card
Technical manual 7-6 Installation and removal

Removing the meter from service


Use the appropriate procedure when removing an A1800 ALPHA meter from service.

Use authorized utility procedures to remove metering equipment. Dangerous


voltages are present, and equipment damage, personal injury, or death can result if
safety procedures are not followed.

Circuit-closing devices must be used on current transformer secondaries. This


applies to CT-connected meters. Dangerous currents and voltages are present if
secondaries are open-circuited. Equipment damage, personal injury, or death can
result if circuit-closing devices are not used.

If it becomes necessary to remove an A1800 ALPHA meter from service, use the following
procedure:

1. Before disconnecting the meter, make sure that the existing meter data has been copied,
either manually or electronically using Elster meter support software.
2. Remove the voltage and disconnect the current circuits.
3. Break the seal holding the A1800 ALPHA meter terminal cover in place.
4. Remove the terminal cover screws and take off the terminal cover.
5. Disconnect the wiring.
6. Remove the lower supporting screws.
7. Lift the meter off the top supporting screw.

Removing the battery

The meter should be de-energized before removing the battery. Dangerous voltages
are present; and equipment damage, personal injury, or death can result if safety
precautions are not followed. Use authorized procedures to remove the battery
while power is removed from the meter.

Use the following procedure to remove a battery from an A1800 ALPHA meter:

1. De-energize the meter.


2. Remove the terminal cover to expose the battery well.
3. Firmly grasp the battery and lift it from the well.
4. Disconnect the battery leads from the connector.
5. Replace the terminal cover and ensure the seals are in place.
If the removed battery is still in working condition, it can be stored safely for future use.
Non-functioning batteries should be disposed of according to local laws, regulations, or
electric utility policies.
Technical manual 8-1 Loss compensation

8 Loss compensation

Introduction

What is Loss Compensation?


The Handbook for Electricity Metering defines loss compensation as follows:
Technical manual

A means for correcting the reading of a meter when the metering point and the point of
service are physically separated resulting in measurable losses including I2R losses in
conductors and transformers, and iron-core losses. These losses may be added to, or
subtracted from the meter registration.1
For example, it may be desirable to measure the energy usage on the low voltage side of a
distribution transformer that serves an industrial customer even though the end-point
customer actually owns the transformer and is responsible for any transformer losses. In this
case, the utility billing point is actually the high voltage side of the transformer. Using loss
compensation, the meter on the low voltage side of the transformer can actively adjust the
energy registration to account for the losses in the transformer.

Availability
The loss compensation functionality is available only on the following CT-connected
A1800 ALPHA (-V suffix) meter configurations:

2-element
3-element

Software support
A meter with loss compensation must first be programmed with the proper utility rate
configuration using Elster meter support software just as you would with any other
A1800 ALPHA meter. Next, a special programming step is performed to load the proper loss
constants into the meter. This is done with special Windows-based software titled
A1800 ALPHA Meter Loss Compensation Tool.

Calculating the correction values


To configure the loss compensation feature of an A1800 ALPHA meter you must input the
following values into the loss compensation software. These values are site specific and must
be uniquely determined for each loss compensation application.

Parameter Description
%LWFe Iron watts correction percentage
%LWCu Copper watts correction percentage
%LVFe Iron vars correction percentage
%LVCu Copper vars correction percentage

1
Edison Electric Institute, Handbook for Electricity Metering, 10th edition, Washington, DC: Edison Electric Institute, 2002, p. 16.
Technical manual 8-2 Loss compensation

Parameter Description
Meter current Meter current when power transformer is operating at maximum
rating
Meter voltage Meter voltage when power transformer is operating at rated
voltage

These values must be calculated on the basis of the power transformer test report and, if line
losses are to be included, the characteristics of the primary/secondary conductors at the
specific site in question. The following sections describe these calculations.

Calculation of loss compensation parameters is dependent on the location of the meter with
respect to the power transformer. The rated voltage and rated current used in the calculations
must represent the values on the same side of the power transformer as the meter is located.

If the meter is located on the secondary side of the power transformer, then the rated
voltage and rated current used in the calculations must be secondary values.
If the meter is located on the primary side of the power transformer, then the rated
voltage and rated current used in the calculations must be primary values.

Gather necessary data


The following information is necessary to calculate the loss compensation configuration
parameters.

Parameter Description
KVArated Rated kVA of power transformer
Vpri L-L Primary line-to-line voltage of power transformer
Vsec L-L Secondary line-to-line voltage of power transformer
LWCu Full load watts loss of power transformer (copper or winding losses)
LWFe No load watts loss of power transformer (iron or core losses)
%EXC Percent excitation current of the power transformer
%Z Percent impedance of the power transformer
CTR Current transformer ratio for instrument transformers supplying
current to the meter
VTR Voltage transformer ratio for instrument transformers supplying
voltage to the meter
Elements Number of meter elements (use 3- for all 2 -element meters)

Note: There may be one 3-phase transformer or a bank of three single phase transformers.
If there are three single phase transformers then test data is needed for all three.

Calculate the meter configuration parameters


Step 1. Calculate the following quantities.

Parameter Description
VAphase Per phase VA rating of power transformer
Vsec rated Rated secondary voltage of power transformer
Isec rated Rated secondary current of power transformer
Vpri rated Rated primary voltage of power transformer
Ipri rated Rated primary current of power transformer
LWFe No load watt loss of power transformer (loss watt iron)
Technical manual 8-3 Loss compensation

Parameter Description
LWCu Full load watt loss of power transformer (loss watt copper)
LVAFe No load VA loss of power transformer (loss VA iron)
LVACu Full load VA loss of power transformer (loss VA copper)
LVFe No load var loss of power transformer (loss var iron)
LVCu Full load var loss of power transformer (loss var copper)

Parameter Equation
VAphase If bank of 3 transformers
VA phase KVArated 1000

If one 3-phase transformer


( kVArated 1000 )
VA phase
3
Vsec rated For 2 element, 3-wire delta
applications V secrated V secL- L

For 3 element, 4-wire wye


applications V secL- L
V secrated
3

Vpri rated For 2 element, 3-wire delta


applications V pri rated V pri L- L

For 3 element, 4-wire wye


applications V pri L- L
V pri rated
3

Isec rated All applications


3 VA phase
I secrated
V secL- L

Ipri rated All applications


3 VA phase
I pri rated
V pri L- L

Note: For a bank of three single phase transformers the below calculations should be
performed independently for each transformer and then summed to obtain the
total losses.
LWFe Take directly from power transformer test report.
LWCu Take directly from power transformer test report.
LVAFe
%EXC
kVArated 1000
100
Technical manual 8-4 Loss compensation

Parameter Equation
LVACu
%Z
kVArated 1000
100
LVFe
LVAFe2 - LWFe2
LVCu
LVCu 2 - LWCu 2

Step 2. If it is desired to compensate for line losses then calculate the full load watt line loss
and the full load var line loss values (see next section for details on line loss calculation).

Parameter Description
LiWTOT Total full load watt line loss (line loss watt)
LiVTOT Total full load var line loss (line loss var)

Step 3. Calculate the per element % correction factors, the meter voltage, and the meter
current. These are the values that must be entered into the loss compensation software to
configure the meter properly.

If the meter is on the primary side of the power transformer, then Vrated = Vpri rated and
Irated = Ipri rated.
If the meter is on the secondary side of the power transformer, then Vrated = Vsec rated
and Irated = Isec rated.

Parameter Equation
%LWFe
LWFe 100
Vrated I rated Elements

%LWCu
LWCu LiWTOT 100
V rated I rated Elements

%LVFe
LVFe 100
Vrated I rated Elements

%LVCu
LVCu LiVTOT 100
Vrated I rated Elements

Meter current
I rated
CTR
Technical manual 8-5 Loss compensation

Parameter Equation
Meter voltage
V rated
VTR

Calculating line loss


Compensation for line losses may include primary losses, secondary losses, or both
depending on the application.

Gather necessary data


The following information is necessary to calculate the line losses.

Parameter Description
f Frequency
n Number of conductors
L Line length (units compatible with conductor resistance)
Ra Conductor resistance (/meter or /kilometer)
1
GMR Geometric mean radius of the phase conductors (in meters)
Xa1 Inductive reactance of the conductor at 1ft. spacing (/meter or
/kilometer)
1
Either GMR or Xa is required, but not both. The available information determines which
is used in the calculations.

Step 1. Calculate line resistance and line reactance

The equations below should be applied individually to the primary and the secondary
conductors.

Parameter Description
RL Line resistance ()
XL Line reactance ()
Deq Geometric mean distance between phase conductors (in meters)
DL1,L2 Distance between Line 1 and Line 2 (in meters)
DL2,L3 Distance between Line 2 and Line 3 (in meters)
DL3,L1 Distance between Line 3 and Line 1 (in meters)

Parameter Equation
RL
L Ra

Calculating the reactive component of the impedance is not as straight forward as the
resistance calculation, and the calculation depends on the wiring configuration. The most
common configuration is one where the wires are unbundled and the spacing between wires
Technical manual 8-6 Loss compensation

is uniform. Other types of wiring, such as bundled conductors, will not be discussed in this
document. Two equations can be used to calculate line reactance. The choice of which
equation to use is based on the whether GMR or Xa is available.

Item Equation
XL If using GMR
f Deq
L 0.2794 Log
60 GMR
If using Xa
f
L X a 0.2794 LogDeq
60

where:

Deq 3 DL 1,L 2 DL 2 ,L 3 DL 3 ,L 1

Step 2. Calculate the line losses.

Item Description
LiWTOT Total full load watt line loss (line loss watt)
LiVTOT Total full load var line loss (line loss var)
Vpri L-L Primary line-to-line voltage of power transformer
Vsec L-L Secondary line-to-line voltage of power transformer
Ipri rated Rated primary current of power transformer
Isec rated Rated secondary current of power transformer

Note: Vpri L-L, Vsec L-L, Ipri rated, and Isec rated are the same values as used in calculation of
transformer losses (see previous section).
When compensating for both transformer and line losses:

Item Equation
LiWsec
rated RL sec n
2
I sec

LiVsec
rated X L sec n
2
I sec

LiWpri
rated RL pri n
2
I pri

LiVpri
rated X L pri n
2
I pri

LiWTOT
LiW sec LiW pri

LiVTOT
LiV sec LiV pri
Technical manual 8-7 Loss compensation

Note: In the special case that you are compensating only for line loss (no transformer
losses), then the values for Ipri rated and Isec rated must be directly specified by the
user. Typically, these two values will be inversely proportional to the rated secondary
and primary voltages of the power transformer. That is,

I pri rated V secrated



I secrated V pri rated

Step 3. If compensating for both transformer and line losses, return to Step 3 of the previous
section using the above calculated line losses to help calculate the %LWCu and %LVCu
values.

If compensating only for line losses use the following equations to calculate the per element
% correction factors, the meter voltage and the meter current for entry in the loss
compensation software.

If the meter is on the primary side of the power transformer,


Irated = Ipri rated.
If the meter is on the secondary side of the power transformer,
Irated = Isec rated.
Vrated is the nominal voltage seen on the high side of the instrument transformer supplying
voltage to the meter.

Parameter Equation
%LWFe 0
%LWCu
LiWTOT 100
Vrated I rated Elements

%LVFe 0
%LVCu
LiVTOT 100
Vrated I rated Elements

Meter current
I rated
CTR
Meter voltage
Vrated
VTR

Calculation example
The following example can be used as a guideline. This is based on the sample transformer
data for loss compensation shown in chapter 10 of the Handbook for Electricity Metering
(10th edition).2

Application notes:

The application is a bank of three single-phase power transformers.

2 Edison Electric Institute, Handbook for Electricity Metering, tenth edition, Washington, DC: Edison Electric Institute, 2002, Chap-

ter 10, Special Metering, pp. 249-88.


Technical manual 8-8 Loss compensation

The metering occurs on the low (secondary) side of a power transformer, and losses
will be added to the measured energy.
There is a delta connection on the secondary of the power transformer and thus a 2-
element meter will be used to measure the service.
Losses are being compensated for the power transformer only (no line losses).

Gather necessary data


Power transformer data (from transformer manufacturer)

Parameter Value
Line 1 Line 2 Line 3
KVArated 3333 3333 3333
Vpri L-L 115000 115000 115000
Vsec L-L 2520 2520 2520
LWCu 18935 18400 18692
LWFe 9650 9690 9340
%EXC 1.00 1.06 0.91
%Z 8.16 8.03 8.12

Instrument transformer data:

Parameter Value
CTR
3000
600
5
VTR
2400
20
120

Meter data:

Parameter Value
Elements 2

Step 1. Calculate the quantities

Because the metering is on the secondary side of the power transformer, all references to
rated voltage and rated current refer to the secondary rated values.

Parameter Description
VAphase bank of three transformers:

kVArated 1000 3333 1000 3,333,000

Vrated secondary side, 2-element delta application:

V secL- L 2520
Technical manual 8-9 Loss compensation

Parameter Description
Irated secondary side application:

VA phase 3 ,333 ,000


3 3 2290.84
V secL- L 2520

Phase 1. Calculations

Parameter Value
LWFe 9650
LWCu 18935
LVAFe
%EXC
kVArated 1000
100
1.00
3333 1000 33 ,330
100
LVACu
%Z
kVArated 1000
100
8.16
3333 1000 271 ,973
100
LVFe
LVFe2 - LWFe2
35 ,330 2 9690 2 33 ,975

LVCu
LVACu 2 - LWCu 2
271,923 2 18 ,935 2 271,313

Phase 2. Calculations

Parameter Value
LWFe 9690
LWCu 18400
LVAFe
% EXC
kVArated 1000
100
1.06
3333 1000 35 ,330
100
Technical manual 8-10 Loss compensation

Parameter Value
LVACu
%Z
kVArated 1000
100
8.03
3333 1000 267 ,640
100
LVFe
LVAFe2 - LWFe2
35 ,330 2 9690 2 33 ,975

LVCu
LVACu 2 - LWCu 2
267 ,640 2 18 ,400 2 267 ,007

Phase 3. Calculations

Parameter Value
LWFe 9340
LWCu 18,692
LVAFe
% EXC
kVArated 1000
100
0.91
3333 1000 30 ,330
100
LVACu
%Z
kVArated 1000
100
8.12
3333 1000 270 ,640
100
LVFe
LVAFe2 - LWFe2
33 ,330 2 9340 2 28 ,856

LVCu
LVACu 2 - LWCu 2
270 ,640 2 18 ,692 2 269 ,993
Technical manual 8-11 Loss compensation

From the above:

Parameter Value
LWFe 9650 + 9690 + 9340 = 28,680
LWCu 18,935 + 18,400 + 18,692 = 56,027
LVAFe 33,330 + 35,330 + 30,330 = 98,990
LVACu 271,973 + 267,640 + 270,640 = 810,253
LVFe 31,902 + 33,975 + 28,856 = 94,734
LVCu 271,313 + 267,007 + 269,993 = 808,313

Step 2. Compensate for line loss (if needed).

Per the stated assumptions, there is no compensating for line losses:

Parameter Value
LiWTOT 0
LiVTOT 0

Step 3. Now the per element % correction factors may be calculated:

Parameter Value
%LWFe
LWFe 100
Vrated I rated Elements
28 ,680 100
0.2484
2520 229084 2
%LWCu
LWCu LiWTOT 100
Vrated I rated Elements
56 ,027 100
0.4853
2520 2290.84 2
%LVFe
LVFe 100
Vrated I rated Elements
94 ,734 100
0.8205
2520 2290.84 2
%LVCu
LVCu LiVTOT
Vrated I rated Elements
808 ,313 100
7.0009
2520 2290.84 2
Meter current
I rated 2290.84
3.82 A
CTR 600
Technical manual 8-12 Loss compensation

Parameter Value
Meter voltage
Vrated 2520
126 V
VTR 20

Enter Data
Summary of calculated values to enter in A1800 ALPHA Meter Loss Compensation Tool

Parameter Value
Registration Add losses
Iron watts correction % (%LWFe) 0.2484
Copper watts correction % (%LWCu) 0.4853
Iron vars correction % (%LVFe) 0.8205
Copper vars correction % (%LVCu) 7.0009
Meter current 3.82
Meter voltage 126

Internal meter calculations


To understand the loss compensation calculations, it is first necessary to understand a little bit
about how the A1800 ALPHA meter engine operates. Internal to the meter engine, Vrms and
Irms are measured independently on each phase every two line cycles. These values are used
to perform the normal energy calculations on each phase every two line cycles. The
individual phase measurements are then summed. This drives an internal accumulator in the
meter engine that generates a pulse to the microcontroller when a threshold level is reached.
The threshold level at which a pulse is generated is known as the meter Ke (energy per pulse).
There are separate calculations, separate accumulators and separate Ke pulses generated for
each measured energy quantity (for example, kWh-delivered, kvarh-delivered).

When loss compensation is turned on, additional calculations are performed. Every two line
cycles on each phase, the Vrms and Irms values used in the normal energy calculations are also
used to calculate a watt compensation value and a var compensation value. The following
equations indicate the compensation terms that are calculated and applied to the normal
energy measurements every two line cycles.

For a 3-element meter, watts and vars are compensated every two line cycles according to the
following equations:

Compensation Equation
W

R I L1 meas2 I L2 meas2 I L3 meas2
G V L1 meas
2
V L2 meas
2
V c meas
2

var

X I L1 meas2 I L2 meas2 I L3 meas2
B V L1 meas
4
V L2 meas4 Vc meas4
Technical manual 8-13 Loss compensation

For a 2-element meter, watts and vars are compensated every two line cycles according to the
following equations:

Compensation Equation
W

R I L1 meas2 I L3 meas2
G V L1 meas
2
Vc meas2
var

X I L1 meas2 I L3 meas2
B V L1 meas
4
V c meas
4

Where:

Term Description
R Per element resistance
G Per element conductance
X Per element reactance
B Per element susceptance
Ixmeas Per phase rms current
Vxmeas Per phase rms voltage

The A1800 ALPHA Meter Loss Compensation Tool calculates R, G, X, and B using the
following formulas and then programs these values into the meter.

Item Equation
R
%LWCu Meter voltage
Meter current 100
G
%LWFe Meter current
Meter voltage 100

X
%LVCu Meter voltage
Meter current 100
B
%LVFe Meter current
Meter voltage3 100

The compensation terms will be either positive or negative depending on whether losses are
configured to be added or subtracted from the energy measurements. So, the key difference
on meters with loss compensation is that every two line cycles on each phase, the calculated
W compensation value is summed with the normal Wh energy calculations. Similarly, the var
Technical manual 8-14 Loss compensation

compensation term is summed per phase every two line cycles with the normal varh energy
calculations. From that point everything is essentially the same (individual phases are then
summed to drive an accumulator).

Note regarding two-element meters: Two-element ALPHA meters are unique in that they
create an artificial internal reference that is used to measure the phase voltages. For example,
line 3 experiences a loss of voltage while the meter remains powered (either from line 1 or
from an auxiliary supply) the internal meter engine will still measure a line 3 voltage equal to
one-half of the line 1 voltage. In applications where loss compensation is not applied this has
no impact on the measurement of energy because no power will be drawn by the load on line
3. That is, line 3 current equals zero and so the net energy measured on line 3 is accurately
calculated as zero. However, in the special case of a meter that is compensating for
transformer losses, the no-load compensation terms are based solely on the measured voltage
on each phase (see above formulas). Therefore, on 2-element ALPHA meters with loss
compensation enabled, if line 3 voltage is lost while the meter remains powered, the no load
compensation terms for line 3 will be in error because they will be calculated based on one-
half the line 1 voltage.

The same situation would result if line 1 experiences a loss of voltage.


Technical manual 8-15 Loss compensation

Meter outputs affected by compensation


When loss compensation is enabled on an A1800 ALPHA meter, all of the following
collected data use the compensated values:

all register billing data


all pulse profile data
all KYZ pulse outputs
all test pulses (both in the LCD and on the LED)
Compensation does not affect instrumentation values or the meter features that use
instrumentation values. Regardless of the status of loss compensation, all instrumentation
values reflect the actual measured values as seen at the meter terminals. For example, per
phase voltage values are not affected (whether displayed on the LCD or reported in meter
support software). Likewise TRueQ functions and instrumentation profiling values are not
affected when compensation is active.

Testing a meter with compensation


The LEDs on A1800 ALPHA meters always reflect the current measurement algorithm in the
meter engine. That is, if compensation is turned on then the LEDs will indicate compensated
energy. If compensation is turned off then the LEDs will indicate uncompensated energy.
Because the LED always reflects the state of the compensation it reduces the chance that a
meter with active compensation is accidentally installed unknowingly.

Using the A1800 ALPHA Meter Loss Compensation Tool, it is possible to configure the
meter to automatically turn off compensation whenever the meter enters test mode. This may
or may not be desired depending on utility testing practices.

The loss compensation software also permits the A1800 ALPHA meter loss compensation
function to be manually turned off and turned on without altering the loss compensation
parameters configured in the meter.

Utilities may desire to calculate the expected test results of a compensated meter and then test
the meter with active compensation to verify that the expected results are obtained.
Technical manual 8-16 Loss compensation
Technical manual A-1 Glossary

A Glossary

* button. The push button that activates the alternate mode. It also can be used to control the
scrolling of display quantities in the different operating modes.

Alpha Keys. A system combining hardware and software to upgrade existing


A1800 ALPHA meters. Keys allow addition of new functionality to an existing meter for an
additional fee.
Technical manual

alternate mode. The operating mode in A1800 ALPHA meters used to display a second set
of display quantities on the LCD. It is generally activated by pressing the Q button on the
meter. A typical use of the alternate mode is to display non-billing data as programmed by
Elster meter support software.

AvgPF. see average power factor.

average power factor. Calculated once every second, when the meter is not in test mode,
using the following formula:

kWh
AvgPF
kvarh 2 kWh 2

billing data. The measured quantities recorded and stored by the meter for use in billing the
consumer. May also be referred to as tariff data.

bit. Short for binary digit. It is the smallest information unit used in data communications and
storage.

coincident. Information regarding one parameter occurring at the same time as another. For
example, coincident kvar demand is the kvar demand occurring during the interval of peak
kW demand.

communication session count. The number of data-altering communications occurring


since the A1800 ALPHA meter was last programmed or a clear of the values and status.

complete LCD test. A display showing 8 in all the display areas and all identifiers on the
LCD turned on. This confirms that all segments are operating properly.

continuous cumulative. A display technique used with demand calculations and similar to
cumulative demand except continuous cumulative demand is updated constantly.

CTR. see current transformer ratio.

cumulative. A display technique used with demand calculations. Upon a demand reset, the
present maximum demand is added to the sum of the previous maximum billing period
demand values.

current transformer ratio. The ratio of the primary current to the secondary current of a
current transformer. For example, 400 A to 5 A would have a current transformer ratio of
400:5 or 80:1.
Technical manual A-2 Glossary

data-altering communication. Any communication that performs any of the following


actions:

writes to a meter table


clears data
resets log pointers or data set pointers
resets the demand
performs a self read
performs a season change
del. see delivered.

delivered. Used to specify the energy delivered (provided) to an electric service.

demand. The average power computed over a specific time.

demand forgiveness. The number of minutes that demand will not be calculated following a
recognized power outage. This provides a time period immediately following the restoration
of power during which startup power requirements will not be included in the calculated
demand.

demand interval. The time period over which demand is calculated. Demand interval must
be evenly divisible into 60 minutes.

demand reset. The act of resetting the present maximum demand to zero.

demand reset count. The total number of demand resets since the meter was last
programmed.

demand reset date. The date of the last demand reset.

demand threshold. The present value of demand which when reached initiates a relay
closure or other programmed action.

display quantity. Any value available for display on the LCD.

EEPROM. Acronym for electrically erasable programmable read only memory. This
memory retains all information even when electric power is removed from the circuit.

EOI. see end of interval.

end of interval. The indication that the end of the time interval used to calculate demand has
occurred. An EOI indicator is on the LCD and an optional relay can be supplied to provide an
EOI indication.

energy. Power measured over time.

error display. The method by which the meter displays an error message which consists of E
and numeric codes. The code indicates a condition or conditions that can adversely affect the
proper operation of the meter.

event log. The event log provides a record of entries that date and time stamp specific events
such as:

power outages
demand resets
entering test mode
time changes
external display multiplier. Used when the transformer factor is larger than can be stored
within the A1800 ALPHA meter. When programmed with Elster meter support software for
an external display multiplier, display quantities read from the meter LCD must be manually
multiplied by this value to yield proper readings.
Technical manual A-3 Glossary

factory default. Operating parameters that are programmed into the meter at the factory and
assure that the meter is ready for correct energy measurement when installed.

four quadrant metering. See Figure A-1 for an illustration of energy relationships for
delivered and received real power (kW), apparent power (kVA), and reactive power (kVAR).

Figure A-1. Four quadrant metering quantity relationships

kvar Delivered

Lag Lag

kVA Delivered
kVA Received

kW Delivered
kW Received

Q2
Q2 Q1
Q1

Q3
Q3 Q4
Q4

Lead Lead

kvar Received

IC. see integrated circuit.

instrument transformer. A transformer used to reduce current and voltage to a level which
does not damage the meter. Meter readings will need to be increased by the transformer ratios
to reflect the energy and demand values on the primary side of the instrument transformer.

integrated circuit. Generally used to reference the custom meter circuit used in the
A1800 ALPHA meter for per phase voltage and current sampling plus energy measurements.

Ke. The smallest discrete amount of energy available within the meter. It is the value of a
single pulse used between the meter IC and the microcontroller.

kW overload value. The kW threshold which, when exceeded, will cause the display of the
kW overload warning message.

LC. see load control.

LCD. see liquid crystal display.

LP. see load profile.

line frequency. The frequency of the AC current on the transmission line, often used in
timekeeping applications in lieu of the internal oscillator. On default the line frequency is
50Hz.

liquid crystal display. The LCD allows metered quantities and other information about the
A1800 ALPHA meter and installed service to be viewed. Display quantities are
programmable through Elster meter support software.

load control. Used to describe a relay dedicated to operate based upon entering a specific
TOU rate period or when a demand threshold is reached.
Technical manual A-4 Glossary

load profiling. Load profiling records energy usage per a specific time interval while the
meter is energized. Load profiling data provides a 24 hour record of energy usage for each
day of the billing period.

maximum demand. The highest demand calculated during any demand interval over a
billing period.

microcontroller. A single chip that contains the following components:

main processor
RAM
ROM
clock
I/O control unit
nonrecurring dates. Holidays or other specific dates that are not based upon a predictable,
repeated pattern.

normal mode. The default operating mode for the A1800 ALPHA meter. Typically, normal
mode displays billing data on the LCD following a programmed sequence.

optical port. A photo-transistor and an LED on the face of the meter that is used to transfer
data between a computer and the meter via pulses of light.

outage log. Display quantity that shows the cumulative total outage time in minutes.

P/R. see pulse ratio.

previous billing data. Used to describe the billing data recorded at the demand reset. See
also self read.

previous season data. Used to describe the billing data for the season preceding the present
billing season.

primary rated. A condition where the energy and demand as measured by the meter are
increased by the current and voltage transformer ratios. Meter data will reflect the energy and
demand actually transferred on the primary side of the instrument transformers.

program change date. The date when the meter program was last changed.

program mode. The operating mode of the meter in which full reprogramming of
metrological parameters is permitted.

pulse ratio. Pulses per equivalent disk revolution. On ALPHA meters, 1 revolution is equal
to 1 Kh period.

pulse relay. A relay used with the meter to provide output pulses from the meter to an
external pulse collector. Each pulse represents a specific amount of energy consumption.

rec. see received.

received. Used to specify the energy received by the utility at an electric service.

recurring dates. Holidays or other special dates that occur on a predictable basis.

self read. The capturing of current billing data and storing it in memory. Self reads are
scheduled events that can be triggered by the specific day of month, every set number of
days, or command by Elster meter support software. See also previous billing data.

tariff data. See billing data.

TOU. see time-of-use.

TOU meter. A meter that records energy usage and demand data on a time-of-use basis.
Technical manual A-5 Glossary

test mode. The test mode stores billing data in a secure memory location while the meter
measures and displays energy and demand data for testing purposes. The TEST identifier will
flash while the test mode is active. When test mode is exited, the accumulated test data is
discarded and the original billing data is restored.

timekeeping. The ability of the meter to keep a real time clock, including date and time.

time-of-use. A billing rate that records energy usage and demand data related to specific
times during the day. See also timekeeping.

transformer-rated. A meter designed to work with current or voltage transformers. The


maximum current of a transformer-rated A1800 ALPHA meter is typically 10 A.

voltage transformer ratio. The ratio of primary voltage to secondary voltage of a


transformer. For example, 12,000 V to 120 V would have a voltage transformer ratio of
100:1.

VTR. see voltage transformer ratio.

watthour constant. A meter constant representing the watthours per output pulse on the
LED. Historically, the constant represents the energy equivalent to one revolution of an
electromechanical meter.
Technical manual A-6 Glossary
Technical manual B-1 Display table

B Display table

Display format
Displayable items are described in Display list items on page B-2. The A1800 ALPHA
meter supports up to 64 quantities for display on the LCD. The LCD can be divided into
different regions, as described in Table B-1. See Indicators and controls on page 3-1 for
more detailed information on the LCD regions.
Technical manual

Figure B-1. A1800 ALPHA meter LCD


Low battery indicator
Phase Quantity identifier
Error/warning indicator indicators (3)

Energy direction
indicators Alternate mode
indicator
Comm. port
Display
indicator
quantity
Power/energy
units identifier

Tariff indicators 1 to 4 Reserved Test mode


(left to right) indicator
Cover removed
EOI indicator indicator
LC indicator

Table B-1. LCD regions


Item Description
quantity identifier identifies the displayed quantity. Using Elster meter support
software, an identifier can be assigned to most quantities. For
instrumentation quantities, the identifiers are fixed.
alternate display indicates that the meter is currently displaying items in the
indicator alternate display list (see * button on page 3-5)
active COM port indicates that a communication session is in progress and the
indicators communication port that is being used: either COM 0, COM 1,
or COM 2
power/energy units indicates the unit of measurement for the quantity currently
identifier displayed on the LCD.
display indicators indicates whether the meter is currently doing the following:
accumulating in tariff (T1 - T4)
has reached the end of an interval (EOI)
compensating for transformer line loss (LC)
indicating that either the terminal cover or the meter cover
has been removed
is operating in test mode (see Test mode on page 3-8)
Technical manual B-2 Display table

Table B-1. LCD regions


Item Description
display quantity Shows metered quantities or other displayable information.
From 3 to 8 total digits with up to 9 decimal places can be
used. These digits are also used to report the following:
operational errors
system instrumentation and service test errors
warnings
communication codes
display identifiers more precisely identifies the information presented on the
LCD.
energy direction indicates the directions of active (P) and reactive (Q) energy
indicators flow (positive energy flow is energy delivered to the consumer
load, while reverse energy flow is energy received from the
consumer load)
error indicator indicates either of the following:
flashes when any error flag is set
remains on if a displayable warning flag is set and no error
exists
low battery indicator if the indicator is turned on, the battery warning flag has been
set.
phase indicators L1, L2, and L3 (Line 1, Line 2, and Line 3, respectively)
correspond to a phase voltage present on the A1800 ALPHA
meter connections.
If the indicators are on, then all phase voltages are present.
If an indicator is blinking, then that phase voltage is either
missing or below the defined threshold for voltage sag
detection.

Display list items


The display list items for the normal mode, alternate mode, and test mode are programmed
from the 64 available items.

The display format for all displayable items can be programmed using Elster meter support
software. The A1800 ALPHA meter LCD is capable of supporting the following characters
and symbols:

all numbers (0 to 9)
all Latin-based alphabetical characters
symbols such as (degree), * (asterisk), [ (left bracket), and ] (right bracket)
Additional display items may also be available depending upon the version of Elster meter
support software. See the software documentation for a list of the displayable items.

Displayable items can be grouped into the following categories:

LCD test
general meter information
meter configuration
status
metered quantities
average power factor
coincident demand and power factor
Technical manual B-3 Display table

system instrumentation
system service test
errors and warnings
communication codes

Default display formats


The display areas on the LCD (such as the display quantity and display identifier) are
programmable through Elster meter support software. See Display format on page B-1 for
more information.

The following sections describe the default behavior of the A1800 ALPHA meter display.
See Table B-2 for a description of some of the special characters that have been used in the
display quantity examples.
Table B-2. Characters in display quantity examples
Character Represents
Blank (space)
. Decimal
- hyphen; represents testing in progress
* asterisk; represents all 16 character segments on
: colon; separates time units (hh:mm), etc.
a Any alphanumeric character displayable on the LCD.
dd Numeric character; represents day (01 to 31)
H Indicates the day type is holiday
hh Numeric character; represents time in hours (01 to 24)
mm Numeric character; represents time in minutes (00 to 59)
MM Numeric character; represents month (01 to 12)
x Any numeric character.
ss Numeric character; represents time in seconds (00 to 59)
YY Numeric character; represents two digit year (00 to 99)

LCD test
The A1800 ALPHA meter tests the LCD by displaying all the identifiers, as shown in
Figure B-2. The meter tests the LCD for 3 seconds after power up.

Figure B-2. LCD all segment test

+ Q
-P +P
- Q
L1 L2 L3
COM 0 1 2
Technical manual B-4 Display table

Display description Display quantity Quantity ID Units ID


LCD test [all segment test] ******* ******** [all segments]

General meter information


General meter information quantities are items that are not associated with any particular
pulse or instrumentation source.

Display description Display quantity Quantity ID Units ID


Identifier String 1 [Account:1] aaaaaaaa ID 1-1 of 4
Identifier String 1 [Account:2] aaaaaaaa ID 1-2 of 4
Identifier String 1 [Account:3] aaaa ID 1-3 of 4
Identifier String 1 [Account:4] ID 1-4 of 4
Identifier String 2 [Meter ID:1] aaaaaaaa ID 2-1 of 4
Identifier String 2 [Meter ID:2] aaaaaaaa ID 2-2 of 4
Identifier String 2 [Meter ID:3] aaaa ID 2-3 of 4
Identifier String 2 [Meter ID:4] ID 2-4 of 4
Meter type A1800 TYPE
Firmware product xxx FW
Firmware version xxx FWV
Firmware revision xxx FWR
Hardware version xxx HDWV
Hardware revision xxx HDWR
DSP code xxx DSP
DSP code revision xxx DSPR
Meter Programmer ID xxxxxxxx
LCD test [all segment test] ******* ******** [all segments]

Meter configuration

Display description Display quantity Quantity ID Units ID


Program ID xxxxxxxx PRG ID
Pulse ratio (P/R) x.xxxxxxx P/R
Pulse output ratio [imp/kWh] xxxxx.xxx imp/kWh
Current transformer (CT) ratio xxxxxxxx CT
Voltage transformer (VT) ratio xxxxxxxx VT
Demand interval - normal mode xxxxxxxx INTERV
Demand interval - test mode xxxxxxxx INTERVT
Watthours per pulse (Ke) xxxxxxxx Wh/Imp
Meter Kh xxxxxxxx Kh
Transformer factor (CT VT) xxxxxxxx CTxVT
External multiplier xxx.xxxxx ExtMult
Technical manual B-5 Display table

Display description Display quantity Quantity ID Units ID


Demand overload value xxxxx.xxx DmdOvld

Status

Display description Display quantity Quantity ID Units ID


Communication session count (port 1) xxxxxxxx Com1No
Communication session count (port 2/optical) xxxxxxxx Com2No
Days since demand reset xxxxxxxx ResDays
Days since input pulse xxxxxxxx ImpDays
Number of manual demand resets xxxxxxxx RstPress
Number of all demand resets xxxxxxxx DmdRes
Power outage count xxxxxxxx Outages
Initial remote baud (port 1) xxxxxxxx COM1bps
Initial remote baud (port 2) xxxxxxxx COM2bps
Transformer Loss Comp Status xxxxxxxx
TRueQ Status (On/Off) On
Off
Outage Log
Program Change Date (port 1) MM:dd:YY
Program Change Date (port 2/optical) MM:dd:YY
Last Elster configuration change date MM:dd:YY CnfDate
Demand reset date MM:dd:YY DmdRes
Last power outage start date MM:dd:YY Outage
Last power outage start time hh:mm Outage
Last power outage end date MM:dd:YY Restore
Last power outage end time hh:mm Restore
Present date MM:dd:YY Date
Present time hh:mm Time
Present day of week aaaaaaaa Day
Present season aaaaaaaa Season
Date of last pending table activation MM:dd:YY TblActv
Time Left in interval hh:mm Sub Int
Pulse count for quantity (Wh-delivered) xxxxxxxx ImpWhD
Pulse count for quantity (alternate-delivered) xxxxxxxx ImpE2D
Pulse count for quantity (Wh-received) xxxxxxxx ImpWhR
Pulse count for quantity (alternate-received) xxxxxxxx ImpE2R
Self Read Date MM:dd:YY
Effective Date for Rates/Special Dates MM:dd:YY
Number of Write Sessions (port 1) xxxxxxxx
Number of Write Sessions (port 2/optical) xxxxxxxx
Technical manual B-6 Display table

Metered quantities
A1800 ALPHA meters can measure two quantities. Meters with the optional 4-quadrant
metering can measure eight quantities. The A1800 ALPHA meter can display the available
metered quantities for each meter type.

To indicate a self read quantity, the LCD will use the last two characters of the quantity
identifier to indicate the last self read number (01 to 35).

Display description Display


Display quantity Quantity ID Units ID
ID
Current billing, Previous billing, Previous season, Last self read
Total energy xxxxxxxx Deliver kWh/kVAh/kvarh
Receive
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Maximum demand xxxxxxxx Del MD kW/kVA/kvar
Rec MD
Q1 MD
Q2 MD
Q3 MD
Q4 MD
Date of maximum demand MM:dd:YY MD Date
Time of maximum demand hh:mm MD Time
Cumulative demand xxxxxxxx Del CMD kW/kVA/kvar
Rec CMD
Q1 CMD
Q2 CMD
Q3 CMD
Q4 CMD
Tariff 1 energy T1 xxxxxxxx Deliver kWh/kVAh/kvarh
Receive
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Tariff 1 maximum demand T1 xxxxxxxx Del MD kW/kVA/kvar
Rec MD
Q1 MD
Q2 MD
Q3 MD
Q4 MD
Tariff 1 date of maximum demand T1 MM:dd:YY MD Date
Tariff 1 time of maximum demand T1 hh:mm MD Time
Tariff 1 cumulative demand T1 xxxxxxxx Del CMD kW/kVA/kvar
Rec CMD
Q1 CMD
Q2 CMD
Q3 CMD
Q4 CMD
Technical manual B-7 Display table

Display description Display


Display quantity Quantity ID Units ID
ID
Current billing, Previous billing, Previous season, Last self read
Tariff 2 energy T2 xxxxxxxx Deliver kWh/kVAh/kvarh
Receive
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Tariff 2 maximum demand T2 xxxxxxxx Del MD kW/kVA/kvar
Rec MD
Q1 MD
Q2 MD
Q3 MD
Q4 MD
Tariff 2 date of maximum demand T2 MM:dd:YY MD Date
Tariff 2 time of maximum demand T2 hh:mm MD Time
Tariff 2 cumulative demand T2 xxxxxxxx Del CMD kW/kVA/kvar
Rec CMD
Q1 CMD
Q2 CMD
Q3 CMD
Q4 CMD
Tariff 3 energy T3 xxxxxxxx Deliver kWh/kVAh/kvarh
Receive
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Tariff 3 maximum demand T3 xxxxxxxx Del MD kW/kVA/kvar
Rec MD
Q1 MD
Q2 MD
Q3 MD
Q4 MD
Tariff 3 date of maximum demand T3 MM:dd:YY MD Date
Tariff 3 time of maximum demand T3 hh:mm MD Time
Tariff 3 cumulative demand T3 xxxxxxxx Del CMD kW/kVA/kvar
Rec CMD
Q1 CMD
Q2 CMD
Q3 CMD
Q4 CMD
Tariff 4 energy T4 xxxxxxxx Deliver kWh/kVAh/kvarh
Receive
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Tariff 4 maximum demand T4 xxxxxxxx Del MD kW/kVA/kvar
Rec MD
Q1 MD
Q2 MD
Q3 MD
Q4 MD
Technical manual B-8 Display table

Display description Display


Display quantity Quantity ID Units ID
ID
Current billing, Previous billing, Previous season, Last self read
Tariff 4 date of maximum demand T4 MM:dd:YY MD Date
Tariff 4 time of maximum demand T4 hh:mm MD Time
Tariff 4 cumulative demand T4 xxxxxxxx Del CMD kW/kVA/kvar
Rec CMD
Q1 CMD
Q2 CMD
Q3 CMD
Q4 CMD
Present Interval (current billing only)
Previous Interval (current billing only)

Average power factor


For each average power factor, the following items are available for display.

Display description Display


Display quantity Quantity ID Units ID
ID
Average power factor xxxxxxxx AvgPF
Tariff 1 average power factor T1 xxxxxxxx AvgPF
Tariff 2 average power factor T2 xxxxxxxx AvgPF
Tariff 3 average power factor T3 xxxxxxxx AvgPF
Tariff 4 average power factor T4 xxxxxxxx AvgPF

Coincident demand and power factor


The A1800 ALPHA meters can measure two coincident quantities. Additionally, meters with
the 4-quadrant metering option can measure four coincident quantities. Coincident quantities
are configurable with Elster meter support software to be any demand or average power
factor value captured at the time of a maximum demand value. For each coincident value, the
following items is available for display:

Display description Display


Display quantity Quantity ID Units ID
ID
Coincident demand xxxxxxxx CoinDmd kW/kVA/kvar
Tariff 1 coincident demand T1 xxxxxxxx CoinDmd kW/kVA/kvar
Tariff 2 coincident demand T2 xxxxxxxx CoinDmd kW/kVA/kvar
Tariff 3 coincident demand T3 xxxxxxxx CoinDmd kW/kVA/kvar
Tariff 4 coincident demand T4 xxxxxxxx CoinDmd kW/kVA/kvar
Coincident power factor x.xxx CoinPF kW/kVA/kvar
Tariff 1 coincident power factor T1 x.xxx CoinPF kW/kVA/kvar
Tariff 2 coincident power factor T2 x.xxx CoinPF kW/kVA/kvar
Tariff 3 coincident power factor T3 x.xxx CoinPF kW/kVA/kvar
Tariff 4 coincident power factor T4 x.xxx CoinPF kW/kVA/kvar
Technical manual B-9 Display table

Cumulative demand
The A1800 ALPHA meter records either the cumulative or continuous cumulative demand.

Display description Display


Display quantity Quantity ID Units ID
ID
Cumulative demand xxxxxxxx CumDmd kW/kVA/kvar
Tariff 1 cumulative demand T1 xxxxxxxx CumDmd kW/kVA/kvar
Tariff 2 cumulative demand T2 xxxxxxxx CumDmd kW/kVA/kvar
Tariff 3 cumulative demand T3 xxxxxxxx CumDmd kW/kVA/kvar
Tariff 4 cumulative demand T4 xxxxxxxx CumDmd kW/kVA/kvar

System instrumentation
The A1800 ALPHA meter can display system instrumentation quantities. See System
instrumentation on page 4-1 for a listing of the instrumentation quantities that can be
displayed.

Display description Display quantity Quantity ID Units ID


Line frequency xx.xxHz L123
Line 1 voltage (secondary) xxx.xxx V L1
Line 1 voltage (primary) xxx.xxxkV
Line 2 voltage (secondary) xxx.xxx V L2
Line 2 voltage (primary) xxx.xxxkV
Line 3 voltage (secondary) xxx.xxx V L3
Line 3 voltage (primary) xxx.xxxkV
Line 1 current (secondary) xxx.xxx A L1
Line 1 current (primary) xxx.xxxkA
Line 2 current (secondary) xxx.xxx A L2
Line 2 current (primary) xxx.xxxkA
Line 3 current (secondary) xxx.xxx A L3
Line 3 current (primary) xxx.xxxkA
Line 1 power factor xx.xx L1 COS
Line 2 power factor xx.xx L2 COS
Line 3 power factor xx.xx L3 COS
Line 1 power factor angle xxx.xx L1
Line 2 power factor angle xxx.xx L2
Line 3 power factor angle xxx.xx L3
Line 1 voltage phase angle xxx.xxV L1
Line 2 voltage phase angle xxx.xxV L2
Line 3 voltage phase angle xxxx.xV L3
Line 1 current phase angle xxx.xA L1
Line 2 current phase angle xxx.xA L2
Line 3 current phase angle xxx.xA L3
Line 1 kW (primary) xxxx.xxxx L1 kW
Line 1 kW (secondary) xxx.xxx MW
Line 2 kW (primary) xxxx.xxxx L2 kW
Line 2 kW (secondary) xxx.xxx MW
Technical manual B-10 Display table

Display description Display quantity Quantity ID Units ID


Line 3 kW (primary) xxxx.xxxx L3 kW
Line 3 kW (secondary) xxx.xxx MW
Line 1 kvar (primary) xxxx.xxxx L1 kvar
Line 1 kvar (secondary) xxx.xxx Mvar
Line 2 kvar (primary) xxxx.xxxx L2 kvar
Line 2 kvar (secondary) xxx.xxx Mvar
Line 3 kvar (primary) xxxx.xxxx L3 kvar
Line 3 kvar (secondary) xxx.xxx Mvar
Line 1 kVA (primary) xxxx.xxxx L1 kVA
Line 1 kA (secondary) xxx.xxx MVA
Line 2 kVA (primary) xxxx.xxxx L2 kVA
Line 2 kA (secondary) xxx.xxx MVA
Line 3 kVA (primary) xxxx.xxxx L3 kVA
Line 3 kA (secondary) xxx.xxx MVA
System kW (primary) xxxx.xxxx L123 kW
System kW (secondary) xxx.xxx MW
System kvar (primary) (arithmetic) xxxx.xxxx L123 kvar
System kvar (secondary) (arithmetic) xxx.xxx Mvar
System kVA (primary) (arithmetic) xxxx.xxxx L123 kVA
System kVA (secondary) (arithmetic) xxx.xxx MVA
System power factor (arithmetic) xx.xx L123.COS
System power factor angle (arithmetic) xx.xx L123
System kvar (primary) (vectorial) xxxx.xxxx L123 kvar
System kvar (secondary) (vectorial) xxx.xxx Mvar
System kVA (primary) (vectorial) xxxx.xxxx L123 kVA
System kVA (secondary) (vectorial) xxx.xxx MVA
System power factor (vectorial) xx.xx L123.COS
System power factor angle (vectorial) xx.xx L123
Line 1 voltage % total harmonic distortion (THD) xx.xx%V L1.H2-15
Line 2 voltage % total harmonic distortion (THD) xx.xx%V L2.H2-15
Line 3 voltage % total harmonic distortion (THD) xx.xx%V L3.H2-15
Line 1 current % total harmonic distortion (THD) xx.xx%A L1.H2-15
Line 2 current % total harmonic distortion (THD) xx.xx%A L2.H2-15
Line 3 current % total harmonic distortion (THD) xx.xx%A L3.H2-15
Line 1 total demand distortion (TDD) xx.xx A L1 TDD
Line 2 total demand distortion (TDD) xx.xx A L2 TDD
Line 3 total demand distortion (TDD) xx.xx A L3 TDD
Line 1 fundamental voltage magnitude (secondary) xxx.xxx V L1 H1
Line 1 fundamental voltage magnitude (primary) xxx.xkV
Line 2 fundamental voltage magnitude (primary) xxx.xxxkV L2 H1
Line 2 fundamental voltage magnitude (secondary) xxx.x V
Line 3 fundamental voltage magnitude (primary) xxx.xxxkV L3 H1
Line 3 fundamental voltage magnitude (secondary) xxx.x V
Line 1 fundamental current magnitude (primary) xxx.xxxkA L1 H1
Line 1 fundamental current magnitude (secondary) xxx.x A
Technical manual B-11 Display table

Display description Display quantity Quantity ID Units ID


Line 2 fundamental current magnitude (primary) xxx.xxxkA L2 H1
Line 2 fundamental current magnitude (secondary) xxx.x A
Line 3 fundamental current magnitude (primary) xxx.xxxkA L3 H1
Line 3 fundamental current magnitude (secondary) xxx.x A
Line 1 2nd harmonic voltage magnitude (primary) xxx.xxxkV L1 H2
Line 1 2nd harmonic voltage magnitude (secondary) xxx.x V
Line 2 2nd harmonic voltage magnitude (primary) xxx.xxxkV L2 H2
Line 2 2nd harmonic voltage magnitude (secondary) xxx.x V
Line 3 2nd harmonic voltage magnitude (primary) xxx.xxxkV L3 H2
Line 3 2nd harmonic voltage magnitude (secondary) xxx.x V
Line 1 2nd harmonic current magnitude (primary) xxx.xxxkA L1 H2
Line 1 2nd harmonic current magnitude (secondary) xxx.x A
Line 2 2nd harmonic current magnitude (primary) xxx.xxxkA L2 H2
Line 2 2nd harmonic current magnitude (secondary) xxx.x A
Line 3 2nd harmonic current magnitude (primary) xxx.xxxkA L3 H2
Line 3 2nd harmonic current magnitude (secondary) xxx.x A
Line 1 2nd harmonic voltage % distortion xx.xx%V L1 H2
Line 2 2nd harmonic voltage % distortion xx.xx%V L2 H2
Line 3 2nd harmonic voltage % distortion xx.xx%V L3 H2
Line 1 harmonic current distortion xxx.xxxkA L1 H2-15
(2nd - 15th) (primary)
Line 1 harmonic current distortion xxx.x A
(2nd - 15th) (secondary)
Line 2 harmonic current distortion xxx.xxxkA L2 H2-15
(2nd - 15th) (primary)
Line 2 harmonic current distortion xxx.x A
(2nd - 15th) (secondary)
Line 3 harmonic current distortion xxx.xxxkA L3 H2-15
(2nd - 15th) (primary)
Line 3 harmonic current distortion xxx.x A
(2nd - 15th) (secondary)

System service tests


The A1800 ALPHA meter can display the validity of the electricity service where it is
installed. See System service tests on page 4-5 for more information.

Display description Display quantity Quantity ID Units ID


Service Voltage Test -------- TEST V
System Test Error xxxxxxxx SE
Service Current Test OK TEST I
--------
System Service Type xxx 4Y L1-2-3
xxx 3 L3-2-1
xxx 1L
Currently locked service [xxx 4Y] L1-2-3
[xxx 3] L3-2-1
[xxx 1L]
Technical manual B-12 Display table

Errors and warnings


The A1800 ALPHA meter displays error codes and warning codes as an indication of a
problem that may be affecting its operation. See Error codes on page 6-2 and Warning
codes on page 6-5 for more information.

Communication codes
The A1800 ALPHA meter indicates the status of a communication session by displaying it
on the LCD. See Communication codes on page 6-8.
Technical manual C-1 Nameplate and style number information

C Nameplate and style number


information

Nameplate
The nameplate provides important information about the meter. The nameplate can be
Technical manual

configured to meet the needs of the utility company; however, Figure C-1 is an illustration of
a A1800 ALPHA nameplate for both transformer rated and direct connected meters.

Figure C-1. Sample nameplates

LCD indcator labels


Elster Metronica
style number
LED pulse
Voltage rating and frequency settings
Nominal (max) current
and frequency Accuracy Class 0.2S (active)
and GOST no.
Isolation Class 2 symbol
Accuracy Class 0.5 (reactive)
and TU no.
Number of elements
Current and voltage Pulse output settings
transformer ratios
Customer name or Elster Certification
Metronica on default symbols
Meter serial number and
Elster logo
barcode
Year and place of manufacture

LCD indcator labels


Elster Metronica
style number
LED pulse
Voltage rating and frequency settings
Nominal (max) current
and frequency
Isolation Class 2 symbol Accuracy Class 1 (active)
and GOST no.
Accuracy Class 2 (reactive)
Number of elements and GOST no.
Pulse output
settings
Customer name or Elster Certification
Metronica on default symbols
Meter serial number and Elster logo
barcode
Year and place of manufacture
Technical manual C-2 Nameplate and style number information

Utility information card


The removable utility information card provides a place for the utility to enter meter site-
specific information (for example, CT, VT, etc.). Figure C-2 is an example of a utility
information card.

Figure C-2. Utility information card (transformer rated)

CT A

VT V

imp/kWh(kVARh)

Figure C-3. Utility information card (direct connect rated)


Technical manual C-3 Nameplate and style number information

Style number information


The following table lists the commonly used styles for the A1800 ALPHA meter and the
options that are available. Style numbers are subject to change without notice. Contact Elster
Metronica for availability.

Table C-2. Meter style numbers for the A1800 Alpha meter

For example: 1802RALXQVM 4GB DW 4

18 02 RALXQVM - P4 G B - D W - 4

3 Two-Element
(3-phase, 3-wire,
4 delta) Three-Element
(3-phase, 4-wire, wye)
W Auxiliary Power Supply
D LCD Backlight
B Second communication port RS485
S Second communication port RS232
E Second communication port Ethernet
G First communication port (RS485 or RS232)
1- 6 Pulse output relays (16)
Both active and reactive energy metering, multi-tariff
R(T) (active energy metering only, multi-tariff)
Both delivered and received energy metering
L Both load and instrumentation profiling
X Extended memory, 1 B
Q Instrumentation measurements with standardized error
V Loss compensation
Theft-resistant measurement of active energy
02 Class 0.2S, transformer rated meters
05 Class 0.5S, transformer rated meters
10 Class 1, transformer rated meters
20 Class 0.5S, direct connect meters
21 Class 1, direct connect meters
A18 A1800 ALPHA meter

Note:
1. If A1800 meter has not additional functions such as "", "L", "X", "Q", "V", "", "D",
"W", then these suffixs shuld not be at nameplate. If A1800 meter has not "Q" suffix it is
instrumentation measurements without standardized error.
2. If A1800 meter has not RS485, RS232 or Ethernet second communication ports, then "",
"S" or "E" suffixs should not to be at nameplate.
Technical manual C-4 Nameplate and style number information
Technical manual D-1 Wiring diagrams

D Wiring diagrams

Refer to the wiring diagram on the nameplate of each meter for specific terminal
assignments. All connections are equipped with combination-head screws that accept either a
slotted or Phillips screwdriver.

Direct connected
Technical manual

Figure D-1. 3-element, 4-wire wye or 4-wire delta

Figure D-2. 2-element, 3-wire delta or 3-wire network


Technical manual D-2 Wiring diagrams

CT-connected meters

Figure D-3. 2-element, 3-wire delta, transformer connected

Figure D-4. 3-element, 4-wire current transformer, sequential connection with 0,4kV
Technical manual D-3 Wiring diagrams

Figure D-5. 3-element, 4-wire instrument transformer, sequential connection with insulated neutral and grounded B phasel

Figure D-6. 3-element, 4-wire instrument transformer, sequential connection with grounded neutral
Technical manual D-4 Wiring diagrams

Figure D-7. 3-element, 3-wire delta, transformer connected

Figure D-8. 3-element, 3-wire delta, instrument transformer connected with grounded B phase
Technical manual D-5 Wiring diagrams

Figure D-9. 3-element, 3-wire delta, current transformer, 0,22kV with insulated neutral

Figure D-10. 2-element, 3-wire delta, current transformer, 0,22kV with insulated neutral
Technical manual D-6 Wiring diagrams

Figure D-11. 2-element, 3-wire delta instrument transformer connected with grounded B phase

Figure D-12. 3-element, 2-wire, transformer connected


Technical manual E-1 Technical specifications

E Technical specifications

Absolute maximums

Voltage Continuous 528 VAC


Surge voltage withstand Test performed Results
Oscillatory (IEC 61000-4-12) 2.5 kV, 60 seconds
Technical manual

Fast transient (IEC 61000-4-4) 4 kV


Impulse voltage test (IEC 60060-1) 12 kV @ 1.2/50 s 450 (8 kV with option
boards)
AC voltage (insulation) test 4 kV, 50 Hz for 1 minute
Current Continuous at Imax
Temporary (0.5 seconds) at 2000 % of Imax (transformer rated)
cycle at 30 Imax (direct connect-rated)

Operating ranges
Voltage
Nameplate nominal 58 V to 400 V
Operating range 49 V to 528 V
Auxiliary power supply range For AC power: 57 V rms to 240 V rms, 115V (nominal)
For DC power: 80 V to 340 V
Current 0 A to 10 A (transformer rated)
0 A to 120 A (direct connect rated)
Frequency Nominal 50 Hz, 60 Hz1 5 %
Temperature range -40 C to +65 C
Humidity range 0 % to 98% noncondensing
1
Contact Elster Metronica for availability.

Operating characteristics

Power supply burden Less than 3 W


Per phase current burden Less than 0.01 VA (transformer rated and direct connect-rated)
1
Per phase voltage burden 0.008 W at 120 V 0.03 W at 240 V 0.04 W at 480 V
Accuracy
Active energy 0.2 % (IEC 62053-22) 0.5 % (IEC 62053-22) 1.0 % (IEC 62053-21)
Actual accuracy is better than 0.5 % for 0.2 % accuracy
Reactive energy 2.0 % (IEC 62053-23)
meters
1
Conforms to IEC 62053-61 (Electricity Metering Equipment, Power Consumption and Voltage Requirements)
Technical manual E-2 Technical specifications

General performance characteristics

Starting current
CT-connected 1 mA
Direct-connected < 40 mA (Ib = 10A)
Creep 0.000 A (no current) No more than 1 pulse per quantity, conforming to IEC 62053 requirements
Internal clock accuracy Better than 0.5 seconds/day (while powered), while conforming to IEC 62054-21
Outage carryover capacity LiSOCl2 battery rated 800 mAhr, 3.6 V and shelf life of 15+ years.
5 years continuous duty at 25 C.
Supercapacitor is expected to provide carryover power for all normal power outages for a
period of at least 6 hours at +25 C. The battery is not under load except when supercapacitor
is discharged or when a programmed meter is stored for an extended period without line
power. Based on this low duty cycle, the projected life of the battery in normal service is
expected to be greater than 20 years.
Communications rate
Optical port 1200 to 28,800 bps Physical components meet IEC 62056-21 or ANSI C12.18
Serial ports 1200 bps to 19,200 bps

Dimensions and mass


For the dimensions and mass of the A1800 ALPHA meter, see Physical dimensions and
mass on page 2-18.
Elster Metronica OOO 10-2011 Printing in Russia
# 22002/E

Elster Metronica

1 Proyezd Perova Polya St., 9, Building 3


Moscow, Russia, 111141
Tel.: +7 (495) 730-0285, 730-0286
Fax: +7 (495) 730-0283, 730-0281
E-mail: metronica@ru.elster.com
Internet: www.izmerenie.ru