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Contents
Whats in This Book? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Big Idea 1: Plants and animals depend on each other and on their
environment for survival . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Vocabulary angiosperms, dormant, erosion, habitat, hibernate, hoard,
honeycomb, lodge, migrate, mutation, nectar, ovary, pollen,
pollination, proboscis, silt, sterile, wetland
Week 1: Why do beavers build dams? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Week 2: Why do some plants have fruit? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Week 3: Do all bees make honey? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Week 4: Where do animals get food in the winter? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Week 5: Unit Review: Comprehension, Vocabulary, Visual Literacy . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Hands-on Activity: Seed Catalog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

Big Idea 2: Most microorganisms do not cause disease, and many


are beneficial. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Vocabulary absorb, acid, antibiotic, antibodies, bacteria, cavity, decomposers,
dentin, dissolve, enamel, fluoride, fungus, immune system, infectious,
intestines, microorganisms, microscopic, mold, nutritious, penicillin,
plaque, pulp, viruses, yeast
Week 1: Why does garbage smell? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Week 2: How do bacteria create cavities? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Week 3: Are all germs bad?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Week 4: Is it safe to eat moldy food? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Week 5: Unit Review: Comprehension, Vocabulary, Visual Literacy . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Hands-on Activity: Farming Fuzz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

Big Idea 3: Both slow and rapid processesfrom erosion to earthquakes


shape and reshape the Earths surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Vocabulary basin, boundary, chamber, channels, core, crust, debris, ecosystem,
erosion, expanded, fault, glacier, lava, magma, magnitude, mantle,
meltwater, moraines, plates, retreat, seismometer, uplifted, vent,
weathering
Week 1: How was the Grand Canyon formed? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Week 2: Do glaciers really move? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Week 3: What makes a volcano erupt? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Week 4: What causes earthquakes? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Week 5: Unit Review: Comprehension, Vocabulary, Visual Literacy . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Hands-on Activity: Glacial Grind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

2 %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ
Big Idea 4: The properties of rocks and minerals reflect the process
that formed them . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Vocabulary asteroids, carbon, cement, cleavage, color, conserve, crystalline, extract,
extraterrestrial, fossil fuels, fracture, hardness, igneous, lunar, luster,
maria, metals, metamorphic, meteor, meteorite, minerals, natural
resources, ore, renewable, rock cycle, sediment, sedimentary, streak
Week 1: Whats the difference between a rock and a mineral? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Week 2: Where do rocks come from? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Week 3: Are some rocks valuable? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Week 4: Do all rocks come from Earth? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Week 5: Unit Review: Comprehension, Vocabulary, Visual Literacy . . . . . . . . . . 122
Hands-on Activity: Chalk It Up to Science . . . . . . . . . . . 125

Big Idea 5: Electrical energy can be converted into heat, light,


sound, and motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Vocabulary amplifier, circuit, conductor, controller, display, electric current,
electric motor, electromagnet, electron, filaments, hearing aid, LED,
magnetic force, mechanical energy, microphone, photon, radiate,
resistor, sound waves, speaker, switch
Week 1: How do toasters work? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Week 2: What lights a digital clock? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Week 3: How do hearing aids help people hear? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Week 4: How do electric cars work? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Week 5: Unit Review: Comprehension, Vocabulary, Visual Literacy . . . . . . . . . . 152
Hands-on Activity: Start Your Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

Big Idea 6: People invented machines to make work easier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156


Vocabulary compound machine, counterweight, distance, fixed pulley, force,
friction, fulcrum, inclined plane, lever, load, mechanical advantage,
movable pulley, pulley, screw, simple machine, threads, wedge,
wheel and axle, wheelbarrow, work
Week 1: Why do some building entrances have ramps? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Week 2: Whats the difference between a nail and a screw? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Week 3: How do elevators work? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Week 4: How does a wheelbarrow make work easier? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Week 5: Unit Review: Comprehension, Vocabulary, Visual Literacy . . . . . . . . . . 182
Hands-on Activity: Learn About Levers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

Answer Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186

Evan-Moor Corp. EMC 5014 Daily Science 3


Whats in This Book?
Daily Science provides daily activity pages grouped into six units, called Big Ideas, that explore
a wide range of topics based on the national standards for life, earth, and physical sciences.
Every Big Idea includes five weekly lessons. The first four weeks each center around an engaging
question that taps into students natural curiosity about the world to develop essential concepts
and content vocabulary. The fifth week of each unit offers a hands-on activity and review pages
for assessment and extra practice.

The short 10- to 15-minute activities in Daily Science allow you to supplement your science
instruction every day while developing reading comprehension and practicing content vocabulary.

Unit Introduction
Key science concepts Plants and animals depend Unit Overview
An overview of the
and national science Big four weekly lessons
on each other and on their

1
environment for survival. WEEK 1: Why do beavers build WEEK 4: Where do animals get
dams? food in the winter?

standards covered in Idea Key Concept


Interdependence of organisms and the environment
Connection to the Big Idea: When plants
and animals share a habitat, the presence
Connection to the Big Idea: During
winter, food is scarce and animals react shows you each
of one can greatly affect the other. This in different ways. Some animals migrate

the unit are indicated. National Standard


All animals depend on plants. Some animals eat plants
week, students study how beavers change
their habitat, making survival easier for
to areas where food is available. Others
survive the winter by storing food as body weekly question,
some organisms, while destroying the fat, hoarding plant material such as nuts,

explains what
for food. Other animals eat animals that eat the plants.
habitat for others. or by hibernating. This week, students
Content Vocabulary: erosion, habitat, lodge, learn about the different ways animals
silt, wetland survive the winter. They learn the difference

B
y fourth grade, students
are becoming familiar
Teacher Background
WEEK 2: Why do some plants
between hibernating and becoming
dormant, as well as why some animals students will learn,
with concepts that lead Plants and animals that share a habitat are often have fruit? migrate.
to the basic understanding of
ecosystemsthat plants and
animals sharing a habitat very
connected in such a way that the actions of one have a
direct impact on the other. The relationship between a
plant and an animal, in fact, can be key to the survival
Connection to the Big Idea: Plants
reproduce by making seeds, and one
Content Vocabulary: dormant, hibernate,
hoard, migrate and lists content
way plants ensure that their seeds are
often depend on each other for
survival. In this unit, students
will learn that:
of both organisms. For example, plants provide food and
shelter to animals, and animals help plants reproduce.
distributed is by producing fruit. This week,
students learn that both plants and animals
WEEK 5: Unit Review
These activities review key concepts of plant
vocabulary.
Bees and flowers are an ideal example of this benefit from the production of fruit. They and animal interdependence.

Background interdependent relationship. Flowers provide nectar for discover that some fruit-producing plants
animals help plants reproduce; p. 32: Comprehension Students answer
bees, which some bees use to make honey; meanwhile, are completely dependent on humans for
multiple-choice questions about key
plants provide food and shelter bees pollinate the plants. Over time, this relationship reproduction.
concepts from the unit.

information is for animals; and

plants and animals interact with


brings about adaptations in both organisms that make
their mutual survival more likely.
Content Vocabulary: angiosperms, mutation,
ovary, pollen, pollination, sterile p. 33: Vocabulary Students match
vocabulary words from the unit to their Week 5 review
each other and the environment

provided on the topic,


Throughout this unit, students will investigate how WEEK 3: Do all bees make honey? definitions and complete a cloze paragraph.
to cause changes that can be

activities are
plants and animals depend on each other for their Connection to the Big Idea: Bees make
both beneficial and harmful. survival. p. 34: Visual Literacy Students answer
honey by concentrating flower nectar
questions based on information presented

giving you the For specific background information on each weeks in special areas of the hive. This week,
on a line graph that shows beaver

summarized.
concepts, refer to the notes on pp. 8, 14, 20, and 26. students discover that not all bees make
population changes.
honey. However, they learn that all bees

knowledge you need


depend on flowers for food, and flowering p. 35: Hands-on Activity Students investigate
plants depend on bees for pollination. the seeds in three types of fruit and record
Content Vocabulary: honeycomb, nectar, their observations in a chart. Review the

to present the unit


proboscis materials and instructions on the student
page ahead of time.

concepts confidently. 6 Big Idea 1 %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ &WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF Big Idea 1 7

Weekly Lessons (Weeks 1 4)


The student activity
Each week begins with Week 4
Where do animals get
Name __________________________________________________________
Da
i l y S c i e nc
e
pages for Days 14
Weekly Question
Big
a teacher page that Idea 1 food in the winter? Day
1
Where do animals get
food in the winter?
Idea 1 of each week use
The coming of winter brings changes that include shorter days and

provides additional Plants and animals


colder temperatures. Less food is available for both plants and animals.
One way organisms respond is by eating less and using less energy. In *ONPTUQMBDFT XJOUFSCSJOHTTIPSUFSEBZTBOEDPMEFS an inquiry-based
anticipation of winter, many animals also begin to store food. Animals UFNQFSBUVSFT5IFSFJTVTVBMMZMFTTGPPEBWBJMBCMFGPSBOJNBMT
background information model to help
depend on each WEEK 4
store food in their bodies as fat, or by hoarding plant material such as
other and on their "OJNBMTEFBMXJUIUIFGPPETIPSUBHFJOBOVNCFSPGXBZT
nuts, roots, or branches. Animals also migrate to places where food is
environment for 4PNFBOJNBMT hoard GPPETPUIBUJUXJMMCFBWBJMBCMFJOUIF
more plentiful. Plants ultimately benefit from animals surviving the

specific to the XJOUFS4RVJSSFMTBOETPNFCJSET TVDIBTCMVFKBZTBOE


students answer
survival.
winter because animals help plants reproduce and scatter their seeds. Vocabulary
XPPEQFDLFST TUPSFOVUTBOETFFETJOUSFFTBOEPUIFSIJEJOH
hoard
QMBDFT#FBWFSTTUBTIUSFFCSBODIFTVOEFSXBUFSOFBSUIFJS

weekly question. the weekly question


hord
Day One Discuss with students what winter is like where you live and what challenges
MPEHFT)POFZCFFTNBLFFOPVHIIPOFZUPMBTUUIFIJWF to gather things
Vocabulary: hoard
that brings to people. Ask students to name the wild animals they see in
winter in your area. Inform students that they are going to read about ways UISPVHIPVUUIFXJOUFS and then store
Materials: page 27 or hide them

and understand
in which animals survive in winter. After students complete the activities,
have them share their responses to activities B and C. A. Number the events in the correct order.

Day Two Briefly discuss the reason we need to eat food. (provides energy needed
Materials: page 28
for the proper functioning of body systems) Prior to reading the text and
fundamental
Ideas are given for
completing the activities, ask students to speculate what might happen
if a person or an animal eats more food than its body can use. (will gain

concepts related
weight) Then have students complete the activities.

presenting the daily Day Three After students read the passage, confirm that they understand the
difference between becoming dormant and hibernating. You may wish to

to the Big Idea.


Vocabulary: dormant,
hibernate explain that hibernation is a dramatic form of dormancy. True hibernators

activity pages,
cant be awakened easily and are unresponsive to external stimuli. Their
Materials: page 29
body temperatures drop to a few degrees above their surroundings. Bears
do not hibernate, although this continues to be argued. Their temperatures
drop only a few degrees, and females can give birth during winter,

including content
In winter, squirrels In autumn, acorns Squirrels hoard Squirrels gather
something that would not be possible for a true hibernator. Then have eat stored acorns. fall to the ground the acorns in fallen acorns.

You may wish to


students complete the activity. from oak trees. trees.

vocabulary and
Day Four Ask students to speculate how an animal that cant store enough food or
Vocabulary: migrate
body fat might survive winter. After students read the passage, have them B. Which of these foods are birds likely to hoard: worms or sunflower seeds? Why?
Materials: page 30
look at the illustration and read the caption together. Before students
complete the activities, read the prompt for activity B, making sure that have students
materials needed for they understand that prey on means to hunt and eat. When students

complete the pages


have completed the activities, have volunteers share their responses and
C. Do you think animals that live in tropical places hoard food? Why or why not?
explain their thinking.

any demonstrations Day Five Have students complete the page independently. Then review the
Materials: page 31
answers together.
independently or
or group activities. 26 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ &WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 27

collaboratively.

4 %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ
Weekly Lessons, continued
i l y S c i e nc i l y S c i e nc
Da e Da e
Name __________________________________________________________ Name __________________________________________________________

Weekly Question
Big Weekly Question
Big
Each student page Day
2
Where do animals get
food in the winter?
Idea 1
Day
3
Where do animals get
food in the winter?
Idea 1

begins with a short 5PQSFQBSFGPSXJOUFS NBOZBOJNBMTFBUNPSFGPPEEVSJOH 0OFXBZBOJNBMTBEBQUUPXJOUFSJTCZCFDPNJOHdormant


UIFXBSNNPOUITUIBOUIFZBDUVBMMZOFFE5IFFYUSBGPPEJT "EPSNBOUBOJNBMNBZMPPLMJLFJUJTTMFFQJOH CVUJUJTSFBMMZ
introduction.
WEEK 4 WEEK 4
TUPSFEJOUIFJSCPEJFTJOUIFGPSNPGGBU%VSJOHXJOUFS XIFO DPOTFSWJOHFOFSHZCZLFFQJOHTUJMM'PSFYBNQMF DIJQNVOLT
GPPEJTMFTTBWBJMBCMF UIFBOJNBMTCPEJFTBCTPSCUIFGBUUP BSFEPSNBOUEVSJOHUIFXJOUFSBOECFDPNFBDUJWFPOMZPODF
QSPWJEFFOFSHZ JOBXIJMFUPFBUGPPETUPSFEJOUIFJSEFOT Vocabulary
#FBWFSTTUPSFCPEZGBUJOUIFJSUBJMT2VFFOCVNCMFCFFT 0UIFSBOJNBMT TVDIBTCBUTBOETOBLFT TIVUEPXOTP
dormant
ESJOLMPUTPGOFDUBSUPGBUUFOVQUIFJSCPEJFTBOEGJMMUIFJSIPOFZ DPNQMFUFMZJOXJOUFSUIBUUIFJSCPEZUFNQFSBUVSFTESPQBOE
DOR-munt
TUPNBDIT#FBSTFBUFOPVHIEVSJOHTVNNFSBOEGBMMUPTVSWJWF UIFJSCSFBUIJOHBOEIFBSUSBUFTTMPX5IJTJTDBMMFEhibernation inactive in order
XJUIPVUFBUJOHBMMXJOUFS XIJMFUIFZBSFJOBEFFQTMFFQ #FBSTEPTPNFUIJOHTJNJMBSUPIJCFSOBUJOH CVUUIFJSCPEZ to save energy
i l y S c i e nc UFNQFSBUVSFEPFTOUESPQBTNVDI4UJMM CFBST
i l y S c i e nc
Da e Da e hibernate
Name __________________________________________________________
A. Check the box next to each statement that is true. BSFBCMFUPHPGPSNPOUITXJUIPVUFBUJOH
Name __________________________________________________________
HI-bur-nayt

Day
Weekly Question
Where do animals get
Fat provides energy. Big Day
Weekly Question
Where do animals get
Big a special kind of
dormancy where
body processes
Fat becomes food. Idea 1 Idea 1
4 food in the winter? All animals store fat in their tails. 5 food in the winter? slow down
enormously

4PNFBOJNBMTEFBMXJUIXJOUFSCZmigrating PSNPWJOH
Body fat can be stored for later use. A. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences.
UPXBSNFSQMBDFTXIFSFGPPEJTTUJMMQMFOUJGVM%VDLTBOEHFFTF  WEEK 4 WEEK 4
GPSFYBNQMF GMZIVOESFETPSFWFOUIPVTBOETPGNJMFTTPVUI hibernate migrate dormant hoard
B. Use information from the passage to complete the paragraph.
GSPNUIFJSTVNNFSGFFEJOHHSPVOET%VSJOHXJOUFSJOUIF"SDUJD  Write whether each clue describes an animal that is dormant or
BUZQFPGSFJOEFFSDBMMFEDBSJCPV ,"*3JICPP
XJMMUSBWFM Vocabulary 1. In the fall, some animals one that is hibernating.
to warmer places.
.BOZBOJNBMTHFUSFBEZGPS
IVOESFETPGNJMFTUPGJOEGPPE&WFOJOTFDUTNJHSBUFUPGJOE CZUBLJOH
migrate 1. This animals body temperature dropped only
CFUUFSDMJNBUFT'PSFYBNQMF NPOBSDICVUUFSGMJFTGMZBMMUIF
JONPSF than their bodies need. The 2. Some bees become
unused when temperatures drop.
MY-grait
XBZGSPN$BOBEBBOEUIFOPSUIFSO6OJUFE4UBUFTUPTQFOE to move from one a few degrees.
UIFXJOUFSJO.FYJDP food is stored as location to another Squirrels gather and
. At the beginning of3.winter, acorns for the winter.
in search of food 2. This animals body temperature dropped from
these animals weigh and shelter theWhen bats
than they will in 4. ,100F
they dont need
(38C) to eat.
to 39F (4C).

Activities include spring. Their bodies use the fat to provide B. Write true or false.

4. This
3. This animal could be easily awakened.

animal did not move from December to April.


during the cold months. 1. Migrating butterflies fly south in the winter.

a variety of writing, 2. The body temperatures of hibernating animals rise.

comprehension, Snow geese make a round trip of more than 5,000 miles, flying
at speeds of 50 miles per hour or more.
28 #JH*EFBt8FFL
3. Honeybees eat honey during the winter.
%BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ

4. Blue jays hoard food for the winter.


&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 29

vocabulary, critical A. Check all the statements that help explain why some animals migrate

Vocabulary words
to warmer climates in the winter. C. Draw a line between the animal and the food it eats in winter.

thinking, visual Plants are still growing and producing food in warmer places.
beaver t t BDPSOT
Animals are not hibernating and so are easier to find and eat.
and definitions are
literacy, and oral Water is available to drink because lakes and ponds are not frozen.
wolf t t CSBODIFT
Fewer people live in warm climates.
provided for students.
language practice. B. Gray wolves prey on caribou. What do you think gray wolves do when
squirrel t t IPOFZ

the caribou herds migrate?


honeybee t t DBSJCPV

30 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ &WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 31 Day 5 reviews the


weeks key concepts
and vocabulary.

Unit Review (Week 5)


Visual Literacy: Students practice skills Hands-on Activity: Students
such as labeling diagrams, reading captions, participate in a hands-on learning
and sequencing steps in a process. experience.

Comprehension: Students Name __________________________________________________________


Da
i l y S c i e nc
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Name __________________________________________________________
Da
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review key concepts of the unit Unit Visual Literacy Big Unit Hands-on Activity Big
Review Tracking Idea 1 Review Seed Catalog Idea 1
Beavers
by answering literal and inferential Beavers were once very plentiful. By the early 1900s, 99% of Almost all fruit has seeds, but the number of seeds and what

comprehension questions. beavers were gone. Beavers are now protected. The graph below
shows the number of beavers in Ohio from 1980 to 2007. Use the
WEEK 5 they look like can be very different. Discover just how different
they can be!
WEEK 5

graph to complete the sentences.


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Beaver Population

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10,000
A. Fill in the bubble next to the correct answer. A. Next to each word, write the letter of the correct definition.
WEEK 5
1. angiosperms
1980 1985
a. inactive
1990 1995 WEEK
2000 52005 2010 What Did You Discover?
1. Honeybees plants. Year
2. proboscis b. flowering plants
A pollinate C eat the flowers of
3. wetland 1. In 2005, there were of rocks
c. moving beavers compared
and soil by waterwith 1985. Name of fruit
B live inside D destroy
4. migrate d. to
A more than enter
twice asamany
state of deep sleep
C half the number of
Number of seeds in fruit
2. Beavers, squirrels, and blue jays all for the winter. 5. dormant B the same to moveofto find food and shelter
e. number D fewer
A go south C live in dens 6. mutation f. unable to reproduce
2. Overall, you can say that the number of beavers year to year. Size of seed, in centimeters
B hoard food D hibernate 7. erosion g. a shallow-water habitat
8. sterile A always increases C never
h. pollen grains fertilizing a flower ovarydecreases Color of seed
3. Trees provide beavers with . B stays thei.same D changes
9. pollination a long, tube-like tongue
A seeds C pollen 10. hibernate j. a trait change passed down to offspring
Special characteristics
3. The biggest increase in the beaver population occurred . (shape, texture, etc.)
B hibernation D shelter
A between 1990 and 1995 C between 1985 and 1990
B. Write the words from the box that complete the paragraph.
4. Animals help plants distribute their . B between 1995 and 2000 D since 2005
A seeds C leaves silt 34 nectar pollen
#JH*EFBt8FFL habitat honeycomb %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ &WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 35
B flowers D roots ovary hoard lodge pollinate

5. To find food in winter, some animals will .


Plants and animals that share a often help
A hibernate C pollinate
each other survive. Plants provide food and shelter for animals. In turn,
B plant seeds D migrate
animals help plants reproduce. When bees and other insects gather
B. List three ways that plants and animals help each other.

1. flower to flower. This helps to


, they also carry
the flowers.
from
Vocabulary: Students review the
2.
The
and grows into a fruit. Other animals scatter the seeds.
of each flower then produces seeds
vocabulary presented in the unit.
3.

32 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ &WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 33

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF 5
Plants and animals depend

Big
on each other and on their

1
environment for survival.

Idea Key Concept


Interdependence of organisms and the environment

National Standard
All animals depend on plants. Some animals eat plants
for food. Other animals eat animals that eat the plants.

B
y fourth grade, students Teacher Background
are becoming familiar
with concepts that lead Plants and animals that share a habitat are often
to the basic understanding of connected in such a way that the actions of one have a
ecosystemsthat plants and direct impact on the other. The relationship between a
animals sharing a habitat very plant and an animal, in fact, can be key to the survival
often depend on each other for of both organisms. For example, plants provide food and
survival. In this unit, students shelter to animals, and animals help plants reproduce.
will learn that:
Bees and flowers are an ideal example of this
interdependent relationship. Flowers provide nectar for
animals help plants reproduce;
bees, which some bees use to make honey; meanwhile,
plants provide food and shelter bees pollinate the plants. Over time, this relationship
for animals; and brings about adaptations in both organisms that make
their mutual survival more likely.
plants and animals interact with
each other and the environment Throughout this unit, students will investigate how
to cause changes that can be plants and animals depend on each other for their
both beneficial and harmful. survival.

For specific background information on each weeks


concepts, refer to the notes on pp. 8, 14, 20, and 26.

6 Big Idea 1 %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ


Unit Overview

WEEK 1: Why do beavers build WEEK 4: Where do animals get


dams? food in the winter?
Connection to the Big Idea: When plants Connection to the Big Idea: During
and animals share a habitat, the presence winter, food is scarce and animals react
of one can greatly affect the other. This in different ways. Some animals migrate
week, students study how beavers change to areas where food is available. Others
their habitat, making survival easier for survive the winter by storing food as body
some organisms, while destroying the fat, hoarding plant material such as nuts,
habitat for others. or by hibernating. This week, students
Content Vocabulary: erosion, habitat, lodge, learn about the different ways animals
silt, wetland survive the winter. They learn the difference
between hibernating and becoming
WEEK 2: Why do some plants dormant, as well as why some animals
have fruit? migrate.
Connection to the Big Idea: Plants Content Vocabulary: dormant, hibernate,
reproduce by making seeds, and one hoard, migrate
way plants ensure that their seeds are
distributed is by producing fruit. This week, WEEK 5: Unit Review
students learn that both plants and animals These activities review key concepts of plant
benefit from the production of fruit. They and animal interdependence.
discover that some fruit-producing plants
p. 32: Comprehension Students answer
are completely dependent on humans for
multiple-choice questions about key
reproduction.
concepts from the unit.
Content Vocabulary: angiosperms, mutation,
ovary, pollen, pollination, sterile p. 33: Vocabulary Students match
vocabulary words from the unit to their
WEEK 3: Do all bees make honey? definitions and complete a cloze paragraph.
Connection to the Big Idea: Bees make
p. 34: Visual Literacy Students answer
honey by concentrating flower nectar
questions based on information presented
in special areas of the hive. This week,
on a line graph that shows beaver
students discover that not all bees make
population changes.
honey. However, they learn that all bees
depend on flowers for food, and flowering p. 35: Hands-on Activity Students investigate
plants depend on bees for pollination. the seeds in three types of fruit and record
Content Vocabulary: honeycomb, nectar, their observations in a chart. Review the
proboscis materials and instructions on the student
page ahead of time.

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF Big Idea 1 7


Week 1
Why do beavers build dams?
Idea 1 Beavers, like all animals, depend on their habitat for survival. However,
few animals affect their habitat as profoundly as beavers do. Beavers
build dams to block the water in streams and create deep ponds. These
ponds protect beavers from predators and create space for beavers to
store their food cache in the winter. However, beaver dams can cause
Plants and animals
floods, completely changing the habitat where they live.
depend on each
other and on their
environment for
survival.

Day One Introduce the week by asking students what a dam is. Show pictures of
Vocabulary: habitat dams of various sizes, made from concrete or earth. Tell students that
they will learn about an amazing little animal that also builds dams.
Materials: page 9;
pictures of dams After introducing the vocabulary word, direct students attention to the
illustration and ask what they can tell about a beavers habitat. Then have
students read the passage and complete the activities. For the oral activity,
pair students or discuss as a group.

Day Two After introducing the vocabulary word, ask students to find the lodge shown
Vocabulary: lodge on the page. Then have students read the passage to learn specific
information about a beaver lodge. After students complete the activities,
Materials: page 10
discuss their responses to activity C.

Day Three Review what students have learned on Days 1 and 2that trees provide
Materials: page 11 beavers with building material for their dams and lodges. Tell them that
today they will read about another reason trees are important to beavers.
After students have read the passage and studied the picture, some may
wonder how beavers are able to breathe when the pond is frozen over.
Explain that the lodge walls, although thick, are not airtight. For activity B,
you may wish to compose a response as a group and have students copy
it onto their pages.

Day Four Before students complete activity A, you may wish to discuss the positive
Vocabulary: erosion, and negative effects of beavers on the environment. If appropriate, draw
silt, wetland the chart on the board and have students suggest answers for you to fill in.
Materials: page 12

Day Five Have students complete the page independently. Then review the
Materials: page 13 answers together.

8 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ
i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
Why do beavers
Big
Idea 1
1 build dams?
#FBWFSTBSFCSPXO GVSSZNBNNBMTUIBUMJWFJOMBLFTBOE
SJWFST5PTVSWJWFJOUIJTUZQFPGhabitat CFBWFSTCVJMEEBNT WEEK 1
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QJMFVQUIFXPPEUPCMPDLUIFGMPXPGXBUFS5IJTDBVTFTEFFQ
QPOETUPGPSNCFIJOEUIFEBN5IFQPOECFIJOE
Vocabulary
UIFEBNHJWFTCFBWFSTBQMBDFUPIJEF
#FBWFSTDBOHFUBXBZGSPNEBOHFS habitat
HAB-ih-tat
CZEJWJOHJOUPUIFEFFQXBUFS a place where a
5IFQPOEBMTPQSPWJEFTB plant or an animal
QMBDFGPSCFBWFSTUPMJWF naturally lives
BOEUPTUPSFUIFJSGPPE

A. Read each sentence.


Write true or false.

1. A beavers habitat has trees and water.

2. Beaver dams allow streams to flow freely.

3. Beavers run into the forest for safety.

4. A beaver can cut down trees with its teeth.

B. Use information from the passage to complete the sentences.

1. Beaver are made of sticks and logs.

2. Water behind a dam gets .

3. Deep water provides for beavers.

Talk
What animals live in your area? What are their habitats like?

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 9
i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
Why do beavers
Big
Idea 1
2 build dams?
#FBWFSTMJWFJOlodgesUIBUUIFZCVJMEJOUIFNJEEMFPGUIF
QPOETDSFBUFECZUIFJSEBNT5IFMPEHFTBSFNBEFPGNVE  WEEK 1
TUJDLT BOEMPHT#FBWFSTFOUFSUIFMPEHFUISPVHIBOVOEFSXBUFS
FOUSBODF5IFJOTJEFPGUIFCFBWFSMPEHFJTTNBMMDPNQBSFEUP
UIFPVUTJEFPGUIFMPEHFCFDBVTFCFBWFSTOFFEUIJDLXBMMTUP Vocabulary
QSPUFDUUIFNGSPNPUIFSBOJNBMT
lodge
lahj
A. Look at the diagram of the lodge. Label the entrances. the dome-shaped
Then write a sentence that gives information about the walls. home that beavers
build from mud,
sticks, and logs

B. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences.

entrance pond underwater lodge

1. For safety, a beaver is built with thick walls.

2. The surrounding a beaver lodge is like


a moat around a castle.

3. The to the beaver lodge is .

C. Foxes, bobcats, and coyotes hunt beavers. Why might beavers live in water?

10 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ
i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
Why do beavers
Big
Idea 1
3 build dams?
5SFFTBSFBOJNQPSUBOUQBSUPGBCFBWFSTIBCJUBU/PUPOMZ
EPUIFZQSPWJEFXPPEGPSTIFMUFS CVUUIFZQSPWJEFGPPE#FBWFST WEEK 1
BSFQMBOUFBUFST BOEUIFJSEJFUJODMVEFTCBSL MFBWFT BOESPPUT
%VSJOHUIFTVNNFS CFBWFSTTUBTIMPHTBOECSBODIFTJO
VOEFSXBUFSQJMFTOFBSUIFJSMPEHFTUPTBWFGPSUIFXJOUFS5IJT
JTBOPUIFSSFBTPOXIZBCFBWFSQPOENVTUCFEFFQ*GJUJTOPU
EFFQFOPVHI UIFQPOENBZGSFF[FBMMUIFXBZUPUIFCPUUPN
JOXJOUFSBOEUIFCFBWFSTXJMMOPUCFBCMFUPTXJNUPUIFJSGPPE

A. Check the box next to the caption that best describes the illustration.

Trees are only important to beavers during the winter.

Beavers use logs they gather in the summer as food during the winter.

Without leafy trees, most beavers will not survive the winter.

B. Explain in your own words why beavers need trees.

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 11
i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
Why do beavers
Big
Idea 1
4 build dams?
#FBWFSTDBVTFDIBOHFTUPUIFFOWJSPONFOUUIBUDBOCF
CPUIQPTJUJWFBOEOFHBUJWF1POETCVJMUCZCFBWFSTDSFBUFOFX WEEK 1
wetlandIBCJUBUTGPSGJTI GSPHT BOEXBUFSCJSET5IFTF
XFUMBOETBMTPIFMQTMPXTPJMerosionBOELFFQNPSFXBUFS
JOUIFHSPVOE XIJDIBMMPXTQMBOUTUPHSPX Vocabulary
#FBWFST IPXFWFS BMTPEFTUSPZUSFFTUIBUBSFIPNFTGPS
erosion
CJSETBOEPUIFSBOJNBMT*OBEEJUJPO CFBWFSEBNTTMPXUIFGMPX
ee-ROH-zhun
PGXBUFSJOTUSFBNTBOEDBVTFsilt UPCVJMEVQ%BNTDBOBMTP the moving of
GMPPEUIFMBOECFIJOEUIFN rocks and soil by
water or wind
A. List two positive effects and two negative effects of silt
beaver dams. silt
small particles of
soil deposited by
Positive Effects Negative Effects water

wetland
WET-land
a habitat where
shallow water
covers most of
the ground

B. Use the vocabulary words to complete the sentences.

1. When builds up, it can make


streams shallower.

2. is a problem for farmers because


water carries away the soil they need to grow crops.

3. Two animals that live in a are


ducks and frogs.

12 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ
i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
Why do beavers
Big
Idea 1
5 build dams?
A. Write the word that answers each clue.
WEEK 1
lodge habitat erosion wetland silt

1. small bits of soil that settle at the bottom


of a river or lake

2. the place where plants or animals live

3. a beavers shelter

4. a place mostly covered in shallow water

5. the washing or blowing away of soil

B. Check all the reasons why beavers build dams.

Dams trap fish for the beavers to eat.


Dams create ponds that are deep enough not to freeze solid in winter.
Dams provide a sturdy structure for beavers to live in.
Dams create ponds that beavers can hide in.

C. Write true or false.

1. In winter, a beaver cannot use the underwater entrance.

2. Beaver dams have no effect on the environment.

3. Beaver lodges are protected by water.

4. Beavers cut down trees.

5. Beaver dams only help beavers.

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 13
Week 2
Why do some plants
Idea 1
have fruit?
Plants reproduce by making seeds, and one way plants ensure that their
seeds are distributed is by producing fruit. Fruits are fleshy structures
that contain the seeds of the plant. Fruit attracts animals. When
Plants and animals animals eat the fruit, they end up helping the plant distribute its seeds.
depend on each This happens when seeds pass unharmed through the animals
other and on their
digestive systems or when foraging animals simply discard the part of
environment for
survival. the fruit that contains the seeds. In this way, both organisms benefit.

Day One After introducing the vocabulary, pass around the flowers, asking students
Vocabulary: ovary, to touch a stamen and notice the clearly visible pollen. Show students
pollen, pollination a flower with petals removed and identify the ovary at the base of the
Materials: page 15; flower. Have students guess what fruit the illustration on page 15 shows
flowers with visible (pomegranate) by explaining that the fruit is red and full of juicy seeds.
pollen, such as lilies; Compare parts of the illustration to the flower you brought in. Then have
facial tissues for cleanup students complete the page.

Day Two Introduce the vocabulary word and have students read the passage. After
Vocabulary: students have completed the activities, discuss their answers to activity A.
angiosperms As a group, generate a list of angiosperms that students are familiar with.
Materials: page 16 (e.g., dandelion, rose, daffodil, etc.) If you wish to extend the lesson,
explain that to reproduce, ferns produce spores and pine trees produce
cones instead of flowers.

Day Three Before students read the passage, discuss with them what foods they eat
Materials: page 17; that have seeds. Ask students whether they eat the seeds and, if not, what
cut-up pieces of fruit they do with the seeds. When students have completed the activities,
with seeds showing discuss their answers to activity C and ask them if they have accidentally
helped to distribute seeds.

Day Four Introduce the vocabulary. After students read the passage, mention that
Vocabulary: mutation, mutations are common in plants and that this is how we often get new
sterile kinds of fruits or flowers with unusual colors or a combination of colors.
Materials: page 18 Then have students complete the activities. For activity B, you may wish
to tell students that some fruits with seeds have a seedless variety.
(watermelons, grapes, oranges, etc.)

Day Five Have students complete the page independently. Then review the
Materials: page 19 answers together.

14 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ
i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
Why do some plants
Big
Idea 1
1 have fruit?
Do you think plants make fruit just for you to eat? Actually,
the main reason plants make fruit is because the fruit contains WEEK 2
seeds, and seeds are how plants reproduce. The process of
making fruit begins with a flower. After a flower blooms, grains
of pollen, which are from the male part of the flower, combine Vocabulary
with the female cells in the flowers ovary. This process is called
ovary
pollination, and as a result, seeds form. The flowers ovary
OH-vuh-ree
enlarges to form a fruit that surrounds the seeds. the female part
of a flower that
petal contains the
seeds formed
after pollination
anther
ovary pollen
POL-un
stamen sepal a fine powder
that comes from
the male part of
a flowering plant

pollination
A. Number the steps in the correct order to show the process POL-uh-NA-shun
by which plants make fruit. the process by
which grains of
Seeds form. pollen combine
with cells in the
A plant produces flowers. ovary to produce
The plants ovary grows into a fruit. seeds

Flowers are pollinated.

B. If animals ate flowers before they were pollinated, would


this help or hurt a plants ability to spread to new places?
Explain your answer.

Evan-Moor Corp. EMC 5014 Daily Science Big Idea 1 Week 2 15


i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
Why do some plants
Big
Idea 1
2 have fruit?
1MBOUTXJUIGMPXFST DBMMFEangiosperms BSFWFSZTVDDFTTGVM
BUSFQSPEVDJOH5PEBZ BOHJPTQFSNTNBLFVQPGBMMQMBOUT WEEK 2
POMBOE0OFSFBTPOGPSUIFTVDDFTTPGBOHJPTQFSNTJTUIFSPMF
GMPXFSTIBWFJOUIFQSPEVDUJPOPGGSVJUBOETFFET'MPXFSTBUUSBDU
CFFTBOEPUIFSQPMMJOBUPST*OUVSO JOTFDUTTQSFBEUIFQPMMFO Vocabulary
UIBUJTOFDFTTBSZUPQPMMJOBUFUIFQMBOUBOEQSPEVDFGSVJU
angiosperms
AN-jee-oh-SPERMS
A. Circle the angiosperms. Then explain how you knew they plants that produce
were angiosperms. flowers

B. Use words from the passage to complete the sentences.

1. Most land plants are .

2. Pollen is necessary to plants.

3. Flowers are a means to attract .

C. Describe the role of flowers in the reproduction of angiosperms.

16 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ
i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
Why do some plants
Big
Idea 1
3 have fruit?
"OHJPTQFSNT CFOFGJUGSPNBOJNBMTOPUPOMZ
XIFOUIFBOJNBMTTQSFBEUIFGMPXFSTQPMMFOCVU WEEK 2
BMTPXIFOUIFZFBUUIFQMBOUTGSVJU)PXJTUIBU 
"OJNBMTIFMQTDBUUFSBQMBOUTTFFET4PNFUJNFT 
BOJNBMTKVTUUISPXBXBZUIFQBSUPGUIFGSVJUUIBU
DPOUBJOTUIFTFFET0UIFSUJNFT UIFTFFETBSFFBUFO
CVUQBTTFEUISPVHIUIFBOJNBMTEJHFTUJWFTZTUFNVOEBNBHFE

A. Use information from the passage to complete the sentences.

1. Plants make fruit to ensure that their


are distributed.

2. Seeds can pass through an animals system.

3. Animals help seeds far and wide.

4. Animals often throw away the part of the that


has seeds.

B. Write true or false.

1. Birds scatter seeds.

2. Seeds are always destroyed if eaten.

3. Fruit protects seeds from being eaten.

C. Describe some of the ways humans help distribute seeds, either


accidentally or on purpose.

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 17
i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
Why do some plants
Big
Idea 1
4 have fruit?
*OOBUVSF FWFSZGSVJUIBTTFFET4PIPXJTJUUIBUTPNF
GSVJUTXFHFUGSPNUIFTUPSF TVDIBTCBOBOBTBOETPNFHSBQFT WEEK 2
BOEPSBOHFT EPOUIBWFTFFET 5IFGJSTUTFFEMFTTGSVJUTXFSF
QSPCBCMZDBVTFECZBOBUVSBMmutation4FFEMFTTCBOBOBT GPS
FYBNQMF BQQFBSFEBCPVU ZFBSTBHP)VNBOTMFBSOFEUP Vocabulary
HSPXUIFNVUBOUCBOBOBQMBOUTCZQMBOUJOHTIPPUTUIBUHSPX
mutation
GSPNUIFSPPUTPGBNBUVSFQMBOU"MMUIFCBOBOBTHSPXOUPEBZ
myoo-TAY-shun
BSFsterile8JUIPVUIVNBOTHSPXJOHUIFN UIFTFFEMFTT a change in a trait
CBOBOBTXFFBUXPVMEEJTBQQFBS of an organism that
is passed down to
its offspring

sterile
STER-ul
unable to produce
seeds that can
store-bought bananas wild bananas
grow into new
plants
A. Use the vocabulary words to complete the sentences.

1. All bananas grown today are and


dont have seeds.

2. Scientists think a caused the first seedless fruit.

B. Bananas are an example of a seedless fruit that couldnt exist without


humans. Make a list of other seedless fruit you like to eat. Then list fruit
that you wish didnt have seeds.

Seedless fruit that you like to eat Fruit that you wish didnt have seeds

18 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ
i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
Why do some plants
Big
Idea 1
5 have fruit?
A. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences.
WEEK 2
ovary pollination sterile
pollen angiosperms mutation

1. Seedless bananas were probably first caused by a .

2. Fruit is produced by a flower after .

3. Flowering plants are called .

4. If plants are , that means they cant produce seeds.

5. grains combine with cells in the female

plants .

B. Coconuts are the giant seeds of coconut trees. Coconuts float in water,
which allows the trees to spread to places where they have not grown
before. Number the events below in the correct order to show how
this happens.
The coconut lands on the shore of a new island.
The coconut falls from the tree.
The coconut sprouts into a new coconut tree.
Waves carry the coconut out to sea.
Ocean currents carry the coconut for miles and miles.

C. Write at least one thing you have learned about plants and fruit that you
didnt know before.

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 19
Week 3
Do all bees make honey?
Idea 1 Nowhere is the interdependence of animals and plants clearer than
in the partnership between flowers and bees. Many flowering plants
require bees for pollination and attract them to their reproductive
structures with scented and sugary nectar. Bees have special body
parts for drinking and collecting nectar and pollen from flowers.
Plants and animals
depend on each Not all bees produce abundant honey. In fact, certain species of bees
other and on their produce no honey at all. However, all bees depend on flowers for food,
environment for and flowering plants depend on bees for pollination.
survival.

Day One Invite students to share what they know about bees and any observations
Vocabulary: nectar, theyve made about bees in nature. Before students read the passage and
proboscis complete the activities, review or introduce the concept of adaptationa
Materials: page 21 change in a living thing that better enables it to survive in its environment.

Day Two Introduce the vocabulary word by passing around the honeycomb
Vocabulary: honeycomb (or photos of honeycomb) for students to view. Elicit descriptions of the
shape and, if using real honeycomb, the texture. Inform students that they
Materials: page 22;
honey from different will learn about honeycomb in todays reading. After students read the
sources; real honeycomb passage, look at the illustration and read the caption together. You may
(available at natural food wish to do activity A as a group. Then direct students to do activity B
stores) or photos of independently.
honeycomb

Day Three Before reading, have students guess the answer to the weekly question.
Materials: page 23 Guide students observations on activity A. (honeybee: smaller, less hair;
bumblebee: larger, round, more hair) Then have students complete
activity B independently.

Day Four Before students do the first activity, examine the illustration of the beehive
Materials: page 24; and read the labels. Explain the words brood (a group of young animals
honeycomb (optional) hatched at the same time) and exclude (to keep out). For the oral activity,
you may wish to explain that there is concern about CCD because 90%
of commercially grown crops in the U.S. depend on bees for pollination.
Students may wish to research this further.

Day Five Have students complete the page independently. Then review the
Materials: page 25 answers together.

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Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 1
1 Do all bees make honey?
If you look at the body of a bee, youll notice some special
features. One is the bees long tongue, called a proboscis. WEEK 3
A bees proboscis works like a straw to suck up liquids. This is
ideal for reaching nectar deep inside a flower.
Youll also notice that a bee is fuzzy. The fine hairs on a bees Vocabulary
body become covered in pollen when a bee visits flowers. The
nectar
bee uses brushlike hairs on its hind legs to pack the pollen into
NEK-ter
compact bundles called pollen baskets. This is how honeybees a sugary liquid
get the nectar they need to make honey and gather the pollen produced by
used to feed the hive. In return, flowers are pollinated. flowers

proboscis
pro-BAH-siss
the long, tube-
like tongue of
proboscis some insects
pollen baskets

A. Use the vocabulary words to complete the sentence.

A bees works like a straw to

suck up found inside flowers.

B. Explain how each of these adaptations helps a bee survive.

1. long tongue

2. fuzzy body

Evan-Moor Corp. EMC 5014 Daily Science Big Idea 1 Week 3 21


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Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 1
2 Do all bees make honey?
"IPOFZCFFDBSSJFTOFDUBSCBDLUPUIFIJWFJOBTQFDJBMTBDL
JOJUTCPEZDBMMFEBIPOFZTUPNBDI#BDLJOUIFIJWF UIFCFF WEEK 3
TRVJSUTUIFOFDUBSGSPNJUTIPOFZTUPNBDIJOUPXBYZDIBNCFST
DBMMFEBhoneycomb0UIFSCFFTUIFOIFMQESZPVUUIFOFDUBS
CZGBOOJOHUIFJSXJOHTPWFSUIFIPOFZDPNC0WFSUJNF UIF Vocabulary
MJRVJECFDPNFTUIJDLFSBOETXFFUFS*UUVSOTJOUPIPOFZ XIJDI
honeycomb
QSPWJEFTGPPEGPSIPOFZCFFTBMMZFBSMPOH
HUN-ee-kohm
six-sided waxy
chambers built by
bees for storing
honey and raising
young

Worker bees build the honeycomb by using wax from glands on


their bodies. They mold the wax with their mouths and feet.

A. Write one thing you learned from the caption above that you
did not learn from the passage.

B. Number the steps in the correct order to show how bees make honey.

Water evaporates from the nectar.


A bee carries nectar in its honey stomach back to the hive.
The nectar thickens into honey.
The bee squirts the nectar into a chamber of the honeycomb.

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Idea 1
3 Do all bees make honey?
/PUBMMCFFTNBLFIPOFZ*OGBDU UIFXPSEhoneybeeJTVTFE
POMZGPSUIFUZQFPGCFFUIBUNBLFTMPUTPGIPOFZ#VNCMFCFFT  WEEK 3
GPSFYBNQMF BSFEJGGFSFOUGSPNIPOFZCFFT8IJMFCVNCMFCFFT
QPMMJOBUFGMPXFSTBOEESJOLOFDUBSMJLFIPOFZCFFT UIFZEPOU
LFFQMBSHFIJWFTXJUIBIPOFZDPNCGVMMPGIPOFZUIFXBZUIBU
IPOFZCFFTEP8JUIPVUBMBSHFTVQQMZPGIPOFZJOTUPSBHFGPS
UIFXJOUFSNPOUIT NPTUCVNCMFCFFTEJF

A. Look at the drawings of a honeybee and a bumblebee. On the lines


below, compare and contrast the features of the bees.

honeybee bumblebee

B. Check the characteristics that apply to each kind of bee.

Honeybee Bumblebee
Pollinates flowers
Drinks nectar from flowers
Produces large amounts of honey
Creates honeycomb filled with honey
Often dies in the winter
Depends on flowers for survival

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Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 1
4 Do all bees make honey?
"MUIPVHIOPUBMMCFFTNBLFIPOFZ BMMCFFTQPMMJOBUF
GMPXFST5IFQPMMJOBUJPOPGGMPXFSTCZCFFTJTWFSZJNQPSUBOUUP WEEK 3
GBSNJOH'BSNFSTXJMMFWFOIJSFCFFLFFQFSTUPCSJOHCFFIJWFT
UPUIFGJFMETXIFOJUJTUJNFGPSUIFDSPQTUPCFQPMMJOBUFE'PS
FYBNQMF CFFLFFQFSTCSJOHIJWFTUPPSDIBSETXIFOGSVJUUSFFT
BSFJOCMPTTPN0ODFUIFGMPXFSTBSFQPMMJOBUFE GSVJUXJMMHSPX
POUIFUSFFT5IFOUIFCFFTDBOCFNPWFEUPPUIFSDSPQT

This is a drawing of a beehive that many beekeepers use. Read the labels
that name each part of the hive. Then, using the clues in the names, find the
description below for each part. Write the letter of the description on the line.

honey supers

queen excluder

brood boxes

a. The spaces in this grid are too small for the queen bee to get
through. It keeps the queen from laying eggs in the honeycomb.
b. Inside these boxes are hanging frames where the bees can build
honeycomb and make honey.
c. This is where the queen lays eggs and the larval bees are fed
by worker bees.

Talk
Since 2006, beekeepers are reporting that a larger than usual number of
bees are disappearing. This problem is called Colony Collapse Disorder
(CCD). Why do you think CCD has scientists and farmers concerned?

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Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 1
5 Do all bees make honey?

A. Next to each word, write the letter of the correct definition.


WEEK 3
1. nectar a. sweet liquid in flowers

2. honeycomb b. tube-like tongue

3. proboscis c. chambers bees make to store honey

B. Number the steps in the correct order to describe how bees collect pollen
and nectar to feed the hive and, in the process, help plants to reproduce.
The bee returns to the hive and squirts nectar into the honeycomb.
A bee leaves the hive in search of nectar and pollen.
Bees in the hive turn the nectar into honey.
As the bee collects nectar from flowers, its fuzzy body
picks up pollen.
The bees use the honey for food during the winter.
The bee moves from flower to flower, leaving behind pollen
that pollinates the flower.

C. List three things that bees do to help people and plants.

1.

2.

3.

D. What would you tell someone who claimed that all bees make honey?

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 25
Week 4
Where do animals get
Idea 1 food in the winter?
The coming of winter brings changes that include shorter days and
colder temperatures. Less food is available for both plants and animals.
One way organisms respond is by eating less and using less energy. In
Plants and animals anticipation of winter, many animals also begin to store food. Animals
depend on each store food in their bodies as fat, or by hoarding plant material such as
other and on their nuts, roots, or branches. Animals also migrate to places where food is
environment for
more plentiful. Plants ultimately benefit from animals surviving the
survival.
winter because animals help plants reproduce and scatter their seeds.

Day One Discuss with students what winter is like where you live and what challenges
Vocabulary: hoard
that brings to people. Ask students to name the wild animals they see in
winter in your area. Inform students that they are going to read about ways
Materials: page 27
in which animals survive in winter. After students complete the activities,
have them share their responses to activities B and C.

Day Two Briefly discuss the reason we need to eat food. (provides energy needed
Materials: page 28
for the proper functioning of body systems) Prior to reading the text and
completing the activities, ask students to speculate what might happen
if a person or an animal eats more food than its body can use. (will gain
weight) Then have students complete the activities.

Day Three After students read the passage, confirm that they understand the
Vocabulary: dormant,
difference between becoming dormant and hibernating. You may wish to
hibernation explain that hibernation is a dramatic form of dormancy. True hibernators
cant be awakened easily and are unresponsive to external stimuli. Their
Materials: page 29
body temperatures drop to a few degrees above their surroundings. Bears
do not hibernate, although this continues to be argued. Their temperatures
drop only a few degrees, and females can give birth during winter,
something that would not be possible for a true hibernator. Then have
students complete the activity.

Day Four Ask students to speculate how an animal that cant store enough food or
Vocabulary: migrate
body fat might survive winter. After students read the passage, have them
look at the illustration and read the caption together. Before students
Materials: page 30
complete the activities, read the prompt for activity B, making sure that
they understand that prey on means to hunt and eat. When students
have completed the activities, have volunteers share their responses and
explain their thinking.

Day Five Have students complete the page independently. Then review the
Materials: page 31
answers together.

26 Big Idea 1 Week 4 Daily Science EMC 5014 Evan-Moor Corp.


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Day
Weekly Question
Where do animals get
Big
Idea 1
1 food in the winter?
*ONPTUQMBDFT XJOUFSCSJOHTTIPSUFSEBZTBOEDPMEFS
UFNQFSBUVSFT5IFSFJTVTVBMMZMFTTGPPEBWBJMBCMFGPSBOJNBMT WEEK 4
"OJNBMTEFBMXJUIUIFGPPETIPSUBHFJOBOVNCFSPGXBZT
4PNFBOJNBMT hoard GPPETPUIBUJUXJMMCFBWBJMBCMFJOUIF
XJOUFS4RVJSSFMTBOETPNFCJSET TVDIBTCMVFKBZTBOE Vocabulary
XPPEQFDLFST TUPSFOVUTBOETFFETJOUSFFTBOEPUIFSIJEJOH
hoard
QMBDFT#FBWFSTTUBTIUSFFCSBODIFTVOEFSXBUFSOFBSUIFJS
hord
MPEHFT)POFZCFFTNBLFFOPVHIIPOFZUPMBTUUIFIJWF to gather things
UISPVHIPVUUIFXJOUFS and then store
or hide them
A. Number the events in the correct order.

In winter, squirrels In autumn, acorns Squirrels hoard Squirrels gather


eat stored acorns. fall to the ground the acorns in fallen acorns.
from oak trees. trees.

B. Which of these foods are birds likely to hoard: worms or sunflower seeds? Why?

C. Do you think animals that live in tropical places hoard food? Why or why not?

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Day
Weekly Question
Where do animals get
Big
Idea 1
2 food in the winter?
5PQSFQBSFGPSXJOUFS NBOZBOJNBMTFBUNPSFGPPEEVSJOH
UIFXBSNNPOUITUIBOUIFZBDUVBMMZOFFE5IFFYUSBGPPEJT WEEK 4
TUPSFEJOUIFJSCPEJFTJOUIFGPSNPGGBU%VSJOHXJOUFS XIFO
GPPEJTMFTTBWBJMBCMF UIFBOJNBMTCPEJFTBCTPSCUIFGBUUP
QSPWJEFFOFSHZ
#FBWFSTTUPSFCPEZGBUJOUIFJSUBJMT2VFFOCVNCMFCFFT
ESJOLMPUTPGOFDUBSUPGBUUFOVQUIFJSCPEJFTBOEGJMMUIFJSIPOFZ
TUPNBDIT#FBSTFBUFOPVHIEVSJOHTVNNFSBOEGBMMUPTVSWJWF
XJUIPVUFBUJOHBMMXJOUFS XIJMFUIFZBSFJOBEFFQTMFFQ

A. Check the box next to each statement that is true.

Fat provides energy.


Fat becomes food.
All animals store fat in their tails.
Body fat can be stored for later use.

B. Use information from the passage to complete the paragraph.

.BOZBOJNBMTHFUSFBEZGPS CZUBLJOH

JONPSF than their bodies need. The unused

food is stored as . At the beginning of winter,

these animals weigh than they will in the

spring. Their bodies use the fat to provide

during the cold months.

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Day
Weekly Question
Where do animals get
Big
Idea 1
3 food in the winter?
One way animals adapt to winter is by becoming dormant.
A dormant animal may look like it is sleeping, but it is really WEEK 4
conserving energy by keeping still. For example, chipmunks
are dormant during the winter and become active only once
in a while to eat food stored in their dens. Vocabulary
Other animals, such as bats and snakes, shut down so
dormant
completely in winter that their body temperatures drop and
DOR-munt
their breathing and heart rates slow. This is called hibernation. inactive in order
Bears do something similar to hibernating, but their body to save energy
temperature doesnt drop as much. Still, bears hibernation
are able to go for months without eating. HI-bur-NAY-shun
a special kind of
dormancy where
body processes
slow down
enormously

Write whether each clue describes an animal that is dormant or


one that is hibernating.

1. This animals body temperature dropped only


a few degrees.

2. This animals body temperature dropped from


100F (38C) to 39F (4C).

3. This animal could be easily awakened.

4. This animal did not move from December to April.

Evan-Moor Corp. EMC 5014 Daily Science Big Idea 1 Week 4 29


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Day
Weekly Question
Where do animals get
Big
Idea 1
4 food in the winter?
4PNFBOJNBMTEFBMXJUIXJOUFSCZmigrating PSNPWJOH
UPXBSNFSQMBDFTXIFSFGPPEJTTUJMMQMFOUJGVM%VDLTBOEHFFTF  WEEK 4
GPSFYBNQMF GMZIVOESFETPSFWFOUIPVTBOETPGNJMFTTPVUI
GSPNUIFJSTVNNFSGFFEJOHHSPVOET%VSJOHXJOUFSJOUIF"SDUJD 
BUZQFPGSFJOEFFSDBMMFEDBSJCPV ,"*3JICPP
XJMMUSBWFM Vocabulary
IVOESFETPGNJMFTUPGJOEGPPE&WFOJOTFDUTNJHSBUFUPGJOE
migrate
CFUUFSDMJNBUFT'PSFYBNQMF NPOBSDICVUUFSGMJFTGMZBMMUIF
MY-grait
XBZGSPN$BOBEBBOEUIFOPSUIFSO6OJUFE4UBUFTUPTQFOE to move from one
UIFXJOUFSJO.FYJDP location to another
in search of food
and shelter

Snow geese make a round trip of more than 5,000 miles, flying
at speeds of 50 miles per hour or more.

A. Check all the statements that help explain why some animals migrate
to warmer climates in the winter.

Plants are still growing and producing food in warmer places.


Animals are not hibernating and so are easier to find and eat.
Water is available to drink because lakes and ponds are not frozen.
Fewer people live in warm climates.

B. Gray wolves prey on caribou. What do you think gray wolves do when
the caribou herds migrate?

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Day
Weekly Question
Where do animals get
Big
Idea 1
5 food in the winter?
A. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences.
WEEK 4
hibernate migrate dormant hoard

1. In the fall, some animals to warmer places.

2. Some bees become when temperatures drop.

3. Squirrels gather and acorns for the winter.

4. When bats , they dont need to eat.

B. Write true or false.

1. Migrating butterflies fly south in the winter.

2. The body temperatures of hibernating animals rise.

3. Honeybees eat honey during the winter.

4. Blue jays hoard food for the winter.

C. Draw a line between the animal and the food it eats in winter.

beaver t t BDPSOT

wolf t t CSBODIFT

squirrel t t IPOFZ

honeybee t t DBSJCPV

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Unit Comprehension Big


Review Helping Each Idea 1
Other Out

A. Fill in the bubble next to the correct answer.


WEEK 5
1. Honeybees plants.
A pollinate C eat the flowers of
B live inside D destroy

2. Beavers, squirrels, and blue jays all for the winter.


A go south C live in dens
B hoard food D hibernate

3. Trees provide beavers with .


A seeds C pollen
B hibernation D shelter

4. Animals help plants distribute their .


A seeds C leaves
B flowers D roots

5. To find food in winter, some animals will .


A hibernate C pollinate
B plant seeds D migrate

B. List three ways that plants and animals help each other.

1.

2.

3.

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Unit Vocabulary Big


Review Meaning Idea 1
Match

A. Next to each word, write the letter of the correct definition.


WEEK 5
1. angiosperms a. inactive
2. proboscis b. flowering plants
3. wetland c. moving of rocks and soil by water
4. migrate d. a state of deep sleep
5. dormant e. to move to find food and shelter
6. mutation f. unable to reproduce
7. erosion g. a shallow-water habitat
8. sterile h. pollen grains fertilizing a flower ovary
9. pollination i. a long, tube-like tongue
10. hibernation j. a trait change passed down to offspring

B. Write the words from the box that complete the paragraph.

silt nectar pollen habitat honeycomb


ovary hoard lodge pollinate

Plants and animals that share a often help


each other survive. Plants provide food and shelter for animals. In turn,
animals help plants reproduce. When bees and other insects gather
, they also carry from
flower to flower. This helps to the flowers.
The of each flower then produces seeds
and grows into a fruit. Other animals scatter the seeds.

Evan-Moor Corp. EMC 5014 Daily Science Big Idea 1 Week 5 33


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Unit Visual Literacy Big


Review Tracking Idea 1
Beavers

Beavers were once very plentiful. By the early 1900s, 99% of


beavers were gone. Beavers are now protected. The graph below WEEK 5
shows the number of beavers in Ohio from 1980 to 2007. Use the
graph to complete the sentences.

30,000
Beaver Population

20,000

10,000

1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010

Year

1. In 2005, there were beavers compared with 1985.


A more than twice as many C half the number of
B the same number of D fewer

2. Overall, you can say that the number of beavers year to year.
A always increases C never decreases
B stays the same D changes

3. The biggest increase in the beaver population occurred .


A between 1990 and 1995 C between 1985 and 1990
B between 1995 and 2000 D since 2005

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Unit Hands-on Activity Big


Review Seed Catalog Idea 1

Almost all fruit has seeds, but the number of seeds and what
they look like can be very different. Discover just how different WEEK 5
they can be!

What You Need 1. Cover your work space with paper.


3 different types of fruit, 2. Use your fingers or have an adult help
cut open to reveal the seeds you use the knife to remove the seeds
plastic knife from each fruit.
centimeter ruler 3. Fill in the chart.
pencil
4. Compare your results
paper to cover the for each fruit.
work surface
paper towels (for cleanup)

What Did You Discover?


Fruit 1 Fruit 2 Fruit 3

Name of fruit

Number of seeds in fruit

Size of seed, in centimeters

Color of seed

Special characteristics
(shape, texture, etc.)

Evan-Moor Corp. EMC 5014 Daily Science Big Idea 1 Week 5 35


Most microorganisms do not

Big
cause disease, and many are

2
beneficial.

Idea Key Concepts


Bacteria, mold, and fungi

National Standard
All organisms cause changes in the environment where
they live. Some of these changes are detrimental to
the organism or other organisms, whereas others are
beneficial.

B
y fourth grade, students know Teacher Background
that bacteria and fungi are
important decomposers. Microorganisms are part of our everyday life. Some
These microorganisms are students may believe that all so-called germs are bad,
responsible for recycling nutrients when, in fact, the effects of microorganisms can be
from dead plants and animals. In beneficial as well as harmful. Humans harbor many
this unit, students will learn the different microorganisms in their bodies that help them
following: absorb nutrients from food. Certain bacteria, molds,
and yeasts enhance our food and health.
some bacteria are harmful to
Microorganisms are also decomposers, which means
humans, many are helpful, and
they break down dead plant matter and waste,
almost all are essential for life
on Earth; converting them into nutrients that are useful to plants
and animals. Without decomposers, organic material
fungi, such as mold and yeast, would not be properly recycled, and the world would
are other microorganisms that be overrun with the remains of plants and animals.
can have both helpful and
harmful effects; For specific background information on each weeks
concepts, refer to the notes on pp. 38, 44, 50, and 56.
as decomposers, bacteria can
cause tooth decay; and

bacteria and molds in food play


a role in the environment.

36 Big Idea 2 Daily Science EMC 5014 Evan-Moor Corp.


Unit Overview

WEEK 1: Why does garbage smell? WEEK 4: Is it safe to eat moldy


Connection to the Big Idea: food?
Microorganisms known as decomposers Connection to the Big Idea: Some molds
break down garbage and other raw organic and another type of fungus, yeast, play
material. This week, students are introduced an important role in food production. In
to bacteria and fungi and learn how these addition, they are important in the creation
microorganisms break down food. of antibiotics. This week, students learn
Content Vocabulary: absorb, bacteria, about other fungi and how these fungi can
decomposers, fungus, mold be used to create food and medicine.
Content Vocabulary: antibiotic,
WEEK 2: How do bacteria microorganisms, nutritious, penicillin, yeast
create cavities?
Connection to the Big Idea: In the WEEK 5: Unit Review
process of decomposing, bacteria produce You may choose to do these activities to
acids. This week, students learn that some review concepts of microorganisms.
bacteria in their mouths act on food left in
p. 62: Comprehension Students answer
the teeth. Students learn about the different
multiple-choice questions about the key
parts of a tooth and how the acid from
concepts of the unit.
bacteria can destroy enamel and cause
tooth decay. p. 63: Vocabulary Students complete a
Content Vocabulary: acid, cavity, dentin, matching activity to show that they
dissolve, enamel, fluoride, plaque, pulp understand unit vocabulary.

WEEK 3: Are all germs bad? p. 64: Visual Literacy Students answer
questions about information presented
Connection to the Big Idea: Infectious
on a bar graph that shows tooth decay
diseases can be caused by bacteria or
statistics.
viruses. Our immune system produces
antibodies in response to infections. This p. 65: Hands-on Activity Students grow
week, students learn about viruses and mold on four kinds of food and record their
bacteria and how they can be spread. They observations. Instructions and materials
also learn that bacteria in our intestines needed for the activity are listed on the
are necessary for proper digestion and student page.
that scientists are discovering many new
environmental uses for microorganisms.
Content Vocabulary: antibodies, immune
system, infectious, intestines, microscopic,
viruses

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFB 37
Week 1
Why does garbage smell?
Idea 2 Most students know that garbageespecially garbage that has been
sitting around for a few dayssmells! In this unit, students learn that
the smell is caused by microorganisms decomposing waste. Bacteria
and fungi are two common decomposers that consume waste. In the
process, they break down large molecules into smaller molecules, some
Most microorganisms
of which escape into the air. We notice these breakdown products as
do not cause disease,
and many are odors. Moisture and heat are factors that speed up the process of
beneficial. decomposition.

Day One Introduce the weeks question by asking students what they notice when
Vocabulary: they pass by a dumpster or a garbage can with the lid open. (bad smells)
decomposers Tell students that they are going to learn about some organisms that are
Materials: page 39 very important to our planet and, in the process, they will find out the
reason that garbage smells. After students have read the passage and
completed the activities, discuss their responses to activity C.

Day Two After introducing the vocabulary words, activate students prior knowledge
Vocabulary: absorb, by asking them what they know about bacteria. Take time to look at the
bacteria illustrations showing the different kinds of bacteria. Then direct students
Materials: page 40 to read the passage. Instruct students to complete the activities, and then
discuss their answers to activity B.

Day Three Introduce the vocabulary words. Point out that the plural of fungus is fungi.
Vocabulary: fungus, Then ask students to describe experiences with moldwhere they have
mold seen it, what it looked like, etc. After students read the passage, make
Materials: page 41 sure they understand that fungi are not animals or plants but a separate
classification of life. Point out the illustration and tell students that we see
molds on the surface of things, such as this orange, but that the mold is
spreading through this food to help break it down. Then instruct students
to complete the activities. If students have not had much experience with
analogies, you may want to do activity C together.

Day Four Tell students that today they will find out the answer to the weeks
Materials: page 42 question. Direct students to read the passage and then, as a class, discuss
why garbage smells. Next, instruct students to complete the activities.
For the oral activity, you may wish to pair students or discuss the activity
as a group.

Day Five Have students complete the page independently. Then review the
Materials: page 43 answers together.

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Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 2
1 Why does garbage smell?
Everyone recognizes the smell of rotten garbage. It stinks!
But that smell tells you that decomposers are at work. WEEK 1
Decomposers are organisms that break down waste and
dead matter, such as banana peels or wilted lettuce leaves.
Decomposers are found everywhere, not just in trash cans. Vocabulary
This is important because decomposers play a vital role
decomposers
in recycling nutrients and enriching the
DEE-kum-POH-zerz
soil. If we didnt have decomposers, organisms that
nutrients would never be reused, break down and
and the world would be filled feed on waste
and the remains of
with garbage! plants and animals

A. Name three effects that decomposers have when they


break down waste.

1.

2.

3.

B. Write true or false.

1. Decomposers are important to the environment.

2. Decomposers are living creatures.

3. All decomposers live in trash cans and landfills.

C. Besides garbage cans, where else might you find decomposers?

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 39
i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 2
2 Why does garbage smell?
BacteriaBSFUIFTNBMMFTUEFDPNQPTFST UPPTNBMMUPTFF
XJUIPVUBNJDSPTDPQF CVUUIFZBSFUIFNPTUOVNFSPVT5IFSF WEEK 1
BSFNBOZLJOETPGCBDUFSJB BOEUIFZMJWFJOFWFSZFDPTZTUFN
POUIFQMBOFU GSPNPDFBOTUPEFTFSUTUPZPVSUSBTIDBO
#FDBVTFCBDUFSJBBSFTPTNBMMBOETJNQMF UIFZEPOUIBWF Vocabulary
NPVUITXJUIXIJDIUPFBU*OTUFBE CBDUFSJBSFMFBTFDIFNJDBMT
absorb
UIBUCSFBLEPXONBUUFSJOUPTNBMMQBSUTUIBUUIFZDBOabsorb
ab-SORB
to take in

bacteria
back-TEER-ee-uh
tiny one-celled
organisms

spirilla bacilli cocci


(spy-RIL-uh) (buh-SIL-eye) (KOK-sy)

A. Fill in the chart with facts about bacteria.

Size of bacteria

Where bacteria live

How bacteria eat

B. More bacteria live in your trash can than in your refrigerator.


More bacteria live in a rainforest than on an iceberg. Write a
sentence that explains how you think the cold affects bacteria.

40 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ
i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 2
3 Why does garbage smell?
:PVDBOUTFFCBDUFSJBXJUIPVUBNJDSPTDPQF CVUZPVWF
QSPCBCMZTFFOBfungus XIJDIJTBMTPBOJNQPSUBOUEFDPNQPTFS WEEK 1
.VTISPPNTBSFBGVOHVT BOETPBSFNPMETMoldBQQFBSTBT
UIFQBUDIFTPGHSFFO CMVF PSCSPXOiGV[[wUIBUZPVTFFPO
TPNFSPUUJOHGPPET:PVNJHIUUIJOLGVOHJBSFQMBOUT CVUUIFZ Vocabulary
BSFOPU1MBOUTNBLFUIFJSPXOGPPE CVUGVOHJ MJLFCBDUFSJB 
fungus
DBOUNBLFUIFJSPXOGPPE*OTUFBE GVOHJBCTPSCUIFGPPEUIFZ
FUN-gus
OFFEGSPNXIBUFWFSUIFZBSFHSPXJOHPO an organism
blue whisker mold that absorbs
nutrients from
orange plants and dead
plant material

mold
mold
a type of fungus
A. Use words from the passage to complete the sentences.

1. One type of is mushrooms.

2. can be green, blue, or brown.

3. Both fungi and bacteria the food they need.

B. A mushroom looks like a plant, but it isnt. What makes a mushroom different?

C. Complete the analogy.

Mold is to fungus as .
A dog is to cat C tree is to plant
B bacteria is to garbage D mushroom is to mold

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 41
i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 2
4 Why does garbage smell?
(BSCBHFDBOTBSFJEFBMQMBDFTUPGJOEEFDPNQPTFST
CFDBVTFUIFZBSFXBSN XFU BOEGVMMPGGPPE5IFEFDPNQPTFST WEEK 1
IBWFFWFSZUIJOHUIFZOFFEUPFBUBOEHSPX"OEVOMJLFEJTIFT
BOELJUDIFODPVOUFST HBSCBHFDBOTBSFOUDMFBOFEXJUITPBQ
BOEXBUFS TPUIFEFDPNQPTFSTBSFOUJOEBOHFSPGCFJOHLJMMFE
8IFOEFDPNQPTFSTCSFBLEPXOHBSCBHFJOUPGPPEGPS
UIFNTFMWFT UIFZQSPEVDFTVCTUBODFTUIBUFTDBQFJOUPUIFBJSBT
HBT8FOPUJDFUIJTHBTBTVOQMFBTBOUPEPST4PLFFQUIFMJEPO
ZPVSUSBTIDBO5IJTXJMMCFCFUUFSOPUPOMZGPSZPV CVUGPSUIF
EFDPNQPTFST*ULFFQTUIFJSFOWJSPONFOUXBSNBOEXFU

A. Write true or false.

1. Odors are produced when food decomposes.

2. Decomposers grow best in cool, dry places.

3. Decomposers turn garbage into larger particles.

B. Write whether each action described would make garbage


smell better or worse.

1. rinsing out food containers

2. sealing rotting food in plastic bags

3. putting the garbage in a warm place

Talk
Some people mix leaves, grass clippings, and leftover food
to make a mixture that decomposes. This mixture, called
compost, is used to enrich garden soil. Discuss with a partner
some things gardeners can do to help the decomposers work.

42 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ
i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 2
5 Why does garbage smell?
A. Use the words in the box to complete the paragraph.
WEEK 1
fungus absorb mold bacteria decomposers

Decomposers such as and

, which is a type of ,

can be found everywhere, especially in your garbage can. When

garbage begins to smell, it means that

are breaking down large pieces of food into smaller particles.

The organisms can then them as food.

B. Write true or false.

1. Bacteria are a kind of fungus.

2. You would probably find more mold in a rainforest


than in a desert.

3. The world would be better off without decomposers.

C. In your own words, explain why garbage smells.

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 43
Week 2
How do bacteria
Idea 2 create cavities?
Bacteria exist not only in the air, soil, and water, but also in our
mouths. Students may be surprised to learn that there are 600 or more
varieties of mouth bacteria! While most are either helpful or harmless,
Most microorganisms a strain of Streptococcus, called S. mutans, converts sucrose to lactic acid,
do not cause disease, which can erode tooth enamel. If unchecked, the growth of these
and many are
plaque-forming bacteria in our mouths can cause tooth decay.
beneficial.

Day One Review the information that students have learned previously about bacteria.
Vocabulary: plaque (e.g., they are microscopic, single-celled organisms; they are decomposers;
they prefer warm, wet places to live) Introduce the lesson by asking students
Materials: page 45
why someones mouth is a good place for bacteria to live. (A mouth is warm,
wet, and a place where food matter goes.) Introduce the vocabulary and
then direct students to read the passage and complete the activities. Go
over the answers together, recording responses to activity C so that students
can check their predictions on Day 2.

Day Two Tell students that they will find out if their predictions about how bacteria
Vocabulary: acid, cause decay are correct. After reading the passage, compare the
dissolve information with what students predicted on Day 1. Then have students
Materials: page 46 complete the activities and share their responses.

Day Three Ask students if they have ever had to see the dentist to have a cavity filled.
Vocabulary: cavity, As you introduce the vocabulary words for the parts of a tooth, instruct
dentin, enamel, pulp students to locate and label each part on the diagram in activity A. Then,
Materials: page 47 while reading the passage, have students confirm each part on the
diagram as they read about it. After students have completed the page,
review the answers together.

Day Four Introduce the vocabulary word and allow students to share what they already
Vocabulary: fluoride know about good dental care. After students have read the passage,
complete the first activity together. For the oral activity, have students first
Materials: page 48
share ideas with a partner, and then ask several students to report their ideas.

Day Five Have students complete the page independently. Then review the
Materials: page 49 answers together.

44 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ
i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
How do bacteria
Big
Idea 2
1 create cavities?
#BDUFSJBBSFFWFSZXIFSF*OGBDU ZPVIBWFBCPVUUJNFTBT
NBOZCBDUFSJBJOZPVSCPEZBTZPVIBWFDFMMT"OEZPVSNPVUI WEEK 2
DPOUBJOTNPSFCBDUFSJBUIBOUIFIVNBOQPQVMBUJPOPGUIFXPSME
0GUIFPSNPSFUZQFTPGCBDUFSJBJOZPVSNPVUI NPTUBSF
IFMQGVMPSBUMFBTUIBSNMFTT0OFUZQFPGNPVUICBDUFSJB  Vocabulary
IPXFWFS DBOEBNBHFZPVSUFFUIJGJUHSPXTPVUPGDPOUSPM
plaque
#BDUFSJBBSFBMXBZTNVMUJQMZJOHPOZPVSUFFUI$PNNVOJUJFT
plack
PGCBDUFSJBDPNCJOFXJUIGPPEEFCSJTUPGPSNBTUJDLZ DPMPSMFTT a sticky coating
DPBUJOHDBMMFEplaque%FOUBMQMBRVFDBO created by
DPOUBJOCJMMJPOTPGCBDUFSJB BOEJUJTUIF bacteria growing
on teeth
GJSTUTUFQJOUIFQSPDFTTPGUPPUIEFDBZ

A. Write true or false.

1. Bacteria in your body outnumber your cells 10 to one.

2. All the bacteria in our mouths are harmful.

3. A layer of plaque protects our teeth from tooth decay.

4. Plaque contains billions of bacteria.

5. Tooth decay causes plaque to form on your teeth.

B. How do you think bacteria cause tooth decay? Make a prediction.

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 45
i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
How do bacteria
Big
Idea 2
2 create cavities?
4JODFCBDUFSJBFBUUIFTBNFGPPEZPVEP ZPVFOEVQ
GFFEJOHNPVUICBDUFSJBFWFSZUJNFZPVFBUBOEESJOL#BDUFSJB WEEK 2
JOPVSNPVUITUISJWFPOTXFFUPSTUBSDIZGPPET TVDIBTTPEB 
DPPLJFT BOEQPUBUPFT
"TEFDPNQPTFST CBDUFSJBXPSLUPCSFBLEPXOUIFTVHBST Vocabulary
JOGPPEJOUPTNBMMFSTVCTUBODFTUIBUUIFZDBOBCTPSC"T
acid
CBDUFSJBCSFBLEPXOBOEFBUTVHBST POFPGUIFTVCTUBODFT
AS-id
UIFZQSPEVDFJTacid5IJTBDJEDBOdissolveZPVSUFFUI a substance
produced by
A. Use the words in the box to complete the paragraph. mouth bacteria

dissolve
acid bacteria dissolve dih-ZOLV
to break apart

Because are living things, they

break down and consume food for energy. One thing that

bacteria produce during the process is .

It isnt as strong as other kinds of acid, but it can slowly

your teeth if it isnt removed regularly.

B. Fill in the missing steps that explain how bacteria cause tooth decay.

"QFSTPOFBUT #BDUFSJB
TPNFUIJOH QSPEVDF
TXFFU BDJE

46 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ
i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
How do bacteria
Big
Idea 2
3 create cavities?
The outer layer of your teeth is made of enamel, which is
pretty strong. But when your teeth are coated with plaque, the WEEK 2
acid made by bacteria stays in contact with the enamel. Over
time, it can dissolve the enamel. The result is a cavity. But tooth
decay doesnt stop there. The next layer of a tooth is the Vocabulary
dentin. If acid starts to dissolve the dentin, your tooth will start
cavity
to hurt because the tooth pulp will be exposed. This is the part KAV-ih-tee
of the tooth that is alive and has the most feeling. If you dont a hole in a tooth
stop tooth decay, you might get a serious bacterial infection!
dentin
DEN-tin
A. Use information from the passage to label the bony
the parts of the tooth. material that
makes up most
of the hard part
of a tooth

enamel
ee-NAM-ul
a tooths hard
outer coating

pulp
pulp
the soft, living
part of a tooth

B. Number the steps to show the order of the process of tooth decay.

The tooth enamel begins to dissolve.


Plaque traps the acid on your tooth.
If the cavity dissolves the dentin, you will get a toothache.
Bacteria produce acid when they eat sugars in your mouth.
A hole, called a cavity, develops on the tooth.

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 47
i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
How do bacteria
Big
Idea 2
4 create cavities?
8IFOXFCSVTIBOEGMPTTPVSUFFUI XFSFNPWFUIFGPPE
UIBUCBDUFSJBFBU8FBMTPSFNPWFTPNFPGUIFQMBRVFXIFSF WEEK 2
CBDUFSJBHSPX*OBEEJUJPO XFNBLFPVSUFFUITUSPOHFS 
CFDBVTFNPTUUPPUIQBTUFTDPOUBJOfluoride BTVCTUBODF
UIBUTUSFOHUIFOTFOBNFM Vocabulary
5IFCFTUXBZUPQSFWFOUDBWJUJFTJTUPTFFBEFOUJTUSFHVMBSMZ
fluoride
"EFOUJTUSFNPWFTIBSEUPSFBDIQMBRVFPOZPVSUFFUICFGPSF FLOR-ide
BDBWJUZHFUTTUBSUFE*GZPVEPHFUBDBWJUZ UIFEFOUJTUXJMMESJMM a substance
PVUUIFEFDBZFEQBSUPGUIFUPPUIBOEUIFOSFQMBDFUIFDBWJUZ added to water
XJUIBGJMMJOHUIBUJTIBSE5IFGJMMJOHQSPUFDUTUIFUPPUI and toothpaste
to help prevent
tooth decay
The pictures show what happens when a cavity is filled.
Write the letter of the correct caption for each picture.

1 2 3 4

a. A dentist uses a tool to scrape away the enamel that has decayed.
b. The hole is filled with a material that becomes hard.
c. This is a tooth with a cavity.
d. Once the decay is removed, the hole in the tooth needs to be filled.

Talk
Why is flossing so important in caring for your teeth?
Discuss this question with a partner.

48 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ
i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
How do bacteria
Big
Idea 2
5 create cavities?
A. Use the words in the box to complete the paragraph.
WEEK 2
cavity acid dissolve plaque

If you dont brush and floss after eating, bacteria in your mouth

form a film called and release small amounts

of . If the plaque is not removed, the acid can

your teeths enamel. Then you have a .

B. Label the dentin, enamel, and pulp. Then complete the sentence.

The is the part of the tooth that can become infected.

C. Write true or false.

1. Enamel is the living part of a tooth.

2. Brushing kills bacteria in the mouth.

3. Bacteria make acid that causes cavities.

4. If you have plaque, you could get tooth decay.

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 49
Week 3
Are all germs bad?
Idea 2 Students should be familiar with the notion that germs cause illnesses
such as colds or flu. This week, students learn that the germs that make
us sick are comprised of bacteria and viruses. Our immune system
creates antibodies that prevent viruses and harmful bacteria from
reproducing. However, most bacteria are harmless, and some are
Most microorganisms
necessary for our health. Our digestive system would not function
do not cause disease,
and many are properly without bacteria to decompose the food we eat. Bacteria are
beneficial. also helpful in many other ways, from creating energy to decomposing
pollution. In fact, bacteria are so helpful that very few germs are
actually bad.

Day One Prior to the lesson, draw a chart on the board with these headings: Types
Vocabulary: infectious, of Germs, Diseases, and Prevention. Activate prior knowledge by asking
microscopic, viruses students to share what they know about germs. After students have read
Materials: page 51 the passage, help them complete the table by identifying bacteria and
viruses as germs, colds and flu as diseases caused by germs, and hand-
washing and covering sneezes as ways to prevent the spread of germs.
After students complete the page, go over their answers together.

Day Two Ask students if they have ever been around someone with a cold or the
Vocabulary: antibodies, flu but didnt catch the persons illness. Tell students that they are going
immune system to read about how our bodies protect us from disease. Introduce the
Materials: page 52 vocabulary; then direct students to read the passage and complete
the activities. Go over the answers together to confirm students
understanding of the information.

Day Three After introducing the vocabulary and reading the passage, ask students
Vocabulary: intestines if they were surprised to find out that their intestines contain bacteria.
Then direct students to complete the activities.
Materials: page 53

Day Four Tell students that they are going to learn about ways that bacteria are
Materials: page 54 beneficial to the environment. If needed, explain what toxic means, as well
as what sewage and water treatment plants are. After students read the
passage, have them complete the activities. You may wish to have students
work in small groups to complete activity B. Then have students share their
descriptions of the experiment.

Day Five Have students complete the page independently. Then review the
Materials: page 55 answers together.

50 Big Idea 2 Week 3 Daily Science EMC 5014 Evan-Moor Corp.


i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 2
1 Are all germs bad?
Have you ever had a cold or the flu? The germs that make
you sick are usually bacteria or viruses. Bacteria and viruses are WEEK 3
microscopic. Many germs can move easily from person to
person. Germs on your hands can stay on the things you touch,
such as doorknobs or keyboards. Germs can enter the air when Vocabulary
you cough or sneeze. If a healthy person comes into contact with
infectious
these germs, the germs can enter his or her body and make that
in-FEK-shus
person sick. Viruses and bacteria that cause disease are called able to cause or
infectious microorganisms. transmit disease

microscopic
MY-kro-SKAHP-ik
too small to be
seen without
a microscope
bacteria virus
viruses
A. Write the letter to match each vocabulary word with VI-russ-ehz
its definition. extremely
tiny, infectious
1. infectious a. invisible to the naked eye organisms

2. viruses b. causing disease

3. microscopic c. tiny disease-causing organisms

B. Number the steps in the correct order to show how the flu
might spread from one person to another.

The person who breathes in the particles becomes sick with the flu.
A second person breathes in the virus particles through the nose.
Someone sneezes and spreads flu viruses into the air.

C. Write two characteristics that bacteria and viruses share.

1. 2.

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 51
i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 2
2 Are all germs bad?
3FNFNCFSUIBUWJSVTFTBSFUJOZ JOGFDUJPVTQBSUJDMFTUIBU
DBVTFEJTFBTF"WJSVTNVTUFOUFSBQMBOUDFMMPSBOBOJNBMDFMM WEEK 3
UPSFQSPEVDF8IFOJUFOUFSTUIFDFMM JUJTJOGFDUJOHUIFQMBOU
PSBOJNBM4PNFWJSVTFTFWFOJOGFDUCBDUFSJBDFMMT"GUFSBWJSVT
SFQSPEVDFT UIFJOGFDUFEDFMMCSFBLTPQFOBOEUIFOFXWJSVTFT Vocabulary
BSFSFMFBTFE5IFTFOFXWJSVTFTDBOJOGFDUNPSFDFMMT
antibodies
-VDLJMZ PVSCPEJFTIBWFBOimmune systemUPQSPUFDUVT
AN-tih-BOD-eez
GSPNWJSVTFT5IFJNNVOFTZTUFNNBLFTantibodiesUIBUBUUBDI substances
UPWJSVTFTBOELFFQUIFNGSPNFOUFSJOHPVSDFMMT"OUJCPEJFT produced by the
FWFOLFFQTPNFIBSNGVMCBDUFSJBGSPNSFQSPEVDJOH immune system
that stick to and
destroy germs
A. Write the letter of the caption that describes each picture.
immune system
1 2 3 ih-MYOON SIS-tum
a system in the
body that defends
against disease

a. The virus reproduces inside the cell. c. When the viruses leave the cell,
they are attacked by antibodies.
b. A virus enters a cell in the body.

B. Use words from the passage to complete the sentences.

If it werent for created by our

, we would get sick more often. We would

be unprotected from harmful that enter

the cells of our bodies and .

52 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ
i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 2
3 Are all germs bad?
/PUBMMCBDUFSJBDBVTFEJTFBTF4PNFCBDUFSJBJOBJS XBUFS 
BOETPJMBSFJNQPSUBOUEFDPNQPTFST5IFZHFUUIFJSGPPECZ WEEK 3
CSFBLJOHEPXOMBSHFQBSUJDMFTPGEFBENBUUFSJOUPOVUSJFOUTUIBU
UIFZDBOBCTPSC
:PVNJHIUCFTVSQSJTFEUPMFBSOUIBUCBDUFSJBEPUIFTBNF Vocabulary
UIJOHJOPVSintestines0VS JOUFTUJOFTDPOUBJOCJMMJPOTPGCBDUFSJB
intestines
5IFTFCBDUFSJBCSFBLEPXOUIFGPPEXFFBU BOEDFMMTJOPVS
in-TES-tins
CPEZBCTPSCUIFOVUSJFOUT*OGBDU XJUIPVUUIFTFCBDUFSJB JU the part of the
XPVMECFWFSZEJGGJDVMUGPSVTUPEJHFTUPVSGPPEBOEHFUUIF digestive system
OVUSJUJPOXFOFFEUPTUBZIFBMUIZ that absorbs
nutrients from
the food we eat
Use information from the passage to answer the questions.

1. What part do bacteria play in helping you stay healthy?

2. Antibiotics are medicines that kill bacteria. They are used to treat
certain diseases, such as pneumonia and strep throat. How might
taking antibiotics also have a negative effect on your body?

3. Yogurt is a food that is made by adding live bacteria to milk.


Why might some people like to eat yogurt when they are taking
antibiotics for an infection?

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 53
i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 2
4 Are all germs bad?
4DJFOUJTUTBSFGJOEJOHNBOZVTFTGPSCBDUFSJB4JODFCBDUFSJB
BSFTVDIHPPEEFDPNQPTFST UIFZDBOCFVTFEUPDMFBOVQ WEEK 3
XBTUF0OFUZQFPGCBDUFSJBEJHFTUTPJM1FPQMFVTFJUUPSFQBJS
EBNBHFGSPNPJMTQJMMT CPUIJOUIFPDFBOBOEPOSPBET0UIFS
CBDUFSJBBSFHPPEBUCSFBLJOHEPXOUPYJDTVCTUBODFTJOTFXBHF 
TPUIFTFCBDUFSJBBSFVTFEJOXBUFSUSFBUNFOUQMBOUT
4DJFOUJTUTBSFBMTPFYQMPSJOHXBZTUPHFUCBDUFSJBUPQSPEVDF
FOFSHZ4DJFOUJTUTIBWFDSFBUFETJNQMFGVFMDFMMT XIJDIBSFMJLF
CBUUFSJFT UIBUVTFCBDUFSJBUPDPOWFSUHBSCBHFJOUPFMFDUSJDJUZ
5IFTFGVFMDFMMTNBZTPNFEBZSFDZDMFXBTUFJOUPFMFDUSJDJUZ
EVSJOHTQBDFGMJHIUT
4PBSFBMMHFSNTCBE /PUBUBMM*OGBDU UJOZCBDUFSJBNBZ
TPPOQSPWJEFUIFTPMVUJPOTUPTPNFPG&BSUITCJHHFTUQSPCMFNT

A. Use information from the passage to answer each question.

1. How do bacteria clean up pollution?

2. How might bacteria help provide energy in the future?

B. Suppose a scientist was studying bacteria in her lab to find out what
the bacteria could help clean up. What do you think the scientist could
do to learn what the bacteria were good for? How might the scientist
set up her experiment?

54 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ
i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 2
5 Are all germs bad?

A. Next to each clue, write the letter of the word it describes.


WEEK 3
1. These attack germs. a. infectious

2. Food is digested here. b. viruses

3. You can get a cold from these. c. intestines

4. able to cause disease d. antibodies

5. When this is working well, e. immune system


you dont get sick.

B. Write true or false.

1. Viruses infect cells and reproduce inside them.

2. There are bacteria in your intestines.

3. Viruses make antibodies.

4. Bacteria can help with digestion.

5. Germs block decomposers.

6. Germs can be passed through the air.

C. Describe how someone who is sick can spread his or her illness.

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 55
Week 4
Is it safe to eat moldy food?
Idea 2 Students may not be familiar with the biology of mold, but they have
likely seen molds effects: mildew in carpets, mold on bathroom tiles, and
moldy bread and cheese. These examples are likely to reinforce the idea
that all molds are bad. In this weeks activities, the benefits and uses of
molds are explored. Molds are not only important decomposers, but they
Most microorganisms
are also used in food preparation and in the creation of antibiotics.
do not cause disease,
and many are
beneficial.

Day One Before introducing the vocabulary words and reading the passage, lightly
Vocabulary: sprinkle water on the piece of bread and seal it inside the plastic bag. Ask
microorganisms, students what they think the bread will look like at the end of the week.
nutritious Pose the following question: Would you get sick if you ate the bread?
Materials: page 57; Record students responses. Then have students read and complete
water, slice of whole the activities.
wheat bread, self-
closing plastic bag

Day Two After students have read the passage and completed the activities, go
Materials: page 58 over the answers together, allowing students to share past experiences
with moldy foods.

Day Three Ask students if any of them have ever made or helped make bread. Explain
Vocabulary: yeast that a necessary ingredient for making bread is yeast. Then dissolve the
yeast and sugar in the warm water and tell students that the results will be
Materials: page 59;
packet of dry yeast, examined at the end of the lesson. After completing the passage and the
glass of warm water, activities, show students the foam created by the multiplying yeast and
spoonful of sugar ask them to explain what is happening based on the passage.

Day Four Ask students if any of them have ever taken antibiotics when they were
Vocabulary: antibiotic, sick. Tell them they are going to read about the discovery of the first
penicillin antibiotic medicine and learn what mold had to do with it. Introduce the
Materials: page 60 vocabulary words, and then direct students to read the passage and
complete the activities.

Day Five Have students complete the page independently. Then review the
Materials: page 61; answers together. Invite students to examine the bread you stored in
bread from the the bag on Day 1 and discuss the mold growing on it.
beginning of the week

56 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ
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Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 2
1 Is it safe to eat moldy food?
)BWFZPVFWFSCFFOBCPVUUPFBUBTMJDFPGCSFBEPSDIFFTF
XIFOZPVOPUJDFEGV[[ZHSFFOTQPUTBMMPWFSJU :VDL WEEK 4
:PVDBOGJOENPMEBMNPTUBOZXIFSF GSPNTQPJMFEGPPEUP
CBUISPPNXBMMT"QBUDIPGNPMEDPOUBJOTNJMMJPOTPG
microorganisms5IFTFNJDSPPSHBOJTNTBSFBMMBSPVOEVT  Vocabulary
BOEXIFOUIFZDPNFJOUPDPOUBDUXJUIXFUTVSGBDFT UIFZTUBSU
microorganisms
UPSFQSPEVDF-JLFBMMGVOHJ NPMEJTBEFDPNQPTFSUIBUCSFBLT
MY-kro-OR-guh-
EPXOTVCTUBODFTJOPSEFSUPHFUOVUSJFOUT4PNFUJNFT NPME niz-emz
GJOETTPVSDFTPGOVUSJFOUTUIBUBSFTVSQSJTJOH:PVNJHIUOPUUIJOL living organisms
ZPVSTIPXFSDVSUBJOJTOVUSJUJPVT CVUUPNPMEJUJTHPPEGPPE that are visible
only through
a microscope

nutritious
new-TRISH-us
full of nutrients

A patch of mold contains millions of microorganisms.

A. Use information from the passage to complete the sentences.

1. The that create mold reproduce


when they come into contact with water.

2. Mold can decompose many things, as long as there is water

and a source of .

B. Make a check next to all the places where mold can grow.

clean, dry towel locker room


leaking water pipe hot oven
sealed jar of mayonnaise garbage can

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Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 2
2 Is it safe to eat moldy food?
$FSUBJONPMETBSFVTFEUPNBLFTPNFLJOETPGDIFFTF*G
ZPVWFFWFSFBUFOCMFVDIFFTF ZPVBUFPOFPGUIFPenicillium WEEK 4
NPMET5IFCMVFPSHSFFODPMPSJOTJEFUIFDIFFTFJTGSPNNPME
%VSJOHUIFDIFFTFNBLJOHQSPDFTT FJUIFSUIFNPMEJTBEEFEUP
UIFNJML PSUIFDIFFTFJTSJQFOFEJOBOBSFBXIFSFUIFSFJTBMPU
PGUIFSJHIULJOEPGNPMEJOUIFBJS mold
/PUBMMNPMETTIPVMECFFBUFO IPXFWFS&WFOJGUIFNPME
JUTFMGNJHIUOPUCFIBSNGVM JUDBODPOUBJOCBDUFSJBUIBUXPVME
NBLFZPVTJDL4PNFQFPQMFDVUUIFNPMEPGGUIFPVUTJEFPGUIF
GPPEBOEUIFOFBUUIFGPPE CVUUIJTJTOUBHPPEJEFBFJUIFS
.PMETFOETPVUUISFBEMJLFSPPUTUIBUCVSSPXJOUPUIFGPPET
UIFZHSPXPO TPNPMEZPVDBOUTFFNBZCF
JOTJEFUIFGPPE*GZPVSGSVJUPSCSFBEIBTNPME
POJU UISPXJUPVU

mold roots
A. Write true or false.

1. You cant always see mold inside food.

2. Mold is allowed to grow in some cheeses on purpose.

3. All kinds of mold are all right to eat.

B. Answer the questions.

1. When is it safe to eat food that has mold?

2. What is dangerous about moldy food, even if you remove


the spots of mold?

58 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ
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Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 2
3 Is it safe to eat moldy food?
YeastJTBDPNNPOGVOHVTUIBU JTVTFEUPNBLFCSFBE-JLF
NPTUGVOHJ ZFBTUHSPXTCFTUJOXBSN NPJTUQMBDFT8IFOZFBTU WEEK 4
JTBEEFEUPGMPVSBOEXBUFS UIFUJOZPSHBOJTNTTUBSUUPHSPXBOE
EJWJEF:FBTUHFUTGPPEBOEXBUFSGSPNUIFCSFBEEPVHI BOE
BTUIFZFBTUPSHBOJTNTNVMUJQMZ UIFZQSPEVDFDBSCPOEJPYJEF Vocabulary
BTXBTUF5IJTHBTNBLFTUIFCSFBEEPVHIHFUQVGGZBOESJTF
yeast
#SFBEEPVHIDBOFYQBOEUPUXJDFJUTTJ[FJOKVTUPWFSBOIPVS
yeest
8IFOUIFMPBWFTPGEPVHIBSFCBLFEJOBIPUPWFO UIFZFBTUJT a microscopic
LJMMFE BOEUIFCSFBETUPQTSJTJOH fungus used to
make bread and
other foods
yeast cells

A. Number the sentences in the correct order to explain how yeast


is used in bread making.
The gas bubbles are trapped in the dough, making it expand.
Yeast feeds on the dough and multiplies.
When the bread dough is baked, the yeast stops growing
and the bread stops rising.
As yeast feeds, it produces carbon dioxide gas.

B. Complete the sentences.

1. Bread dough will not rise properly in a cold room because

2. Bread is light and fluffy because .

3. Bread does not keep rising while it is being baked because

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Name __________________________________________________________

Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 2
4 Is it safe to eat moldy food?
%PZPVLOPXUIFTUPSZPG"MFYBOEFS'MFNJOH 
UIFTDJFOUJTUXIPEJTDPWFSFEpenicillin  WEEK 4
%S'MFNJOHSFUVSOFEGSPNBUSJQUPGJOEUIBU
BLJOEPGNPMEIBEEFTUSPZFEUIFCBDUFSJB
IFXBTVTJOHJOBOFYQFSJNFOU%S'MFNJOH Vocabulary
UIPVHIUUIBUNBZCFBDIFNJDBMGSPNUIF
antibiotic
NPMEDPVMEEFTUSPZCBDUFSJBJOQFPQMF UPP
AN-tih-by-AH-tick
*OUIJTXBZ IFEJTDPWFSFEUIFGJSTUantibiotic a medicine that
Alexander Fleming,
NFEJDJOF5PEBZ NPMETBSFUIFTPVSDFGPS Scottish biologist stops bacteria
BOUJCJPUJDTVTFEUPUSFBUJOGFDUJPOT 18811955 from growing
in the body

A. Write the vocabulary word that is described by each clue. penicillin


PEN-ih-SILL-in
1. medicine that kills bacteria an antibiotic
produced by
mold
2. the first antibiotic

3. penicillin is an example

4. made from a kind of mold

B. Fill in the bubble next to the answer that best completes each sentence.

1. Dr. Fleming had the idea for penicillin when .


A he left for a trip C he wanted to treat an infection
B bacteria destroyed his lab D the bacteria he was studying died

2. Dr. Fleming was a good scientist because he .


A took many trips C invented mold and bacteria
B realized the importance of D wanted to change the
the mold killing the bacteria world with his experiments

60 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ
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Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 2
5 Is it safe to eat moldy food?
A. Use the words in the box to complete the paragraph.
WEEK 4
penicillin nutritious microorganisms
yeast fungus antibiotic

Mold and are each a type of

. A patch of mold can consist of millions

of . Mold can grow in carpets and on walls.

All it needs is water and a source of food.

Alexander Fleming discovered the first

medicine when he found mold growing on his samples of bacteria.

Something in the mold had killed the bacteria. The substance

Dr. Fleming identified is now called , and it

is still used today to treat infections.

B. Write true or false.

1. Yeasts are microorganisms.

2. Molds grow best where it is hot and dry.

3. Molds are decomposers.

4. Molds grow only in houses.

5. Antibiotics kill bacteria.

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Unit Comprehension Big


Review Microorganisms Idea 2

A. Fill in the bubble next to the correct answer.


WEEK 5
1. Both and are a type of fungus.
A mold, viruses C viruses, yeast
B bacteria, mold D mushrooms, mold

2. What is the main job of our immune system?

A It protects us from illness. C It makes antibiotics.


B It helps us digest food. D It helps repair cavities.

3. Which of these is a product of bacteria that can damage teeth?

A pulp C acid
B dentin D enamel

4. Which decomposer is used to make antibiotics such as penicillin?

A bacteria C yeast
B mushroom D mold

5. Which of these is NOT part of a tooth?

A enamel C dentin
B plaque D pulp

B. Name two useful things that bacteria and fungi do.

1.

2.

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Unit Vocabulary Big


Review Microscopic Idea 2
Match

Next to each word, write the letter of the correct definition.


WEEK 5
1. decomposers a. full of nutrients

2. absorb b. able to cause disease


c. an organism that reproduces inside
3. bacteria
the cells of another life-form
4. mold d. a fuzzy kind of fungus
5. fungi e. substances produced by the body
to destroy germs
6. plaque
f. the living tissue of a tooth
7. antibiotic
g. a hole in a tooth caused by bacteria
8. acid h. a substance produced by bacteria
9. dissolve i. a fungus used to make bread
10. cavity j. organisms that break down things
into smaller parts for food
11. dentin
k. an organism, such as bacteria, that can
12. enamel be seen only under a microscope
13. pulp l. the body parts where digestion happens
m. what the body uses to protect itself
14. infectious
against illnesses
15. microscopic n. mushrooms, molds, and yeast
16. virus o. food and bacteria stuck to teeth
17. antibodies p. the middle layer of a tooth
q. single-celled decomposers
18. immune system
r. to break down completely
19. intestines
s. a medicine used to kill bacteria
20. nutritious
t. a tooths hard outer layer
21. yeast u. too small to see without a microscope
22. microorganism v. to take in

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Unit Visual Literacy Big


Review Away with Idea 2
Decay

4DJFOUJTUTTUVEZBMMLJOETPGUIJOHTJOPSEFSUPCFUUFS
VOEFSTUBOEQFPQMFTCFIBWJPSBOEIFBMUI'PSFYBNQMF  WEEK 5
TDJFOUJTUTTUVEJFEIPXNBOZQFPQMFJOUIF6OJUFE4UBUFT
IBETPNFTPSUPGUPPUIEFDBZCFUXFFOBOE BOE
BHBJOCFUXFFOBOE5IFHSBQICFMPXTIPXTUIF
QFSDFOUBHFPGUIF64QPQVMBUJPOUIBUIBEUPPUIEFDBZ
EVSJOHUIFTFUXPUJNFQFSJPET
50
1988 1994
Percentage of People

40 1999 2002
with Tooth Decay

30

20

10

2029 4059 more than 20 to 60+


years old years old 60 years old years old

Use the graph to answer the questions.

1. Which age group had the highest percentage


of people with tooth decay?

2. Which age group had the biggest DECREASE


in the percentage of people with tooth decay?

3. Which age group had the LEAST amount of


change in the percentage of people with
tooth decay?

4. Overall, is tooth decay becoming a bigger


or a smaller problem? How can you tell?

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Unit Hands-on Activity


Big
Review Farming Fuzz Idea 2

Mold is everywhere. The type of mold that grows depends on


what the food source is. Try this experiment to see if you can WEEK 5
grow different types of mold.

What You Need 1. 1MBDFFBDIQJFDFPGGPPEJOBEJGGFSFOUCBHPS


t TFBMBCMFQMBTUJDCBHT DPOUBJOFS BEEBEBNQQBQFSUPXFM BOETFBM
PSDMFBSDPOUBJOFST UIFCBHPSDPOUBJOFS

t BQJFDFPGCSFBE BO 2. 1MBDFUIFCBHTPSDPOUBJOFSTTPNFXIFSFXBSN 


PSBOHFQFFM BQJFDF CVUOPUOFBSBOZUIJOHUPPIPU TVDIBTBIFBUFS
PGDBSSPU BOEBQJFDF PSPWFO

PGDIFFTF
3. 8BJUBXFFLUPTFFXIBUHSPXT#65#&
t XBUFS $"3&'6-4PNFQFPQMFBSFWFSZBMMFSHJDUP
t EBNQQBQFSUPXFMT NPME TPZPVNVTULFFQUIFCBHTPSDPOUBJOFST
DMPTFEBUallUJNFT
4. -PPLBUZPVSNPMEBOEGJMMJOUIFDIBSUCFMPX

What Did You Discover?

Bread Orange peel Carrot Cheese


mold mold mold mold
Color
Size of
moldy area
Texture

Which mold was the most interesting to you? Why?

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 65
Both slow and rapid processes

Big
from erosion to earthquakes

3
shape and reshape the Earth's

Idea
surface.

Key Concept
Earths surface is constantly changing.

National Standard
The surface of Earth changes. Some changes are
due to slow processes, such as erosion and weathering,
and some changes are due to rapid processes, such as
landslides, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

I
n this unit, students learn that Teacher Background
the Earths surface is shaped
by slow processessuch as Earths surface is enormously varied and continually
wind, water, and iceand rapid changing. Mountains, valleys, islands, and canyons
processessuch as volcanic are some of the features that make up our planets
eruptions and earthquakes. landscape. These landforms are created and affected
In this unit, students will learn by earthquakes, volcanoes, wind, water, and ice.
the following:
The emergence of landforms is also related to processes
occurring deep within Earths crust. Earthquakes and
what created the Grand Canyon;
volcanoes are two expressions of these processes. Active
how the movement of glaciers volcanoes and earthquakes are constantly at work,
created different landforms; creating new features and destroying old ones.

what happens when volcanoes Once landforms emerge, they are shaped and reshaped
erupt; and by forces of weather and erosion. Recognizable
why earthquakes occur. geographic features, such as the Grand Canyon, were
created over millions of years of weathering and erosion.

For specific background information on each weeks


concepts, refer to the notes on pp. 68, 74, 80, and 86.

66 #JH*EFB %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ
Unit Overview

WEEK 1: How was the Grand Content Vocabulary: chamber, core, crust,
Canyon formed? debris, lava, magma, mantle, vent

Connection to the Big Idea: Students


WEEK 4: What causes
learn how the slow processes of weathering
earthquakes?
and erosion formed Arizonas Grand
Canyon over a period of five to six million Connection to the Big Idea: Earths
years. They learn that forces are still at crust is not one piece but broken up into
work today, changing the canyons features. a dozen or so plates. Students learn that
Students then find out how humans affected the motion of these plates as they move
the Grand Canyon ecosystem by building past, into, or away from each other along
the Glen Canyon Dam. plate boundaries, or faults, is what causes
earthquakes. Students read about the tool
Content Vocabulary: channels, ecosystem,
erosion, expanded, uplifted, weathering scientists use to measure the intensity
of earthquakes and about the effects of
WEEK 2: Do glaciers really move? earthquakes of varying magnitudes.

Connection to the Big Idea: Students Content Vocabulary: boundary, fault,


magnitude, plates, seismometer
learn how glaciers form and what causes
these rivers of ice to move. They also
WEEK 5: Unit Review
discover that in the past, glaciers carved out
familiar landforms such as Yosemite Valley You may choose to do these activities to
and the Great Lakes. Now, however, glaciers review the forces that shape Earths surface.
are retreating, which will have its own p. 92: Comprehension Students answer
effects on the land in the future. multiple-choice questions about the key
Content Vocabulary: basin, glacier, concepts of the unit.
meltwater, moraines, retreat
p. 93: Vocabulary Students complete a
WEEK 3: What makes a volcano crossword puzzle to show they understand
erupt? unit vocabulary.
Connection to the Big Idea: To understand p. 94: Visual Literacy Students use an
how volcanoes erupt, students first explore illustrated chart to gather information
Earths structure. They learn that lava about three types of volcanoes.
comes from hot, soft rock in Earths mantle,
which turns into liquid magma as it nears p. 95: Hands-on Activity Students use
the surface. Students discover that not all sandy ice cubes to investigate the effect
volcanic eruptions are explosive, and that that glacial movement has on landforms.
steady flows over a long time can create Review materials and instructions on the
landforms such as the Hawaiian Islands. student page ahead of time.

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFB 67
Week 1
How was the Grand Canyon
Idea 3 formed?
Plunging a mile deep into the desert landscape, Arizonas Grand
Canyon exposes one of the most studied rock sequences in the world.
Students discover that this spectacular natural landform is evidence
Both slow and rapid that our planet has been, and continues to be, shaped by the geological
processesfrom erosion
to earthquakesshape processes of weathering, erosion, deposition, and uplift. This week,
and reshape Earths students learn that the walls of the Grand Canyon preserve a record
surface. of Earths history going back two billion years. They also learn that
in some sections of the canyon, human activity is changing geological
processes at work today.

Day One Show students pictures of the Grand Canyon and help students locate it
Vocabulary: erosion, on a map. Ask if anyone has visited the canyon and, if so, invite them to
weathering describe what they saw. Introduce the vocabulary and then have students
Materials: page 69; read the passage. For activity B, remind students that erosion means rock is
pictures of the Grand carried away, while weathering means that rock is broken down. Discuss the
Canyon, U.S. map answers and make sure students understand each term.

Day Two When introducing the vocabulary, help students understand the meaning
Vocabulary: channels, of channels by talking about what they have observed when they have
uplifted seen rainwater flowing downhill. (It makes grooves, or channels, in the
Materials: page 70 ground.) Then, as students read the passage, refer to each panel of the
drawing that illustrates the text. You may also want to explain that the
forces within Earth that caused uplifting are the same forces that cause
earthquakes, which students will learn more about in Week 4 of this unit.

Day Three Review the terms erosion and weathering from Day 1. Instruct students to
Vocabulary: expanded look for examples of these forces as they read the passage. Point out the
illustrations below the passage and encourage students to refer to them
Materials: page 71
as they read. During the oral activity, prompt students with examples you
have seen if they are having difficulty thinking of examples on their own.

Day Four After introducing the vocabulary word, tell students that they will read
Vocabulary: ecosystem about how humans have changed the Grand Canyon ecosystem. Have
students read the passage and then read each scenario in the activity. If
Materials: page 72
needed, discuss the problems as a class before students write their
responses.

Day Five Have students complete the page independently. Then review the
Materials: page 73 answers together.

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Day
Weekly Question
How was the Grand Canyon
Big
Idea 3
1 formed?
0OFPG&BSUITNPTUTQFDUBDVMBSOBUVSBMGFBUVSFTJTUIF
NJMFEFFQ(SBOE$BOZPOJOOPSUIFSO"SJ[POB*UJTBMTPPOFPG WEEK 1
UIFCFTUFYBNQMFTPGerosion XIFSFSPDLPSFBSUIJTDBSSJFE
BXBZ BOEPGweathering XIFSFSPDLJTXPSOBXBZPSCSPLFO
EPXO-PPLJOHGSPNUIFSJNPGUIFDBOZPOUPUIF$PMPSBEP3JWFS Vocabulary
CFMPX WJTJUPSTDBOTFFNBOZMBZFSTPGEJGGFSFOULJOETPGSPDL
erosion
4PNFPGUIFSPDLTBSFBTNVDIBTUXPCJMMJPOZFBSTPME
ee-ROH-zhun
the moving of
rocks and soil by
water, wind, ice,
A
or gravity
B weathering
WETH-er-ing
C the breaking
down or wearing
away of rocks by
water or wind

A. Look at the drawing above. Write the letter of the layer


that answers each question.

1. Which layer of rock was probably formed 2 billion years ago?

2. Which layer of rock was formed most recently?

B. Write whether each feature described below is due to


weathering or erosion.

1. a rivers bank becomes wider

2. canyon walls made wider by windblown sand

3. jagged rocks that have become smooth

4. a rock found a long way from others like it

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Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
How was the Grand Canyon
Big
Idea 3
2 formed?
5IF(SBOE$BOZPOCFHBOGPSNJOHGJWFPSTJYNJMMJPOZFBST
BHP BGUFSGPSDFTXJUIJO&BSUIupliftedMBOEBOEGPSNFEUIF WEEK 1
3PDLZ.PVOUBJOT8IFOSBJOGFMM XBUFSSBOEPXOUIFTMPQJOH
MBOEBOECFHBOUPFSPEFUIFTPJM NBLJOHchannels5IFTF
DIBOOFMTFWFOUVBMMZCFDBNFUIFQBUIGPSUIF$PMPSBEP3JWFS Vocabulary
0WFSNJMMJPOTPGZFBST UIF$PMPSBEP3JWFSLFQUFSPEJOHUIF
channels
TPJMBOEDBSWJOHPVUUIFDBOZPO
CHAN-ulz
cuts in the ground
made by moving
water, such as a
river or stream

uplifted
UP-lift-id
pushed up
5 million years ago Today

A. Number in order the events that formed the Grand Canyon.

Uplift began forming mountains.


As the channels got bigger and deeper, a river formed.
Eventually, a deep canyon was formed with a river at the bottom.
Water running off the land cut channels in the ground.

B. Check the box next to the thing in each pair that formed first.

1. Rocky Mountains or Colorado River

2. Colorado River or channels in the ground

C. Use the vocabulary words to complete the sentences.

1. Mountains are formed when land is .

2. Canyons start out as carved by water.

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Day
Weekly Question
How was the Grand Canyon
Big
Idea 3
3 formed?
:PVLOPXUIBUFSPTJPOGSPNUIF$PMPSBEP3JWFSXBTUIF
NBKPSGPSDFUIBUGPSNFEUIF(SBOE$BOZPO#VUXBUFSBMTP WEEK 1
QMBZFEBSPMFJOGPSNJOHUIFDBOZPO8BUFSTFFQFEJOUP
DSBDLTJOUIFSPDLTBOEGSP[FJOUIFXJOUFS8IFOUIFXBUFS
GSP[F JUexpandedBOEQVTIFEUIFSPDLTBQBSU5IFOUIF Vocabulary
QVMMPGHSBWJUZDBVTFETFDUJPOTPGUIFDBOZPOXBMMUPDPMMBQTF 
expanded
NBLJOHUIFDBOZPOXJEFS8JOEBMTPTIBQFEUIFDBOZPO
ek-SPAN-ded
#JUTPGTBOE CMPXOCZXJOE DIJQQFEBXBZBUUIFDBOZPO got larger
XBMMTBOEXFBUIFSFEUIFSPDL"MMUIFTFGPSDFTBSFBUXPSL
FWFOUPEBZ DPOUJOVBMMZDIBOHJOHUIFDBOZPO

A. Study the drawings. Underline the sentences in the passage


that describe what the pictures show.

B. List the forces of erosion and weathering mentioned in the passage.

1. 3.

2. 4.

Talk
What have you seen in nature that is the result of erosion or weathering?
Think about places you have been or have seen in books or on television.

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i l y S c i e nc
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Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
How was the Grand Canyon
Big
Idea 3
4 formed?
5IF$PMPSBEP3JWFSIBTBMXBZTCFFOJNQPSUBOUUPUIF
(SBOE$BOZPOecosystem8IFOUIFSJWFSGMPPEFE JUIFMQFE WEEK 1
OBUJWFGJTICZDBSSZJOHBXBZSPDLTBOETBOEUIBUCMPDLFEQBSUT
PGUIFSJWFS'MPPEXBUFSTEFQPTJUFETBOEBMPOHSJWFSCBOLT 
CVJMEJOHTBOECBSTUIBUCFDBNFQMBOUBOEBOJNBMIBCJUBUT Vocabulary
*O XBUFSGSPNUIF$PMPSBEP3JWFSXBTEBNNFEVQ
ecosystem
UPDSFBUFUIF(MFO$BOZPO%BN5IJTNFBOUUIBUUIFOBUVSBM
EE-koh-SIS-tum
GMPPEJOHTUPQQFE4DJFOUJTUTMBUFSSFBMJ[FEUIBUXJUIPVUGMPPEJOH  a community of
UIFQMBOUTBOEBOJNBMTMJWJOHJOUIF(SBOE$BOZPOTVGGFSFE/PX plants and animals
UIFEBNJTPDDBTJPOBMMZPQFOFEUPSFMFBTFBMPUPGXBUFS5IJTJT and the physical
environment in
EPOFUPQSFTFSWFUIFFDPTZTUFNJOUIF(SBOE$BOZPO which they live

Below are two problems created by the Glen Canyon Dam.


Explain how flooding might solve each problem.

1. The saltcedar is a shrub that, if left undisturbed,


grows so thick that it stops other plants from
growing. Saltcedar also traps salts from the soil and
water, making the area around the shrub too salty
for freshwater fish and amphibians to live. saltcedar

2. The razorback sucker is a fish that lays its eggs in sandbars. It gets most
of its food from riverbeds that have been churned up
by a lot of flowing water. This fish is currently
endangered because it cannot find enough
food or places to reproduce. razorback sucker

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Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
How was the Grand Canyon
Big
Idea 3
5 formed?
A. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences.
WEEK 1
erosion channels expanded
uplifted ecosystems weathering

1. Rainwater can carve in the soil.

2. Mountains form when the land is .

3. Soil being washed away is an example of .

4. Blowing sand can cause of rock.

5. In , plants and animals interact with each other.

6. Over millions of years, the Grand Canyon .

B. Fill in the bubble next to the correct answer.

1. If you found a very young rock at the bottom of the Grand Canyon,
what would be the most likely way that it got there?
A The rock was uplifted from below. C The rock was from a glacier.
B The rock fell from the cliff above. D Animals brought the rock there.

2. Over time, erosion and weathering can cause canyons to become .


A deeper and narrower C deeper and wider
B wider and shallower D shallower and narrower

C. Summarize how Glen Canyon Dam has affected the Grand Canyon ecosystem.

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 73
Week 2
Do glaciers really move?
Idea 3 This week, students learn that glaciers are not huge, stationary masses,
but slow-moving rivers of ice that grind away rock, carve valleys, and
create lakes. Glaciers move slowly, reacting to gravity and intense
pressure that cause them to spread out and move. Today, glaciers are
melting faster than they are growing due to the fact that Earth is
Both slow and rapid
processesfrom erosion warming. Scientists study glaciers to understand how Earths climate
to earthquakesshape changed in the past and how it might change again.
and reshape Earths
surface.

Day One After introducing the vocabulary word, show students photos of glaciers
Vocabulary: glacier from around the world. List words that describe the glaciers. (icy, white,
chunky, like rivers, dark streaks, etc.) Ask students to speculate where the
Materials: page 75;
photographs of glaciers ice comes from. Then have students read the passage to find out. Before
students complete the activities, confirm that they understand the meaning
of dense (tightly packed, thick). Ask, Which is denser, fluffy snow or ice?

Day Two Tell students that the passage they are about to read will answer the
Vocabulary: meltwater weeks question. Then have a volunteer read the first two sentences aloud.
Introduce the vocabulary word and direct students to read the remainder
Materials: page 76
of the passage to find out what meltwater has to do with glaciers moving.
You may wish to do the activity together to make sure students understand
the two causes of glacial movement.

Day Three Tell students that about 15,000 years ago, glaciers covered all of what is
Vocabulary: basin, now Canada and the northern United States. These glaciers created many
moraines of the landforms we know today. Introduce the vocabulary and have
Materials: page 77; students read the passage. Help students find Yosemite Valley and the
map of the U.S. Great Lakes on the map. Then have them complete the activities.

Day Four If possible, share photos of retreating glaciers, such as the Boulder Glacier,
Vocabulary: retreat Easton Glacier, or Grinnell Glacier. Then have students read the passage and
complete the first activity. For the oral activity, consider having small groups
Materials: page 78;
photos of glaciers discuss the question and share their ideas with the class. Then provide the
(optional) answers: According to scientists, if all of the Antarctic ice melted, sea levels
would rise 180 feet (55 meters). If all the ice covering Greenland melted, sea
levels would rise 23 feet (7 meters). Scientists are not sure how likely it is that
all of Earths ice will melt. However, even a three-foot rise in sea level would
flood many coastal areas around the world.

Day Five Have students complete the page independently. Then review the
Materials: page 79 answers together.

74 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ
i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 3
1 Do glaciers really move?
)BWFZPVFWFSTFFOQJDUVSFTPGBTOPXUPQQFENPVOUBJO 
*GTP ZPVNBZBMTPIBWFCFFOMPPLJOHBUBglacier(MBDJFSTBSF WEEK 2
MBSHFTIFFUTPGJDFUIBUGPSNJOQMBDFTXIFSFNPSFTOPXGBMMT
UIBONFMUT"TMBZFSTPGTOPXCVJMEVQPOPOFBOPUIFS UIF
XFJHIUGSPNBUPQMBZFSQVTIFTEPXOPOUIFMBZFSTCFOFBUIJU Vocabulary
5IJTQSFTTVSFUVSOTUIFTOPXUPJDF MJLFXIFOZPVTRVFF[F
glacier
GMVGGZTOPXJOUPBIBSETOPXCBMM
GLAY-shur
#FDBVTFHMBDJFSTGPSNTMPXMZ XFDBOGJOEUIFNPOMZJOQMBDFT a large, slow-
UIBUBSFDPMEZFBSSPVOE1MBDFTMJLF(SFFOMBOE "OUBSDUJDB BOE moving mass
UIFUPQTPGNPVOUBJOSBOHFTBSFHPPEQMBDFTGPSHMBDJFSTUPGPSN of ice

glacier

A. Write the two qualities that a place must have in order for a glacier
to form there.

1.

2.

B. Write true or false.

1. Glaciers are made from many layers of ice.

2. Glaciers freeze in winter and melt completely every summer.

3. Glaciers are less dense than fresh snow.

4. Greenland and Antarctica have cold summers.

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 75
i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 3
2 Do glaciers really move?
(MBDJFSTNJHIUBQQFBSUPTUBZJOPOFQMBDF CVUUIFZBSF
BDUVBMMZiSJWFSTwPGJDFUIBUGMPXEPXOIJMM(MBDJFSTNPWFJOUXP WEEK 2
NBJOXBZT0OFXBZBHMBDJFSNPWFTJTXIFOJUCFDPNFTTP
EFFQBOEIFBWZUIBUJUDBOUIPMEJUTFMGUPHFUIFS(SBWJUZDBVTFT
UIFJDFUPTQSFBEPVU NVDIMJLFUIFXBZXBSNXBYGMPXT Vocabulary
5IFTFDPOEXBZHMBDJFSTNPWFJTCZTMJEJOH5IJTIBQQFOT
meltwater
CFDBVTFmeltwaterBUUIFCPUUPNPGUIFHMBDJFSNBLFTUIF
MELT-wah-tur
HSPVOEXFUBOEUIFHMBDJFSWFSZTMJQQFSZ.FMUXBUFSDBODPNF water that melts
GSPNNFMUFEJDFUIBUTFFQTUISPVHIUIFHMBDJFS PSJUDBOCF from a glacier
DSFBUFEXIFOFYUSFNFQSFTTVSFGSPNUIFJDFBCPWFDBVTFTUIF
JDFBUUIFCPUUPNPGUIFHMBDJFSUPNFMU

The pictures below show two ways a glacier can move. Using information
from the passage, write a caption that describes each picture.

1 2

76 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ
i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 3
3 Do glaciers really move?
(MBDJFSTBSFUIFMBSHFTUNPWJOHPCKFDUTPO&BSUI TDSBQJOH
SPDLTBOETPJMGSPNUIFJSQBUITMJLFHJBOUCVMMEP[FST8FDBOTFF WEEK 2
UIFFGGFDUPGHMBDJFSTJONBOZQMBDFT'PSFYBNQMF $BMJGPSOJBT
:PTFNJUF7BMMFZXBTPODFGJMMFECZBHMBDJFSPWFS GFFUEFFQ
5IJTHMBDJFSDBSWFEBHJBOU6TIBQFEWBMMFZJOUIFSPDLBOEMFGU Vocabulary
CFIJOESJEHFTPGEJSUBOEHSBWFMDBMMFEmoraines*OPUIFSQMBDFT 
basin
FSPTJPOCZHMBDJFSTSFTVMUFEJOUIFDSFBUJPOPGMBLFT5IF(SFBU
BA-sin
-BLFTGPSNFEGSPNbasinsTDPPQFEPVUCZUIFQBTTBHFPGB a large hole or
HMBDJFS8IFOUIFJDFNFMUFE UIFTFCBTJOTGJMMFEXJUIXBUFS depression in the
ground that can
contain water
A. Label each landform with the correct word from the passage.
moraines
mor-RAYNZ
ridges of loose
rock and soil
created by a
glacier and left
behind when the
glacier melts

B. Use the vocabulary words to complete the sentences.

1. Animals looking for water might check small

after a rainstorm.

2. Some can become low hills.

3. A contains a mixture of rocks and soil.

4. A bathtub is similar in shape to a .

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 77
i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 3
4 Do glaciers really move?
5PEBZXFMJWFJOBWFSZXBSNQFSJPE BOEHMBDJFSTBSFPOUIF
NPWFCBDLXBSE.PTUHMBDJFSTBSFNFMUJOHGBTUFSUIBOUIFZ WEEK 2
BSFHSPXJOH5IJTJTDBMMFEHMBDJBMretreat.4DJFOUJTUTTUVEZ
HMBDJBMSFUSFBUUPVOEFSTUBOEIPXDMJNBUFDIBOHFXJMMBGGFDU
HMBDJFSTBSPVOEUIFXPSME0OFXBZTDJFOUJTUTEPUIJTJTCZ Vocabulary
DPNQBSJOHQIPUPHSBQITPGHMBDJFSTUBLFOZFBSTBQBSU5IJTUFMMT
retreat
TDJFOUJTUTIPXNVDIBOEIPXGBTUUIFJDFJTNFMUJOH*O$BOBEBT
ree-TREET
(MBDJFS/BUJPOBM1BSL GPSFYBNQMF NPTUMBSHFHMBDJFSTBSFPOMZ movement
BUIJSEPGUIFTJ[FUIFZXFSFPWFSZFBSTBHP backward

Look at the diagram of a glacier. The lines show how far


the ice has retreated since 1850. Use the diagram to answer
the questions.

1. What span of time is represented by the diagram?

2. When was the glaciers rate of retreat the GREATEST?

3. When was the glaciers rate of retreat the SMALLEST?

Talk
The continent of Antarctica and the island of Greenland are covered with
glaciers. What might happen if these glaciers were to completely melt?

78 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ
i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 3
5 Do glaciers really move?
A. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences.
WEEK 2
meltwater glaciers retreat moraines basins

1. A melting glacier leaves behind ridges of rock and gravel

called .

2. One place to find large, moving is in cold


mountain areas.

3. Glaciers scoop out that can later fill up


with water.

4. The movement of some glaciers is helped by .

5. Climate change can affect the speed of a glaciers

B. Write true or false.

1. Glaciers do not cause weathering or erosion.

2. Gravity plays a role in the movement of glaciers.

3. In the past, glaciers were more common.

4. Yosemite Valley is an example of a moraine.

C. Explain the role of pressure in how a glacier is formed.

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 79
Week 3
What makes a volcano erupt?
Idea 3 An erupting volcano is a dramatic example of the powerful forces that
shape Earths surface. Unlike wind, water, and ice, the processes that
create volcanoes start deep within the planet. This week, students learn
about Earths layers and that volcanoes are created when hot, soft rock
from Earths mantle rises through cracks in the crust. As this material
Both slow and rapid
processesfrom erosion moves upward, it expands and melts, becoming magma. When
to earthquakesshape volcanoes erupt, magma spills onto Earths surface in the form of lava.
and reshape Earths
surface.

Day One Cut the fruit you brought in and have volunteers use vocabulary words to
Vocabulary: core, crust, compare the skin, flesh, and pit of the fruit to Earths crust, mantle, and
mantle core. When students have completed activity C, have volunteers read
Materials: page 81; any aloud their answers and explain their thinking. Then explain that as Earth
fruit with a pit, knife was forming billions of years ago, its heavier parts sank to the center,
while its lighter parts rose to the surface.

Day Two Students may have difficulty understanding that while the rock in the
Vocabulary: lava, mantle is soft, it is not liquid. Explain that there is no material on Earths
magma surface quite like the rock in the mantle, but it is similar to putty or
Materials: page 82 toothpaste in that it holds its shape, but is pliable and can be formed.
For activity B, consider first completing a Venn diagram or T-chart
together. Then have students use the information to write their answers.

Day Three Before students read the passage, show the pictures of Hawaii and ask
Vocabulary: vent for theories about how Hawaii was formed. After students have finished
reading the passage, explain that the volcanoes in this area of the world
Materials: page 83;
pictures of the Hawaiian span more than 1,600 miles. When students have finished activity A, invite
Islands volunteers to share their responses.

Day Four When introducing the vocabulary, consider asking students to list things
Vocabulary: chamber, they would consider to be debris. (e.g., trash, broken wood or glass, etc.)
debris When students have read the passage and completed activity B, invite
Materials: page 84 volunteers to share their responses.

Day Five Have students complete the page independently. Then review the
Materials: page 85 answers together.

80 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ
i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
What makes a volcano
Big
Idea 3
1 erupt?
5PVOEFSTUBOEWPMDBOPFT ZPVNVTUGJSTUVOEFSTUBOE&BSUIT
MBZFST&BSUITDFOUFSJTNBEFPGUXPQBSUT UIFJOOFSBOEPVUFS WEEK 3
core5IFDPSFJTNBEFPGMJRVJEBOETPMJENFUBMT5IFOFYUMBZFS
JTUIFmantle5IFNBOUMFJTTPMJEBOENBEFPGWFSZIPU TPGUSPDL
5IFGJOBMMBZFSJT&BSUITcrust XIJDIJTUIFQBSUXFTFF5IFDSVTU Vocabulary
JTIBSEBOECSJUUMF7PMDBOPFTGPSNXIFOIPUMJRVJESPDLSJTFTGSPN
core
UIFNBOUMFUISPVHIDSBDLTJO&BSUITDSVTU
koar
the center of
A. Use information from the passage to label Earths Earth, made up
crust, inner core, outer core, and mantle. of two parts:
a liquid outer
core and a solid
inner core

crust
krust
the surface layer
of Earth

mantle
MAN-tul
B. Use vocabulary words to complete the sentences. the layer of hot
rock between
Earths crust
1. Hot rock rises from Earths and core
through cracks in Earths .

2. Earths is hard and brittle,


while the is soft and hot.

C. Which do you suppose is made from the densest, heaviest


materialsthe core, mantle, or crust? Explain your answer.

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 81
i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
What makes a volcano
Big
Idea 3
2 erupt?
5IFIPU TPGUSPDLJO&BSUITNBOUMFJTBMXBZTNPWJOH)FBWZ
SPDLTJOLTUPXBSE&BSUITDPSF XIJMFMJHIUFSSPDLNPWFTDMPTFS WEEK 3
UPUIFTVSGBDF"TUIFMJHIUFSSPDLHFUTDMPTFSUPUIFDSVTU UIFSF
JTMFTTQSFTTVSFQVTIJOHBHBJOTUJU5IFSPDLCFHJOTUPFYQBOE
BOEUVSOTGSPNBTPMJEJOUPMJRVJEmagma Vocabulary
8IFOUIFNBHNBGMPXTGSPNBWPMDBOP
lava
POUP&BSUITTVSGBDF XFDBMMJUlava"T
LAH-vuh
MBWBDPPMT JUUVSOTGSPNBMJRVJECBDLJOUP magma that flows
BTPMJE/PXJUJTIBSESPDL OPUTPGU from a volcano
UIFXBZJUXBTJO&BSUITNBOUMF magma
MAG-muh
hot, liquid rock
A. Write true or false. that comes from
Earths mantle
1. Magma that flows from a volcano is
called lava.

2. The heaviest rock in the mantle becomes lava.

3. The rock on Earths surface is harder than


the rock in Earths mantle.

B. Compare and contrast rock in the mantle to lava. Name one way
they are the same and one way they are different.

1. Same:

2. Different:

C. According to the passage, what is the difference between magma and lava?

82 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ
i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
What makes a volcano
Big
Idea 3
3 erupt?
8IFOWPMDBOPFTFSVQU UIFZDBOCFFJUIFSWJPMFOUPSRVJFU
BOETUFBEZ2VJFU TUFBEZFSVQUJPOTBSFLOPXOBTMBWBGMPXT WEEK 3
-BWBQPVSTUISPVHIBventJOUIFDSVTUPOUP&BSUITTVSGBDFJO
BTMPX DPOTUBOUTUSFBN"TJUDPPMT JUIBSEFOTBOECFDPNFT
SPDL5IF)BXBJJBO*TMBOETBSFUIFSFTVMUPGUIJTLJOEPG Vocabulary
FSVQUJPO0WFSBMPOHQFSJPEPGUJNF MBWBIBTCFFOGMPXJOH
vent
PVUPGUIFWPMDBOPFTEJSFDUMZJOUPUIF1BDJGJD0DFBO5IFMBWB
vent
DPPMFERVJDLMZBOEGPSNFEUIFSPDLUIBUNBLFTVQUIFJTMBOET an opening in a
*OGBDU UIFDPOUJOVJOHFSVQUJPOTNFBOUIBUUIF)BXBJJBO*TMBOET volcano through
BSFTUJMMHSPXJOH which lava can
flow
Hawaiian Islands

A. Summarize how volcanoes can form islands. Use vent in your summary.

B. Write true or false.

1. A lava flow is a violent eruption.

2. Rock made from lava cannot support large buildings.

3. Without volcanoes, the Hawaiian Islands would still grow.

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 83
i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
What makes a volcano
Big
Idea 3
4 erupt?
(JBOU FYQMPEJOHWPMDBOPFTBSFPOFPGOBUVSFTNPTUWJPMFOU
FWFOUT.PTUPGUIFTFUZQFTPGWPMDBOPFTBSFTIBQFEMJLFDPOFT WEEK 3
"OEUIFZXFSFBMMGPSNFECZFBSMJFSFSVQUJPOTPGMBWB5IFTF
WPMDBOPFTIBWFBEFFQchamberUIBUGJMMTXJUINBHNB"MPOH
UVCFSVOTGSPNUIFDIBNCFSUPBWFOUBUUIFUIFUPQPGUIF Vocabulary
WPMDBOP XIJDIJTPGUFONBEFGSPNTPMJESPDL"TNBHNBGJMMT
chamber
UIFDIBNCFS JUSFMFBTFTHBTFT5IFTFHBTFTCVJMEVQVOEFSUIF
CHAYM-bur
MBZFSTPGSPDLBUUIFUPQPGUIFWPMDBOP&WFOUVBMMZ UIFQSFTTVSF a pocket under
JTTPHSFBUUIBUUIFWPMDBOPFYQMPEFT TFOEJOHBTI HBTFT BOE the volcano that
PUIFSWPMDBOJDdebrisJOUPUIFBUNPTQIFSF fills with magma

debris
duh-BREE
debris small pieces of
vent
magma broken rock,
lava, and other
chamber
materials blown
out during an
eruption

A. Write the vocabulary word that answers each clue.

1. This is hurled into the air during an eruption.

2. This fills with magma.

B. One way scientists tell that a volcano is ready to explode is by


a bulge that sometimes forms near the top side of the volcano.
Why do you think a bulge might form right before an eruption?

84 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ
i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
What makes a volcano
Big
Idea 3
5 erupt?
A. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences.
WEEK 3
lava core crust vents
debris chamber magma mantle

1. from the mantle that reaches Earths

surface is called .

2. The three layers of Earth are the ,

, and .

3. Hot rock from the mantle pours through


in Earths crust.

4. When volcanoes explode, they send ash, rock, and other

into the air.

5. Under some volcanoes there is a deep


that fills with magma.

B. Write true or false.

1. Rocks in Earths mantle change from a liquid


to a solid as they rise toward the surface.

2. Volcanoes can create islands.

3. Rocks in the mantle are always moving.

4. Lava that cools becomes rock.

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 85
Week 4
What causes earthquakes?
Idea 3 Some of the most spectacular features on our planetfrom the
Himalaya Mountains to the Pacific and Atlantic oceanshave been
created in association with earthquakes. In this weeks activities,
students will learn that earthquakes are caused by motions in the
Earths plates. While earthquakes can be destructive, they are also an
Both slow and rapid
processesfrom erosion expression of the dynamic forces within Earth that shape the planet
to earthquakesshape on which we live.
and reshape Earths
surface.

Day One Ask students to recall the layers of Earth they learned about in Week 3
Vocabulary: plates core, mantle, and crust. Tell them that this week they will learn about
earthquakes. Whereas volcanic activity involves both the mantle and the
Materials: page 87
crust, earthquakes are generated in the crust. Before reading the passage,
call students attention to the illustration showing Earths tectonic plates.
Point out that the plates are not shaped like squares or triangles but are
irregular. Before students complete the activities, take time to discuss the
illustration and relate it to the passage.

Day Two Activate prior knowledge by asking students to share what they know
Vocabulary: boundary, about earthquakes. Discuss the illustration before asking students to
fault complete the activities.
Materials: page 88

Day Three Students may have difficulty visualizing what happens when plates collide.
Materials: page 89; After reading the passage, have students draw a line representing a fault
sheets of scrap paper across the middle of a sheet of paper. Direct them to put their hands on
either side of the paper and push them together. The paper is pushed up
in the middle just as Earths crust is pushed up when plates collide. Also,
tell students that when plates pull apart, it doesnt create a giant hole in
the ground. Instead, volcanoes located at the boundaries usually send
magma to Earths surface.

Day Four On the board, write: In May 2008, a 7.9 magnitude earthquake struck
Vocabulary: magnitude, central China. Ask a volunteer to read the statement. Then point out that
seismometer scientists use numbers to indicate the strength of earthquakes. After
Materials: page 90 reading the passage, ask students what they could say about the strength
of a 7.9 earthquake. (e.g., buildings fall down) Before students complete
the activity, read the chart together.

Day Five Have students complete the page independently. Then review the
Materials: page 91 answers together.

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Name __________________________________________________________

Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 3
1 What causes earthquakes?
6OUJMUIFT TDJFOUJTUTUIPVHIUUIBU&BSUITDSVTUXBT
DPOUJOVPVTBOEVOCSPLFO/PXUIFZBDDFQUUIFUIFPSZUIBU WEEK 4
&BSUITDSVTUJTCSPLFOJOUPNBOZJSSFHVMBSMZTIBQFEQJFDFTDBMMFE
plates5IFSFBSFFJHIUMBSHFQMBUFTBOEBOVNCFSPGTNBMMFS
POFT"MMUIFMBOEBOEPDFBOTMJFPOUPQPGUIFTFQMBUFT#FOFBUI Vocabulary
UIFQMBUFTJTUIFIPU TPGUNBOUMF#FDBVTFJUJTTPGU UIFNBOUMF
plates
NPWFT BOEJUDBSSJFTUIFQMBUFTBMPOHXJUIJU4PFWFOUIPVHIXF
plaits
EPOUGFFMJU UIFHSPVOEVOEFSPVSGFFUJTNPWJOHBMMUIFUJNF rigid sections of
Earths crust
A. Use the map to
Eurasian
find where you Plate
North Eurasian
live. Write the American Plate
Plate
name of the plate Indian
African Plate
you are on. Pacific
Plate
Plate

Nazca South Australian


Australian Plate American Plate
Plate Plate

Antarctic Plate

B. Complete the analogy.

Earths plates are to mantle as .


A raft is to water C hawk is to air
B car is to road D rocket is to outer space

C. Write true or false.

1. Earths crust is broken into plates.

2. Only continents lie on Earths plates.

3. The mantle is soft.

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Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 3
2 What causes earthquakes?
5IFNPWFNFOUPGQMBUFTDBOCFHSBEVBMPSTVEEFO8IFO
QMBUFTNPWFTVEEFOMZ BOFBSUIRVBLFIBQQFOT1BSUPGUIF WEEK 4
HSPVOENBZMJGUVQTFWFSBMGFFU PSDSBDLTJOUIFFBSUINBZ
BQQFBS5IFQMBDFXIFSF&BSUITDSVTUCSFBLTJTDBMMFEBfault
"GBNPVTQMBUFboundaryJTUIF4BO"OESFBT'BVMUJO$BMJGPSOJB Vocabulary
)FSF POFQMBUFJTNPWJOHOPSUIXIJMFUIFPUIFSNPWFTTPVUI
boundary
BOWN-dree
A. Use the diagram to answer the questions. border or edge
North American Plate fault
fawlt
Pacific a break in Earths
Plate Sacramento crust where blocks
San Francisco of rock are moving
C

in different
A
LI

directions
FO
RN
IA

Los Angeles
San Andreas Fault
San Diego

1. In which direction is this part of the Pacific Plate moving

north, south, east, or west?

2. Which cities would be affected by a major earthquake along

the San Andreas Fault?

B. Use information from the passage to complete the sentences.

1. Earthquakes happen when move suddenly.

2. A crack in the ground that runs for at least several miles is probably

a .

88 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ
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Name __________________________________________________________

Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 3
3 What causes earthquakes?
1MBUFTNPWFJOBMMEJGGFSFOUEJSFDUJPOT1MBUFTTPNFUJNFT
TMJEFQBTUFBDIPUIFS MJLFUIFZEPBMPOHUIF4BO"OESFBT'BVMU WEEK 4
JO$BMJGPSOJB1MBUFTBMTPDPMMJEF PSSVOJOUPFBDIPUIFS8IFO
QMBUFTDPMMJEF UIFZDBVTFQPXFSGVMFBSUIRVBLFTBOEDBOFWFO
CVJMENPVOUBJOT5IF)JNBMBZB.PVOUBJOTJO"TJBBSFUIFSFTVMU
PGUXPQMBUFTQVTIJOHUPHFUIFS
*OPUIFSQMBDFT QMBUFTNPWFBQBSUGSPNFBDIPUIFS5IJT
EPFTOPUDBVTFWFSZTUSPOHFBSUIRVBLFT CVUPDFBOCBTJOTBSF
PGUFODSFBUFEXIFOUXPQMBUFTQVMMBQBSU

A. On the line below each picture, write whether the diagram shows
plates sliding past each other, colliding, or moving apart.

1. 2. 3.

B. Write true or false.

1. Powerful earthquakes are generated as plates move apart.

2. Oceans are always created by plates colliding.

3. The San Andreas Fault is an example of mountain-building.

4. Plates sliding past each other can generate earthquakes.

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Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 3
4 What causes earthquakes?
4DJFOUJTUTTUVEZFBSUIRVBLFTXJUIBUPPMDBMMFEBseismometer 
XIJDISFDPSETNPWFNFOUTJOUIFHSPVOE*O BTDJFOUJTUOBNFE WEEK 4
$IBSMFT3JDIUFSJOWFOUFEBTZTUFNPGNFBTVSJOHFBSUIRVBLFT5IJT
JTDBMMFEUIF3JDIUFSTDBMF"OFBSUIRVBLFHFUTBOVNCFSCFUXFFO
BOEUPEFTDSJCFJUTmagnitude"NBHOJUVEFFBSUIRVBLFJT Vocabulary
TPXFBLUIBUZPVDBOUGFFMJU XIJMFBOXPVMELOPDLZPVPGGZPVS
magnitude
GFFU4JODFTDJFOUJTUTCFHBOVTJOHUIF3JDIUFSTDBMF UIFTUSPOHFTU
MAG-nuh-tood
FBSUIRVBLFFWFSSFDPSEFEXBTBJO$IJMFJO a measure of the
amount of energy
Use the information in the chart to complete the sentences. released by an
earthquake
Richter Scale Average Number
Earthquake Effects
Magnitude of Earthquakes seismometer
o   QFSZFBS /PUGFMUCVUBSFSFDPSEFEPOTFJTNPNFUFST
size-MAH-muh-ter
a tool that records
o  QFSZFBS #BSFMZOPUJDFBCMFIBOHJOHPCKFDUTNBZTXJOH
movements in
o  QFSZFBS .PTUQFPQMFOPUJDFUIFNCVJMEJOHTTIBLF Earths crust
o  QFSZFBS &WFSZPOFOPUJDFTUIFNXJOEPXTNBZCSFBL
o QFSZFBS 8BMMTNBZDSBDLDIJNOFZTNBZGBMM
o QFSZFBS (SPVOEDSBDLTXFBLCVJMEJOHTGBMMEPXO
o QFSZFBS .BOZCVJMEJOHTGBMMCSJEHFTDPMMBQTF
o QFSZFBST $PNQMFUFEFWBTUBUJPOPWFSBXJEFBSFB
 &YUSFNFMZSBSF /FWFSSFDPSEFE

1. Earthquakes of magnitude 9 happen at a rate of about

every years.

2. Usually, an earthquake must be at least magnitude to cause


any buildings to collapse.

3. Most people notice earthquakes that are magnitude or greater.

4. The number of earthquakes between a magnitude of 3.0 and 6.9

that happen every year is about .

90 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ
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Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 3
5 What causes earthquakes?
A. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences.
WEEK 4
magnitude plates fault
boundaries seismometer

1. Most earthquakes occur at plate .

2. When collide, the land can be pushed up.

3. A is a break in Earths crust where


rocks have moved.

4. A is used to detect and record earthquakes.

5. The Richter scale measures the of


earthquakes on a scale of 1 to 10.

B. List the three ways plates can move to cause earthquakes.

1.

2.

3.

C. List three facts you have learned about Earths plates.

1.

2.

3.

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Unit Comprehension Big


Review The Shaping Idea 3
of Earth

A. Fill in the bubble next to the correct answer.


WEEK 5
1. Which of the following is not associated with glaciers?

A basins C erosion
B plate boundaries D moraines

2. A feature of Earths surface created by erosion is .


A a mountain C a canyon
B an earthquake D a volcano

3. As a result of weathering, a rock becomes .


A taller C longer
B smaller D larger

4. Which of the following is not the result of plate boundaries


pushing against each other?
A an ocean C a mountain
B a fault D an earthquake

5. Lava from erupting volcanoes comes from Earths .


A core C ocean
B mantle D crust

B. Write two things you learned about how Earths surface changes.

1.

2.

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Unit Vocabulary Big


Review Puzzle It Idea 3
Out
Select from the list of vocabulary words to complete the puzzle.
1 2
WEEK 5
3

4 5

basin lava
6
boundary magma
chamber magnitude
7 8 channels mantle
9 core meltwater
10 11
crust moraines
debris plates
12
ecosystem retreat
erosion seismometer
13
expanded uplifted
14
fault vent
glacier weathering

DOWN ACROSS
1. large, rigid sections of Earths crust 4. the layer of Earth between
2. the moving of soil by water the crust and the core
6. pushed up
3. this makes a glacier slippery
7. a break in Earths crust
5. the top layer of Earth
10. a process that breaks rocks
8. hot, liquid rock from the mantle
into smaller pieces
9. ridges of gravel and rock
12. this flows from a volcano
11. became larger
13. a hole in the ground that
is created by a glacier
14. a slow-moving mass of ice

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Unit Visual Literacy Big


Review Volcano Variety Idea 3

Study the chart to find out about three types of volcanoes.


WEEK 5

Composite Volcano Shield Volcano Cinder Cone

t UBMMBOETUFFQTJEFE t IVHFBOEEPNFTIBQFE t TNBMMBOEDPOFTIBQFE


t GPSNFEGSPNGMPXTPG t GPSNFEGSPNNBOZMBZFST t GPSNFEGSPNCMPDLTPG
sticky lava layered with of runny lava cooled lava called cinders
other kinds of rocks t FSVQUTRVJFUMZBOEPGUFO t lava erupts in sprays
t DBOFYQMPEFWJPMFOUMZ

Write the name of the type of volcano being described.

1. has flows of thick, sticky lava

2. forms the smallest type of volcano

3. erupts with quiet, steady flows of runny lava

4. explodes violently

5. formed from blocks of lava rock called cinders

6. has layers made from different kinds of rocks

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Unit
Hands-on Activity Big
Idea 3
Review Glacial Grind

In this investigation, you will look at the effect that glacial


movement has on landforms. You will use sandy ice cubes WEEK 5
as a model of a glacier that has pieces of rock in its ice.

What You Need 1. .BLFiTBOEZwJDFDVCFTCZTQSJOLMJOHTBOE


t JDFDVCFUSBZ JOUPBOJDFDVCFUSBZGJMMFEXJUIXBUFSBOE
GSFF[JOHJUPWFSOJHIU
t XBUFS
2. 4NPPUIPVUBTIFFUPGBMVNJOVNGPJMPO
t BGFXIBOEGVMTPGDMFBOTBOE
UIFUPQPGZPVSEFTL
t BMVNJOVNGPJM
3. 3VCBOJDFDVCFBDSPTTUIFTIFFUPGGPJM
t QMBTUJDUVC
t QBQFSUPDPWFSUIFEFTL 4. 4UBDLBMMUIFJDFDVCFTPOPOFTJEFPG
t QBQFSUPXFMT GPSDMFBOVQ
BQMBTUJDUVCBOEBMMPXUIFNUPNFMU

What Did You Discover?


1. What happened when you rubbed the ice cube across the foil?

2. What was left in the plastic tub after the ice cubes melted? What would
this be called when a real glacier melts?

3. What did the experiment show you about the ways that glaciers change
Earths surface?

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 95
The properties of rocks and

Big
minerals reflect the process

4
that formed them.

Idea Key Concept


Rocks are composed of different minerals. They are
made in distinct ways and have different properties.

National Standard
Earth materials are solid rocks and soils, water, and
the gases of the atmosphere. The varied materials
have different physical and chemical properties.

S
tudents may not know that Teacher Background
rocks are continuously
created, destroyed, or The appearance and properties of rocks depend on their
otherwise altered by processes mineral composition and the process that forms them.
that are not directly observed. In this unit, students will learn what a mineral is and
This unit focuses on how rocks are some of the different physical properties used to identify
formed and how the properties of minerals. Students will also learn about the different
rocks reflect these processes. In types of rock and how they form, including rocks from
this unit, students will learn the outer space.
following: All rocks are made up of different minerals: natural,
nonorganic solids with a crystalline structure. This
how rocks are formed; means that the atoms in minerals have a regular,
repeating structure.
the types of rocks;

the properties of rocks; Igneous rock forms from cooling magma, sedimentary
rock forms from sediment, and metamorphic rock is
the minerals found in rocks; igneous or sedimentary rock that has been changed by
and intense heat and pressure. Rocks from outer space either
fall to Earth as meteorites or are collected by astronauts
the rock cycle.
or probes. These lunar rocks share some minerals with
rocks on Earth, but they also have their own unique
properties.

For specific background information on each weeks


concepts, refer to the notes on pp. 98, 104, 110,
and 116.

96 #JH*EFB %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ
Unit Overview

WEEK 1: Whats the difference WEEK 4: Do all rocks come from


between a rock and Earth?
a mineral? Connection to the Big Idea: Rocks from
Connection to the Big Idea: Rocks are space share some similarities with rocks
made from different minerals, depending on Earth, as well as some differences.
on the processes that form them.
This week, students learn about three
This week, students learn what a mineral is common sources for extraterrestrial rocks:
and the common physical properties used asteroids, the Moon, and Mars. They learn
to identify minerals. how these rocks from space are similar to
Content Vocabulary: cleavage, color, and different from rocks on Earth.
crystalline, fracture, hardness, luster, minerals, Content Vocabulary: asteroids,
streak extraterrestrial, lunar, maria, meteor, meteorite

WEEK 2: Where do rocks come WEEK 5: Unit Review


from? You may choose to do these activities to
Connection to the Big Idea: The different review properties of rocks and minerals.
kinds of rockigneous, sedimentary, and
metamorphichave properties related to p. 122: Comprehension Students answer

how each was formed. multiple-choice questions about key


concepts from the unit.
This week, students learn about each type
of rock, including some of the physical p. 123: Vocabulary Students match key
characteristics and how each type is formed. vocabulary words from the unit with their
They then learn about the rock cycle. definitions.
Content Vocabulary: cement, igneous, p. 124: Visual Literacy Students use a chart
metamorphic, rock cycle, sediment, sedimentary
listing different minerals and their
properties to answer clues about the
WEEK 3: Are some rocks valuable?
minerals.
Connection to the Big Idea: Minerals and
some other natural resources, such as fossil p. 125: Hands-on Experiment Students
fuels, are nonrenewable. learn more about sedimentary rocks by
experimenting with chalk and vinegar.
This week, students learn how fossil fuels
Review the materials and instructions
and ores are gathered and used. They then
on the student page ahead of time.
learn that these resources are nonrenewable
and must be conserved if they are to last.
Content Vocabulary: carbon, conserve,
extract, fossil fuels, metals, natural resources,
ore, renewable

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFB 97
Week 1
Whats the difference between
Idea 4 a rock and a mineral?
Many students might confuse rocks and minerals as being the same
thing. This week, students learn that a mineral is a single, inorganic
substance made in nature that forms a solid and has a regular,
The properties of repeating structure. Rocks are generally a mixture of several minerals.
rocks and minerals Minerals can be identified by the characteristics of color, streak,
reflect the process
hardness, luster, and cleavage or fracture. If mineral samples can be
that formed them.
obtained, it is helpful to have them available for students to inspect.

Day One Activate prior knowledge by asking students to name the different
Vocabulary: crystalline,
contexts in which they have heard the word minerals. (in vitamins, in water,
minerals in relation to the ground or rocks, etc.) Introduce the vocabulary and use
the illustration on the page to explain how something can be crystalline.
Materials: page 99;
samples of minerals Distribute hand lenses and some grains of salt for students to examine.
including salt, hand After students have read the passage and finished the activities, reinforce
lenses the concept of how minerals form by asking: If you wanted to make your
own salt, would you need ocean water or magma? (ocean water, because
salt forms from evaporation)

Day Two Introduce the vocabulary and ask students if they have ever used chalk to
Vocabulary: color, luster,
draw. Explain that chalk is a mineral, and the lines you make with it are
streak examples of its streak, one of the properties that geologists (scientists who
study rocks) use to identify minerals. Direct students to read the passage
Materials: page 100
and complete the activities.

Day Three When introducing the vocabulary, explain that geologists doing fieldwork
Vocabulary: cleavage,
often carry rock hammers so that they can break open rocks; doing this
fracture reveals two more characteristics of minerals cleavage and fracture. After
students have read the passage and completed the activities, review the
Materials: page 101;
examples or pictures of answers together. For activity B, you may wish to bring in examples or
stone tools (optional) pictures of a stone ax head or arrowhead.

Day Four Introduce the vocabulary word and point out the Mohs hardness scale on
Vocabulary: hardness
the page. Explain that hardness or softness of a mineral can be very useful.
If you have it, pass around the baby powder and tell students that talc is
Materials: page 102;
used in baby powder because it is such a soft mineral that it wont irritate
baby powder with talc
(optional) the skin. After students have read the passage, confirm students
understanding that a mineral cannot be scratched by a mineral that is
softer than itself. Have them complete the activities.

Day Five Have students complete the page independently. Then review the
Materials: page 103
answers together.

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Day
Weekly Question
Whats the difference between
Big
Idea 4
1 a rock and a mineral?
A mineralJTBOPOMJWJOHTPMJEUIBUPDDVSTJOOBUVSFBOEIBT
a crystallineTUSVDUVSF5IJTNFBOTUIBUUIFBUPNTJOUIFNJOFSBM WEEK 1
BSFBSSBOHFEJOBDFSUBJOPSEFSBOEBSFSFHVMBSMZTQBDFEBQBSU
4BMUJTBNJOFSBMXJUIBDSZTUBMMJOFTUSVDUVSF*GZPVMPPLDMPTFMZ 
FBDIHSBJOPGTBMUJTTIBQFENPSFPSMFTTMJLFBDVCF5IJTJTXIZ Vocabulary
TPNFQFPQMFSFGFSUPTBMUBTiTBMUDSZTUBMTw
crystalline
%JGGFSFOUBUPNTDPNCJOFUPNBLFEJGGFSFOUNJOFSBMT.BOZ KRISS-tal-lin
NJOFSBMTBSFGPSNFEEFFQJO&BSUITDSVTUXIFSFUIFSFJTBMPUPG having a
IFBUBOEQSFTTVSF"TMJRVJENBHNBGSPN&BSUITNBOUMFDPPMT repeating,
ordered, inside
JOUPTPMJESPDL NJOFSBMTGPSNXJUIJOUIFSPDL4P BMMSPDLTBSF
structure
BDUVBMMZNBEFVQPGEJGGFSFOUNJOFSBMT
%JGGFSFOUBNPVOUTPGIFBUBOEQSFTTVSFGPSNEJGGFSFOUNJOFSBMT minerals
MIN-er-ulz
#VUOPUBMMNJOFSBMTGPSNGSPNDPPMJOHNBHNB4PNF MJLFTBMU BSF naturally-
GPSNFEXIFOXBUFSFWBQPSBUFTBOEMFBWFTNJOFSBMTCFIJOE occurring, non-
living solids that
have a crystalline
structure

magnified salt crystals atoms in a salt crystal

A. What are the two ways that minerals can form?

1. 2.

B. Write true or false.

1. Crystals have random structures.

2. Minerals occur in nature.

3. All rocks contain minerals.

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Day
Weekly Question
Whats the difference between
Big
Idea 4
2 a rock and a mineral?
.JOFSBMTBSFDPNNPOMZJEFOUJGJFECZUIFJSQIZTJDBM
QSPQFSUJFT5XPQSPQFSUJFTVTFEUPJEFOUJGZNJOFSBMTBSFcolor WEEK 1
BOEstreakStreakEFTDSJCFTUIFNBSLMFGUCFIJOEBGUFSSVCCJOH
BNJOFSBMPOBIBSE SPVHI XIJUFTVSGBDF4VSQSJTJOHMZ UIFDPMPS
PGBNJOFSBMBOEUIFDPMPSPGJUTTUSFBLDBOCFEJGGFSFOU'PS Vocabulary
FYBNQMF UIFNJOFSBMQZSJUF 1*&SJUF
PSiGPPMTHPME wIBTB
color
DPMPSWFSZTJNJMBSUPHPME3FBMHPMEIBTBZFMMPXJTITUSFBL KUH-ler
#VUQZSJUF XIJDIDPOUBJOTPOMZJSPO the color or range
BOETVMGVS IBTBHSFFOJTICMBDLTUSFBL of colors that a
mineral usually
.JOFSBMTDBOBMTPCFJEFOUJGJFECZ
appears to be
UIFJSluster PSTIJOJOFTT"NJOFSBMT streak
MVTUFSNJHIUCFHMBTTZ, XBYZ, QFBSMZ, luster
LUSS-tur
NFUBMMJD PSearthy2VBSU[IBTBHMBTTZ the way in which
MVTUFS XIJMFTJMWFSJTNFUBMMJD the surface of a
mineral reflects
light
A. Use the vocabulary words to complete the sentences.
streak
1. People who like shiny minerals would pay attention to streek
the mark left
a minerals . behind after
rubbing a mineral
on a hard, rough,
2. If you want to draw a four-square grid on the blacktop, white surface

you would want a mineral with a white .

3. Diamonds may be clear or have a yellow, blue, or pink .

B. Why do you suppose geologists (scientists who study rocks) use


more than one property to identify minerals?

100 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ


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Day
Weekly Question
Whats the difference between
Big
Idea 4
3 a rock and a mineral?
4PNFNJOFSBMTMPPLWFSZTJNJMBSVOUJMUIFZCSFBL'PS
FYBNQMF CPUIIFNBUJUF )&&NVIUJUF
BOENJDB .*,&VI
BSF WEEK 1
NJOFSBMTUIBUDBOCFCMBDLPSTJMWFSZHSBZ4PIPXDBOZPVUFMM
UIFNBQBSU 
)JUNJDBXJUIBIBNNFS BOEJUTQMJUTJOUPGMBUTIFFUT)JU Vocabulary
IFNBUJUF BOEJUTIBUUFSTJOUPKBHHFEQJFDFT5IFQSPQFSUZPG
cleavage
CSFBLJOHBMPOHSFHVMBS TNPPUITVSGBDFTJTDBMMFEcleavage CLEE-vej
.JDBIBTOFBSMZQFSGFDUDMFBWBHF XIJMFIFNBUJUFEPFTOUIBWF the way some
DMFBWBHF*OTUFBE IFNBUJUFIBTBQSPQFSUZDBMMFEfracture XIJDI minerals break
along flat planes
NFBOTUIBUJUCSFBLTBMPOHJSSFHVMBS KBHHFETVSGBDFT(FPMPHJTUT
to form regular
VTFGSBDUVSFBOEDMFBWBHFUPTUVEZSPDLTJOQMBDFTXIFSFUIFPOMZ shapes
FRVJQNFOUUIFZNBZIBWFJTUIFJSFZFTBOEBIBNNFS
fracture
FRAK-chur
the way minerals
can break into
random pieces
with no regular
mica hematite shape

A. Write whether each mineral described shows cleavage or fracture.

1. When opal breaks, it creates many uneven pieces.

2. When calcite breaks, it creates flat, shiny surfaces.

3. When jadeite breaks, it forms sharp splinters.

4. When augite breaks, it forms nearly perfect prisms.

B. Early hunters made axes and arrowheads from rocks. Do you think
they chose rocks that had cleavage or fracture? Why?

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Day
Weekly Question
Whats the difference between
Big
Idea 4
4 a rock and a mineral?
A diamond is often described as the hardest mineral on
Earth. Hardness is a property of minerals that describes how WEEK 1
easily a mineral can be scratched. Mineral hardness is ranked
from 1 to 10 on the Mohs (moaz) hardness scale, with 10 being
the hardest. Diamonds are a 10 on the Mohs scale! Only a Vocabulary
diamond can scratch another diamond. Minerals such as talc
hardness
and mica, on the other hand, are so soft that you can scratch HARD-niss
them with your fingernail. describes how
easily a mineral
can be scratched
A. Use the chart to complete the sentences below.

Hardness Can be Hardness Can be


Material Material
scale scratched by scale scratched by
1 5BMD GJOHFSOBJM 6 0SUIPDMBTF QPDLFULOJGF
2 (ZQTVN GJOHFSOBJM 7 2VBSU[ TUFFMGJMF
3 $BMDJUF QFOOZ 8 5PQB[ TBOEQBQFS
4 'MVPSJUF JSPOOBJM 9 $PSVOEVN LOJGFTIBSQFOFS
5 "QBUJUF HMBTT 10 %JBNPOE EJBNPOE

1. If a mineral can be scratched by a penny, its hardness is no greater

than .

2. A mineral that cant be scratched by a pocketknife but can be

scratched by a steel file is .

3. A mineral that can be scratched by glass but cant be scratched

by fluorite must have a hardness between .

B. Drills used for making tunnels or deep holes often have diamonds
in their tips. Why do you think this is?

102 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ


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Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
Whats the difference between
Big
Idea 4
5 a rock and a mineral?
A. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences.
WEEK 1
luster fracture cleavage crystalline
streak minerals hardness color

1. Rocks are made of many .

2. A mineral showing the property of


breaks unevenly.

3. If a mineral shows , it breaks along flat planes.

4. Fools gold has the same as gold, but its

is different.

5. The property of determines how easily


a mineral can be scratched.

6. Pyrite, silver, and copper have a metallic .

7. A structure has atoms that are regularly spaced.

B. Write the name of a mineral property that each tool is used to identify.

cleavage color fracture luster streak

1. rock hammer or

2. white tile

3. your eyes only or

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 103


Week 2
Where do rocks come from?
Idea 4 Rocks on Earth are continuously created, destroyed, and altered by
processes of weathering and erosion, as well as processes of rock
formation happening beneath Earths crust. This week, students learn
that over time, the cycling and transformation of rocks creates new
rocks with different properties.
The properties of
rocks and minerals Rocks can be divided into three main types: igneous, sedimentary, and
reflect the process metamorphic. The appearance and characteristics of each rock type
that formed them.
reflect the processes that form them. Rocks within a rock type also
differfor example, pumice and granite are both igneous rocks with
different properties. If rock samples are available, it is helpful to have
them for students to inspect throughout the week.

Day One Explain that this week, students will learn about the three types of rock and
Vocabulary: igneous
how each type is formed. Introduce the vocabulary word and distribute
rock samples if you have them. After students read the passage, direct
Materials: page 105;
them to complete the activity. When they have finished, invite volunteers
samples of pumice, basalt,
and granite (optional) to read the sentences aloud.

Day Two Distribute samples of sedimentary rocks if you have them. Ask students
Vocabulary: cement,
for words that describe the samples. (e.g., layered, striped) Introduce the
sediment, sedimentary vocabulary and direct students to read the passage. Then call students
attention to the pictures in the activity. Have students study the pictures
Materials: page 106;
sedimentary rocks such and then determine which paragraph of the passage is being illustrated.
as sandstone, shale, and Then direct students to complete the activity. Review students responses
limestone (optional) before conducting the oral activity.

Day Three Distribute rock samples if you have them. Tell students they will learn how
Vocabulary:
these rocks are different from igneous and sedimentary rocks. After you
metamorphic introduce the vocabulary word, ask students to visualize the process being
described as they read the passage. Then have students complete the
Materials: page 107;
samples of metamorphic activities. Review the answers together.
rocks such as marble or
slate (optional)

Day Four Remind students that on Day 3 they learned how heat and pressure can
Vocabulary: rock cycle
change igneous and sedimentary rocks into metamorphic rocks. Tell them
that today they will learn how rocks are always changing from one form into
Materials: page 108
another. After students have read the passage, take time to examine and
discuss the rock cycle diagram.

Day Five Have students complete the page independently. Then review the
Materials: page 109
answers together.

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Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 4
1 Where do rocks come from?
4DJFOUJTUTEJWJEFSPDLTJOUPUISFFUZQFTBDDPSEJOHUPIPX
UIFSPDLTBSFGPSNFE3PDLUIBUGPSNTXIFOIPU MJRVJESPDL WEEK 2
DPPMTBOEIBSEFOTJTDBMMFEigneousSPDL5IFQSPQFSUJFTPGBO
JHOFPVTSPDLBSFEFUFSNJOFECZIPXGBTUUIFNPMUFOSPDLDPPMT
8IFOJHOFPVTSPDLDPPMTTMPXMZVOEFSUIFHSPVOE UIF Vocabulary
NJOFSBMTJOUIFSPDLIBWFUJNFUPGPSNMBSHF WJTJCMFDSZTUBMT
igneous
(SBOJUFJTBOFYBNQMFPGUIJTLJOEPGJHOFPVTSPDL*ODPOUSBTU  IG-nee-us
CBTBMU CVI4"-5
BOEQVNJDF 16)NJTT
BSFJHOFPVTSPDLTUIBU a type of rock
GPSNGSPNMBWBGMPXJOHGSPNBWPMDBOP.JOFSBMDSZTUBMTJOUIFTF that forms when
molten rock
SPDLTBSFPGUFOUPPTNBMMUPTFFXJUIPVUBTUSPOHNJDSPTDPQF
cools
5IFTFSPDLTDPPMBCPWFHSPVOEBOEIBSEFORVJDLMZ1VNJDFJT
WFSZMJHIUBOEBJSZ XIJMFCBTBMUJTNVDIEFOTFS

basalt pumice granite

Use information from the passage to complete the sentences.

1. When lava cools, it forms rock.

2. The size of igneous rock depends on how


quickly the rock cools.

3. An igneous rock that is so light it can float on water is .

4. An igneous rock that forms large crystals is .

5. Without a , it can be difficult to see


the crystals in basalt.

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Idea 4
2 Where do rocks come from?
SedimentarySPDLJTBLJOEPGSPDLDSFBUFEGSPNsediment 
XIJDIDBODPNFGSPNTFWFSBMTPVSDFT'PSJOTUBODF UIF WEEK 2
XFBUIFSJOHBOEFSPTJPOPGMBSHFSSPDLTDBODSFBUFTFEJNFOU
NBEFPGTNBMMFSSPDLTBOETBOE0WFSUJNF IFBUBOEQSFTTVSF
DBODBVTFTFEJNFOUUPcementUPHFUIFSBOEGPSNTPMJESPDL Vocabulary
4IBMFJTBTFEJNFOUBSZSPDLGPSNFEGSPNNVE
cement
0UIFSLJOETPGTFEJNFOUBSFDSFBUFEJOUIFPDFBOGSPNUIF suh-MENT
TIFMMTPGUJOZPSHBOJTNTUIBUTFUUMFPOUIFTFBGMPPS"TMBZFSTPG to glue together
TFEJNFOUQJMFVQ UIFXFJHIUPGUIFTFEJNFOUTRVFF[FTXBUFS and become solid
PVUPGUIFTQBDFTCFUXFFOUIFTIFMMT)FBU QSFTTVSF BOE sediment
UJNFXPSLUPDFNFOUUIFCJUTPGTIFMMJOUPSPDL-JNFTUPOFJT SED-uh-ment
BTFEJNFOUBSZSPDLGPSNFEUIJTXBZ a naturally-occurring
deposit of small
rocks, sand, or the
In the circles, number the pictures to show the order in which remains of plants
sedimentary rock can be formed. In each box, write the letter and animals
of the caption that goes with the picture. sedimentary
SED-uh-MEN-tuh-ree
formed from
sediment

a. Buried sediment, affected by heat and pressure, forms rock.


b. Sedimentary rock can be exposed by uplift caused by earthquakes.
c. Sediment from microscopic shells builds up on the seafloor.

Talk
How is it possible that limestone deposits containing a lot of shells
can be found many miles from a body of water?

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Idea 4
3 Where do rocks come from?
(SFBUIFBUBOEQSFTTVSF TVDIBTUIFLJOEUIBUPDDVSTEFFQ
XJUIJO&BSUI DBODBVTFSPDLTUPDIBOHF3PDLUIBUDIBOHFT WEEK 2
UIJTXBZJTDBMMFE metamorphic SPDL8JUIFOPVHIIFBU 
QSFTTVSF BOEUJNF CPUIJHOFPVTBOETFEJNFOUBSZSPDLT
DBOCFUSBOTGPSNFEJOUPNFUBNPSQIJDSPDLT Vocabulary
.FUBNPSQIJDSPDLTUFOEUPCFIBSEFSUIBOPUIFSLJOETPG
metamorphic
SPDLT5IFZBSFPGUFOTUSJQFEPSTIPXBTXJSMFEQBUUFSO8IFSF MET-uh-MOR-fik
EPFTUIJTQBUUFSODPNFGSPN 8IFOBSPDLJTIFBUFE EJGGFSFOU a type of rock
DPMPSFEQBSUTPGUIFSPDLDBOTUBSUUPNFMU MJLFDIPDPMBUFDIJQT that has been
physically
EPXIFODPPLJFTBSFCBLFE*GUIFSPDLJTUIFOTRVFF[FECZ
changed by heat
QSFTTVSF UIFTPGU NFMUFEQBSUTDBOGMPX5IJTJTXIBUHJWFTUIF or pressure
SPDLTUSJQFTPSTXJSMT.BSCMF XIJDIJTGPSNFEGSPNMJNFTUPOF JT
BLJOEPGNFUBNPSQIJDSPDL4MBUF XIJDIJTGPSNFEGSPNTIBMF 
JTBOPUIFSLJOE Earthssurface
Earths surface

A. This diagram shows how


metamorphic rock forms.
Draw arrows and label them
metamorphic rock
to show where the heat and
pressure come from.

molten rock

B. Use information from the passage to complete the sentences.

1. and can transform


one kind of rock into another over a long period of time.

2. Marble is an example of rock.

3. Stripes in metamorphic rock form when parts of the rock

.
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Idea 4
4 Where do rocks come from?
3PDLTBSFDPOTUBOUMZDIBOHFECZQSPDFTTFTPOBOEXJUIJO
&BSUI8FBUIFSJOHBOEFSPTJPOCSFBLEPXOSPDLTJOUPTFEJNFOU WEEK 2
)FBUBOEQSFTTVSFJO&BSUITDSVTUDIBOHFSPDLTJOUPOFXLJOET
*OBEEJUJPO UIFNPWFNFOUPG&BSUITQMBUFTBMMPXTSPDLTJOUIF
DSVTUUPTJOLCBDLJOUPUIFNBOUMFBOENFMU.BHNBGSPNUIF Vocabulary
NBOUMFDBOUIFOSJTFUISPVHIDSBDLTJOUIFDSVTUBOEGPSNOFX
rock cycle
SPDLT5IJTOBUVSBMQSPDFTTPGDSFBUJPO EFTUSVDUJPO BOE rock SY-kul
SFDZDMJOHPGSPDLNBUFSJBMCFUXFFOUIFNBOUMFBOE&BSUIT natural process
TVSGBDFJTDBMMFEUIFrock cycle of creation,
destruction, and
recycling of rocks
Use the diagram of the rock cycle to complete the sentences below. in Earths crust and
upper mantle

magma

1. Heat and pressure turn igneous rock or sedimentary rock

into rock .

2. Magma cools to become .

3. Weathering and erosion turn rock into .

4. Cementing results in rock.

5. When rocks melt, they become .

108 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ


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Idea 4
5 Where do rocks come from?
A. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences.
WEEK 2

igneous cement sedimentary


sediment rock cycle metamorphic

1. When lava or magma cools, it forms rocks.

2. All rocks are created, changed, or destroyed in the .

3. rocks are formed when other rocks are weathered

or eroded and leave behind .

4. Pressure causes sediment to and form a hard rock.

5. A rock forms when another rock is subjected to


a lot of heat and pressure.

B. Name one trait of each type of rock and describe how the rock is formed.

1. Igneous:

2. Metamorphic:

3. Sedimentary:

C. Add the missing words to complete three parts of the rock cycle.

1. Igneous rock + and = sedimentary rock

2. Sedimentary rock + and = metamorphic rock

3. Magma + = igneous rock

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 109

5014BigIdea4.indd 109 6/5/13 10:51 AM


Week 3
Are some rocks valuable?
Idea 4 Students may have a general sense of what a natural resource is
(air, water, trees), but they may have difficulty identifying natural
resources that are dug out of the ground. Natural resources that
contain mineralssuch as gold and ironas well as fossil fuels, are
nonrenewable. This makes them valuable for both their usefulness and
The properties of
limited availability. Some nonrenewable resources are available but not
rocks and minerals
reflect the process easily obtainable without further improvements in technology or a
that formed them. substantial impact on the environment, such as with offshore drilling
for oil. This week, students will learn about some of these resources,
including how they are created, extracted, and used.

Day One Activate prior knowledge by asking students to list as many natural
Vocabulary: natural resources as they can think of. (e.g., water, trees, oil, sunlight, wind)
resources Introduce the vocabulary word to clarify students thinking about what
Materials: page 111 a natural resource is. After students have finished reading the passage,
guide them through the illustration and have them complete the activity.
Review the answers together.

Day Two Introduce the vocabulary. If you have it, show students the charcoal and
Vocabulary: carbon, explain that charcoal is mostly carbon and, like other fossil fuels, it can be
fossil fuels used as a source of energy. After students finish reading, direct them to
Materials: page 112; complete the activities. Review the answers together. If you wish to extend
charcoal (optional) the lesson, consider explaining to students how fossil fuels are often used in
ways other than to produce energy. For example, oil is used to make plastic.

Day Three Point out all the things made of metal in the classroom and ask students to
Vocabulary: extract, imagine how different life would be without this natural resource. Introduce
metals, ore the vocabulary and point out the illustration on the page. After students
Materials: page 113 have finished reading, direct them to complete activities A and B
independently. For the oral activity, pair students or discuss as a group.
You may wish to build background by explaining more about the gold rush
from the mid-1800s prior to completing the activity.

Day Four Introduce the vocabulary. When students have finished reading, confirm
Vocabulary: conserve, students understanding that fossil fuels and metals are nonrenewable.
renewable Then have students complete the activities independently. Review the
Materials: page 114 answers together.

Day Five Have students complete the page independently. Then review the
Materials: page 115 answers together.

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Idea 4
1 Are some rocks valuable?
*GZPVXFSFUPOBNFTPNFnatural resources ZPVNJHIU
JODMVEFUIFBJS XBUFS QMBOUT BOEBOJNBMTUIBUFYJTUBMMBSPVOE WEEK 3
VT/BUVSBMSFTPVSDFTBMTPJODMVEFNBUFSJBMTXFEJHPVUPGUIF
HSPVOE*SPOBOEMJNFTUPOFBSFOBUVSBMSFTPVSDFT BOETPBSF
DPBM PJM BOEOBUVSBMHBT Vocabulary
5IFTFVOEFSHSPVOESFTPVSDFTBSFGPVOEJOSPDLTPSJO
natural
QPDLFUTCFUXFFOSPDLMBZFST5IFTFNBUFSJBMTIBWFNBOZ resources
VTFT8FVTFOBUVSBMSFTPVSDFTUPNBLFUIFTUFFMBOEDFNFOU NACH-er-ul
OFDFTTBSZUPCVJMEDJUJFTBOEUPDSFBUFUIFFOFSHZUIBUXFVTF REE-sor-sez
useful materials
UPQPXFSPVSHSPXJOH NPEFSOXPSME
or sources of
energy found
on Earth

Fill in the chart with the natural resources listed in the passage.

Natural resources Natural resources


found above ground dug out of the ground

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Idea 4
2 Are some rocks valuable?
Coal, oil, and natural gas are a group of natural resources
called fossil fuels. For many years, they have been the source WEEK 3
of the energy we use to heat our homes and run our cars and
other machines.
Fossil fuels get their name from the way they were created. Vocabulary
Hundreds of millions of years ago, the decaying remains of
carbon
plants and animals built up at the bottom of swamps and shallow KAR-bun
seas. These remains were rich in carbon. Eventually, the mud an element found
and sediment surrounding the material became sedimentary in all living things
rock. Heat, time, and pressure caused some of the carbon-rich fossil fuels
remains to turn into coal, pools of oil, or pockets of natural gas. FOS-sil fyoolz
Although the processes that create fossil fuels are still at fuels formed
from the
work, it would take millions of years to replace the oil, coal, and fossilized remains
natural gas that we have already used. of plants and
animals
A. Number the pictures in order to show how fossil fuels
are created and removed from the ground.

B. Write true or false.

1. Fossil fuels come from the carbon-rich remains of


organisms that lived hundreds of millions of years ago.

2. Fossil fuels can be replaced as quickly as they are used.

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Idea 4
3 Are some rocks valuable?
MetalsBSFBOPUIFSOBUVSBMSFTPVSDFGPVOEJOUIFHSPVOE
5IFZBSFVTFEGPSNBOZUIJOHT GSPNHPMEKFXFMSZUPUIFTUFFM WEEK 3
CFBNTJOMBSHFCVJMEJOHT.FUBMTBSFGPVOEJOSPDLT.FUBMSJDI
SPDLTBOETFEJNFOUBSFDBMMFEores
0SFTDBOCFSFNPWFEGSPNUIFHSPVOECZNJOJOHUIF Vocabulary
TVSSPVOEJOHSPDL8IFOUIFPSFMJFTDMPTFUP&BSUITTVSGBDF 
extract
JUDBOPGUFOCFEVHPVUPGUIFHSPVOEPSSFNPWFEXJUIXBUFS ek-STRAKT
*ONBOZDBTFT IPXFWFS WBMVBCMFPSFTMJFEFFQJOUIFHSPVOE to remove
1PXFSGVMESJMMTBSFVTFEUPUVOOFMJOUPUIFSPDL  metals
BOETQFDJBMNBDIJOFTextractUIFPSF MET-ulz
minerals that are
A. Use the vocabulary words usually hard and
shiny, conduct
to label the illustration and electricity and
complete the sentence. heat, and can
be melted and
formed into
shapes

People often use machines to ore


or
natural resources from the ground. rock or sediment
that contains
metal
B. Complete the analogy.

Metal is to ore as .
rock is to natural resource mineral is to rock

fossil fuel is to energy natural resource is to tree

Talk
In the 1800s, people went to California to get rich looking for gold. Do you
think these people mined ore close to the surface or deep in the ground?
What methods do you think they used? Discuss it with a partner.

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Idea 4
4 Are some rocks valuable?
&BSUITTVQQMZPGGPTTJMGVFMT NFUBMT BOEPUIFSNJOFSBMTJT
MJNJUFE.BUFSJBMTEVHPVUPGUIFHSPVOEBSFOPUrenewable in WEEK 3
UIFXBZUIBUMVNCFSGSPNBGPSFTUJT'PSFTUTDBOCFSFHSPXO
CZQMBOUJOHOFXUSFFT CVUTDJFOUJTUTDBOOPUNBLFNPSFJSPO
BOEHPMEJOUIFMBCPSBUPSZ Vocabulary
#FDBVTF&BSUIIBTMJNJUFENJOFSBMBOEGPTTJMGVFMSFTPVSDFT 
conserve
TDJFOUJTUTBSFTFFLJOHUPJOWFOUTUSPOH OFXCVJMEJOHNBUFSJBMT kon-SERV
GSPNTVCTUBODFTUIBUBSFQMFOUJGVM TVDIBTHSPVOEVQSPDL to save or use
5IFZBSFBMTPUSZJOHUPGJOECFUUFSXBZTUPVTF sparingly
QMFOUJGVMFOFSHZTPVSDFT TVDIBTTPMBSBOEXJOE renewable
QPXFS*OBEEJUJPO UIFSFJTOPXHSFBUFSJOUFSFTUJO  ree-NEW-ah-bul
BTXFMMBTSFBTPOTGPS GJOEJOHXBZTUPconserve able to be
replaced by a
BOESFVTF&BSUITWBMVBCMFNBUFSJBMT new supply

A. Write true or false.

1. Earth has unlimited natural resources.

2. Forests are renewable resources.

3. Scientists can make gold in the laboratory.

4. Solar and wind energy sources wont run out.

5. Minerals are renewable.

B. Many people involved in conserving resources use the slogan


reduce, reuse, recycle. How would doing each of these things
help conserve natural resources? Explain why.

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Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 4
5 Are some rocks valuable?
A. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences.
WEEK 3
ore metals conserve renewable
carbon extract fossil fuel natural resource

1. Trees are a that is .

2. Coal is a made from organisms that

contain the element .

3. is rock that contains .

4. People resources to keep from running out.

5. Machines ore from deep within the ground.

B. Fill in the chart to describe the role that fossil fuels and metals
play in your life.

Fossil fuels I use: How I use them:

1. 1.

2. 2.

Metals I use: How I use them:

1. 1.

2. 2.

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 115


Week 4
Do all rocks come from Earth?
Idea 4 Although the vast majority of rock on Earth originated on this planet,
some of the rocks and minerals came from space. Most of these samples
came from asteroids in our solar system, though we have found rocks
from both the Moon and Mars. Scientists looking to learn more about
the Moon and Mars have sent astronauts and robots to study the rocks
The properties of
and minerals and sometimes return with samples. These studies and
rocks and minerals
reflect the process samples have helped scientists learn more about the origin of planets
that formed them. and moons in our solar system. Similarities in lunar and Earth rocks
have convinced many scientists that the Moon was once part of Earth.
They feel that the Moon was formed after a large impact broke away
part of Earth very early in the planets history. This week, students
learn about extraterrestrial rocks and their similarities to and
differences from rocks and minerals on Earth.

Day One Ask students if they have ever seen a shooting star and invite volunteers
Vocabulary: meteor, to describe what it looked like. Introduce the vocabulary, making sure to
meteorite explain that a meteor is the glowing trail and not the falling object. Point
Materials: page 117 out the picture on the page and explain that the meteorite was found in
Willamette, Oregon, but is now on display in New York. When students
have finished reading the passage, have them complete the activities.
Review the answers together.

Day Two Introduce the vocabulary word and point out the asteroid belt on the
Vocabulary: asteroids page. After students have finished reading, direct them to complete the
activities independently. Review the answers together.
Materials: page 118

Day Three Have students discuss what they think the surface of the Moon is like and
Vocabulary: lunar, maria what similarities and differences there might be between Earth rocks and
lunar rocks. Then introduce the vocabulary. Point out that maria is the Latin
Materials: page 119
word for seas. The name comes from early scientists who mistook these
patches for bodies of water. When students have finished reading, have
them complete the activities. Review the answers together.

Day Four Introduce the vocabulary word and explain that anything coming from space
Vocabulary: is considered to be extraterrestrial. After students have finished reading,
extraterrestrial explain that scientists are looking for both fossil evidence and evidence of
Materials: page 120 water on Mars, as water is necessary for life as we know it. Have students
complete the activities. Review the answers together.

Day Five Have students complete the page independently. Then review the
Materials: page 121 answers together.

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Weekly Question
Big
Do all rocks come Idea 4
1
from Earth?
:PVNJHIUDBMMUIFNiTIPPUJOHTUBST wCVUTDJFOUJTUTDBMMUIF
TUSFBLTPGMJHIUZPVTPNFUJNFTTFFGMBTIBDSPTTUIFOJHIUTLZ WEEK 4
meteors.FUFPSTBSFCSJHIUTUSFBLTUIBUBSFDSFBUFEXIFO
SPDLTPSPUIFSTPMJEPCKFDUTGSPNPVUFSTQBDFIFBUVQBOEHMPX
BTUIFZGBMMUISPVHI&BSUITBUNPTQIFSF6TVBMMZ UIFPCKFDUT Vocabulary
CVSOVQRVJDLMZJOUIFBUNPTQIFSFBOEOFWFSIJUUIFHSPVOE
meteor
#VUJGBTQBDFSPDLEPFTMBOEPO&BSUIT MEE-tee-yor
TVSGBDF JUJTDBMMFEBmeteorite the glowing trail
.FUFPSJUFTDBOMPPLBOEGFFM created by a solid
object as it falls
EJGGFSFOUGSPNPUIFSSPDLT
through Earths
5IFZDBOCFWFSZIFBWZ  atmosphere and
IBWFBOVOVTVBMTIBQF BOE heats up
TIPXTJHOTPGIBWJOHNFMUFE meteorite
*GZPVGJOEBSPDLMJLFUIJT MEE-tee-yor-ITE
BOEJUJTWFSZEJGGFSFOUGSPN an object from
The Willamette meteorite is the largest space that hits
PUIFSSPDLTJOUIFBSFB JU meteorite ever discovered in the Earths surface
DPVMECFBNFUFPSJUF United States. It weighs over 15 tons.

A. What four characteristics would help you determine if a rock


could be a meteorite?

1. 3.

2. 4.

B. According to the passage, what is the difference between a meteor


and a meteorite?

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Day
Weekly Question
Big
Do all rocks come Idea 4
2
from Earth?
.PTUNFUFPSJUFTDPNFGSPNBQBSUPGUIFTPMBSTZTUFNUIBU
JTIPNFUPNBOZTNBMM SPDLZCPEJFTDBMMFEasteroids"TUFSPJET WEEK 4
BSFNVDITNBMMFSUIBOQMBOFUT BOENPTUPGUIFPOFTJOPVSTPMBS
TZTUFNFYJTUCFUXFFO.BSTBOE+VQJUFS#FDBVTFBTUFSPJETBSF
TPTNBMMBOETPGBSBXBZ TDJFOUJTUTIBWFNBOZRVFTUJPOTBCPVU Vocabulary
UIFN JODMVEJOHFYBDUMZXIBUUIFZBSFNBEFPG
asteroids
"MUIPVHINVDIBCPVUBTUFSPJETJTVOLOPXO NFUFPSJUFTUIBU AS-ter-oydz
DPNFGSPNBTUFSPJETHJWFTDJFOUJTUTNPSFDMVFT*SPONFUFPSJUFT  small bodies of
XIJDIBSFBMNPTUQVSFNFUBM NBZCFUIFDPSFTPGBTUFSPJET solid rock that
orbit the sun
4UPOZNFUFPSJUFT POUIFPUIFSIBOE IBWFNJOFSBMTUIBUBSF
TJNJMBSUPNJOFSBMTJO&BSUITDSVTUBOENBOUMF*OUIFGVUVSF XF
NBZCFBCMFUPFYUSBDUUIFTFOBUVSBMSFTPVSDFTGSPNBTUFSPJET
BOEVTFUIFNCBDLPO&BSUI

Earth asteroids
Mars

Jupiter

A. Why do scientists have difficulty studying asteroids?

B. Write true or false.

1. Some meteorites contain iron.

2. Some asteroids contain part of Earths crust.

3. Asteroids are smaller than planets.

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Day
Weekly Question
Big
Do all rocks come Idea 4
3
from Earth?
.FUFPSJUFTBSFPOMZPOFFYBNQMFPGUIFSPDLTUIBUFYJTUJO
PVSTPMBSTZTUFN*OUIFMBUFTBOEFBSMZT BTUSPOBVUT WEEK 4
XFOUUPUIF.PPOBOECSPVHIUCBDLQPVOETPGlunarSPDLT
5IFSFBSFEJGGFSFODFTBOETJNJMBSJUJFTCFUXFFOMVOBSBOE&BSUI
SPDLT0OFEJGGFSFODFJTUIBUUIFSFBSFGFXFSNJOFSBMTJOMVOBS Vocabulary
SPDLTUIBOJO&BSUISPDLT"MTP MVOBSSPDLTBSFOPUDIBOHFECZ
lunar
XFBUIFSJOHPSFSPTJPOUIFXBZUIBU&BSUISPDLTBSF5IJTJT LOO-nar
CFDBVTFUIF.PPOIBTOPBUNPTQIFSFPSGMPXJOHXBUFS related to or
-VOBSBOE&BSUISPDLTBMTPIBWFTPNFTJNJMBSJUJFT'PS coming from
the Moon
FYBNQMF MVOBSEVTUDPOUBJOTIJHIBNPVOUTPGDBMDJVN JSPO 
BOEBMVNJOVN XIJDIBSFBMMDPNNPOMZ maria
MAR-ee-ah
GPVOEJOSPDLTPO&BSUI"MTP TDJFOUJTUT
plains of dark
IBWFEFUFSNJOFEUIBUMBWBPODFGMPXFE basalt rock visible
BDSPTTUIF.PPOTTVSGBDF GPSNJOH on the Moons
SPDLJOUIFTBNFXBZUIBUJUEPFTPO surface
&BSUI5IFTFMBWBGMPXTDSFBUFEMBSHF 
EBSLQBUDIFTPOUIF.PPO XIJDIXF
call maria
maria
A. What kind of rock makes up the Moons
mariasedimentary, igneous, or metamorphic? Explain how you know.

B. Name two ways lunar rocks are similar to Earth rocks and two ways
they are different.

Similar: 1. 2.

Different: 1. 2.

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Day
Weekly Question
Big
Do all rocks come Idea 4
4
from Earth?
0GBMMUIFSPDLZQMBDFTJOPVUFSTQBDF .BSTJTUIFNPTUMJLF
&BSUI.BSTIBTWPMDBOPFT DBOZPOT BOESPDLTWFSZTJNJMBSUP WEEK 4
UIPTFPO&BSUI.BSTHFUTJUTSFEDPMPSGSPNSPDLTDPOUBJOJOH
UIFJSPOSJDINJOFSBMIFNBUJUF XIJDIJTWFSZDPNNPOPO&BSUI
#VU.BSTBMTPIBTVOVTVBMNJOFSBMTUIBUBSFOPUGPVOEPO&BSUI Vocabulary
4PGBS TDJFOUJTUTIBWFGPVOENFUFPSJUFTGSPN.BST
extraterrestrial
5IFTFSPDLTDPOUBJOTPNFPGUIFTQFDJBMNJOFSBMTUIBUFYJTU EK-struh-tuh-RES-
POMZPO.BST BOETPNFFWFOTIPXFWJEFODFPGXIBUNJHIUCF tree-ul
CBDUFSJBGPTTJMT5IJTIBTQSPNQUFETDJFOUJTUTUPTFOESPCPUTUP not from Earth
.BSTUPTUVEZUIFQMBOFUEJSFDUMZ5IFZBSFIPQJOHUPGJOENPSF
QSPPGPGextraterrestrialMJGF BTXFMMBTUPMFBSONPSFBCPVU
IPX.BSTBOE&BSUIXFSFGPSNFE

A. Underline the information in the passage that proves Mars has


experienced weathering and erosion.

B. What kind of Mars rock might contain fossils: sedimentary, igneous,


or metamorphic? Explain how you know.

120 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ


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Day
Weekly Question
Big
Do all rocks come Idea 4
5
from Earth?
A. Use the words in the box to complete the paragraph.
WEEK 4
asteroid lunar extraterrestrial
meteor maria meteorite

The glowing streak of light from a rock in Earths atmosphere is a

, but if the rock strikes Earths surface, it becomes

a . If the rock came from the Moon, we would

call it a rock, and it could have come from the

dark spots on the Moons surface called . If the

rock came from Mars, it could contain proof of

life. Most likely, though, the rock came from an

floating between Mars and Jupiter.

B. Complete the chart to show how each type of rock is similar to


and different from Earth rocks.

Like Earth rocks Different from Earth rocks

1. 1.
Lunar rocks
2. 2.

1. 1.
Mars rocks
2.

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Unit Comprehension Big


Review Rocks and Idea 4
Minerals

A. Fill in the bubble next to the correct answer.


WEEK 5
1. What type of rock would likely contain a fossil fuel?

A metamorphic C sedimentary
B igneous D mineral

2. Along with heat and time, what else does a metamorphic rock
need in order to form?
A water C sediment
B pressure D lava

3. Which of these is NOT a property of metal?

A found in ore C is renewable


B is a mineral D is hard and shiny

4. Which of these is NOT a property used to identify a mineral?

A color C cleavage
B streak D weight

5. What type of rock makes up the dark spots on the Moon?

A igneous C sedimentary
B metamorphic D mineral

B. List two properties used to identify minerals and explain what each
property describes.

1.

2.

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Unit Vocabulary Big


Review Rock-Solid Idea 4
Vocabulary

Next to each vocabulary word, write the letter of its definition.


WEEK 5
1. asteroids a. to save

2. cleavage b. all rocks are made of these


c. an object from space that strikes Earth
3. conserve
d. the property that describes how easy
4. crystalline it is to scratch a mineral
5. extract e. things that come from the Moon
f. rock formed from cooled lava
6. fracture
g. able to be replaced by a new supply
7. hardness
h. rock that has changed because of intense
8. igneous heat and pressure
9. lunar i. useful materials or resources from nature

10. luster j. having a repeated, ordered structure

k. to remove
11. metals
l. gold and iron are examples
12. metamorphic
m. the way a mineral breaks along flat,
13. meteorite even planes
14. minerals n. small deposits of rock, sand, or
plant and animal remains
15. natural resources
o. the shininess of a mineral
16. ore p. rock or sediment that contains metal
17. renewable q. the way a mineral breaks into jagged,
irregular pieces
18. rock cycle
r. limestone and sandstone are examples
19. sediment
s. how rock is constantly created, changed,
20. sedimentary and broken down
t. small bodies of rock between Mars
and Jupiter
Evan-Moor Corp. EMC 5014 Daily Science Big Idea 4 Week 5 123
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Unit Visual Literacy Big


Review Mineral Mysteries Idea 4

This chart lists several properties of different minerals.


Use it to answer the questions below. WEEK 5

Cleavage or
Name Color Hardness Streak Luster
Fracture
silver or
graphite 11.5 black metallic perfect cleavage
black
white or
calcite 3 white glassy perfect cleavage
colorless

apatite green 5 white glassy fracture

hematite steel gray 56 red metallic fracture

white or
quartz 7 white glassy poor cleavage
colorless

1. Which is the softest mineral that can be colorless?

2. Which mineral can be white and has poor cleavage?

3. Which is the softest mineral with a metallic luster?

4. Three minerals have a white streak. Which mineral


can scratch the other minerals?

5. Two minerals of similar hardness do not have


cleavage. Which has a glassy luster?

6. Which minerals color is different from its streak


and also has a metallic luster?
124 Big Idea 4 Week 5 Daily Science EMC 5014 Evan-Moor Corp.
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Unit Hands-on Activity Big


Review Chalk It Up Idea 4
to Science

The expression hard as a rock suggests that rocks are always


hard. But some rocks are harder than others, and some will fall WEEK 5
apart more easily than others. In this experiment, you will see
what happens to chalk, which is a form of limestone.

What You Need 1. 1VUPOUIFSVCCFSHMPWFTBOEBTTFNCMFBMM

t UXPTNBMMHMBTTPS UIFNBUFSJBMTPOBUBCMF
QMBTUJDDPOUBJOFST 2. 1PVSUIFWJOFHBSJOUPPOFPGUIFDPOUBJOFST
t DVQXBUFS BOEXBUFSJOUPUIFPUIFS
t DVQWJOFHBS
3. #SFBLBQJFDFPGDIBMLJOUPGPVSQJFDFTBOE
t CPYPGDIBML ESPQUXPQJFDFTJOUPFBDIDPOUBJOFS.BLF
t SVCCFSHMPWFT TVSFUIFDIBMLJTUIFTBNFTJ[FGPSFBDI
DPOUBJOFS

What Did You Discover?


1. Compare the chalk in the water to the chalk in the vinegar. Which changed
more? What happened?

2. Why do you think it helps to break the chalk into many pieces?

3. Limestone is found in many water supplies and can build up on kitchen


and bathroom surfaces. If you were developing a cleaning product,
why might you want to include vinegar as an ingredient?

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Electrical energy can be converted

Big
into heat, light, sound, and motion.

Idea 5 Key Concept


Electrical energy can be converted into other forms
of energy.

National Standard
Electricity in circuits can produce light, heat, sound,
and magnetic effects.

B
y fourth grade, students have Teacher Background
a basic understanding that
electricity is a form of energy Theres no doubt that electricity plays a very important
that powers lights, appliances, and role in the lives of modern human beings. Electrical
toys. However, students are probably energy provides power to devices old and newfrom
not aware of the processes that toasters and hearing aids to LED lights and electric cars.
allow electricity to change into But electricity not only powers these machines, it also
other forms of energy. This Big Idea provides heat, light, sound, and movement. This unit
teaches students the following: deals with the idea that electrical energy can be
converted into other forms.
how electricity is converted
Electric current flowing through a circuit is a form of
into heat;
energy. When electrical energy flows in a circuit
how electricity is converted connected to a resistor, it can change into heat. When
into light; an electric current passes through an electric motor,
it changes into mechanical energy. The microphone
how electricity is converted
into sound; and and the speaker of a hearing aid convert sound waves
into electricity and back again. And electric current
how electricity is converted that flows through an LED turns into light.
into mechanical energy.
For specific background information on each weeks
concepts, refer to the notes on pp. 128, 134, 140,
and 146.

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Unit Overview

WEEK 1: How do toasters work? WEEK 4: How do electric cars work?


Connection to the Big Idea: Filaments Connection to the Big Idea: Electric cars
in toasters convert electrical energy into work by using electric motors that convert
heat. This week, students learn how electric electrical energy into motion. Motion is a
current flows through a circuit. They form of mechanical energy. Students learn
discover how a resistor is different from that an electric motor converts electrical
a conductor and learn the role it plays in energy into mechanical energy through
converting electrical energy into heat. the use of a permanent magnet and an
Content Vocabulary: circuit, conductor, electromagnet. Students then discover how
electric current, filaments, radiate, resistor, switch components of the electric car control the
amount of electrical energy a motor receives.
WEEK 2: What lights a digital Finally, students explore other devices that
clock? use electric motors.
Connection to the Big Idea: The LEDs Content Vocabulary: controller, electric
(light-emitting diodes) in a digital clock motor, electromagnet, magnetic force,
convert electrical energy into light. This mechanical energy
week, students learn what an LED is and
discover how electric current flows through
WEEK 5: Unit Review
a digital clock. They then learn that when These activities review the key concepts of
the current reaches the LED, electrons how electrical energy is converted into other
release energy in the form of light. forms of energy.

Content Vocabulary: display, electron, LED, p. 152: Comprehension Students answer


photon
multiple-choice items that review key
concepts from the unit.
WEEK 3: How do hearing aids
help people hear? p. 153: Vocabulary Students match key
Connection to the Big Idea: Hearing vocabulary words from the unit with
aids convert sound waves into an electronic their definitions.
signal and then change the signal back into
p. 154: Visual Literacy Students study
sound waves. This week, students learn that
different electronic devices and determine
sound waves travel as waves of energy. They
the types of energy these devices convert
learn about the parts of a hearing aid and
electrical energy into.
discover how each part helps turn the sound
energy into electrical energy and then back p. 155: Hands-on Activity Students create an
into sound energy. electric motor. Review the materials and
Content Vocabulary: amplifier, electromagnet, instructions on the student page ahead of
hearing aid, microphone, sound waves, speaker time.

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFB 127


Week 1
How do toasters work?
Idea 5 This week, students learn that a toaster is an example of how electrical
energy is converted into heat. A toaster is a simple appliance that sends
electric current through a circuit, which is completed or broken by the
switch that raises and lowers the toast. Part of the circuit consists of
exposed filaments that act as resistors. The resistors limit the amount
Electrical energy
of electric current flowing through the circuit and convert some of the
can be converted into
heat, light, sound, electrical energy into heat energy. When hot, the filaments radiate heat
and motion. energy that toasts the bread.

Day One Since the purpose of this week is to explain how electric energy can be
Vocabulary: circuit, converted into heat energy, the basics of electricity, electric current, and
electric current, switch circuits will not be discussed in depth. You may wish to review these
Materials: page 129 concepts with students as you introduce the vocabulary. You may also wish
to complete the activities as a group to make sure students understand
what a circuit is and how electric current flows through it.

Day Two Before students read the passage, activate prior knowledge by reminding
Vocabulary: conductor, them what conductors are and helping them think of some examples.
resistor (Conductors conduct electric current; examples include copper wire, water,
Materials: page 130 steel poles, etc.) After students have finished reading, direct them to
complete the activities. Review the answers together.

Day Three Introduce the vocabulary and, if you have a toaster, allow students to look
Vocabulary: filaments, inside it before you turn it on. Then turn it on and allow students to look
radiate from a safe distance at the toasters filaments as they become hot. After
Materials: page 131; students read the passage, direct them to complete the activities
toaster (optional) independently. Review the answers together.

Day Four After students finish reading the passage, direct them to complete the
Materials: page 132 activities. Invite volunteers to share their responses to activity B.

Day Five Have students complete the page independently. Then review the
answers together.
Materials: page 133

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Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 5
1 How do toasters work?
:PVQSPCBCMZUIJOLBUPBTUFSJTBWFSZTJNQMFBQQMJBODF"GUFS
BMM UIFPOMZUIJOHJUEPFTJTNBLFUPBTU*UTUSVFUIBUDPNQBSFE WEEK 1
UPUFMFWJTJPOTBOEDPNQVUFST UPBTUFSTBSFQSFUUZTJNQMF8IFO
ZPVQVTIUIFMFWFSEPXOPOBUPBTUFS BswitchDPNQMFUFTB
circuitUIBUTFOETelectric currentGMPXJOHUISPVHIUIFBQQMJBODF Vocabulary
#VUXPVMEZPVHVFTTUIBUJOWFOUPSTIBEBWFSZIBSEUJNFJOWFOUJOH
circuit
BUPBTUFS *OGBDU JUUPPLNBOZZFBSTUPGJHVSFPVUBXBZUPNBLF
SIR-kut
BUPBTUFSUIBUXPVMEOUNFMUPSCVSTUJOUPGMBNFT a loop or path
along which an
A. Look at the diagram and then follow the instructions. electric current
flows

electric current
ee-LEK-trik KUR-ent
the flow of electricity

switch
swich
a part of a circuit
that starts or stops
the flow of electric
current

1. Label these parts of the circuit: the source of electric


power, the switch, and the electric current.
2. Draw arrows to show the path of electric current
to and from the appliance.

B. Most levers on toasters automatically pop up when the toast is done.


Why do you think that happens?

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Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 5
2 How do toasters work?
*OWFOUPSTJOUIFFBSMZTLOFXUIBUFMFDUSJDJUZGMPXFE
UISPVHIconductors TVDIBTNFUBM5IFZBMTPLOFXUIBUTPNF WEEK 1
NFUBMTXFSFOPUBTHPPEBUDPOEVDUJOHBTPUIFST5IFJOWFOUPST
GPVOEUIBUUIFTFNFUBMTDPVMECFVTFEUPMJNJUUIFGMPXPG
FMFDUSJDDVSSFOUJOBDJSDVJU4VDINFUBMTBSFDBMMFEresistors Vocabulary
8IFOFMFDUSJDDVSSFOUGMPXTUISPVHIBDJSDVJU TPNFPGUIBU
conductor
FMFDUSJDBMFOFSHZUVSOTJOUPBOPUIFSGPSNPGFOFSHZIFBU
kun-DUK-tur
8IFOBSFTJTUPSJTBEEFEUPUIFDJSDVJU FWFONPSFFMFDUSJDBM something that
FOFSHZJTDPOWFSUFEJOUPIFBU5IJTXBTUIFSFTVMUUIBUUIF allows electric
JOWFOUPSTPGUPBTUFSTXBOUFE current to flow
easily

A. Write true or false. resistor


ree-ZISS-tur
1. A conductor allows electric current to something that
limits the flow of
flow through it easily.
electric current
through a circuit
2. Electrical energy can make heat energy.

3. Resistors convert less energy into heat


than conductors do.
4. All metals conduct electricity
equally well.

B. What is the main difference between a conductor and a resistor?

C. How did resistors help the people who invented toasters?


Explain your answer.

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Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 5
3 How do toasters work?
*GZPVMPPLJOTJEFBUPBTUFSBTJUJTUPBTUJOHCSFBE ZPVMM
OPUJDFTFWFSBMTUSJQTPGHMPXJOHXJSFDBMMFEfilaments5IFTF WEEK 1
GJMBNFOUTBSFUIFSFTJTUPSTJOUIFUPBTUFSTDJSDVJU5IFZMJNJUUIF
GMPXPGFMFDUSJDDVSSFOUBOEDPOWFSUTPNFPGUIFFMFDUSJDBM
FOFSHZJOUPIFBUFOFSHZ5IBUIFBUFOFSHZradiatesGSPNUIF Vocabulary
GJMBNFOUTBOEUPBTUTUIFCSFBE
filaments
8IFOUPBTUFSTXFSFGJSTUJOWFOUFE UIFGJMBNFOUTJOTJEF
FIL-uh-mentz
XPVMEHFUIPUFOPVHIUPUPBTUCSFBE CVUUIFZEJEOUMBTUWFSZ wires that heat
MPOHCFGPSFUIFZNFMUFEPSCVSOFE"OJOWFOUPSOBNFE up or glow when
"MCFSU.BSTITPMWFEUIFQSPCMFN)F they conduct
electricity
VTFEUXPNFUBMT OJDLFMBOEDISPNJVN
,30NFFVN
UPDSFBUFBXJSFUIBU radiate
XBTBHPPESFTJTUPSBOEDPVME RAY-dee-ate
to send out
XJUITUBOEWFSZIJHIIFBU5IJT energy in waves
NFUBMJTVTFEJOUPBTUFSTUPEBZ or rays

A. Number the events in the correct order to explain how a toaster works.

The filaments radiate heat energy.


Electric current completes the circuit in a toaster.
Filament resistors convert some electrical energy into heat energy.
The bread is toasted.

B. Most toasters allow you to set how light or dark you want your toast.
What do you think changes inside the toaster, depending on the setting?

C. List three other things that radiate heat energy.

1. 2. 3.

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Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 5
4 How do toasters work?
5PBTUFSTBSFOUUIFPOMZBQQMJBODFTUIBUUVSOFMFDUSJDBMFOFSHZ
JOUPIFBUFOFSHZ&MFDUSJDTUPWFT FMFDUSJDCMBOLFUT JSPOT BOE WEEK 1
FWFOTPNFDBSTDPOWFSUFMFDUSJDBMFOFSHZJOUPIFBUFOFSHZ"MMPG
UIFTFJOWFOUJPOTVTFGJMBNFOUSFTJTUPSTUIBUDBOXJUITUBOEWFSZ
IJHIUFNQFSBUVSFT#VUTPNFUJNFTUIFNBUFSJBMTBSPVOEUIF
GJMBNFOUTDBOOPU'PSFYBNQMF UPBTUMFGUJOUIFUPBTUFSUPPMPOH
DBOUVSOCMBDLPSFWFODBUDIPOGJSF5IBUTXIZZPVTIPVMEOFWFS
MFBWFZPVSUPBTUFSVOBUUFOEFEXIJMFZPVSFNBLJOHUPBTU

A. A hair dryer works similarly to a toaster. Look at the diagram of the


hair dryer. Where do you think the filaments are? Draw them below.

B. Today, some toasters do more than just toast bread. One toaster can
print messages from your computer onto your toast. Another toasts
pictures of cartoon characters on the bread! If you could invent a new
kind of toaster, what would it do? Describe it below.

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Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 5
5 How do toasters work?
A. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences.
WEEK 1
switch resistor conductor electric current
circuit radiate filaments

1. The lever on a toaster is a that completes

the and allows

to flow through it.

2. A is good at conducting electricity, while

a limits the flow of electric current.

3. The in a toaster become hot and

heat energy.

B. Look at the diagram. Label the switch and filaments. Then draw the path
that the electric current travels through the toaster.

C. When people iron, they make sure to move the iron constantly
around the cloth. Why is this important?

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 133


Week 2
What lights a digital clock?
Idea 5 This week, students learn about LEDs, or light-emitting diodes. The
numbers that display the time on a digital clock are LEDs. Each digit is
divided into seven segments that are separately connected to the circuit
inside the clock. Each segment can turn on and off to form the correct
number to tell time. When electrons in an electric current pass through
Electrical energy
an LED, the electrons get excited and emit photons of light. Compared
can be converted into
heat, light, sound, to incandescent light bulbs, LEDs are much more energy-efficient. They
and motion. may become the standard devices we use for lighting.

Day One Introduce the vocabulary word and show students the digital clock. Point
Vocabulary: LED out the LEDs on the display. Tell students that this week they will learn how
an LED converts electricity into light. After students finish reading, have
Materials: page 135;
digital clock them complete the activities. For the oral activity, pair students or discuss
the question as a group. You may want to prompt students to think about
durability or brightness of LEDs, if necessary.

Day Two Introduce the vocabulary word. Show students the digital clock. This time,
Vocabulary: display ask them to look closely at the numbers to see how they are divided up
into segments. After students have read the passage, have them complete
Materials: page 136;
digital clock the activities. Go over the answers together.

Day Three Prior to having students read the passage, you may want to review the
Vocabulary: electron, properties of electric current and how it travels through a circuit. (Electric
photon current is made of electrons; it travels in a loop from the power source
Materials: page 137 through the circuit.) When students have finished reading, direct them to
complete the activities. Review the answers together.

Day Four Show students the incandescent light bulb and the compact fluorescent
Materials: page 138; light. Tell students that until recently, people used mostly incandescent
compact fluorescent light bulbs in their homes. Now, a lot more people are using compact
light, incandescent fluorescent lights (CFLs), which last longer and are more energy efficient.
light bulb But even CFLs are not as efficient as LEDs. After students have read the
passage, have them complete the activities. Review the answers together.

Day Five Have students complete the page independently. Then review the
Materials: page 139
answers together.

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Idea 5
1 What lights a digital clock?
LEDs PSLJHIUENJUUJOHDJPEFT %:PE[
BSFBMMBSPVOEVT
5IFZGPSNUIFCSJHIUMZMJUOVNCFSTJOEJHJUBMDMPDLT5IFZBSF WEEK 2
UIFUJOZMJHIUTUIBUUFMMVTUIBUBDPNQVUFSPS57JTUVSOFEPO
"NCVMBODFBOEQPMJDFTJSFOMJHIUTPGUFOVTF-&%T
-JLFBOZFMFDUSJDBMBQQMJBODF BO-&%IBTUPCFDPOOFDUFE Vocabulary
UPBTPVSDFPGFMFDUSJDJUZJOPSEFSUPXPSL5IFTJNQMFTUXBZUP
LED
EFTDSJCFBO-&%JTBTBUJOZMJHIUCVMCUIBUGJUTJOUPBOFMFDUSJDBM
el-ee-dee
DJSDVJU)PXFWFS BO-&%JTEJGGFSFOUGSPNBOPSEJOBSZMJHIUCVMC a device
CFDBVTFJUVTFTMFTTFMFDUSJDBMFOFSHZUPDSFBUFBOFWFOCSJHIUFS specifically made
HMPX for generating
light

A. Look at the diagram of a circuit. Draw an arrow pointing


to the LED. Circle the electrical source.

B. Write true or false.

1. Digital clocks use LEDs.

2. In order to work, an LED must be part of


an electrical circuit.
3. An LED uses the same amount of energy as
a light bulb to produce light.

Talk
Why do you think the lights on many police cars and ambulances
use LEDs? Discuss this question with a partner.

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Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 5
2 What lights a digital clock?
8IFOBEJHJUBMDMPDLJTBUUBDIFEUPBQPXFSTPVSDF FMFDUSJD
DVSSFOUGMPXTUISPVHIUIFDJSDVJUUPSFBDIUIF-&%TJOUIFDMPDLT WEEK 2
OVNCFST&BDIEJHJUJTEJWJEFEJOUPTFWFOTFHNFOUT PSQBSUT
&BDITFHNFOUJTBO-&%UIBUJTDPOOFDUFETFQBSBUFMZUPUIF
DJSDVJU8IFOPOFPGUIFTFHNFOUTSFDFJWFTFMFDUSJDDVSSFOU 
Vocabulary
UIBU-&%MJHIUTVQ"TFBDITFHNFOUJTUVSOFEPOBOEPGG UIF
displayPOUIFDMPDLDIBOHFT'PSFYBNQMF XIFOBMMTFWFOPG display
dih-SPLAY
UIF-&%TFHNFOUTJOBEJHJUBSFUVSOFEPO UIFEJTQMBZTIPXT information
UIFOVNCFS shown visually
"EFWJDFJOUIFEJHJUBMDMPDLiDPVOUTwIPXMPOHFBDI on a screen
TFHNFOUSFDFJWFTFMFDUSJDDVSSFOU5IBUTIPXUIFEJHJUBMDMPDL
LOPXTXIFOUPDIBOHFOVNCFSTBOEEJTQMBZUIFDPSSFDUUJNF

A. Color the segments in each digit to show the time that


would be displayed on this clock if:

Two segments are lit Five segments are lit Four segments are lit Seven segments are lit

B. If a clock reads 10:45, how many segments are lit up in all?

C. Name something you use that has a display.

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Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 5
3 What lights a digital clock?
)PXFYBDUMZEPFTBO-&%QSPEVDFMJHIU 8IFOFMFDUSJD
DVSSFOUUSBWFMTUISPVHIUIFDJSDVJUBOEQBTTFTUISPVHIUIF-&%  WEEK 2
JUDBVTFTelectronsUPHBJOFOFSHZBOECFDPNFFYDJUFE5IFTF
FYDJUFEFMFDUSPOTSFMFBTFUIFJSFYUSBFOFSHZJOUIFGPSNPGMJHIU
"VOJUPGMJHIUFOFSHZJTDBMMFEBphoton8IFOZPVMPPLBUUIF Vocabulary
DMPDLUPTFFXIBUUJNFJUJT ZPVBSFBDUVBMMZXBUDIJOHQIPUPOT
electron
CFJOHSFMFBTFECZUIFFMFDUSPOTUSBWFMJOHUISPVHIUIF-&%
ee-LEK-trahn
a particle of
A. Use the vocabulary words to write a caption that explains an atom with a
what is happening in the illustration. negative charge

photon
FOE-tahn
photons a tiny unit of
light energy

electrons

B. Number the events in the correct order to explain how an LED lights up.

Electric current passes through the LED.


Excited electrons release light energy called photons.
The LED is connected to a power source.
Electrons gain energy and become excited.
We see the LED light up.

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Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 5
4 What lights a digital clock?
5PEBZ -&%TBSFUIFNPTUFOFSHZFGGJDJFOUEFWJDFTVTFEUP
DSFBUFMJHIU5IFGJMBNFOUJOBOJODBOEFTDFOU */DBO%&44FOU
 WEEK 2
MJHIUCVMCXBTUFTBMPUPGFOFSHZCZDPOWFSUJOHNPTUPGUIF
FMFDUSJDJUZUPIFBU#VUBO-&%DIBOHFTNPTUPGJUTFMFDUSJDBM
FOFSHZJOUPMJHIU*OBEEJUJPO JODBOEFTDFOUCVMCTMPTFBMPUPG
MJHIUCFDBVTFUIFZTIJOFJUJOBMMEJSFDUJPOT5IJTDBVTFTTPNFPG
UIFMJHIUUPCFBCTPSCFECBDLJOUPUIFCVMC-&%TTIJOFQIPUPOT
JOPOFEJSFDUJPO TPBMMUIFJSMJHIUJTGPDVTFEBOECSJHIU
-&%TBSFBMTPMPOHFSMBTUJOHUIBOPUIFSUZQFTPGMJHIUCVMCT
*ODBOEFTDFOUMJHIUCVMCTVTVBMMZCVSOPVUBGUFSIPVST
$PNQBDUGMVPSFTDFOU GMPS&44FOU
MJHIUTDBOMBTUVQUP 
IPVST#VUSFTFBSDIFSTCFMJFWF-&%TDBOMBTU UP 
IPVST PSUFOZFBST
'PSBMMPGUIFTFSFBTPOT -&%TIBWF
CSJHIUFOFEUIFGVUVSFPGMJHIUJOH

A. Write how LEDs and incandescent bulbs are similar and different.

LEDs Light Bulbs


Both

B. List three reasons why LEDs are better than incandescent light bulbs.

1.

2.

3.

138 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ


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Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 5
5 What lights a digital clock?
A. Use the words in the box to complete the paragraph.
WEEK 2
photons electrons
display LEDs

form the brightly lit numbers of a digital clock.

Each digit on the is divided into seven segments .

The segments light up when receive electrical energy

and emit .

B. Label the LED and photons in the circuit.

C. Read each sentence. Cross out the word that makes the sentence false
and replace it with a word that makes the sentence true.

1. LEDs convert electrical energy into heat energy.

2. Excited electrons release light energy in the form of circuits.

3. An LED is less efficient than an ordinary light bulb.

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Week 3
How do hearing aids help
Idea 5 people hear?
An estimated 28 million people in the United States suffer from some
form of hearing loss, but health researchers think that only 20% of
these people use hearing aids. This week, students learn how hearing
Electrical energy aids work. Hearing aids consist of a microphone that receives sound
can be converted into waves and circuitry that converts the sound waves into an electric
heat, light, sound,
signal. An amplifier strengthens the signal and sends it to the speaker,
and motion.
which then converts the electric signal back into sound waves that are
broadcast directly into the ear canal of the wearer.

Day One Begin the lesson by introducing the vocabulary and explaining, if necessary,
Vocabulary: hearing aid, what sound waves are and how they travel. (vibrations that contract and
sound waves expand the molecules around them, much like the way a spring contracts
Materials: page 141 and expands) After students have read the passage, have them complete
the activities. Review the answers together.

Day Two Introduce the vocabulary, pointing out each part on the diagram. Explain
Vocabulary: amplifier, that the amplifier is part of the circuit in a hearing aid and isnt as easily
microphone, speaker recognizable as the speaker, microphone, or battery can be. Then have
Materials: page 142 students read the passage and complete the activities. Review the answers
together.

Day Three Begin by reviewing what an electromagnet is, what a permanent magnet
Vocabulary: is, and how they work. (permanent magnet: a magnet that always has a
electromagnet magnetic field, e.g., a refrigerator magnet; electromagnet: metal wrapped
Materials: page 143 in wire that becomes a magnet when electric current flows through the
wire) After students have finished reading, direct them to complete the
activities. Review the answers together.

Day Four Ask students if anyone has direct experience with a hearing aid, either
Materials: page 144 worn by themselves or by a relative. Invite volunteers to share their
knowledge about the hearing aid (what it looks like, what it feels like to
wear, etc.). After students read the passage, direct them to complete the
activities. Invite students to share what they wrote for activity B.

Day Five Have students complete the page independently. Then review the
answers together.
Materials: page 145

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Day
Weekly Question
How do hearing aids help
Big
Idea 5
1 people hear?
When our ears are healthy and working properly, sound
waves are collected by the outer ear, vibrate special bones in the WEEK 3
middle ear, and travel to the inner ear. These vibrations send a
signal that our brain interprets as sound. But sometimes an injury
or a disease can damage parts of the ear so that we dont hear Vocabulary
sound properly. In fact, there are 28 million people in the U.S.
hearing aid
who suffer from hearing loss. These people can often hear better
HEER-ing ayd
by using a hearing aid. Hearing aids use electricity to help our an electronic
ears better recognize sounds. device that uses
electricity to
help the ear hear
sounds better

sound waves
sownd wayvz
waves of energy
created when
an object moves
Some hearing aids fit inside the ear, while others sit behind it.
back and forth
rapidly
A. Use the vocabulary words to complete the paragraph.

When people have hearing loss, they can use a

to help them hear. The earliest

hearing aids were shaped like horns. These horns helped

focus into peoples ears.

B. Write true or false.

1. Hearing aids contribute to hearing loss.

2. Special parts in our ears vibrate when sound reaches them.

3. Hearing aids use electricity to help our ears hear sounds.

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Day
Weekly Question
How do hearing aids help
Big
Idea 5
2 people hear?
Modern hearing aids have four main parts: a battery, a
microphone, an amplifier, and a speaker. The battery powers WEEK 3
the hearing aid. The microphone works by receiving sound
waves and changing the vibrations into electric current. The
electric current then travels through a circuit in the hearing aid, Vocabulary
where it is made stronger by the amplifier. The amplifier sends
amplifier
the stronger current to the speaker, which changes the current
AM-plih-fy-ur
back into sound waves. These sound waves then travel into the a device that
middle ear or sometimes directly to the inner ear. increases electric
current
microphone microphone
MY-kroh-fone
amplifier a device that
converts sound
battery waves into
speaker electric current

speaker
SPEE-kur
a device that
A. Number the steps in the correct order to describe how converts electric
a hearing aid works. current into
sound waves
The sound waves are transmitted to the inner ear.
The amplifier increases the strength of the electric current.
The microphone transforms sound waves into electric current.
The microphone receives sound waves.
The speaker converts electric current into sound waves.

B. Most hearing aids have a control for the volume. Why do you think that is?

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Day
Weekly Question
How do hearing aids help
Big
Idea 5
3 people hear?
#PUINJDSPQIPOFTBOETQFBLFSTVTFNBHOFUTBOEFMFDUSJDJUZ
UPXPSL8IFOBNJDSPQIPOFSFDFJWFTTPVOEXBWFT QBSUPGJU WEEK 3
WJCSBUFTBOEQVTIFTBNFUBMDPJMCBDLBOEGPSUIRVJDLMZPWFS
BQFSNBOFOUNBHOFU5IJTJTXIBUDIBOHFTTPVOEXBWFTJOUP
FMFDUSJDDVSSFOU5IFOUIFBNQMJGJFSNBLFTUIFDVSSFOUTUSPOHFS Vocabulary
CFGPSFJUUSBWFMTUPUIFTQFBLFS8IFOUIFDVSSFOUSFBDIFTUIF
electromagnet
TQFBLFS BOelectromagnetUVSOTPOBOEPGGRVJDLMZ DSFBUJOHB
ee-LEK-troh-
DIBOHJOHNBHOFUJDGJFME5IFTFQVMTFTJOUIFNBHOFUJDGJFMEDBVTF MAG-net
UIFTQFBLFSUPWJCSBUFBOEQSPEVDFOFX TUSPOHFSTPVOEXBWFT a magnet created
by electric
current flowing
A. Look at the illustrations. Label the microphone through a wire
and the speaker. coil

B. Use microphone, speaker, or amplifier to answer each question.

1. Which part of a hearing aid creates


electric current?
2. Which part of a hearing aid uses
an electromagnet?
3. Which part of a hearing aid uses
a permanent magnet?
4. Which part of a hearing aid makes
the electric current stronger?

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Day
Weekly Question
How do hearing aids help
Big
Idea 5
4 people hear?
"MUIPVHINPTUIFBSJOHBJETIBWFUIFTBNFQBSUT UIFSFBSF
EJGGFSFOUUZQFTPGIFBSJOHBJET0OFUZQF DBMMFEBUFMFDPJM IBT WEEK 3
BNFUBMDPJMJOTUFBEPGBNJDSPQIPOF"OPUIFSUZQFPGIFBSJOH
BJE DBMMFEBEJHJUBMIFBSJOHBJE DPOWFSUTUIFTPVOEXBWFT
JOUPFMFDUSPOJDEBUB UIFTBNFXBZNVTJDJTDPOWFSUFEJOUP
FMFDUSPOJDEBUBJOB$%PS.1QMBZFS5IJTLJOEPGIFBSJOHBJE
UIFOUSBOTMBUFTUIFEBUBJOUPBOFMFDUSPOJDTJHOBMUIBUJTTFOU
UPUIFIFBSJOHBJETTQFBLFS
3FHBSEMFTTPGUIFUZQFPGIFBSJOHBJE UIFZBMMDPOWFSU
FMFDUSJDBMFOFSHZJOUPTPVOEXBWFT"OEXIJMFOPIFBSJOHBJE
XPSLTBTXFMMBTBIFBMUIZTFUPGFBST IFBSJOHBJETEPNBLFJU
QPTTJCMFGPSNJMMJPOTPGQFPQMFUPIFBSCFUUFS

A. Write true or false.

1. Digital hearing aids convert sound waves into data.

2. All hearing aids convert electricity into sound waves.

3. Hearing aids often work better than healthy ears do.

4. Most hearing aids have few parts in common.

B. Sound amplifiers are not only used for hearing aids. Name three other
devices that you can think of that might use sound amplifiers.

1.

2.

3.

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Day
Weekly Question
How do hearing aids help
Big
Idea 5
5 people hear?
A. Use the words in the box to complete the paragraph.
WEEK 3
microphone electromagnet amplifier
hearing aid sound waves speaker

A is a device that receives and sends

. The in a hearing

aid receives sound waves and turns them into electricity. The

makes the electric current stronger. The current

travels to an inside the ,

where the electricity becomes new, stronger sound waves.

B. Look at the diagram. Label the microphone and speaker. Then write
a caption that explains how sound waves travel through a hearing aid.

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Week 4
How do electric cars work?
Idea 5 Electric cars run by using batteries and electric motors. This week,
students learn that electrical energy flows from the battery to the electric
motor, where opposing magnetic forces between a permanent magnet
and an electromagnet cause a rod to spin. This interaction converts
electrical energy into mechanical energy and makes the wheels of a car
Electrical energy
turn. Students also learn about a device called the controller, which helps
can be converted into
heat, light, sound, speed up and slow down an electric car. Finally, students discover that
and motion. the same principle of conversion of electrical energy into mechanical
energy is at work in familiar machines they use every day.

Day One Discuss with students what they know about how vehicles are powered.
Vocabulary: electric (gasoline, diesel fuel, electricity, hybrid) Tell students that this week they
motor, mechanical will learn how electricity can power cars. After introducing the vocabulary,
energy have students read the passage and complete the activities. Review the
Materials: page 147 answers together.

Day Two If necessary, review with students how an electromagnet works prior to
Vocabulary: beginning the lesson. (An electric current runs through a coil of wire
electromagnet, around an iron rod, which creates a magnetic field.) Introduce the
magnetic force vocabulary word and use two magnets to demonstrate how they can
Materials: page 148; attract or repel each other. After students read the passage, have them
pair of magnets complete the activities. Review the answers together.

Day Three Begin the lesson by explaining that electric motors can run at different
Vocabulary: controller speeds. If possible, use an electric fan to demonstrate how it can change
speeds, and point out that the buttons on the fan control how fast the
Materials: page 149;
electric fan (optional) motor spins. Then introduce the vocabulary word. After students read the
passage, have them complete the activities. Review the answers together.

Day Four Remind students that electric cars are not the only devices that turn
Materials: page 150 electrical energy into mechanical energy. After students read the passage,
direct them to complete the activity. You may wish to complete part of
the chart as a class. Review the answers together.

Day Five Have students complete the page independently. Then review the
Materials: page 151 answers together.

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Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 5
1 How do electric cars work?
:PVVTFFMFDUSJDBMFOFSHZFWFSZEBZUPSVOZPVS57 DPNQVUFS 
NVTJDQMBZFS BOEMPUTPGPUIFSEFWJDFT#VUJUUPPLTDJFOUJTUTB WEEK 4
XIJMFUPGJHVSFPVUBHPPEXBZUPNBLFBDBSNPWFRVJDLMZBOE
GPSBMPOHQFSJPEPGUJNFCZVTJOHFMFDUSJDJUZ6OUJMGBJSMZSFDFOUMZ 
BMNPTUBMMDBSTVTFEHBTPMJOF5PEBZ NBOZDBSTSVOPOCPUI Vocabulary
FMFDUSJDJUZBOEHBT"OETPNFDBSTSVOFOUJSFMZPOFMFDUSJDJUZ
electric motor
.PTUFMFDUSJDDBSTMPPLKVTUMJLFSFHVMBSDBSTPOUIFPVUTJEF 
ee-LEK-trik
CVUVOEFSUIFIPPEUIFZBSFWFSZEJGGFSFOU*OBOFMFDUSJDDBS  MOW-tur
CBUUFSJFTHFOFSBUFFMFDUSJDBMFOFSHZUIBUJTDPOEVDUFEUISPVHI a device that
BDJSDVJUUPBOelectric motor5IFFMFDUSJDNPUPSDPOWFSUT converts
electrical energy
FMFDUSJDJUZGSPNUIFCBUUFSJFTJOUPmechanical energy UIFFOFSHZ into mechanical
PGNPUJPO5IJTJTXIBUDBVTFTUIFXIFFMTPGUIFDBSUPUVSO energy

mechanical
energy
meh-KAN-ih-kull
EN-ur-gee
a form of energy
motor expressed as
batteries motion

A. Complete the analogy.

Gasoline is to gas-powered car as battery is to .

B. Use information from the passage to complete the sentences.

1. The converts electricity into .

2. In an electric car, generate electricity.

3. Mechanical energy can also be called .

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Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 5
2 How do electric cars work?
How does an electric motor convert electricity into
mechanical energy? Electric current flows through a rod WEEK 4
coil of wire wrapped around a metal frame.
This causes the frame to become an
electromagnet. The electromagnet is Vocabulary
surrounded by a permanent magnet.
magnetic force
The two magnetic forces push
mag-NEH-tik forss
and pull against each other, the force
permanent
making a rod in the middle magnet produced by
of the frame spin. That rod is a magnet that
electromagnet can attract or
connected to the wheels of (frame) push away other
a car, and when it rotates, the magnets
wheels turn and your car moves. Inside an electric motor

A. Complete the sentence that describes how an electric motor


creates mechanical energy.

The between the permanent

magnet and the inside the motor

cause the rod to spin.

B. Number the events in the correct order to explain how electricity


makes a car move.
The coil and frame become an electromagnet.
The wheels turn.
The electromagnet spins.
Electric current flows through a wire wrapped around a frame.
The electromagnet pushes and pulls against a permanent magnet.

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Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 5
3 How do electric cars work?
8IFOBQFSTPOJTESJWJOHBOFMFDUSJDDBS IFPSTIFDBO
TQFFEVQPSTMPXEPXOUIFDBSXJUIUIFIFMQPGBEFWJDFDBMMFE WEEK 4
a controller5IFDPOUSPMMFSJTMPDBUFECFUXFFOUIFDBSCBUUFSJFT
BOEUIFFMFDUSJDNPUPSBOEJTDPOOFDUFEUPBQFEBMJOTJEFUIF
DBS8IFOUIFESJWFSQSFTTFTEPXOPOUIFQFEBM UIFQFEBM Vocabulary
TFOETBTJHOBMUPUIFDPOUSPMMFS5IFDPOUSPMMFSUIFOEFMJWFST
controller
BDFSUBJOBNPVOUPGFMFDUSJDDVSSFOUUPUIFFMFDUSJDNPUPS  kun-TROL-er
EFQFOEJOHPOIPXGBSEPXOUIFESJWFSQSFTTFTUIFQFEBM a device in an
5IFGBSUIFSEPXOUIFESJWFSQSFTTFTUIFQFEBM UIFNPSF electric car that
FMFDUSJDJUZUIFDPOUSPMMFSTFOETUPUIFNPUPS5IFNPSFDVSSFOU regulates the
amount of electric
UIBUJTTFOUUPUIFFMFDUSJDNPUPS UIFGBTUFSUIFDBSHPFT current sent from
the battery to
A. Write the number of each description next to the the motor
part of the electric car that it describes.

1. This part is used by the driver to send a signal to the controller.

2. This part spins based on how much electric current it receives.

3. This part sends electric current to the motor.

B. When the controller sends electric current to the motor, it causes the rod
connected to the wheels to spin. Why would sending more current make
the car go faster?

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Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 5
4 How do electric cars work?
5IJOLBCPVUIPXZPVSMJGFXPVMECFEJGGFSFOUXJUIPVUDBST 
BJSQMBOFT SFGSJHFSBUPST PSDPNQVUFST"MMUIFTFJOWFOUJPOTUIBU WEEK 4
NBLFPVSMJWFTTPNVDIFBTJFSBSFGBJSMZSFDFOU"OEUIFZBMM
EFQFOEPOFMFDUSJDNPUPST5IFTPVSDFPGFMFDUSJDJUZGPSUIF
NPUPSDBOCFBCBUUFSZPSBOFMFDUSJDDVSSFOUHFOFSBUFEJOB
QPXFSQMBOUBOEEFMJWFSFEUPZPVSIPNFUISPVHIXJSFT#VUBMM
FMFDUSJDNPUPSTBSFBMJLFJOUIBUUIFZVTFFMFDUSJDBMFOFSHZBOE
NBHOFUJDGPSDFUPQSPEVDFNFDIBOJDBMFOFSHZ*GTPNFUIJOHVTFT
FMFDUSJDJUZBOEIBTBQBSUUIBUTQJOT JUQSPCBCMZIBTBNPUPS

All the items in the chart have electric motors. Visualize each device.
Then complete the chart.

Source of electricity
Machine Which parts move?
(outlet or battery)

Blender

Clothes washer

Electric toothbrush

Electric mixer

Remote-control car

Electric fan

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Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 5
5 How do electric cars work?
A. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences.
WEEK 4
electromagnet mechanical energy controller
electric motor magnetic force

1. Electrical energy is converted into in the

of an electric car.

2. When a driver presses down on the pedal, a


delivers the right amount of electric current to the motor.

3. An and a permanent magnet both

have .

B. Label the permanent magnet and the electromagnet in the motor.

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Unit Comprehension Big


Review Electrical Idea 5
Energy

Fill in the bubble next to the correct answer.


WEEK 5

1. The filament in a toaster acts like a and


changes some of the electrical energy into .
A resistor, heat C battery, light
B conductor, heat D circuit, light

2. What does electric current change into after it passes through an LED?

A electrons C heat
B segments D photons

3. Which machine does NOT use an electromagnet?

A LED C hearing aid


B electric motor D electric car

4. In a hearing aid, electrical energy is changed into .


A heat waves C sound waves
B light energy D mechanical energy

5. An electric motor changes electrical energy into .


A heat energy C light energy
B mechanical energy D sound energy

6. The source of electricity for an electric car is a .


A circuit C battery
B resistor D LED

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Unit Vocabulary Big


Review Word Energizer Idea 5

Next to each vocabulary word, write the letter of its definition.


WEEK 5
1. circuit a. the GMPXPGFMFDUSJDJUZ

2. conductor b. BQBSUJDMFPGBOBUPNXJUIBOFHBUJWFDIBSHF
c. QBSUPGBDJSDVJUUIBUTUBSUTPSTUPQTUIFGMPX
3. electric current
  PGFMFDUSJDDVSSFOU
4. electric motor d. TPNFUIJOHUIBUBMMPXTFMFDUSJDDVSSFOU
5. electromagnet   UPGMPXFBTJMZ
e. TPNFUIJOHUIBUMJNJUTUIFGMPXPG
6. electron
  FMFDUSJDDVSSFOU
7. filaments f. XJSFTUIBUIFBUVQXIFOUIFZ
8. LED   DPOEVDUFMFDUSJDJUZ
g. UPTFOEPVUFOFSHZJOXBWFTPSSBZT
9. magnetic force
h. BEFWJDFUIBUDPOWFSUTFMFDUSJDBMFOFSHZ
10. mechanical energy   JOUPMJHIU
11. microphone i. BQBUIBMPOHXIJDIBOFMFDUSJDDVSSFOUGMPXT

12. photon j. a UJOZVOJUPGMJHIUFOFSHZ


k. XBWFTPGFOFSHZDSFBUFECZWJCSBUJPO
13. radiate
l. BEFWJDFUIBUDPOWFSUTTPVOEXBWFTJOUP
14. resistor   FMFDUSJDDVSSFOU
15. sound waves m. BEFWJDFUIBUDPOWFSUTFMFDUSJDDVSSFOU
  JOUPTPVOEXBWFT
16. speaker
n. BNBHOFUDSFBUFECZFMFDUSJDJUZGMPXJOH
17. switch   UISPVHIBXJSFDPJMFEBSPVOEBOJSPODPSF
o. BEFWJDFUIBUDIBOHFTFMFDUSJDBMFOFSHZ
  JOUPNFDIBOJDBMFOFSHZ
p. the FOFSHZPGNPUJPO
q. BGPSDFUIBUBUUSBDUTPSQVTIFTBXBZ
  PUIFSNBHOFUT

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Unit Visual Literacy Big


Review Kinds of Energy Idea 5

For each picture, list the kind or kinds of energy that are being
converted from electrical energy (heat, light, sound, or motion). WEEK 5

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

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Unit Hands-on Activity Big


Review Start Your Motor Idea 5

When you think about an electric motor, you might imagine


a complex machine with many moving parts. But, in fact, you WEEK 5
can create your own electric motor using a permanent magnet
and an electromagnet.

What You Need 1. 4FUUIFGMBUIFBE


t nBUIFBENFUBMTDSFX PGUIFNFUBMTDSFX
EPXOPOUPQPGUIF
t EJTDNBHOFU EJTDNBHOFU
t JODIFTPGDPQQFSXJSF
2. -PXFSUIFCBUUFSZTP
t WPMU$CBUUFSZ UIBUJUUPVDIFTUIFUJQ
PGUIFTDSFX
3. -JGUVQUIFCBUUFSZ

4. )PMEPOFFOEPGUIFXJSFUPUIFUPQPGUIF
CBUUFSZ5PVDIUIFTJEFPGUIFNBHOFUXJUI
UIFPUIFSFOEPGUIFXJSF

What Did You Discover?


1. Describe what happened when you lifted up the battery.

2. Describe what happened when you touched the other end of the wire
to the magnet.

3. Which part of the device is the electromagnet? Explain.

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People invented machines to

Big
make work easier.

Idea 6 Key Concept


Simple machines make work easier.

National Standard
People continue inventing new ways of doing things,
solving problems, and getting work done.

I
n this unit, students learn that Teacher Background
work is done by exerting a
force over a distance. They see Machines are everywhere. From buses and cars to
that simple machines make work elevators and ramps; from scissors to watches to
easier, meaning that machines wheelbarrowswe depend on machines to help us
allow you to do work by using less do our work.
force, but there is a trade-off.
All machines rely, in part, on the six simple machines:
When you use less force to do work,
the inclined plane, the lever, the wedge, the wheel and
you have to spread that force over
axle, the pulley, and the screw. In fact, most machines
a longer distance. Students will
are compound machines, which are combinations of
learn the following:
simple machines.
an inclined plane decreases the
Simple machines make it easier to do work by either
amount of force but increases the
changing the direction of force so that the force can be
distance needed to do work;
better used, or by multiplying the output of force. This
the wedge and the screw change latter effect is called mechanical advantage. Some
the direction of the force that is simple machines change the direction of force, some
applied to them;
provide mechanical advantage, and some do both.
a pulley changes the direction of
For specific background information on each weeks
the force applied to it or changes
the amount of force needed to concepts, refer to the notes on pp. 158, 164, 170,
do work; and and 176.

a wheelbarrow is a compound
machine made up of the lever
and the wheel and axle.

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Unit Overview

WEEK 1: Why do some building WEEK 4: How does a wheelbarrow


entrances have ramps? make work easier?
Connection to the Big Idea: Ramps are Connection to the Big Idea: A wheelbarrow
inclined planes, a kind of simple machine. is a compound machine made up of the
lever and the wheel and axle.
This week, students are introduced to simple
machines and the inclined plane. They Students learn that a wheelbarrow is a
learn that the inclined plane makes work compound machine made up of the lever
easier. To understand this, students learn and a wheel and axle. The lever in a
how scientists define work, and how force wheelbarrow makes it easier to lift or lower
and distance are combined to do work. the load, and the wheel and axle overcome
Content Vocabulary: distance, force, inclined friction to let the wheelbarrow roll.
plane, simple machine, work Content Vocabulary: compound machine,
fulcrum, lever, wheel and axle, wheelbarrow
WEEK 2: Whats the difference
between a nail and WEEK 5: Unit Review
a screw? You may choose to do these activities to
Connection to the Big Idea: Screws and review concepts of simple machines.
wedges are simple machines.
p. 182: Comprehension Students answer
This week, students learn that the screw and multiple-choice items about key concepts
wedge are simple machines that change the of the unit.
direction of the force applied to them.
p. 183: Vocabulary Students complete
Content Vocabulary: friction, screw, threads,
wedge a crossword puzzle to show that they
understand unit vocabulary.
WEEK 3: How do elevators work? p. 184: Visual Literacy Students identify
Connection to the Big Idea: Elevators the simple machines that make up some
have pulleys, which are a simple machine. common compound machines.
This week, students learn about the pulley. p. 185: Hands-on Activity Students
They learn that a fixed pulley changes the experiment with levers to see how moving
direction of force, while a movable pulley the fulcrum changes how much force is
reduces the amount of force needed to do needed to lift an object. Review the
work, also called mechanical advantage. materials and instructions on the student
Students then learn that elevators use a page ahead of time.
counterweight to help lift or lower the car.
Content Vocabulary: counterweight, fixed
pulley, load, mechanical advantage, movable
pulley, pulley

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF Big Idea 6 157


Week 1
Why do some building
Idea 6 entrances have ramps?
This weeks lessons build on students familiarity with ramps at
building entrances to discuss inclined planes and how they make doing
work easier. Students will likely need help understanding that the
People invented scientific definition of workthe use of force to move something over
machines to make distancehas nothing to do with effort. Depending on your students
work easier.
ability levels, you may wish to introduce them to the scientific formula
used to calculate work: Work = Force x Distance (W = F x D).

Day One Direct students attention to the illustration on the page. Ask them to point
Vocabulary: inclined out the ramp and to speculate what the ramp is for. (to help people get
plane, simple machine into buildings) Tell students that a ramp is an example of an inclined plane,
Materials: page 159 which is one of the six simple machines. Introduce the vocabulary, have
students complete the page, and then go over the answers together.

Day Two Because students will likely think that work is the same as effort, take
Vocabulary: distance, time to use the vocabulary words force and distance to explain what work
force, work is in scientific terms (the use of force to move something over a certain
Materials: page 160 distance). Students may benefit from doing the page as a group.

Day Three Have students take turns lifting the heavy book and then pushing it up the
Materials: page 161; inclined plane, measuring the distance the book was lifted versus slid up
heavy book, measuring the inclined plane. When students have completed activity A, review the
tape or yardstick, and answers together. Then review the concept of work by asking: Who did
board or other inclined more work, Marco or Maria? (They both did the same amount of work.)
plane
Why is that? (They both moved their bowling balls to the same place.)

Day Four If students have trouble thinking of places to list in activity A, consider
Materials: page 162 doing the activity as a group. If necessary, review the concept of gravity
(the natural force that pulls everything to Earths center) before students
complete activity B. You may also wish to explain that the ladder is an
inclined plane, because it is tilted at an angle. It would be easier to climb
than a ladder that is not tilted. Then review the answers together.

Day Five Have students complete the page independently. Then review the
Materials: page 163 answers together.

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i l y S c i e nc
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Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
Why do some building
Big
Idea 6
1 entrances have ramps?
*GBCVJMEJOHIBTTUBJSTBUUIFFOUSBODF JUQSPCBCMZIBTB
MPOHSBNQMFBEJOHUPUIFEPPS UPP5IBUSBNQJTBOFYBNQMFPG WEEK 1
an inclined plane0OFFOEPGBOJODMJOFEQMBOFJTIJHIFSUIBO
UIFPUIFS*ODMJOFEQMBOFTBSFFWFSZXIFSF3BNQT QMBZHSPVOE
TMJEFT BOEMBEEFSTBSFFYBNQMFTPGJODMJOFEQMBOFT"OJODMJOFE Vocabulary
QMBOFJTBsimple machine4JNQMFNBDIJOFTBSFUPPMTUIBUIFMQ
inclined plane
ZPVEPXPSL in-KLINED playn
a flat surface that
is tilted at an angle
simple machine
SIM-pull muh-
SHEEN
a basic tool that
makes work easier
to do and has few
or no moving parts

A. Complete the analogy.

Inclined plane is to simple machine as .


ramp is to stairs triangle is to shape nails are to hammer

B. Which object in each pair is an inclined plane? Write the word or words.

1. a ramp or a table

2. a swing set or a slide

3. a ladder or a hammer

4. an escalator or an elevator

5. a trail up a hill or a flat sidewalk

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 159


i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
Why do some building
Big
Idea 6
2 entrances have ramps?
*GTJNQMFNBDIJOFTIFMQZPVEPXPSL UIFOXIBUEPXF
NFBOFYBDUMZXIFOXFTBZiworkw 4DJFOUJTUTTBZUIBUworkJT WEEK 1
UIFforce BQQMJFEUPBOPCKFDUUPNPWFJUBDFSUBJOdistance
8IFOZPVXBMLVQTUBJSTPSBMPOHBSBNQ ZPVBSFEPJOHXPSL
:PVBSFBQQMZJOHGPSDFUPNPWFZPVSTFMGBEJTUBODF4DJFOUJTUT Vocabulary
EPOUNFBTVSFXPSLKVTUCZIPXNVDIGPSDFZPVVTFPSIPXGBS
distance
BEJTUBODFZPVUSBWFM5IFZMPPLBUUIFFOESFTVMU4PXIFUIFS DIS-tinss
ZPVVTFTUBJSTPSBSBNQUPSFBDIUIFFOUSBODF UIFBNPVOUPG the amount of
XPSLZPVBSFEPJOHJTUIFTBNF:PVBSFVTJOHMFTTGPSDFPWFS space between
two points
BHSFBUFSEJTUBODFPSNPSFGPSDFPWFSBTIPSUFSEJTUBODF
force
A. Check the box next to the caption that correctly describes forss
a push or pull
what is happening in the picture. that can change
the position of
an object
work
werk
the use of force to
move something
over a distance

The person using the stairs is doing more work.


Both people are doing the same amount of work.
The person using the ramp is doing more work.

B. Use the vocabulary words to complete the sentences.

1. Lifting and tugging are examples of being applied.

2. The between two places can be measured


in inches, feet, or miles.

3. An inclined plane makes it easier for you to do .

160 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ


i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
Why do some building
Big
Idea 6
3 entrances have ramps?
"OJODMJOFEQMBOFNBLFTXPSLFBTJFSUPBDDPNQMJTICZ
SFEVDJOHUIFBNPVOUPGGPSDFZPVNVTUVTFUPNPWFTPNFUIJOH WEEK 1
#VUUIFSFTBUSBEFPGG8IFOZPVVTFMFTTGPSDFUPEPXPSL 
ZPVIBWFUPJODSFBTFUIFEJTUBODF*GZPV
MJGUBIFBWZCPYVQUPBTIFMGGJWFGFFU
JOUIFBJS UIFEJTUBODFJTGJWFGFFU*G
ZPVQVTIBCPYVQBUFOGPPUSBNQUP
UIFTBNFTIFMG UIFEJTUBODFJTUFOGFFU
5IFCPYFOETVQJOUIFTBNFQMBDF
#VUXIFOZPVQVTIUIFCPYVQUIF
SBNQ ZPVBSFVTJOHMFTTGPSDFPWFSB
MPOHFSEJTUBODF5IFGPSDFZPVFYFSU
JTTNBMMFS

A. Read the sentences. Then answer the questions.

Marco lifts his bowling ball up to a shelf that is three feet high.
His sister, Maria, uses an inclined plane that is five feet long to roll
her bowling ball up to the same shelf.

1. Who used more force?

2. Who moved the ball a longer distance?

B. Look at the two inclined planes below. Check the box next to the ramp
that requires more force to move things up it. Explain your answer.

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 161


i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
Why do some building
Big
Idea 6
4 entrances have ramps?
#FDBVTFUIFZBSFJODMJOFEQMBOFT SBNQTJOGSPOUPGCVJMEJOH
FOUSBODFTSFRVJSFMFTTGPSDFUPHPVQUIFNUIBOTUBJSTEP5IJT WEEK 1
NFBOTUIBUQFPQMFJOXIFFMDIBJSTPSQFPQMFXIPIBWFEJGGJDVMUZ
XBMLJOHDBOVTFUIFSBNQTUPHFUJOUPCVJMEJOHT1FPQMFDBO
BMTPQVTIPSDBSSZIFBWZPCKFDUTJOUPCVJMEJOHTNPSFFBTJMZ
3BNQTBSFJNQPSUBOUCFDBVTFUIFZHJWFFWFSZPOFBDDFTTUP
QMBDFTTVDIBTTDIPPMT SFTUBVSBOUT BOEPUIFSQVCMJDCVJMEJOHT

A. Name four places you have been to that have a ramp in front of them.

1. 3.

2. 4.

B. Look at the drawing of a slide. Circle


the two inclined planes in the picture.
Then answer the questions.

1. Which inclined plane requires you to use force?

2. Which inclined plane uses the force of gravity


to do work?

162 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ


i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
Why do some building
Big
Idea 6
5 entrances have ramps?
A. Use the words in the box to complete the paragraph.
WEEK 1
force inclined plane distance
work simple machine

Chandra needed to carry a heavy box up a flight of stairs. To make

the require less effort, she made a ramp. This

ramp, or , was a board that she laid over the steps.

It was an example of a . The

from the bottom of the ramp to the top was ten feet. Chandra applied

and moved the box up the ramp.

B. Check the box below the ramp that makes it easier to move the piano.

C. In your own words, explain how inclined planes make work easier.

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 163


Week 2
Whats the difference
Idea 6 between a nail and a screw?
This week, students increase their understanding of simple machines by
learning the difference between nails and screws. Both nails and screws
change the direction of the force applied to them, but they differ in how
People invented they do this. A screw uses a rotational force. When the screw turns, that
machines to make force becomes motion along a straight line. A nail, on the other hand, is
work easier.
a kind of wedge. When you hammer a nail, the force starts off traveling
in one direction. But some of this force gets redirected sideways, which is
why a wedge can split or push away the material into which it is driven.

Day One Allow students to examine the collection of nails and screws and to make
Vocabulary: screw, observations about the similarities and differences between them. (e.g.,
wedge length, width, threads versus smooth sides) Inform students that both a nail
Materials: page 165; and a screw are simple machines, and that this week they will learn about
variety of nails and how these simple machines operate. After students have finished reading
screws the passage, complete activity A together and ask volunteers to share
their predictions and explain their thinking. Direct students to complete
activity B independently.

Day Two After students have read the passage, have them examine the nails and
Materials: page 166; name the parts. (pole, wedge) Use the hammer to drive a nail into the
nails, hammer, piece wood. Then ask students to find the part of the passage that explains
of wood what happened. (paragraph 2, sentences 2 through 4) After students
have completed the activities, go over the answers together.

Day Three Review how a nail changes the direction of force. Tell students that a screw
Vocabulary: threads changes the force applied to it in a different way. Read the passage and
do the activities together to ensure understanding.
Materials: page 167

Day Four After introducing the vocabulary word, help students understand friction
Vocabulary: friction by asking volunteers to rub the pieces of sandpaper together. Ask: Can
you feel the resistance to movement? Then direct students to read the first
Materials: page 168;
2 pieces of sandpaper paragraph to find out what friction has to do with nails and screws. Explain
that the next paragraph sums up the answer to the weeks question. You
may wish to do the activities together to help students summarize the
concepts.

Day Five Have students complete the page independently. Then review the
Materials: page 169 answers together.

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i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
Whats the difference
Big
Idea 6
1 between a nail and a screw?
*GZPVWFFWFSMPPLFEJOTJEFBNFTTZUPPMCPY ZPVWF
QSPCBCMZGPVOEOBJMTBOETDSFXTNJYFEUPHFUIFS#PUIBSF WEEK 2
UPPMTUIBUIFMQVTIPMEUIJOHTJOQMBDF"OBJMJTBOFYBNQMF
PGBTJNQMFNBDIJOFDBMMFEBwedge"screw JTBOPUIFS
UZQFPGTJNQMFNBDIJOF3FNFNCFSUIBUTJNQMFNBDIJOFT Vocabulary
IFMQVTEPXPSL BOEUIBUXPSLJTUIFVTFPGGPSDFUPNPWF
screw
TPNFUIJOHBDFSUBJOEJTUBODF8IFOZPVVTFBXFEHFPS skroo
BTDSFX UIFGPSDFUIBUZPVBQQMZDIBOHFTEJSFDUJPO a simple machine
that changes a
circular force to
A. Look at the pictures. Then follow the directions.
an up-or-down
f force
orc
e

wedge
wej
a simple machine,
such as a nail
or an ax, that
changes the
angle and
direction of force
1. Use the vocabulary words to label each simple machine.

2. Draw arrows to show how you think the direction of the


force being applied to each simple machine might change.

B. Use words from the passage to complete the sentences.

1. A circular force is applied to a .

2. A nail is an example of a .

3. Screws and wedges are .

4. When you apply force to a nail or a screw,

the force .

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 165


i l y S c i e nc
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Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
Whats the difference
Big
Idea 6
2 between a nail and a screw?
"MMXFEHFTIBWFBXJEFFOEBOEBOBSSPXFOEUIBUDPNFT
UPBQPJOU8IFOZPVBQQMZGPSDFUPUIFXJEFFOE JUUSBWFMT WEEK 2
UISPVHIUIFXFEHFUPUIFOBSSPXFOE#VUBTUIJTGPSDFUSBWFMT 
TPNFUIJOHIBQQFOT5IFGPSDFTQMJUTJOUPEJGGFSFOUEJSFDUJPOT
1BSUPGUIFGPSDFJTEJSFDUFETJEFXBZTUPQVTIUIJOHTPVUPGJUT
XBZ5IJTJTXIZXFEHFT TVDIBTBYFTBOELOJWFT BSFBCMFUP
TQMJUUIJOHTBQBSU
"OBJMJTBQPMFXJUIBXFEHFBUUIFUJQ8IFOZPVIJUBOBJM
XJUIBIBNNFS UIFGPSDFUSBWFMTUISPVHIUIFQPMFUPUIFXFEHF 
BOETPNFPGUIFGPSDFDIBOHFTEJSFDUJPO5IFGPSDFUIBUDIBOHFT
EJSFDUJPOQVTIFTUIFXPPEPVUPGUIFXBZ5IFPUIFSQBSUPGUIF
GPSDFNPWFTUIFOBJMEFFQFSJOUPUIFXPPE

pole wedge

A. All wedges push something out of the way when the force changes direction.
Next to each of these wedges, write what is pushed out of the way.

1. shovel 3. your teeth

2. sewing needle 4. ax

B. When you hit a nail with a hammer, why does the nail go into the wood?
Explain in your own words.

166 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ


i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
Whats the difference
Big
Idea 6
3 between a nail and a screw?
8IFOZPVVTFBTDSFXESJWFS ZPVUVSOBTDSFXDMPDLXJTF
EPXO
PSDPVOUFSDMPDLXJTF VQ
5IFthreadsPOBTDSFX WEEK 2
DIBOHFUIFEJSFDUJPOPGUIFGPSDFUPNPWFUIFTDSFXGPSXBSE
PSCBDLXBSE
"TDSFXTUISFBETBSFBDUVBMMZBOJODMJOFEQMBOFXSBQQFE Vocabulary
BSPVOEBQPMF4PUIFXIPMFTDSFXXPSLTMJLFBOJODMJOFEQMBOF
threads
*UBMMPXTZPVUPVTFMFTTGPSDFUPNPWFUIFTDSFX5IFUSBEFPGG thredz
JTUIBUZPVIBWFUPUVSOBTDSFXNBOZUJNFTUPNPWFJUGPSXBSE the grooved,
EPXO
PSCBDLXBSE VQ
 or spiral, edge
twisted around
the pole of a
A. If you could take apart a screw, it would look something like screw
the illustration below. Use information from the passage to
label the parts of the screw.

B. Complete the analogy.

Nail is to wedge as screw is to .

pole inclined plane screwdriver

C. If you turn a screwdriver one direction and the screw goes into the wood,
what will happen if you turn the screwdriver the other direction?

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i l y S c i e nc
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Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
Whats the difference
Big
Idea 6
4 between a nail and a screw?
#PUITDSFXTBOEOBJMTBSFVTFEUPIPMEUIJOHTJOQMBDF5IJT
XPSLTCFDBVTFPGUIFfriction CFUXFFOBOBJMPSTDSFXBOEUIF WEEK 2
TVSGBDFJUJTBUUBDIFEUP-POH UIJDLOBJMTPSTDSFXTXJMMDSFBUFNPSF
GSJDUJPOUIBOTIPSU UIJOOBJMTPSTDSFXT4PMPOHFS UIJDLFSOBJMTBOE
TDSFXTBSFCFTUGPSLFFQJOHIFBWZUIJOHTJOQMBDF Vocabulary
5IFCJHHFTUEJGGFSFODFCFUXFFOBOBJMBOEBTDSFXJTIPX
friction
FBDIUPPMDIBOHFTUIFGPSDFXFBQQMZUPJU#FDBVTFBOBJMJTB FRIK-shun
LJOEPGXFEHF TPNFPGUIFEPXOXBSEGPSDFPGUIFIBNNFS the resistance to
HPFTTJEFXBZT"TDSFX POUIFPUIFSIBOE TUBSUTXJUIBGPSDF movement caused
when two surfaces
UIBUJTBQQMJFECZUVSOJOH5IFUISFBETPOBTDSFXUVSODJSDVMBS
touch
GPSDFJOUPGPSXBSEPSCBDLXBSEGPSDF#VUCPUIUIFXFEHFBOE
UIFTDSFXDIBOHFUIFEJSFDUJPOPGUIFGPSDFUPNBLFXPSLFBTJFS

A. Why do long, thick nails hold up heavier objects better than


short, thin nails do?

B. List two similarities between a nail and a screw.

1.

2.

C. List two differences between a nail and a screw.

1.

2.

168 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ


i l y S c i e nc
Da e
Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
Whats the difference
Big
Idea 6
5 between a nail and a screw?
A. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences.
WEEK 2
screw wedge friction threads

1. A knife is an example of a .

2. The on a screw are an inclined plane.

3. You apply circular force to a .

4. Nails and screws use the force of


to hold things in place.

B. Write true or false.

1. Both nails and screws have a pole.

2. The same direction of force is applied to both a nail


and a screw.

3. A hammer is used to apply force to a screw.

4. A wedge can change downward force to sideways force.

C. Write whether each object uses a screw or a wedge.

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 169


Week 3
How do elevators work?
Idea 6 This week, students are introduced to another simple machine, the
pulley. Pulleys are wheels with grooves that hold ropes or cables. The
grooves keep the rope or cable from slipping off the pulley. A pulley can
either be fixed or movable. Fixed pulleys, like those used in elevators,
change the direction of the force that is applied to them. They are used
People invented
to lift and lower objects. Movable pulleys travel with the load. They
machines to make
work easier. provide mechanical advantage, which means that they make it easier
to lift or lower a load.

Day One Begin by asking students to guess when elevators were invented. Record
Vocabulary: load, pulley their guesses on the board. Then introduce the vocabulary and have
students read the passage. When students have finished, explain that the
Materials: page 171
pulley, like all simple machines, is very old. Then have students complete
the activities. Review the answers together, and direct students to locate
information from the passage that supports their answers. For the oral
activity, pair students or discuss it as a group.

Day Two Introduce the vocabulary word and explain that a fixed pulley is fixed in
Vocabulary: fixed pulley place, so it does not move. If students are having trouble with activity C,
prompt them to think about what the two situations have in common.
Materials: page 172
(reaching a place you cant get to)

Day Three Introduce the vocabulary. Inform students that mechanical advantage
Vocabulary: mechanical means that the amount of force needed to do work is reduced, and that
advantage, movable scientists use different formulas to measure the mechanical advantage
pulley that different machines provide. Tell students that in a pulley system,
Materials: page 173 each movable pulley further reduces the amount of force needed to do
work, making it easy to lift heavy objects. Then do the activity together
as a group. If students are having trouble with item 3, provide them with
some examples of movable pulleys. (e.g., cranes, flag raisers)

Day Four Introduce the vocabulary word and instruct students to look at the diagram
Vocabulary: before they read the passage and complete the activity. When students
counterweight have finished, review the answers together. Ask individuals to explain in
Materials: page 174 their own words the action indicated in the drawing. (e.g., The motor turns
the pulley and the car lifts or lowers while the weight lowers or lifts.)

Day Five Have students complete the page independently. Then go over
Materials: page 175 answers together.

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Name __________________________________________________________

Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 6
1 How do elevators work?
5IFGJSTUFMFWBUPSBCPVU ZFBSTBHPXBTQSPCBCMZ
OPUIJOHNPSFUIBOBSPQFUJFEUPBCPYBOEUISPXOPWFSB WEEK 3
CSBODI5PEBZ FMFWBUPSTBSFTBGFS GBTUFS BOEQPXFSFECZ
FMFDUSJDJUZ CVUUIFJSEFTJHOIBTOUDIBOHFENVDI"MMFMFWBUPST
IBWFBDBSUIBUMJGUTQFPQMFBOEUIJOHT.PTUFMFWBUPSTVTF Vocabulary
pulleysBOEDBCMFTUIBUBSFBUUBDIFEUPUIFDBS
load
"QVMMFZJTBTJNQMFNBDIJOF*UJTBXIFFMXJUI lohd
BEFFQHSPPWFJOJU"SPQFPSDBCMFGJUTJOUPUIF something that
HSPPWF1VMMFZTDBODIBOHFUIFEJSFDUJPOPGGPSDF  is carried or
moved
UIFBNPVOUPGGPSDFOFFEFE PSCPUIUIFEJSFDUJPO
BOEUIFBNPVOUPGGPSDFUPMJGUBOEMPXFSBload pulley
PULL-ee
A. Use words from the passage to complete a simple
machine made
the sentences.
of a wheel with
a grooved rim
1. The is a simple machine. over which a
rope or cable
2. A pulley is made of a that has is looped

a for rope or cable.

3. Todays are powered by electricity.

B. Write true or false.

1. An elevator uses a pulley and a cable to move a car.

2. A pulley is a simple machine.

3. Pulleys can change only the direction of force.

Talk
According to the passage, how is a pulley like an inclined plane?
How is it like a screw? Tell a partner.

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Name __________________________________________________________

Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 6
2 How do elevators work?
5IFQVMMFZUIBUFMFWBUPSTVTFJTDBMMFEBfixed pulley"GJYFE
QVMMFZEPFTOUDIBOHFUIFBNPVOUPGGPSDFZPVOFFEUPEPXPSL  WEEK 3
CVUJUEPFTDIBOHFUIFEJSFDUJPOPGUIBUGPSDF"QVMMFZSPUBUFT 
PSUVSOT UIFGPSDF8IFOZPVQVMMEPXO UIFQVMMFZDIBOHFTUIF
EJSFDUJPOPGUIFGPSDFUPMJGUUIFMPBEVQ'JYFEQVMMFZTIFMQVTEP
Vocabulary
XPSL CFDBVTFQFPQMFGJOEJUFBTJFSUPQVMMEPXOUIBOUPMJGUVQ
fixed pulley
1VMMFZTDBOBMTPIFMQVTMJGUPSMPXFSUIJOHTUIBUNJHIUCFUPPIJHI fixt PULL-ee
PSUPPMPXGPSQFPQMFUPSFBDICZUIFNTFMWFT a pulley that
is attached to
A. Draw arrows to show something and
does not move
how a pulley changes
the direction of force.

B. Write true or false.

1. Fixed pulleys are pulleys that stay in place.

2. A fixed pulley reduces the amount of force you need


to do work.

3. A fixed pulley is best used for lifting or lowering things


too heavy to lift by yourself.

C. If a fixed pulley doesnt change the amount of force you use to


do work, how might a pulley be good to do the following?

1. raise a flag

2. lower a bucket into a well

172 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ


i l y S c i e nc
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Name __________________________________________________________

Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 6
3 How do elevators work?
/PUBMMQVMMFZTBSFGJYFEJOQMBDF4PNFQVMMFZTNPWFXJUI
UIFMPBEUIFZBSFMJGUJOHPSMPXFSJOH5IFTFQVMMFZT DBMMFE WEEK 3
movable pulleys SFEVDFUIFBNPVOUPGGPSDFZPVOFFEUP
EPUIFXPSL KVTUMJLFTPNFPUIFSTJNQMFNBDIJOFTEP8F
DBONFBTVSFUIBUDIBOHFJOUIFBNPVOUPGGPSDFOFFEFE Vocabulary
8IFOBNBDIJOFBMMPXTZPVUPEPXPSLXJUIMFTTGPSDF JU
mechanical
QSPWJEFTmechanical advantage advantage
'JYFEQVMMFZTBOENPWBCMF fixed meh-KAN-ih-kul
QVMMFZTDBOCFVTFEUPHFUIFSJO pulleys ad-VAN-tej
the number of
QVMMFZTZTUFNT&WFSZUJNFZPV
times a machine
BEEBOPUIFSNPWBCMFQVMMFZUP multiplies the
BQVMMFZTZTUFN ZPVJODSFBTF force put into it
UIFNFDIBOJDBMBEWBOUBHF#VU movable movable
SFNFNCFS UIFSFTBUSBEFPGG:PV pulley pulley
DBOUEFDSFBTFUIFBNPVOUPGGPSDF MOO-vuh-bul
PULL-ee
ZPVOFFEUPEPUIFXPSLXJUIPVU a pulley that
JODSFBTJOHUIFEJTUBODF'PSQVMMFZT  moves with
UIJTNFBOTZPVOFFEBMPUPGSPQF the load

Answer the questions.

1. How does mechanical advantage help you do work?

2. How would you increase mechanical advantage in a pulley system?

3. A zip line is used to move a person or an object across a gap between


high places. Why do you think a zip line uses movable pulleys?

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Name __________________________________________________________

Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 6
4 How do elevators work?
&MFWBUPSTUIBUVTFQVMMFZTBMTPVTFBcounterweightUP
CBMBODFUIFXFJHIUPGUIFDBS5IFDBCMFJTBUUBDIFEUPUIFDBS WEEK 3
POPOFFOEBOEUIFDPVOUFSXFJHIUPOUIFPUIFSFOE BOEJU
QBTTFTUISPVHIBQVMMFZUIBUJTBUUBDIFEUPBOFMFDUSJDNPUPS
5IFDPVOUFSXFJHIUXFJHITBCPVUUIFTBNFBTUIFDBS Vocabulary
XPVMEXJUIBOBWFSBHFOVNCFSPGQFPQMFJOJU(SBWJUZQVMMT
counterweight
POCPUIUIFDPVOUFSXFJHIUBOEUIFDBS CBMBODJOHUIFN5IJT KOWN-tur-WAYT
SFEVDFTUIFBNPVOUPGGPSDFUIFFMFDUSJDNPUPSOFFETUPNPWF a heavy weight
UIFFMFWBUPS5IFFMFDUSJDNPUPSEPFTUIFMFBTUBNPVOUPGXPSL used to balance
the weight of an
XIFOBDBSIBTBOBWFSBHFOVNCFSPGSJEFST8JUINPSFPS
elevator car
GFXFSQFPQMF UIFNPUPSIBTUPXPSLIBSEFSUPNPWFUIFDBS
BOEUIFDPVOUFSXFJHIU

Look at the diagram of


a typical elevator. Then
follow the instructions.

1. Using information from the passage, label the following:

car pulley cable counterweight motor

2. Draw an arrow next to the elevator car to show the direction


in which it is moving.

174 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ


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Name __________________________________________________________

Day Weekly Question Big


Idea 6
5 How do elevators work?
A. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences.
WEEK 3
fixed counterweight
movable mechanical advantage

1. The weight of an elevator car is balanced by the .

2. A pulley moves with the load.

3. Elevators use pulleys.

4. If a machine provides , it allows you


to use less force to do work.

B. Look at the diagram and then follow the instructions.

1. Label the fixed pulley, the movable pulley, and the pulley system.

2. Circle the pulley that provides the greatest mechanical advantage.

3. Draw an arrow next to each section of rope to show the direction


in which the force on that rope is traveling.

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 175


Week 4
How does a wheelbarrow
Idea 6 make work easier?
This week, students learn about two more simple machines, the lever
and the wheel and axle, and how they work together in a wheelbarrow,
which is a compound machine. The wheelbarrow is a container that is
People invented lifted and lowered by an attached lever and moved with the help of a
machines to make wheel and axle. The wheelbarrow lever provides mechanical advantage,
work easier.
allowing a person to easily lift and lower a heavy load. The wheel
overcomes friction, allowing the load to be easily moved.

Day One Review the definition of mechanical advantage, and tell students that this
Vocabulary: lever, wheel week they will learn how a wheelbarrow provides mechanical advantage.
and axle, wheelbarrow Ask how many students have used a wheelbarrow and what theyve used
Materials: page 177 it for. Introduce the vocabulary and explain that the wheelbarrow has two
types of simple machines: the lever and the wheel and axle. Have students
read the passage and complete the questions. Before students do the oral
activity, discuss who uses a wheelbarrow now and whether it was used
more in the past. (Since today we use motorized machines to do the heavy
lifting and carrying, the wheelbarrow was used more in the past.)

Day Two Introduce the vocabulary word by placing the eraser on a desk and placing
Vocabulary: fulcrum the ruler on the eraser. Point out that you have made a lever, and the
eraser is the fulcrum. As students read the passage, direct their attention
Materials: page 178;
ruler and eraser to the examples of each type of lever. (seesaw, wheelbarrow, fishing rod)
Have students complete the activities. You may want to complete activity B
as a group. Invite volunteers to share their answers.

Day Three After students have finished reading the passage, clarify that a bicycle uses
Materials: page 179 gears and chains to transfer energy from the axle to the wheel, and that
a tricycle has the pedals attached directly to the wheel. Have students
complete the activities. Help them to visualize the machines in activity C.
Then review the answers together.

Day Four After introducing students to the vocabulary word and reading the
Vocabulary: compound passage, direct their attention to the three illustrations of compound
machine machines. Allow students to examine an actual pair of scissors and can
Materials: page 180; opener before they complete the activities. Then discuss the answers.
scissors, can opener You may want to ask students how the tools in activity A demonstrate
mechanical advantage.

Day Five Have students complete the page independently. Then review the
Materials: page 181 answers together.

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Day
Weekly Question
Big
How does a wheelbarrow Idea 6
1
make work easier?
WheelbarrowsIBWFCFFOVTFEJOBMNPTUFWFSZDVMUVSFGPS
UIPVTBOETPGZFBST1FPQMFSFDPHOJ[FEUIBUIBWJOHBDPOUBJOFS WEEK 4
UIFZDPVMEFBTJMZMJGUBOENPWFXPVMEIFMQUIFNEPNPSFXPSL
8IFFMCBSSPXTQSPWJEFNFDIBOJDBMBEWBOUBHFCZKPJOJOHB
DPOUBJOFSXJUIUXPTJNQMFNBDIJOFT5IFTJNQMFNBDIJOFTBSF Vocabulary
UIFleverBOEwheel and axle lever
LEH-vur
a simple machine
with a bar that
allows heavy
objects to be lifted
or moved
wheel and axle
weel and AX-ul
container a simple machine
made from a wheel
lever rotating around
a fixed point
wheelbarrow
wheel and axle WEEL-bare-oh
a machine used
Answer the questions. for carrying heavy
loads, made up of
1. What are the three parts of a wheelbarrow? a wheel and axle,
a lever, and a
container

2. Which parts of a wheelbarrow are simple machines?

Talk
Who uses a wheelbarrow now? Do you think wheelbarrows are used
more today or hundreds of years ago? Why do you think that?
Tell a partner.

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Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
Big
How does a wheelbarrow Idea 6
2
make work easier?
5IFIBOEMFTPOBXIFFMCBSSPXBSFFYBNQMFTPGBMFWFS
-FWFSTBSFDPNNPOMZVTFEUPMJGUBMPBE"MFWFSTJUTPOBQPJOU WEEK 4
DBMMFEUIFfulcrum5IFGVMDSVNJTXIFSFUIFMFWFSQJWPUT PS
NPWFT0OUIFXIFFMCBSSPX UIFGVMDSVNJTUIFBYMFPGUIF
XIFFM8IFOZPVQVTIEPXOPSQVMMVQPOUIFIBOEMF JU Vocabulary
QJWPUT PSNPWFT POUIFGVMDSVNUPSBJTFPSMPXFSUIFMPBE
fulcrum
5IFQPTJUJPOTPGUIFGVMDSVNBOEUIFMPBEDIBOHFUIFMFWFST FULL-krum
NFDIBOJDBMBEWBOUBHFBOEUIFEJSFDUJPOPGUIFGPSDF the point of
5IFSFBSFUISFFLJOETPGMFWFST EFQFOEJOHPOUIFQPTJUJPOT support on which
a lever pivots
PGUIFGPSDF UIFGVMDSVN BOEUIFMPBE

When the fulcrum is between you and the load,


pushing down will lift the load and lifting up will
lower the load.

When the load is between you and the fulcrum,


the load is easier to lift or lower, but the direction
of the force does not change.

When you are between the load and the fulcrum,


a small movement in force causes the load to
move farther.

A. Write a sentence that explains how the lever in a wheelbarrow works.

B. Name four examples of levers that you have seen or used.

1. 3.

2. 4.
178 #JH*EFBt8FFL %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ
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Day
Weekly Question
Big
How does a wheelbarrow Idea 6
3
make work easier?
"XIFFMBOEBYMFIFMQTZPVEPXPSLCZDIBOHJOHBQVTIPS
BQVMMJOUPBGPSDFUIBUSPUBUFT PSTQJOT8JUIXIFFMCBSSPXT JUT WEEK 4
NVDIFBTJFSUPQVTIBMPBESPMMJOHPOBXIFFMUIBOUPESBHUIF
MPBEBMPOHUIFHSPVOE
"XIFFMBOEBYMFBMTPDSFBUFTNFDIBOJDBMBEWBOUBHF8IFO
UIFBYMFSPUBUFT UIFXIFFMNPWFTBHSFBUFSEJTUBODFUIBOUIF
BYMFEPFT'PSFYBNQMF XIFOZPVSJEFBCJDZDMF ZPVSGPPUUVSOT
UIFQFEBM XIJDIJTDPOOFDUFEUPUIFBYMF5IFXIFFMNPWFT
NPSFUIBOZPVSGPPUEPFT4PZPVDPOUSJCVUFMFTTGPSDFUPNPWF
BHSFBUFSEJTUBODFUIBOZPVXPVMENPWFJGZPVXBMLFE

A. Draw arrows pointing to a wheel and axle in each illustration.

B. Write true or false.

1. A wheel and axle can create mechanical advantage.

2. In a bicycle, the wheel moves a shorter distance when


more force is applied to the pedal.

C. In each example below, tell whether the force applied is directed


to the wheel or to the axle.

1. a faucet handle 3. a steering wheel

2. a spinning top 4. an airplane propeller

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Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
Big
How does a wheelbarrow Idea 6
4
make work easier?
When two or more simple machines are put together, you
get a compound machine. Compound machines can be basic, WEEK 4
such as a wheelbarrow or a can opener, or they can be very
complex, such as a car. But even very complicated mechanical
tools can be broken down into several simple machines. Vocabulary
Without machines, life and work would be much more
compound
difficult. Simple and compound machines make our lives better machine
by saving us time and energy. For thousands of years, people KOM-pound
have depended on machines. The world would not be the muh-SHEEN
a combination of
same without them.
simple machines
used to simplify
A. Name the simple machines that make up each tasks
compound machine.

1. 2. 3.

B. Complete the analogy.

Simple machine is to compound machine as .

nail is to screw wheelbarrow is to car


wheelbarrow is to lever lever is to scissors

180 Big Idea 6 Week 4 Daily Science EMC 5014 Evan-Moor Corp.
i l y S c i e nc
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Name __________________________________________________________

Day
Weekly Question
Big
How does a wheelbarrow Idea 6
5
make work easier?
A. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences.
WEEK 4
lever wheel and axle
fulcrum compound machine

1. A is what the lever balances on.

2. A seesaw is an example of a .

3. A uses two or more simple machines.

4. A bike has more than one .

B. Answer true or false.

1. A wheelbarrow is a simple machine.

2. The handles of a wheelbarrow act as a lever.

3. A wheel and axle can change the direction of force.

4. It is easier to drag something than to carry it


in a wheelbarrow.

C. In the left box, draw something that has a lever with a fulcrum. In the right box,
draw something with a wheel and axle. Then label each simple machine.

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Name __________________________________________________________

Unit Comprehension Big


Review Simple Machines Idea 6

Fill in the bubble next to the correct answer.


WEEK 5
1. Which of these lists contains ONLY simple machines?
A wedge, wheelbarrow, lever, pulley
B pulley, wheel and axle, screw, inclined plane
C lever, fulcrum, hammer, screw
D wheel and axle, inclined plane, scissors, wedge

2. An inclined plane requires less but a greater to do work.


A force, load C force, distance
B distance, force D load, distance

3. An ax is an example of a(n) .
A pulley C screw
B wedge D axle

4. The simple machine in an elevator is the .


A pulley C wedge
B inclined plane D wheel and axle

5. Mechanical advantage changes the .


A direction of force C simple machine being used
B output of force D amount of work being done

6. The simple machines in a wheelbarrow are .


A a lever and a pulley C a wheel and axle and a lever
B an inclined plane and a wheel D a lever and a wedge

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Unit Vocabulary Big


Review Puzzle It Idea 6
Out
Select from the list of vocabulary words to complete the puzzle.
1
WEEK 5
2

compound machine
3 counterweight
4 distance
fixed pulley
5 6
force
7 friction
fulcrum
inclined plane
lever
8 load
mechanical advantage
9
movable pulley
pulley
screw
simple machine
threads
10 wedge
wheel and axle
wheelbarrow
11 work

ACROSS DOWN
1. An ax is an example of this. 1. the simple machine found on a bicycle
4. an inclined plane wrapped around 2. a pulley that does not move with
a post the load
7. a combination of simple machines 3. resistance to movement when two
9. a simple machine made of a wheel surfaces touch
with a grooved rim 4. one of six tools that makes work easier
10. the space between two places 5. the use of force to move a load a
11. a push or a pull that can change distance
somethings position 6. A seesaw is an example of this.
8. the point on which a lever pivots or turns
&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 183
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Unit
Visual Literacy
Big
Review
Looking at Compound Idea 6
Machines
Identify the simple machines that make up each of
the compound machines below. WEEK 5

can opener fishing pole drill

1. 1. 1.

2. 2. 2.

3.

scissors shovel bicycle

1. 1. 1.

2. 2. 2.

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Unit Hands-on Activity Big


Review Learn About Idea 6
Levers

Try this simple experiment to see how the position of a fulcrum


changes the amount of force you need to lift a book. WEEK 5

What You Need 1."TTFNCMFZPVSMFWFSCZUBQJOHUIFDPOUBJOFS


t SVMFS UPUIFFOEPGUIFSVMFSBUUIFJODINBSL

t CMPDLPSPUIFSTUBCMFPCKFDU 2.4FUUIFSVMFSPOUIFGVMDSVNBUUIFJODINBSL
UPBDUBTUIFGVMDSVN
3.1MBDFUIFCPPLPOUIFFOEPGUIFSVMFSBUUIF
t QBQFSCBDLCPPL JODINBSL
t MJHIUXFJHIUDPOUBJOFSTVDI
BTBTNBMMQMBTUJDUVC 4. "EENBSCMFTUPUIFDPOUBJOFSVOUJMUIFCPPL
JTSBJTFEJOUPUIFBJS
t NBSCMFT
t NBTLJOHUBQF 5. 3FQFBUTUFQXJUIUIFGVMDSVNVOEFSUIFSVMFS
BUUIFJODINBSLBOEUIFJODINBSL

What Did You Discover?

1. How many marbles did it take to lift the book when the fulcrum
was at the following marks?

3 inches: 6 inches: 9 inches:

2. Describe the change in force needed to lift the book when you moved
the fulcrum each time.

3. Use math to figure out how many marbles it would take to lift the book
if the fulcrum were at the following marks:

4 inches: 7 inches:

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF #JH*EFBt8FFL 185


Answer Key
Big Idea 1: Week 1 Day 1 Big Idea 1: Week 2 Day 2 Big Idea 1: Week 3 Day 3
A. 1. true 3. false A. A. Answers will varye.g.,
2. false 4. true The honeybee is smaller.
B. 1. dams 3. safety/shelter/ The bumblebee is larger. Both
2. deep a hiding place have wings and six legs. The
TALK: Answers will vary. bumblebee has a fatter back end.
These plants are angiosperms
The bumblebee has more hair.
Big Idea 1: Week 1 Day 2 because they have flowers.
B.
B. 1. angiosperms
build from mud, Honeybee Bumblebee

A. sticks, and logs


Pollinates flowers
2. pollinate Drinks nectar from flowers

3. pollinators/bees/insects Produces large amounts of honey


Creates honeycomb filled with honey

entrances C. Flowers attract pollinators. Often dies in the winter


The lodge walls are thick and made of mud, sticks and logs.
Answers will varye.g., When flowers are pollinated, Depends on flowers for survival

The lodge walls are thick and they produce fruit and seeds to
make new angiosperms. Big Idea 1: Week 3 Day 4
are made from mud, sticks,
and logs. A. b, a, c
Big Idea 1: Week 2 Day 3
B. 1. lodge 3. entrance; TALK: Answers will vary.
A. 1. seeds 3. scatter
2. pond underwater Big Idea 1: Week 3 Day 5
2. digestive 4. fruit
C. Answers will varye.g.,
B. 1. true 2. false 3. false A. a, c, b
Those animals cant or wont
C. Answers will varye.g., People B. 4, 1, 5, 2, 6, 3
hunt in the water.
plant seeds. People feed seeds to C. 1. Bees pollinate flowers.
Big Idea 1: Week 1 Day 3 animals. People throw seeds on 2. Bees pollinate crops.
A. Beavers use logs they gather in the ground when they finish 3. Bees make honey.
the summer as food during the eating. D. Answers will varye.g., Only
winter. some bees make honey.
Big Idea 1: Week 2 Day 4
B. Beavers eat trees and use them Honeybees make a lot of honey.
A. 1. sterile 2. mutation
to build their lodges and dams. Big Idea 1: Week 4 Day 1
B. Answers will vary.
Big Idea 1: Week 1 Day 4 Seedless fruit that you like to eat Fruit that you wish didnt have seeds A. 4, 1, 3, 2
A. Answers will vary. Answers will varygrapes, Answers will varycherries, B. Birds would hoard sunflower
blueberries, watermelons, raspberries, apples,
Positive Effects Negative Effects oranges, pineapple mangoes, strawberries
seeds because seeds last longer
create new wetland
than worms do.
destroy trees
habitats Big Idea 1: Week 2 Day 5 C. Animals in tropical places
slow soil erosion cause silt to build up and
flood the land behind them A. 1. mutation 4. sterile wouldnt need to hoard food
2. pollination 5. Pollen, because the plants grow all
B. 1. silt 3. wetland 3. angiosperms ovary year-round.
2. Erosion B. 4, 1, 5, 2, 3 Big Idea 1: Week 4 Day 2
Big Idea 1: Week 1 Day 5 C. Answers will varye.g., A. Fat provides energy.
Angiosperms have flowers and
A. 1. silt 4. wetland Body fat can be stored for
make seeds.
2. habitat 5. erosion later use.
3. lodge Big Idea 1: Week 3 Day 1 B. winter, food, fat, more, energy
B. Dams create ponds that are A. proboscis, nectar Big Idea 1: Week 4 Day 3
deep enough not to freeze solid B. 1. allows the bee to get
in winter. 1. dormant 3. dormant
nectar that is hard to reach
Dams create ponds that 2. hibernating 4. hibernating
2. allows the bee to collect
beavers can hide in. pollen easily Big Idea 1: Week 4 Day 4
C. 1. false 3. true 5. false
A. Plants are still growing and
2. false 4. true Big Idea 1: Week 3 Day 2
producing food in warmer places.
A. Answers will varye.g., Worker
Big Idea 1: Week 2 Day 1 Animals are not hibernating
bees build the honeycomb
A. 3, 1, 4, 2 and so are easier to find and eat.
with wax from their glands.
B. It would hurt the plants ability Water is available to drink
Worker bees mold the honeycomb
to spread because the plant because lakes and ponds are
with their mouths and feet.
could not make seeds. not frozen.
B. 3, 1, 4, 2 B. The wolves migrate, too.

186 Daily Science EMC 5014 Evan-Moor Corp.


Big Idea 1: 8FFLt%BZ #JH*EFB8FFLt%BZ #JH*EFB8FFLt%BZ
A. 1. migrate 3. hoard A. 1. true 2. false 3. false A. 1. b 2. c 3. a
2. dormant 4. hibernate B. 1. better 2. better 3. worse B. 3, 2, 1
B. 1. true 3. true TALK: Answers will varye.g., C. 1. Both are microscopic.
2. false 4. true Gardeners can make sure the 2. Both can be infectious.
C. compost is damp and warm and
beaver t t BDPSOT
#JH*EFB8FFLt%BZ
keep chemicals out of the compost.
wolf t t CSBODIFT
A. b, a, c
#JH*EFB8FFLt%BZ B. antibodies, immune system,
squirrel t t IPOFZ A. bacteria, mold, fungus, viruses, reproduce
decomposers, absorb #JH*EFB8FFLt%BZ
honeybee t t DBSJCPV
B. 1. false 2. true 3. false
1. They break down food we eat,
Big Idea 1: 8FFLt6OJU3FWJFX C. Answers will varye.g.,
which helps us absorb nutrients.
When decomposers break
A. 1. A 2. B 3. D 4. A 5. D 2. Antibiotics could kill the good
down garbage, they produce
B. Answers will varye.g., bacteria we need to stay healthy.
substances that we smell as
1. Bees pollinate flowers. 3. They will get new bacteria to
unpleasant odors.
2. Plants provide food and replace the bacteria that may
shelter for animals. #JH*EFB8FFLt%BZ be destroyed in their digestive
3. Animals eat fruit and A. 1. true 4. true system.
distribute seeds. 2. false 5. false #JH*EFB8FFLt%BZ
Big Idea 1: 8FFLt6OJU3FWJFX 3. false A. 1. Some bacteria break down
B. Answers will varye.g., oil or toxic substances.
A. 1. b 5. a 9. h
Bacteria are decomposers. 2. Bacteria could be used to
2. i 6. j 10. d
They probably break down your convert garbage into energy.
3. g 7. c
teeth and cause them to decay. B. Answers will varye.g., The
4. e 8. f
B. habitat, nectar, pollen, #JH*EFB8FFLt%BZ scientist could put the bacteria
pollinate, ovary on several different things,
A. bacteria, acid, dissolve
such as oil or trash, and study
Big Idea 1: 8FFLt6OJU3FWJFX B. "QFSTPOFBUT #BDUFSJB
TPNFUIJOH
Bacteria break
QSPEVDF
down sugar.
Acid dissolves
your teeth. the bacteria for a certain
TXFFU BDJE
1. A 2. D 3. B amount of time to see if it
#JH*EFB8FFLt%BZ breaks down any of those
Big Idea 1: 8FFLt6OJU3FWJFX things.
A. enamel
Answers will vary.
dentin #JH*EFB8FFLt%BZ
#JH*EFB8FFLt%BZ pulp A. 1. d 2. c 3. b 4. a 5. e
A. 1. recycle nutrients B. 1. true 3. false 5. false
2. enrich the soil 2. true 4. true 6. true
3. get rid of the waste B. 3, 2, 5, 1, 4 C. Answers will varye.g., If a
B. 1. true 2. true 3. false person coughs or sneezes, he
C. Answers will varye.g., #JH*EFB8FFLt%BZ or she can spread viruses or
landfills, forests, in your home, c, a, d, b bacteria through the air. If
in lakes TALK: Answers will varye.g., another person breathes in
Flossing removes food stuck the virus or bacteria, that
#JH*EFB8FFLt%BZ person might become ill.
A. Fill in the chart with facts about bacteria. between your teeth that bacteria
A. Size of bacteria smallest decomposers could use to produce acid and
#JH*EFB8FFLt%BZ
Where bacteria live every ecosystem dissolve the enamel.
A. 1. microorganisms
How bacteria eat absorb food
#JH*EFB8FFLt%BZ 2. nutrients
B. Answers will varye.g., A. plaque, acid, dissolve, cavity B. leaking water pipe, locker room,
Bacteria live and grow better B. garbage can
enamel
in warm places than they do dentin #JH*EFB8FFLt%BZ
in cold places. pulp A. 1. true 2. true 3. false
#JH*EFB8FFLt%BZ B. 1. It is safe when the mold has
A. 1. fungus 2. Mold 3. absorb been added to the food on
B. Mushrooms are fungi. Fungi The pulp is the part of the tooth purpose.
cannot make their own food that can become infected. 2. Mold and bacteria that you
like plants do. C. 1. false 3. true cannot see may still be in
the food.
C. C 2. true 4. true
&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF 187
#JH*EFB8FFLt%BZ Big Idea 3: 8FFLt%BZ Big Idea 3: 8FFLt%BZ
A. 3, 1, 4, 2 A. Water seeped into cracks in the 1. 150 years 3. 19502000
B. 1. the yeast is not warm enough rocks and froze in the winter. 2. 19001950
to reproduce. When the water froze, it TALK: Answers will varye.g.,
2. it is full of gas. expanded and pushed the sea levels would rise, the land
3. the yeast is killed. rocks apart. would change, the climate would
Then the pull of gravity caused change, animal habitats would
#JH*EFB8FFLt%BZ sections of the canyon wall to change, etc.
A. 1. antibiotic 3. antibiotic collapse, making the canyon
2. penicillin 4. penicillin Big Idea 3: 8FFLt%BZ
wider.
B. 1. D 2. B B. 1. water 3. wind A. 1. moraines 4. meltwater
2. ice 4. gravity 2. glaciers 5. retreat
#JH*EFB8FFLt%BZ
TALK: Answers will vary. 3. basins
A. yeast, fungus, microorganisms, B. 1. false 3. true
nutritious, antibiotic, penicillin Big Idea 3: 8FFLt%BZ 2. true 4. false
B. 1. true 4. false 1. Flooding might prevent the C. As layers of snow build up,
2. false 5. true saltcedar from growing too the top layers add pressure to
3. true thick. The floodwater will also the bottom layers, turning
#JH*EFB8FFLt6OJU3FWJFX wash away some of the them into dense ice.
built-up salt.
A. 1. D 2. A 3. C 4. D 5. B Big Idea 3: 8FFLt%BZ
2. Flooding will create sandbars
B. Answers will varye.g.,
for the fish to lay eggs. A.
1. They break down garbage crust mantle
Flooding will also help the fish
to get rid of it. outer core
find food.
2. They enrich the soil with inner core

nutrients. Big Idea 3: 8FFLt%BZ B. 1. mantle, crust


A. 1. channels 4. weathering 2. crust, mantle
#JH*EFB8FFLt6OJU3FWJFX
2. uplifted 5. ecosystems C. Answers will varye.g.,
1. j 7. s 13. f 19. l 3. erosion 6. expanded The core would be densest
2. v 8. h 14. b 20. a B. 1. B 2. C because it is underneath the
3. q 9. r 15. u 21. i C. Glen Canyon Dam blocked the mantle and crust. The heaviest
4. d 10. g 16. c 22. k Colorado River. This harmed materials would sink to the
5. n 11. p 17. e the ecosystem. core.
6. o 12. t 18. m Now the dam occasionally
releases lots of water to help Big Idea 3: 8FFLt%BZ
#JH*EFB8FFLt6OJU3FWJFX
the ecosystem. A. 1. true 2. false 3. true
1. 2029 years old
B. 1. They are both hot.
2. more than 60 years old Big Idea 3: 8FFLt%BZ 2. Lava is liquid, but rock
3. 2029 years old A. 1. must be cold year-round in the mantle is solid.
4. Tooth decay is a smaller 2. more snow must fall than C. Answers will varye.g.,
problem because the total melt Magma is below Earths crust,
percentage of people with B. 1. true 3. false and lava is above it.
cavities is decreasing. 2. false 4. true
Big Idea 3: 8FFLt%BZ
#JH*EFB8FFLt6OJU3FWJFX Big Idea 3: 8FFLt%BZ A. Answers will varye.g.,
Answers will vary. 1. Meltwater causes some glaciers Lava pours through vents in
Big Idea 3: 8FFLt%BZ to slide. Earths surface as lava flows.
2. Gravity causes some glaciers As the lava stacks up and
A. 1. C 2. A
to spread out. cools, it creates rock that forms
B. 1. erosion 3. weathering
2. weathering 4. erosion Big Idea 3: 8FFLt%BZ islands.
glacier moraines B. 1. false 2. false 3. false
Big Idea 3: 8FFLt%BZ A.
A. 1, 3, 4, 2 Big Idea 3: 8FFLt%BZ
B. 1. Rocky Mountains A. 1. debris 2. chamber
2. channels in the ground B. Answers will varye.g., The
basin
C. 1. uplifted 2. channels gases and magma are building
B. 1. basins 3. moraine up under the layers of rock,
2. moraines 4. basin which makes the volcano bulge.

188 %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ
Big Idea 3: 8FFLt%BZ Big Idea 3: 8FFLt6OJU3FWJFX Big Idea 4: 8FFLt%BZ
A. 1. Magma, lava 3. vents 1. composite 4. composite A. Earths
Earthssurface
surface

2. core, mantle, 4. debris 2. cinder 5. cinder pressure


crust 5. chamber 3. shield 6. composite
B. 1. false 3. true metamorphic rock
Big Idea 3: 8FFLt6OJU3FWJFX
2. true 4. true
1. It scratched or tore the foil. heat
Big Idea 3: 8FFLt%BZ 2. Water and sand were left molten rock
A. Answers will vary. behind. It would be called B. 1. Heat, pressure 3. melt
B. A a moraine. 2. metamorphic
C. 1. true 2. false 3. true 3. Glaciers can move rock, and
these rocks can scratch other Big Idea 4: 8FFLt%BZ
Big Idea 3: 8FFLt%BZ
rocks. 1. metamorphic 4. sedimentary
A. 1. north or northwest 2. rock 5. magma
2. San Francisco, Los Angeles, Big Idea 4: 8FFLt%BZ 3. sediment
San Diego A. 1. when magma cools
B. 1. plates 2. fault 2. when water evaporates Big Idea 4: 8FFLt%BZ
Big Idea 3: 8FFLt%BZ B. 1. false 2. true 3. true A. 1. igneous 4. cement
2. rock cycle 5. metamorphic
A. 1. moving apart Big Idea 4: 8FFLt%BZ
2. sliding past 3. Sedimentary, sediment
A. 1. luster 2. streak 3. color B. Answers will varye.g.,
3. colliding B. Geologists use many properties Igneous: contains crystals,
B. 1. false 3. false
to identify minerals because formed from lava
2. false 4. true
some minerals show the same Metamorphic: can have
Big Idea 3: 8FFLt%BZ properties. swirls, formed from heat
1. 1, 20 3. 4.0 Big Idea 4: 8FFLt%BZ and pressure
2. 7.0 4. 144,434 Sedimentary: made of sediment,
A. 1. fracture 3. fracture
formed from pressure
Big Idea 3: 8FFLt%BZ 2. cleavage 4. cleavage
C. 1. erosion or weathering,
A. 1. boundaries 4. seismometer B. They chose rocks with fracture,
cementing
2. plates 5. magnitude because they needed sharp edges.
2. heat, pressure
3. fault 3. cooling
Big Idea 4: 8FFLt%BZ
B. 1. sliding past each other
2. moving apart A. 1. 3 2. quartz 3. 4 and 5 Big Idea 4: 8FFLt%BZ
3. coming together B. Drills with diamonds in the Natural resources Natural resources

tips can drill through any


found above ground dug out of the ground
C. Answers will varye.g., air iron
1. Earths plates float on rock, because diamonds are water limestone
plants, animals oil, coal, and natural gas
the mantle. the hardest minerals.
2. Earths plates can cause
Big Idea 4: 8FFLt%BZ Big Idea 4: 8FFLt%BZ
earthquakes when they move.
3. Earths plates can create faults. A. 1. minerals 5. hardness A. 4, 2, 3, 1
2. fracture 6. luster B. 1. true 2. false
Big Idea 3: 8FFLt6OJU3FWJFX 3. cleavage 7. crystalline
Big Idea 4: 8FFLt%BZ
A. 1. B 2. C 3. B 4. A 5. B 4. color, streak
B. Answers will varye.g., B. 1. cleavage, fracture A.
UIFPSF

Glaciers create moraines and 2. streak ore


basins; Erosion created the 3. color, luster
Grand Canyon; Plate movement
causes earthquakes; Mountains Big Idea 4: 8FFLt%BZ metal
form when plates collide. 1. igneous 4. granite People often use machines
2. crystals 5. microscope
Big Idea 3: 8FFLt6OJU3FWJFX to extract natural resources
3. pumice
DOWN ACROSS from the ground.
1. plates 4. mantle Big Idea 4: 8FFLt%BZ B. mineral is to rock
2. erosion 6. uplifted TALK: Answers will varye.g.,
3. meltwater 7. fault They mined close to the surface,
5. crust 10. weathering c a
because they didnt have the
1 3 b 2
8. magma 12. lava tools to dig very deeply at first.
9. moraines 13. basin TALK: Answers will varye.g., They used water, shovels, picks,
11. expanded 14. glacier As the landscape changes, rock andlaterexplosions to mine
moves. for gold.
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Big Idea 4: 8FFLt%BZ Big Idea 4: 8FFLt%BZ B. Answers will varye.g., The
A. 1. false 4. true A. Mars has volcanoes, canyons, lever pops up to keep the toast
2. true 5. false and rocks very similar to those from burning. It breaks the
3. false on Earth. circuit.
B. Answers will varye.g., B. Sedimentary rocks would Big Idea 5: 8FFLt%BZ
By reducing, you use less contain fossil remains, because
A. 1. true 3. false
resources. By reusing, you they would probably be
2. true 4. false
use a resource, such as a cup destroyed during the processes
B. A resistor is not as good at
or bag, over and over again so that create igneous and
conducting electricity as a
that you dont need a new one. metamorphic rocks.
conductor.
By recycling, you reduce the
Big Idea 4: 8FFLt%BZ C. Answers will varye.g.,
amount of new resources that
A. meteor, meteorite, lunar, Resistors helped toasters heat
are needed.
maria, extraterrestrial, asteroid up enough to toast bread.
Big Idea 4: 8FFLt%BZ B. Like Earth rocks Different from Earth rocks
Big Idea 5: 8FFLt%BZ
A. 1. natural resource, renewable 1. contain many of the
same elements
1. fewer minerals
than Earth rocks
-VOBSSPDLT A. 3, 1, 2, 4
2. fossil fuel, carbon 2. some rocks made
from lava
2. not changed by
weathering
B. The length of time that the
3. Ore, metals 1. contain hematite 1. unusual minerals
not found on Earth
.BSTSPDLT 2. weathering like filaments radiate heat will
4. conserve Earth rock
change.
5. extract
Big Idea 4: 8FFLt6OJU3FWJFX C.Answers will varye.g.,
B. Answers will varye.g.,
Fossil fuels I use: How I use them: A. 1. C 2. B 3. C 4. D 5. A 1. sun 3. iron
B. Answers will varye.g., 2. electric stove
1. oil 1. plastic bags and cups
Streakthe mark a mineral
2. natural gas 2. when I turn on the heater Big Idea 5: 8FFLt%BZ
leaves behind; Colorthe color
A.
Metals I use: How I use them:
or colors a mineral appears to
1. aluminum 1. my baseball bat be; Lusterthe shininess of a
2. silver 2. my necklace mineral; Cleavage/fracture
how a mineral breaks when it
Big Idea 4: 8FFLt%BZ is struck; Hardnesshow hard
A. 1. It can be very heavy. a mineral is B. Answers will vary.
2. It can have an unusual shape. Big Idea 4: 8FFLt6OJU3FWJFX Big Idea 5: 8FFLt%BZ
3. It can show signs of melting.
1. t 5. k 9. e 13. c 17. g A. 1. switch, circuit, electric
4. It is very different from other
2. m 6. q 10. o 14. b 18. s current
rocks in the area.
3. a 7. d 11. l 15. i 19. n 2. conductor, resistor
B. A meteor is a streak of light
caused by an object burning 4. j 8. f 12. h 16. p 20. r 3. filaments, radiate
in Earths atmosphere, but a Big Idea 4: 8FFLt6OJU3FWJFX B.
meteorite is an object from 1. calcite 4. quartz switch filaments
space that hits Earths surface. 2. quartz 5. apatite
Big Idea 4: 8FFLt%BZ 3. graphite 6. hematite
A. Scientists have difficulty Big Idea 4: 8FFLt6OJU3FWJFX C. Answers will varye.g., They
studying asteroids because 1. The chalk in vinegar changed need to move the iron to iron
they are small and far away. more, because it started to out the wrinkles and not burn
B. 1. true 2. false 3. true fizzle and dissolve. the cloth.
Big Idea 4: 8FFLt%BZ 2. It allows the vinegar to cover Big Idea 5: 8FFLt%BZ
more parts of the chalk and
A. The Moon is made up of A.
work faster.
igneous rock, because it is
3. Because vinegar breaks down
cooled lava.
limestone.
B. Similar: 1. contain similar
minerals and elements; Big Idea 5: 8FFLt%BZ
2. some rocks are made from B. 1. true 2. true 3. false
A. source
TALK: Answers will varye.g., The
cooling lava
Different: 1. no weathering from lights last longer and are brighter.
water or wind on the Moon; This makes them easier to see.
2. fewer minerals in lunar rocks
current switch

190 %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ
Big Idea 5: 8FFLt%BZ B. 1. microphone 3. microphone Big Idea 5: 8FFLt%BZ
A. 2. speaker 4. amplifier A. 1. mechanical energy,
electric motor
Big Idea 5: 8FFLt%BZ 2. controller
A. 1. true 3. false 3. electromagnet, magnetic
B. 17 2. true 4. false force
C. Answers will varye.g., B. Answers will varye.g., B.
a computer screen 1. stereo 3. loudspeaker
2. headphones
Big Idea 5: 8FFLt%BZ
permanent magnet
A. Answers will varye.g., Big Idea 5: 8FFLt%BZ
When the electrons flow A. hearing aid, sound waves, electromagnet
through the LED, they get microphone, amplifier,
excited and release photons. electromagnet, speaker
B. 2, 4, 1, 3, 5 microphone Big Idea 5: 8FFLt6OJU3FWJFX
B.
1. A 2. D 3. A 4. C 5. B 6. C
Big Idea 5: 8FFLt%BZ
A. Answers will varye.g., Big Idea 5: 8FFLt6OJU3FWJFX
speaker
LEDs Light Bulbs
1. i 6. b 11. l 16. m
Both

last a long time emit light emit heat


Answers will varye.g., Sound 2. d 7. f 12. j 17. c
shine very convert electricity dont last a
waves enter the microphone 3. a 8. h 13. g
brightly into light long time where they are turned into 4. o 9. q 14. e
electric current. The current is 5. n 10. p 15. k
B. 1. LEDs convert more electricity sent to the amplifier, where it
into light than incandescent Big Idea 5: 8FFLt6OJU3FWJFX
becomes stronger. It travels to
bulbs. the speaker, which turns the 1. motion and light
2. LEDs are brighter than current back into sound waves 2. light and sound
incandescent because they and sends them into the 3. light and heat
shine light in one direction. middle ear. 4. light, motion, and sound
3. LEDs last much longer than 5. light and sound
incandescent bulbs. Big Idea 5: 8FFLt%BZ 6. sound
A. electric car 7. heat
Big Idea 5: 8FFLt%BZ
B. 1. electric motor, mechanical
A. LEDs, display, electrons, Big Idea 5: 8FFLt6OJU3FWJFX
energy
photons 2. batteries 1. The screw and magnet lifted
photons
B. 3. the energy of motion or up with it.
LED
motion 2. The screw and magnet spun
around.
Big Idea 5: 8FFLt%BZ 3. The wire is the electromagnet
A. magnetic forces, electromagnet because it has a magnetic
C. 1. heat: light
B. 2, 5, 4, 1, 3 force created by electricity.
2. circuits: photons
3. less: more Big Idea 5: 8FFLt%BZ Big Idea 6: 8FFLt%BZ
Big Idea 5: 8FFLt%BZ A. 2 3 A. triangle is to shape
B. 1. ramp 4. escalator
A. hearing aid, sound waves
2. slide 5. trail up a hill
B. 1. false 2. true 3. true
3. ladder
1
Big Idea 5: 8FFLt%BZ
B. The coil receives the current. Big Idea 6: 8FFLt%BZ
A. 5, 3, 2, 1, 4
More current makes the rod A. Both people are doing the
B. Answers will varye.g., Some
spin faster, which makes the same amount of work.
sounds are louder than others,
wheels spin faster. B. 1. force 2. distance 3. work
so it is necessary to be able to
turn the volume on a hearing Big Idea 5: 8FFLt%BZ Big Idea 6: 8FFLt%BZ
aid up or down. A. Machine
Source of electricity
Which parts move? A. 1. Marco 2. Maria
(outlet or battery)

Big Idea 5: 8FFLt%BZ


and the speaker. Blender outlet blades B.
Clothes washer outlet inside basket
A.
Electric toothbrush battery brush
Answers will varye.g., You use
outlet mixer blades
Electric mixer
more force because the ramp is
battery motor/wheel
shorter and steeper.
Remote-control car

microphone speaker Electric fan outlet fan blades

&WBO.PPS$PSQt&.$t%BJMZ4DJFODF 191
Big Idea 6: 8FFLt%BZ B. 1. true 2. false 3. false 4. true TALK: Answers will varye.g.,
A. Answers will varye.g., C. People who need to move heavy
1. restaurant 3. library loads use wheelbarrows. They are
2. post office 4. shopping mall wedge wedge screw screw wedge
not used as much today because
we have other machines to help
Big Idea 6: 8FFLt%BZ
us move heavy loads.
A. 1. pulley 3. elevators
2. wheel, groove Big Idea 6: 8FFLt%BZ
B. 1. true 2. true 3. false A. Answers will varye.g., When
B. 1. ladder 2. slide
TALK: Answers will varye.g., you push down or pull up the
Big Idea 6: 8FFLt%BZ A pulley is like an inclined plane lever, it raises or lowers the load.
A. work, inclined plane, simple because it changes the amount of B. Answers will varye.g.,
machine, distance, force force needed to do work. It is like 1. door handle 3. pole vault
B. a screw because it changes the 2. pliers 4. chopsticks
direction of the force applied to it.
Big Idea 6: 8FFLt%BZ
Big Idea 6: 8FFLt%BZ A.
C. Answers will varye.g., Inclined A.
planes make work easier by OR

allowing a person to use less


B. Write true or false.
force over a greater distance. B. 1. true 2. false
Big Idea 6: 8FFLt%BZ C. 1. wheel 2. axle 3. wheel 4. axle
B. 1. true 2. false 3. false
A. C. 1. makes it easier to lift the
f

Big Idea 6: 8FFLt%BZ


orc
e

screw
flag high A. 1.wedge lever 2. 3. lever
wedge
2. makes it easier to lower the lever wedge wheel and axle
or wheel and axle
B. 1. screw bucket to a place people can B. lever is to scissors
2. wedge safely go
3. simple machines Big Idea 6: 8FFLt%BZ
4. changes direction Big Idea 6: 8FFLt%BZ
A. 1. fulcrum 2. lever
Answers will varye.g., 3. compound machine
Big Idea 6: 8FFLt%BZ 1. It allows you to do work with 4. wheel and axle
A. 1. dirt 2. cloth 3. food 4. wood less force. B. 1. false 2. true 3. true 4. false
B. Answers will varye.g., A nail 2. Add more movable pulleys. C. Answers will vary.
is a wedge that changes the 3. to reduce the amount of force
direction of some of the force needed to move something Big Idea 6: 8FFLt6OJU3FWJFX
applied to it in order to push 1. B 2. C 3. B 4. A 5. B 6. C
the wood out of its way. Big Idea 6: 8FFLt%BZ
pulley
motor
Big Idea 6: 8FFLt6OJU3FWJFX
Big Idea 6: 8FFLt%BZ
pole ACROSS DOWN
A. threads 1. wedge 1. wheel and axle
cable
4. screw 2. fixed pulley
B. inclined plane car
7. compound 3. friction
C. The screw will come out. counterweight machine 4. simple machine
9. pulley 5. work
Big Idea 6: 8FFLt%BZ
10. distance 6. lever
A. Long, thick nails create more Big Idea 6: 8FFLt%BZ
11. force 8. fulcrum
friction. A. 1. counterweight
B. Answers will varye.g., 2. movable Big Idea 6: 8FFLt6OJU3FWJFX
1. Both are simple machines. 3. fixed can opener: wedge, lever, wheel
2. Both change the direction of 4. mechanical advantage and axle
the force applied to them. B. fishing pole: lever, wheel and axle
C. Answers will varye.g., fixed pulley drill: screw, wheel and axle
1. A nail is a wedge, but a pulley system scissors: wedge, lever
screw is a screw. shovel: wedge, lever
movable pulley
2. A screw requires a circular bicycle: wheel and axle, lever
force, but a nail does not.
Big Idea 6: 8FFLt%BZ Big Idea 6: 8FFLt6OJU3FWJFX
Big Idea 6: 8FFLt%BZ 1. the lever, the container, and Answers will vary.
A. 1. wedge 3. screw the wheel and axle
2. threads 4. friction 2. the lever and the wheel and axle
192 %BJMZ4DJFODFt&.$t&WBO.PPS$PSQ