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CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM

1. Introduction

Title : English For Tourism

Author : Ken McIntyre

Publisher : Dili Institute of Technology

Publication date : 2013

Publication city/country : Dili, Timor Leste

Page : 98 pages

ISBN : 978-989-8615-07-7

This book is an English workbook for students of Tourism. All English

materials and tasks in this book are adjusted to the specific purpose of tourism.

This book is divided in 8 chapter. Each chapter contains with materials and some

exercise.

The writers purpose of this book analysis is to discover a hidden syllabus found

on this book and to know on what criteria has it been organised.

This mini reserach was done to accomplish the project of English for Spesific

Purpose subject. It is also as a requirement to pass this subject in this semester.

2. The Problem of study :

The problem formulationof this research is as follows :

1. On what criteria has this book been organised?

2. What hidden syllabuses can be found on this book?


3. The objective of study:

The objectives of study are :

1. To know about on what criteria has this book English for Tourism been

organised

2. To know about hidden syllabuses on this book.


CHAPTER II
THINKING CONSTRUCT

A. Related Theory
Hutchinson & Waters (1987: 80) define Syllabus as ... a document which says what will
(or at least what should) be learnt. The Curriculum provides a guide for assessing learning
outcomes at different levels and helps identify the objects and forms of assessment. According
to the purpose of the ESP course we enable students to function adequately in specified target
situations, their language and learning needs at different stages: initially, while designing the
ESP course, and during the course to make adjustments and improvements. As the ESP teachers
we deal with needs analysis, syllabus design, materials writing or adaptation and evaluation.
We follow one of the guiding ESP principle "Tell me what you need English for and I will tell
you the English that you need".
Basturkmen (2006:20-21) argues that in order to specify what language will be taught,
items are typically listed and referred to as the syllabus. She exemplifies the definition by
giving a standard view of the syllabus through the figure below.

A syllabus:
1. Consists of a comprehensive list of
content items ( words, structures, topics)
process items ( tasks, methods)
2. Syllabus is ordered (easier, more essential items first)
3. Syllabus has explicit document
4. Syllabus is a public document
5. Syllabus may indicate a time schedule
6. Syllabus may indicate preferred methodology or approach
7. Syllabus may recommend materials

Types of Syllabus
According to Basturkmen (2006:21) syllabuses can be synthetic in which the
language is segmented into discrete linguistic items for presentation one at a time, or
analytic wherein language is presented whole chunks at a time without linguistic control.
Types of syllabus
Synthetic Analytic
Structural (Grammatical) Task-Based
Functional- Notional Procedural
Lexical Process
Relational Content- Based
Skill Learner Centred
Situational Natural Approach
Topical

He explain some of them, they are:


1. "A structural (formal) syllabus." The content of language teaching is a collection of the forms
and structures, usually grammatical, of the language being taught. Examples include nouns,
verbs, adjectives, statements, questions, subordinate clauses, and so on.

2. "A notional/functional syllabus." The content of the language teaching is a collection of the
functions that are performed when language is used, or of the notions that language is used to
express. Examples of functions include: informing, agreeing, apologizing, requesting;
examples of notions include size, age, color, comparison, time, and so on.

3. "A situational syllabus." The content of language teaching is a collection of real or imaginary
situations in which language occurs or is used. Mostly, concern in audiolingual method that
expect the learners capable in Speaking and Listening skill. in A situation usually involves
several participants who are engaged in some activity in a specific setting. The language
occurring in the situation involves a number of functions, combined into a plausible segment
of discourse. The primary purpose of a situational language teaching syllabus is to teach the
language that occurs in the situations. Examples of situations include: seeing the dentist,
complaining to the landlord, buying a book at the book store, meeting a new student, and so
on.

4. "A skill-based syllabus." The content of the language teaching is a collection of specific
abilities that may play a part in using language. Skills are things that people must be able to do
to be competent in a language, relatively independently of the situation or setting in which the
language use can occur. While situational syllabi group functions together into specific settings
of language use, skill-based syllabi group linguistic competencies (pronunciation, vocabulary,
grammar, and discourse) together into generalized types of behavior, such as listening to
spoken language for the main idea, writing well-formed paragraphs, giving effective oral
presentations, and so on. The primary purpose of skill-based instruction is to learn the specific
language skill. A possible secondary purpose is to develop more general competence in the
language, learning only incidentally any information that may be available while applying the
language skills.

5. "A task-based syllabus." The content of the teaching is a series of complex and purposeful
tasks that the students want or need to perform with the language they are learning. The tasks
are defined as activities with a purpose other than language learning, but, as in a content-based
syllabus, the performance of the tasks is approached in a way that is intended to develop second
language ability. Language learning is subordinate to task performance, and language teaching
occurs only as the need arises during the performance of a given task. Tasks integrate language
(and other) skills in specific settings of language use. Task-based teaching differs from
situation-based teaching in that while situational teaching has the goal of teaching the specific
language content that occurs in the situation (a predefined product), task-based teaching has
the goal of teaching students to draw on resources to complete some piece of work (a process).
The students draw on a variety of language forms, functions, and skills, often in an individual
and unpredictable way, in completing the tasks. Tasks that can be used for language learning
are, generally, tasks that the learners actually have to perform in any case. Examples include:
applying for a job, talking with a social worker, getting housing information over the telephone,
and so on.

6. "A content-based-syllabus." The primary purpose of instruction is to teach some content or


information using the language that the students are also learning. The students are
simultaneously language students and students of whatever content is being taught. The subject
matter is primary, and language learning occurs incidentally to the content learning. The
content teaching is not organized around the language teaching, but vice-versa. Content-based
language teaching is concerned with information, while task-based language teaching is
concerned with communicative and cognitive processes. An example of content-based
language teaching is a science class taught in the language the students need or want to learn,
possibly with linguistic adjustment to make the science more comprehensible.
Furthermore the syllabi elements are combined by the practitioners so as to find
the correct and suitable teaching plan. Harmer (2001) suggests that instead of courses
founded on a specific types, the syllabus may show a combination of items from
grammar, lexis, language functions, situations, topics, tasks and different language skill
tasks or pronunciation issues. (Benyelles, 2009:55), this view is labeled, multi-syllabus
syllabus or eclectic syllabus in which all the elements are matched and synchronized.
Harmer (2001: 2001:295) establishes some rules that should be taken into
consideration when designing a syllabus, and states that every syllabus needs to be
developed on the basis of certain criteria , which consist of:
a. Learn ability: the content should be organised in a gradual manner in order to be
more efficient, i.e. from the easier themes to the more complex ones.
b. Frequency: integration of the most frequent items used in target language.
c. Coverage: incorporate the terminology and structures that have wider coverage
in the use of the language.
d. Usefulness: set up language forms and skills that are socially useful for the
learners.

According to Hutchinson & Waters (1987: 80-83), there are six types of syllabus in
teaching ESP, they are:
1. The evaluation syllabus
This syllabus examines the achievements which are achieved by students in the end of
learning process to evaluate the whole learning process that has been conducted. In this kind
of the syllabus, the weakness of the learning process and the interrelated between the learning
materials and the learning process will also be evaluated. Thats why this syllabus is called as
the evaluation syllabus.
2. The organisation syllabus
In this syllabus, the learning materials is divided into some stage of year. For example
first year and the second year, the first semester or the second semester and etc. This situation
makes the evaluation of the materials is more specific both of the nature of the language and
the learning process. There are some factors that must be considered namely:
a. What is more easily learnt?
b. What is more fundamental to learn?
c. Are some items needed in order to learn other items?
d. What is more useful in the classroom?

3. The material syllabus


In this syllabus, the writer of the syllabus not only focus about the theory but also begins with
question, how learning will be achieved. So the materials that will be learnt must be analyzed
and then the writer focus about the way to achieved the materials. For example, when the course
is talking about writing, the writer of the syllabus will be more focus on the exercise that must
be included in the learning process to help the learners practice themself and able to improve
their writing skill and the writer may provides some keyword that can help the learners build
their ideas by using the key words.
4. The teacher syllabus
Because teacher has a big role in learning process, they will know the most important
materials that needs by the learners and then the teacher will design the syllabus base on their
learners need.
5. The classroom syllabus
This syllabus is more focus on the activity that will be conducted in the clasroom to
build an interactive situation in the class. Then the major aim of this syllabus is to tell learners
about the knowledge of the language and the using of the language.
6. Learners syllabus
In this syllabus the learners must be connected directly in designing the syllabus,
because they will take an account on a continuing basis through every stage of the course design
later. All material design will be determined by the learners based on what they need most.
There are some role that should a syllabus play in the course design process, they are:
1. A language-center approach ( that focus on listening, reading, writing and speaking to
practice learners language using).
2. A skills-center approach ( the english material is focus on learners major or learners
job. For example when learners have tourism major, they must be focused on speaking
skill).
3. A learning-centered approach ( the learning process is focused not only on the content
of what they must be learnt but also the activity through which is learnt.
4. The post hoc approach ( this approach does not have a specific criteria, the role of
designing this syllabus is not limited)

B. The related of the theory and the problem


Syllabus is an important document that must be designed for learning process, because
all the materials that will be discussed and the activity that also being done in the
classroom.
If a designer of a syllabus can design and clarify the whole material clearly it will be
possible to achive the aim of the study successfully. The point is how to choose
appropriate syllabus based on students need. Because this terms is the core goal of
teaching English for spesific purpose to provide English learning material based on
spesific major of the learners.
To design a good syllabus there are some criteria that should be followed, they are:
Learn ability, frequency, coverage and the criteria of usefulness. The material
must able to represent the topic that must be learnt, frequency of the learning
material must able to fulfill the learners need to understand the topic. The
coverage and the usefulness of the syllabus also need to consider to get clear aim
of designing the material.

CHAPTER III
DATA AND TECHNIQUE OF COLLECTING DATA

3. 1 Technique Of Collecting Data


This research use analysis technique. We analyze this research by drawing data by
identifying of types of syllabus design, syllabus criteria and materials evaluation criteria
(organizarion of the book). The analysis of describtive qualitative research involves aiming to
uncover and/or analyze the content of the book, by describe them what that means.
The content can be analyzed on two levels :
1. Basic level or the manifest level : a descriptive account of the data,:the theories as to why
or how.
2. Higher level or latent level analysis : a more describing about the content of the book and
its classifying data.

3.2 Subject of Research


The subject of this research is English for Tourism Students workbookby Ken
McIntyre.

3.3 Procedure of Collecting Data


Collecting data is usually done to make the process is systematic by paying attention
to the arranging that has been determined. The procedure of collecting data that is used
in this research are :
1. Finding the book that will be analized
2. Observing the types of syllabus design, syllabus criteria and materials evaluation
criteria (organizarion of the book)
3. Getting the finding and the result of the book analysis and draw conclusion about the
types of syllabus design, syllabus criteria and materials evaluation criteria
(organizarion of the book)
4. Finding the impact of the syllabus implemented and materials criteria to Learners
Needs

CHAPTER IV
ANALYSIS DATA

According to Basturkmen (2006:21) namely:

1. A structural (formal) syllabus,


2. A notional/functional syllabus,
3. A situational syllabus.
4. A skill-based syllabus
5. A task-based syllabus.
6. A content-based-syllabus.

By reading and analysing the book as a whole the writer conclude that this book is

conducted based on the combination of the six syllabus.

1. First, about A structural (formal) syllabus . In that book the writer talks about part of
speech ( Noun, Adjective comparative degree, conjuction,verbirregular verb,
prepositions, etc) and about grammar for example tenses (Simple present, Present
continuous, Simple Past Tense, Persent Perfect)
2. Second, A notional/functional syllabus. This book provides some dialogues that
request or informing something to the other people in the hotel, in the airport, in the
restaurant. And the examples of notion are time & schedule, and comparison.
3. Third, A situational syllabus. This book provides example of dialogues based on the
situation. For example meeting with someone in the airport talking about departure, in
the restaurant talking about information about trainee chef or in hotel or in other place
that related to Tourism students
4. Fourth, A skill-based syllabus. The content of the language teaching is a collection of
specific abilities that may play a part in using language. The punctuation, vocabularies,
conversation and the other information that are provided in this book are related to the
tourism.
5. Fifth, A task-based syllabus. The content of the teaching is a series of complex and
purposeful tasks that the students want or need to perform with the language they are
learning. In this book , we can find many enough exercises for students for example,
cloze text, puzzle, crossword, or giving explanation about the available
words/questions.
6. A content-based-syllabus because in this book the subject matter is primary, and
language learning occurs incidentally to the content learning.

According to Hutchinson & Waters (1987: 80-83), there are six types of syllabus in

teaching ESP, they are:

1. The evaluation syllabus


2. The organisation syllabus
3. The material syllabus
4. The teacher syllabus,
5. The classroom syllabus,
6. Learners syllabus.

By reading and analysing the book as a whole the writer conclude that this book is made

based on the combination of some syllabus above namely:

1. The material syllabus for example the skill is speaking so the writer provides some
dialogues and anything that can help in speaking
2. The teacher syllabus
The teacher design the syllabus based on their learners need.

3. The classroom syllabus


The available material that given to build an interactive situation in the class.

For example: Conversations, crosswords, etc

Harmer (2001: 2001:295) establishes some rules that should be taken into

consideration when designing a syllabus, and states that every syllabus needs to be

developed on the basis of certain criteria , which consist of:

e. Learn ability: the content should be organised in a gradual manner in order to be


more efficient, i.e. from the easier themes to the more complex ones.
f. Frequency: integration of the most frequent items used in target language.
g. Coverage: incorporate the terminology and structures that have wider coverage in
the use of the language.
h. Usefulness: set up language forms and skills that are socially useful for the learners.

By reading and analysing the book as a whole the writer conclude that In Every

Chapter, the content is organized in a gradual manner in order to be more efficient, from

the easier themes ( vocabulary) to the more complex ones ( grammar).

The structures are also not too difficult, they provided in simple students as the

students need. Furthermore, All the material in that book are items that used in target

language and The skill that often used in this book is speaking and then writing and suitable

for students tourism, the topic is also very situational so it is useful for the learners.

CHAPTER V
IMPLICATION OF THE FINDINGS
The implication of the tourism book can be related to the theory, the developing program
of education in Indonesia and also for the students analysis.

1. The theory
The implication to the theory is used to develop the English material to the specific
major/ subject of students, namely about tourism. Its chapters explain clearly how and what
to do with tourist at every places, such as at the airport, at the hotel, at the restaurant. From
these explanations we may get deeper knowledge about tourism.

2. The developing program of education in Indonesia


The implication to the education in Indonesia is to encourage teacher to provide
suitable syllabus and lesson plan based on the students programme. With the tourism book
being implicated as a factor in educational change, and with the benefit, this book provides
chapters to help clarify the potentials of contemporary teacher.

3. The students analysis


ESP is used to motivate students in learning process. The students may read this
tourism book and get more knowledge about their major clearly.

CHAPTER VI
CONCLUSION
A. Conclusion
Syllabus is a document which says what will (or at least what should) be learnt.
According to the purpose of the ESP course we enable students to function adequately in
specified target situations, their language and learning needs at different stages: initially, while
designing the ESP course, and during the course to make adjustments and improvements. In
order to specify what language will be taught, items are typically listed and referred to as the
syllabus.
Types of syllabus divided into Synthetic and Analytic. Synthetic consists of Structural
(Grammatical), Functional- Notional, Lexical, Relational, Skill, Situational, and Topical.
Analytic consists of Task-Based, Procedural, Process, Content- Based, Learner Centred, and
Natural Approach.
Syllabus for General English is different from ESP. So in teaching ESP there are six
types of syllabus, namely the evaluation syllabus, the organisation syllabus, the material
syllabus, the teacher syllabus, the classroom syllabus, and learners syllabus.
To conclude the whole project that we have conduct, the book is good and appropriate
for tourisms students because the content of the book related to tourism. The book is well-
arranged from the easier tasks to the difficult or complex tasks. Another great point in this book
it has many interactive contents. It makes students more active in classroom activity.

REFERENCES
Basturkmen, H. (2006). Ideas and Options in English for Specific Purposes.London
and New jersey: ESL and Applied Linguistic Professional Series: Eli Hinkel,
Edition.

Benyelles, R. (2009) Teaching ESP at Post Graduate Level: Unpublished Doctorate


Thesis:University of Tlemcen.

Harmer, J. (2001). The practice of English Language Teaching. (Third edition). Essex:
Pearson Education.

Lamri, Chams Eddine. 2016. An Introduction to English For Specific Purposes (ESP). Algeria:
University De Tlemcen