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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

One of the most effective tools in hotel Industry success is service quality. Juran (2010) defines

quality as fitness for use while in Crosby (2008) quality is defined as conformance to

requirements. Mitra (2004) views quality of a product or service as the fitness of that product or

service for meeting or exceeding its intended use as required by the customers. Considering the

hotel industry, bringing about quality has complication that differs from when tangible product is

involved. Parasuraman et al., (2007) noted that it was inappropriate to use a product-based

definition of quality when studying the service sector. They therefore developed the expression,

service quality.

Service quality refers to the difference between customers' expectations of service and their

evaluation of the services they received (Parasuraman et al., 2007). It is perceived as subjective

since it relies on the judgement of the customer. However, it is an important concept in influencing

the extent and nature of customer satisfaction experienced after service delivery. Gronroos (2008)

service quality is dependent on two variables: expected service and perceived service. Expectations

are beliefs about the level of service that will be delivered by a service provider and they are

assumed to provide standards of reference against which the delivered service is compared. If there

is congruence between the performance and the expectations, then a customer is said to be

satisfied. Various models have been proposed to measure service quality. Service quality can be

measured by its physical, corporate and interactive quality and also varieties of factors such as

responsiveness, corporate image and accessibility are some of the factors used to evaluate service

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quality. However, the most popular model for measuring service quality is the SERVQUAL model

developed by Zeithaml et al., (2010) and engenders five determinants of service quality presented

in order of importance, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy and tangibles.

This study focused on customer service and satisfaction in hotels in Nigeria using a case study of

Amena Resorts and Hotels Limited, Oghara. The hotel industry is highly service oriented as

through the experiences, customers form opinions by comparing the service encounters against

their expectations. The hotel industry in Nigeria is experiencing increasing competition with major

international hotel brands increasingly setting up operations in Nigeria. This is set to increase the

competition in the hotel industry. To survive in this dynamic and highly competitive business

environment the hotel operators will be forced to critically acknowledge the importance of service

improvement in order to gain competitive advantage.

1.1.1 Service Quality

Service quality is defined as customers perception of how well a service meets or exceeds their

expectations (Parasuraman et al., 2007). Service quality is often judged by customers and not by

the organization itself. Service is characterized by attributes such as intangibility, heterogeneity,

perishability and inseparability which delineate a service from a good which further complicates

the evaluation of the performance of a service. This creates the need for an organization to develop

new models or use already existing models to measure the performance of the services and the

perceptions that customers have towards the company.

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Parasuraman et al., (2007) mention that if customers expectations are superior to the performance

of the service, the service quality is deemed to be unsatisfactory which results in dissonance on

the part of the customer. The service will be considered excellent if perceptions exceed

expectations. Zeithaml et al., (2010) developed an instrument, the SERVQUAL model, which was

among the first models used to measure service quality. The model is based on five factors

reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy and tangibles. The SERVQUAL model is built

around the gap that exists between the services offered vis--vis the expected service quality as

perceived by the customer.

Most writers agree that customers expectations are rarely concerned with a single aspect of the

service package but rather with many aspects. Service quality dimensions are the characteristics

which customers use to evaluate service quality. Proper understanding of customers perceptions

along these dimensions is essential for hospitality organizations professionals to recognize the

customer expectations. Aligning the services to meet customer expectations would result in

reduced gaps in perceptions of service quality. Identification of the determinants of service quality

should be a central concern for service management. Once customers requirements are clearly

identified and understood, hotel operators are in a better position to anticipate and fulfill their

customers needs and wants.

1.1.2 Customer Satisfaction

In close connection with service quality is customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction is defined

as the consumers fulfillment response. It is a judgment that a product or service feature, or the

product or service itself, provided (or is providing) a pleasurable level of consumption-related

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fulfillment, including levels of under- or over-fulfillment. Williams (2003), customers are satisfied

when their judgment of the service they have received equals or exceed what they expected. If

performance matches, the customer is satisfied and, if it exceeds expectations, even delighted. If

the performances fall short of expectations, the customer is dissatisfied. Proper understanding of

the factors that influence customer satisfaction makes it easier for the service provider to design

and deliver service offers that correspond to customer demands.

The term service quality and customer satisfaction have been conceptualized similarly in the

literature and therefore might be considered as one evaluative construct. Zeithaml et al., (2010)

service quality is a global judgment relating to the superiority of the service, whereas satisfaction

is related to a specific transaction. He concluded that the two construct are related in that incidents

of satisfaction over time results in perception of service quality and therefore the two constructs

can be measured by the same attributes.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

For the hotel industry to achieve its objective of delivering quality service for its customers, it is

imperative to study how the hotel can conceivably meet and even exceed customers service

delivery expectations. Therefore, the management of Amena Resorts and Hotels Limited seeks to

know the level at which the customers are satisfied with their services and the kind of service

quality levels their customers would like in order to offer the exactly what would be taken

positively. Zeithaml et al., (2010) provided a list of five determinants of service quality as a result

of their focus group studies with service providers and customers: Reliability, Responsiveness,

Assurance, Empathy and Tangibles. This study enhances the understanding of customer service

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and satisfaction in Amena Resorts and Hotels Limited by answering the question: What factors

affect customer satisfaction?

1.3 RESEARCH AIM AND OBJECTIVES

The study is aimed at understanding and identifying the relationship between customer service

quality and customer satisfaction in hotels in Nigeria using a case study of Amena Resorts and

Hotels Limited, Oghara. The study is set to achieve the following objectives:

i. To determine factors influencing customer satisfaction at Amena Resorts and Hotels

Limited.

ii. To assess customer expectations and perceptions of service quality of Amena Resorts and

Hotels Limited.

iii. To meet and exceed hotel customer satisfaction to develop a business service excellence

model and strategy to improve service quality at Amena Resorts and Hotels Limited.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions are asked by the researcher as a guide in the choice of data.

i. What are the factors influencing customer satisfaction at Amena Resorts and Hotels

Limited?

ii. What is the general expectation and perception of customers about Amena Resorts and Hotels

Limited in terms of service quality provided?

iii. How can service quality be improved to meet and exceed hotel customer satisfaction in

order to develop an excellent business service model at Amena Resorts and Hotels

Limited?

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1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

Hypothesis One

Alternate Hypothesis (Hi): Factors influencing customer satisfaction is a major determinant to

improving customer service and customer satisfaction.

Null hypothesis (Ho): improving customer service and customer satisfaction is not dependent on

the factors influencing customers satisfaction.

Hypothesis Two

Alternate Hypothesis (Hi): Customer expectations and perceptions of service quality in hotels is

a determinant to customer satisfaction.

Null hypothesis (Ho): Customer satisfaction is not dependent on customer expectations and

perceptions of service quality.

Hypothesis Three

Alternate Hypothesis (Hi): There is a relationship between service quality and customer

satisfaction in developing an excellent business service model.

Null hypothesis (Ho): There is no relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction

in developing an excellent business service model.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

Quality is used by customers to evaluate the service provided to them in hotels and this gives the

institutions a competitive advantage and the ability to continue to survive and make profit. Quality

is a long-term commitment to provide services to satisfy the needs and desire of customers

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continuously. This research examines how customers are satisfied with their services and the kind

of service quality levels their service providers (Hotels) provides to them using a case study of

Amena Resorts and Hotels Limited, Oghara. These findings will lead to a better understanding of

operations and quality dynamics involved in Amena Resorts and Hotels Limited and ultimately

lead to customer satisfaction. The findings made from the study are significant as they will form

basis for further research. The findings will also provide insights to the management of hotels in

re-examining their services strategy development particularly in the context of increasing

customer satisfaction and service loyalty. It will also provide an insight on the areas that need

improvement, restructuring or general overhaul of the strategies used in service delivery and

organizational performance.

1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This research work deals primarily with customer service and satisfaction in hotels in Nigeria with

a case study of Amena Resorts and Hotels Limited, Oghara, Delta State. During the period of

conducting this research work, the following limitations were experienced:

i. Finance: A study of the scope contemplated in this work requires commitment of resources

which is outside the reach of the researcher, in fact curtails the scope of the study.

ii. Time: The time available for the research was relatively insufficient in the sense that it was

carried out alongside with academic activities.

iii. Research Materials: Access to existing research work on this particular topic was not

easy. I had to visit different libraries to source for materials.

iv. Non response: The relevance of various individuals and stake holders to disclose

information about their operations poses a serious constraint to this work.

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1.8 DEFINITION OF TECHNICAL TERMS

Access: The physical approachability of service location, including the ease of finding ones way

around the service environment.

Aesthetics: Extent to which the components of the service package are agreeable or pleasing to

the customer, including both the appearance and the ambience of the service environment, the

appearance and presentation of service facilities, goods and staff.

Attentiveness: The extent to which the service, particularly of contact staff, either provides help

to the customer or gives the impression of interest in the customer and shows a willingness to

serve.

Availability: The availability of service facilities, staff and goods to the customer.

Care: The concern, consideration, sympathy and patience shown to the customer.

Cleanliness: The cleanliness, neat and tidy appearance of the tangible components of the service

package, including the service environment, facilities, goods and contact staff.

Comfort: The physical comfort of the service environment and facilities

Commitment: Staffs apparent commitment to their work, including the pride and satisfaction

they apparently take in their job, their diligence and thoroughness.

Communication: The ability of the service providers to communicate with the customer in a way

he or she will understand.

Competence: The skill, expertise and professionalism with which the service is executed.

Courtesy: The politeness, respect and propriety shown by the service, usually contact staff, in

dealing with the customer and his or her property.

Flexibility: A willingness and ability on the part of the service worker to amend or alter the nature

of the service or product to meet the needs of the customer.

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Functionality: The serviceability and fitness for purpose or product quality of service facilities

and goods.

Integrity: The honesty, justice, fairness and trust with which customers are treated by the service

organization

Reliability: The reliability and consistency of performance of service facilities, goods and staff.

Responsiveness: Speed and timeliness of service delivery.

Security: Personal safety of the customer and his or her possessions while participating in or

benefiting from the service process.

1.9 RESEARCH STRUCTURE AND METHODOLOGY

Chapter one of this research work gave a general introduction of the study and what service quality

and customers satisfaction are all about. The statement of the problem was given and the aim and

objectives of the research was clearly stated out as well as the research question which aided the

researcher. Hypothesis where formulated and the significance of the study were also stated. The

limitations of the study were identified and technical terms were defined. Chapter Two presents

literature review, which provides an insight to related work on this field. Chapter Three focused

on the method of carrying out the research. various stages were set out and these stages include

research design, target population, sampling design, data collection instruments, data collection

procedures and data analysis in order to complete the study. Chapter four interprets the data

collected through the distribution of questionnaires to the respondents. Findings were made and

the hypothesis were tested through the use of chi square method of analysis. Chapter five gave a

summary of the findings, conclusions were drawn and possible recommendations were given in

order to fulfil the purpose of the study.

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CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter discusses the theoretical framework and empirical studies related to service quality

and customer satisfaction. In particular, the study covers literature related to the study as studied

by other scholars. The literature is reviewed in two streams. First, literature on service quality and

its measurement is reviewed. Then, literature relating to customer satisfaction is reviewed. Finally,

literature relating to the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction is reviewed

and a conceptual framework of the study developed.

2.2 SERVICE QUALITY

Researchers proposed different views on the definitions of service quality. Service quality is

defined as a comparative function between consumer expectations and actual service performance

(Parasuraman et al., 2007). On the other hand, Zeithaml et al., (2010) defined service quality as the

ability of an organization to meet or exceed customer expectations. Service quality is a form of

attitude representing a long-run overall evaluation of service (Cronin & Taylor, 2011). The

traditional notion of service quality by Parasuraman et al., (2007) is most commonly accepted.

2.3 DETERMINANTS OF SERVICE QUALITY

When purchasing goods, the customer employs many tangible aspects to judge quality; style,

hardness, color, label, feel and package. However, when purchasing services fewer tangible

aspects exist. In the absence of tangible evidence on which to evaluate quality, customers must

depend on other aspects. Service quality dimensions are the aspects/characteristics which

customers use to evaluate service quality.

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A research by Parasuraman et al., (2007) identifies ten determinants that influence customers

perceptions of service quality as reliability, responsiveness, tangibility, communication,

credibility, security, competence, courtesy, understanding and access. The description of the ten

determinants of service quality is given in table 2.1.

Table 2.1: Ten Dimensions of Service Quality

Dimension Description

Tangibility Physical evidence of service (facilities, tools,

equipments)

Responsiveness Willingness or readiness to provide service,

timeliness

Reliability Getting it right first time, honoring promises,

dependability.

Communication Keeping customers informed in a language

that they can understand

Credibility Honest, trustworthiness, having customers

best interest at heart

Security Physical and financial; confidentiality

Competence Possession of the skills and knowledge

required to perform the service

Courtesy Politeness, respect, friendliness, clean and

neat appearance.

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Understanding Knowing the customer, his needs and

requirements.

Access Ease of approach and contact

Source: Adapted from Parasuraman et al., (2007)

In a follow-up study, Zeithaml et al., (2010) found a high degree of correlation between, on the one

hand, communication, competence, courtesy, credibility and security, and, on the other, between

access and understanding; and so they created the two broad dimensions of assurance and empathy,

that is, five consolidated dimensions: reliability, responsiveness, tangibles, assurance and

empathy. These dimensions were then used as a basis for the development of a service quality

measurement instrument; SERVQUAL model (Zeithaml et al., 2010). Table 2.2 demonstrates the

five service dimensions customer's care about.

Table 2.2: Five Dimensions of Service Quality

Dimension Description

Tangibles Physical facilities, equipment and appearance

of personnel.

Reliability Ability to perform the promised service

dependably and accurately

Responsiveness Willingness to help customers and provide

prompt service

Assurance Knowledge and courtesy of employees and

their ability to inspire trust and confidence

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Empathy Caring, individualized attention the firm

provides its customers.

Source: Adapted from Zeithaml et al., (2010)

Johnston & Silvestro (2012) tested the comprehensiveness of Parasuraman et al., (2007) service

quality determinants using management perceptions of service and suggested a refined list of 12

determinants of service quality as access, appearance/aesthetics, availability, cleanliness/tidiness,

comfort, communication, competence, courtesy, friendliness, reliability, responsiveness and

security. The limitation of their work lay in the fact that the empirical investigation drew only on

management perception of service quality unlike Parasuraman et al., (2010) who used customer

data in order to identify the determinants of service quality.

Johnston & Silvestro (2012) included the customers perspective to the 12 service quality

dimensions and identified 5 additional dimension to create 17 dimensions as access,

appearance/aesthetics, availability, cleanliness/tidiness, comfort, communication, competence,

courtesy, friendliness, reliability, responsiveness, security, care, commitment,

attentiveness/helpfulness, functionality and integrity. Gronroos (2008) identified three dimensions

of service quality as technical quality of the service (what service is provided), which can be

assessed by the customer like the technical dimensions of a product, functional quality which

represent how the service is provided and the image of the service provider which moderates both

technical and functional quality to arrive at a perceived level of service. He argued that functional

quality is an important dimension of perceived service than technical quality because service

quality lies in improving the functional quality of a firms service process by managing the staff-

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customer interaction and transactional relationships. He observed that a favorable image is an asset

for any firm because it has an impact on customer perception of the operation of the firm.

These authors and many others who have postulated service quality dimensions appear to have

based their work on Parasuraman et al., (2007) and Zeithaml et al., (2010) well publicized work.

For the purpose of this study, the researcher adopted Zeithaml et al., (2010) dimensions of service

quality i.e. Reliability, Responsiveness, Access, Empathy and Tangibles. The five dimensions of

service quality developed by Zeithaml et al., (2010) are the most acknowledged and applied in

diversity of service industries.

2.4 MEASUREMENT OF SERVICE QUALITY

Measuring service quality is an important aspect in the quality improvement process because it

provides feedback about the type of service provided and the extent to which it meets customers

needs. A number of scholars have carried out several studies with an aim of developing models of

measurement that would help service organizations determine the extent to which their services

are effective.

2.4.1 Models for specific service settings

Different researchers have developed alternative measures of service quality for specific service

settings. Knutson et al., (2011) developed LODGSERV model to measure service quality in the

lodging industry. The model is based on the five original SERVQUAL dimensions and contains

26 items. LODGEQUAL model was also developed to measure service quality in the hotel

industry. The model identified three dimensions, namely tangibles, reliability and contact.

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DINESERV model was developed in order to measure service quality in restaurants. It contains

29 items and five SERVQUAL dimensions. Another model, DIVEPERF, was developed by to

assess perceptions of diving services. The model consists of five SERVQUAL dimensions and 27

items. All of these models represent modifications of the SERVQUAL instrument, aiming to

improve its original methodology.

2.4.2 The SERVQUAL Model

The model was developed by Zeithaml, Parasuraman and Berry (2010) as a tool of identifying

service quality shortfall. This model is based on the premise that customers can evaluate a firms

service quality by comparing their perception of its service with their own expectations. The model

measures customer expectations and perceptions of service quality. The quality gap (Q) is

calculated by subtracting the expectation (E) from the perception (P) value i.e. P - E = Q.

Summation of all the Q values provide an overall quality rating which is an indicator of relative

importance of the service quality dimensions that influence customers overall quality perceptions.

SERVQUAL is a standardized instrument that has been applied across a broad spectrum of service

industries.

The SERVQUAL scale (Questionnaire) has two sections: one to measure customer expectations

in relation to a service segment and the other to measure perception regarding the organization

whose service is being assessed. SERVQUAL comprises a 22 items (Likert-type) with five

dimensions of reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy and tangibles. From the 5

dimensions, 22 statements are derived, each measuring both the expectations and perceptions of

customers towards the quality of services of the organization being assessed. The customers are

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required to rate, on a 5-point Likert scale, the degree to which they feel the service provider should

deliver for an excellent service. Another identical scale is provided adjacent to the first one in

which the respondents rate the actual quality of service delivered to them by an organization based

on their perceptions. For each statement, the difference between perception and expectation is

calculated; the averages of the obtained score being the SERVQUAL score (Zeithaml et al., 2010).

2.4.3 Performance Only Model (SERVPERF)

SERVPERF was developed by Cronin and Taylor (2011) in their empirical work which involved

the modification of SERVQUAL with respect to conceptualization and measurement of service

quality. They developed a performance based measure of service quality called SERVPERF

illustrating that service quality is a form of consumer attitude. SERVPERF measures service

quality based solely on performance. Cronin and Taylor (2011) argued that performance is the

measure that best explains customers perceptions of service quality, so expectations should not

be included in the service quality measurement instrument. SERVPERF looks at the attributes of

the 5 dimensions, worded the same as SERVQUAL but does not repeat the set of statements as

expectation items. SERVPERF therefore comprises a 22 items (Likert-type) with five dimensions

of reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy and tangibles. 22 statements are then derived to

measure the perceptions of customers towards the quality of services of the organization being

assessed.

2.5 EMPIRICAL STUDIES ON SERVICE QUALITY

Different models have been advanced concerning service quality in the service organizations with

an aim of establishing the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction. From the

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earlier research work, Zeithaml et al., 2010, five determinants of service quality were identified as

reliability, responsiveness, assurance empathy and tangibles. Ten studies carried out using the

Servqual questionnaire revealed that Reliability is the most critical dimension when measuring the

relative importance of the five dimensions followed by Responsiveness, Assurance, Empathy and

finally Tangibles (Parasuraman et al., 2011). Stromgren (2007) studied the factors influencing

service quality in the hotel industry in Peru and established that the customers were more interested

on the dimensions of reliability exterior, tangibles and assurance. The best predictor of overall

service quality was identified as the dimension of reliability. The researcher however noted that a

different context would give different results. This is due to different social demographic variables

such as culture and religion which might impact on customer expectations. Harr (2008) studied

service dimensions that leads to higher levels of customer satisfaction in restaurants in Singapore

and found out that assurance, empathy and tangibles are the most important to customers

evaluation of service quality, and thus, may have a positive influence on customer satisfaction.

2.6 CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

Jones & Suh (2004) defined customer satisfaction as the consumers response to the evaluation of

the perceived discrepancy between prior expectations and the actual performance of the product

or service as perceived after its consumption Huber et al., (2006) defined customer satisfaction as

the evaluative reaction to how particular product performed when compared to how he or she

anticipated that it would perform. Gilbert & Veloutsou, (2007) defined Customer satisfaction as

the extent to which a products perceived performance matches a buyers expectations. Failure to

meet these expectations leads to dissatisfaction. These definitions consider satisfaction as an

overall post-purchase evaluation by the customer.

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2.6.1 Factors affecting Customer Satisfaction

Tombs (2005), customer satisfaction is influenced by a host of issues such as product and service

features, customer emotions, perception of equity and fairness and other customers, family

members, friends and co-workers. Torres & Kline (2006) the customer service a brand offers and

the fairness of the price it charges determines the level of satisfaction among its customers than

any other measures. Zeithaml et al., (2010) identified 22 factors that influences customer

satisfaction as Physical facilities, Equipment, Appearance of hotel employees, Communication

materials, Timeliness of service, Problem solving interest, Efficient service, Consistency of

service, Accuracy of records, Problem resolution time, Prompt attention to guests requests,

Willingness to help, Flexibility of employees, Behavior of employees, Safety and security,

Courtesy of employees, Competence of employees, Individualized attention, Convenient operating

hours, Personal attention from employees, Concern towards guest interest and Understanding guest

specific needs.

2.6.2 Empirical Studies on Customer Satisfaction

Lawrence (2008) studied customer satisfaction among four star hotels in Spain, Germany and

England. The results revealed that many customers were satisfied with the ability of staff to speak

a foreign language, friendliness of staff, condition of premise, room comfort and the ease of

obtaining information. Areas of dissatisfaction included respect shown by staff, ease of contacting

a staff member, extra personal attention, multilingual magazines, international newspaper and TV

programs in own language. On overall, customer satisfaction was high in all the hotels. Christine

(2009) conducted a customer satisfaction survey in hotels in Cape Town. The research identified

areas of satisfaction as, wellness/spa experience, guest entertainment, maintenance of grounds and

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swimming pool experience. Areas of dissatisfaction were identified as delivery of luggage, switch

board and message service, attention to special requests and dinner experience.

Kangogo et al., (2013) studied effect of customer satisfaction on performance of the hotel industry

in the western tourism circuit of Kenya. The customers reported to be satisfied with reservation,

reception, food quality and beverage quality. Costs, security and hotel amenities on the other hand

registered fair ratings while provision of personalized services registered dissatisfaction. The

researcher also noted that customer satisfaction has positive impacts on market share, service

quality, hotel image, sales turnover, and that lack of customer satisfaction results in customer and

employee turnover. Similarly, Mburu (2014) studied the determinants of customer satisfaction in

the Kenyan banking industry. The customers reported to be satisfied with the accuracy and

timeliness of bank statements and staff understanding of customer needs. Entertainment &

refreshment to customers, adequacy of banks networks and readiness of bank staff to respond to

customer requests registered elements of dissatisfaction. He further noted that customer

satisfaction can lead to higher rates of retention of the Kenyan bank customers.

2.7 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SERVICE QUALITY AND CUSTOMER

SATISFACTION

Some researchers argue that service quality is an antecedent of customer satisfaction (Churchil &

Supernaut, 2002) while others argues that satisfaction represents an antecedent of service quality

(Bolton & Drew, 2003). However, the majority of recent publications believe that service quality

is an antecedent to customer satisfaction. It is generally accepted that a positive relationship exists

between service quality and customer satisfaction. Rowley (2004) argues that service quality is an

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attitude related to, but not the same, as satisfaction. Parasuraman et al., (2007) in their study,

proposed that when perceived service quality is high, then it will lead to increase in customer

satisfaction. After conducting a study to establish the relationship between customer satisfaction

and service quality, Janet (2011) concluded that a significant relationship between the two existed.

All the dimensions of service quality were identified as the key factors in influencing customer

satisfaction. The outcome of the study suggested that to improve customer satisfaction,

organizations need to improve the dimensions of service quality. Akoko (2012) studied service

quality dimensions and customer satisfaction in Kenyan telecommunications industry and

established that all the five service quality dimensions had positive impact on customer

satisfaction. However, reliability dimension was considered to be having the highest impact while

tangibility was considered to have the least impact. He suggested that all service quality

dimensions should be improved and allocated more resources since they positively affect customer

satisfaction. In a study carried out by Musyoka (2013) to establish whether there exists any

relationship between service quality and library user satisfaction among universities in Kenya, it

was established that service quality accounts for 73.9% of user satisfaction. He noted further that

reliability dimension contributes most towards user satisfaction while empathy dimension

contributes the least.

2.8 MEASURING SERVICE QUALITY VIA CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

Customer satisfaction is the leading criterion for determining the quality is actual delivered to

customers through the product or service and by the accompanying servicing. Several studies have

found that it costs about five times as much in time, money and resources, to attract a new customer

as it does to retain an existing customer (Naumann, 2001). This creates the challenge of

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maintaining high levels of service, awareness of customer expectations and improvement in

services and product. Knowledge of customer expectations and requirements, is essential for two

reasons, namely it provides understanding of how the customer defines quality of service and

product, and facilitates the development of a customer satisfaction questionnaires (Hayes, 2003).

Furthermore, customer satisfaction is recognized as of a great importance to all commercial firms

because of its own influence on repeat purchases and word-of-mouth recommendations (Berkman

& Gilson, 2007).

Satisfaction reinforces positive attitudes toward the brand, leading to a greater likelihood that the

same brand will be purchased again. Dissatisfaction leads to negative brand attitudes and lessens

the likelihood of buying the same brand again (Assael, 2005). More specific, if consumers are

satisfied with a product or brand, they will more likely to continue to purchase and use it and tell

others of their favorable experience with it, if they are dissatisfied, they will be more likely to

switch brands and complain to manufactures, retailers and other consumers about the product

(Peter & Olson, 2002). Satisfaction of customers also happens to be the cheapest means of

promotion

2.9 CUSTOMER SATISFACTION VERSUS LOYALTY

Dube & Renaghan (2009) managing customer value by creating quality and service that customers

can see now is considered a critical component of the organizations strategic marketing. Customer

value is what builds loyalty. Orientation to customer retention, continual customer contact, and

high commitment to meeting customer expectations are the new strategy rules of marketing, which

are based on factors other than pure economic assessment and product attributes (Berkman &

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Gilson, 2007). Loyalty usually implies satisfaction, but satisfaction is not loyalty. In a hotel, a

guest may be satisfied by his or her stay because the services purchased have met his or her

expectations, but this does not imply that the guest will repeat the experience and or even

recommend it to friends and relatives (Berkman & Gilson, 2007). To stimulate satisfaction and

loyalty, hotel managers need to have a clear understanding of guests value drivers and be aware

of the ways in which their business contributes or fails to contribute to the creation of such value.

These drivers may be different according to purpose of the visit (for example: leisure versus

business), kind of travel party (a single tourist versus a family), culture, sociodemographic

characteristics, revenue etc. To be successful, hotels must first adopt a customer-centered cultural

mindset, which implies a change in cultural norms, organizational structures, and the way the

performance of the employees is measured and rewarded. Secondly, they have to develop a cross-

functional integration between different functions and information systems (reservation,

marketing, sales, and administration) to accelerate processes and facilitate customer information

sharing. Finally, they should have a strategic view of investment in properly managed IT and adopt

an enterprise-wide approach to use and integration of IT systems (Ryals & Knox, 2011).

2.10 SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW

A review of literature on service quality indicates that the relative importance of the dimensions

of service quality is dependent on the industry in which service quality is being measured. The

review also highlights the need to examine the extent to which the services provided meets

customers needs. In the hotel industry, a review of the existing literature has shown that customer

satisfaction is highly depended on service quality.

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CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter presents the research methodology describing how the study was conducted. It

elucidated on area of study, research designs, study population, sample technique and sample size,

methods and instrument of data collection, validity and reliability of research instruments,

procedure for data administration, collection and data analysis. It also includes the assumption and

value that serve a rationale for the research and the standards or criteria the researcher used for

collecting and interpreting data and reaching at conclusions.

3.2 AREA OF STUDY

The Amena Resorts and Hotels Limited is situated at Oghara; just a stone throw from the Rain

Oil Depot. Amena Resorts and Hotels Limited could also be said to be located along .. road

Oghara., Oghara, Delta State.

3.3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY

The population for this study consist of 85 people which is made up of 20 employees of the Amena

Resorts and Hotels Limited and 65 guests of the Amena Resorts and Hotels Limited within a period

of 14 days. The population was used to investigate the service quality to customers satisfaction in

Amena Resorts and Hotels Limited.

23
3.4 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES

The sample size of this study is 20 gotten from the entire population of employees and 65 gotten

from the entire guest of the Amena Resorts and Hotels Limited. Questionnaires were administered

to a total of 85 employees and guests.

3.5 PILOT TESTING

The questionnaires were first of all given to the supervisor to go through and validate the level and

standard of the questions. Also three (3) students of the department were asked to vet the questions,

followed by four (4) employees and six (6) guests of Amena Resorts and Hotels Limited that

formed part of the sample population of the study. Modifications were made to the questionnaires

at this stage to improve the flow of the questions by sorting out any discovered ambiguous elements

not seen correlating with the context as well as to ensure compatibility of data so that the result

could be considered in the same general context.

3.5.1 Procedure of Data Administration

After the pilot testing and all necessary modification, the questionnaires were administered directly

to the chosen sample for the study. The employees and guest were examined separately with same

questionnaire and a total of eighty-five (85) copies of the questionnaire were given out. Twenty

(20) questionnaires were given to 20 employees and 18 (90%) were successfully completed and

returned. sixty-five (65) questionnaires were given to 65 guests and 60 (92%) were successfully

completed and returned. This is an index that the questions were quite understood and the

respondents developed a high interest in the study carried out on Amena Resorts and Hotels

Limited.

24
3.5.2 Rating and Measure of Scales

The researcher adopted a five point Likert scale with 5 considered the highest rating and 1

the lowest respectively. However, the scale also included a Not applicable option which allows

a survey respondent to acknowledge where the question does not apply to them.

The questionnaire for the study addressed the research objectives to:

i. Determine factors influencing customer satisfaction.

ii. Assess customer expectations and perceptions of service quality

iii. Meet and exceed hotel customer satisfaction to develop a business service excellence

model and strategy to improve service quality.

The questionnaire also adopted different styles of questions that focused on the level of customers

satisfaction using both closed and opened ended questions.

3.6 INSTRUMENT OF DATA COLLECTION

The questionnaires administered was the instrument used for gathering information for the study

survey. The researcher interpreted any strange technical words to the respondents on demand. This

made the possibility of retrieving 100% of the questionnaires administered to the employees and

92% of the questionnaire that were administered to the guest. The researcher took the sole

responsibility of going to Amena Resorts and Hotels Limited after two days to retrieve the

administered questionnaires for a period of two weeks.

3.7 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

Data collected from the respondent through the administration of questionnaires were represented

in the frequency distributed table, analyzed and interpreted using simple percentage, while the

25
hypothesis of the research work was tested using chi-square testing statistical method of data

analysis. This method of data analysis or hypothesis testing is usually to find the nature of the

relationship between two or more independent variables. Based on the introduction of chi-square

techniques, the hypothesis to be tested is stated a null hypothesis (Ho) and an alternative hypothesis

(Hi).

()2
The formula for Chi-square ( 2 ) =

Where:

O = Observed Data

E = Expected or theoretical frequency of an even under the null hypothesis

Colum
The formula is

OE = The difference between the frequency or deviation

()2
= The deviation square and weighted

()2
= Sum of all the deviation square and weighted

In determining the tabulated chi-square, the degree of freedom and the level of significance are

imperative. The degree of freedom (DF) refers to vary randomly and independently one the border

total has been specified. The degree of freedom is determined by:

= ( 1)(c 1)

Where:

r= The number of rows in the particular table

c= The number of column in the table of concern

When the required degree of freedom and level of significance have been determined, the tabulated

chi-square will be found through taking the valve which corresponds to the degree of freedom and

26
the level of significance. Two (2) level of significance were chosen from the chi-square

distribution table in appendix II in testing the hypothesis, 0.05 and 0.01 level of significance

were employed.

The comparison and decision made based on the calculated chi-square (x2 cal) and tabulated chi-

square (x2 tab). Accept Ho and reject Hi if the calculated value of chi-square (x2 cal) is less than

the table value of chi-square (x2 tab). If the null hypothesis is rejected, it denotes that its alternative

hypothesis (Hi) will be accepted. If the calculated value of chi-square (x2 cal) is greater than the

table value of chi-square (x2 tab), the null hypothesis (Ho) will be rejected, the hypothesis claims

is validated and realized once any of the hypothesis is accepted.

3.8 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

The questionnaires were given to the project supervisor as well as other 2 academicians to read

through and correct any abnormality. This was done to determine the face of content validity of

the instrument.

3.9 POSSIBLE ETHICS ISSUES

In the course of this study, the researcher encountered many problems with regards to collection

of data. Among these problems are:

Firstly, the inability of some employees to disclose certain reliable information for collection of

data. The researcher had to persuade the staff with all humility.

Secondly, the information provided by the guest varied due to the change of duty of employees

thereby resulting to limited data available. There was also limited time and financial resources in

27
the process of carrying out the research thereby limited the researchers access to other possible

sources of data.

Finally, access to existing research work on this study was not easy as the researcher had to visit

different libraries to source for materials.

3.10 EXPECTED CONCLUSION

This research relied on the fact that customers service quality could be used as a determinant to

customers satisfaction in hotels with a specific reference to Amena Resorts and Hotels Limited,

Oghara, Delta State. It is expected that if the objectives of this research are achieved and the

recommendation proffered by the researcher are implemented, the Amena Resorts and Hotels

Limited will become a center of attraction to guest due to its high service quality to customers

satisfaction thereby expending its resources and improving its profiting base.

28
CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.1 INTRODUCTION

In this chapter, the researcher reported the findings based on empirical analysis carried out on the

data gotten. Note, the findings were gotten from the distribution of questionnaires to employees

and guest of Amena Resorts and Hotels Limited. The simple percentage method was used to

analyze the data, thereafter the chi-square method of data analysis was being used in testing of the

hypothesis.

4.2 DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF GUEST

This section has a close look at the questions asked by the researcher which were applicable to the

guest of Amena Resorts and Hotels Limited.

Table 4.1: Distribution of Questionnaires to Guest

Numbers Percentage (%)

Total number of questionnaires distributed to 65 100

the guest

Total returned 60 92

Variance 5 18

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: from the table 4.1 above, it shows that 65 questionnaires were actually distributed. 60

(92%) respondents returned it while 5 (18%) respondents failed to return theirs. This figure can

29
however be said to be representative because more than half of the respondents returned their

questionnaire for evaluation.

Table 4.2: Sex of the Respondents

Table 4.2 was the data and analysis to question one (1) of section B of the research questionnaire

given out to the respondents (guest)

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

Male 33 55

Female 27 45

Total 60 100

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: from the above, 33 (55%) of the respondents were males while 27 (45%) of the

respondents are females. This implies that there are more male to female guest visiting Amena

Resorts and Hotels Limited.

Table 4.3: Age of Respondent

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

18-25 21 35

26-35 18 30

36 45 12 20

46 55 6 10

56 and above 3 5

Total 60 100

30
Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: table 4.3 above shows that 21 (35%) of the respondents (guest) are between the age

range of 18-25 years, 18 (30%) of the respondent are between the age range of 26-25 years, 12

(20%) are between the ages of 36-45 years, 6 (10%) are between the ages of 46-55 while 3 (5%)

are 56 and above. It could be observed that ages between 18-25 are more of the guest since they

are 21 (35%) of the guest population.

Table 4.4: Martial Status of Respondents

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

Single 27 45

Married 21 35

Separated 6 10

Divorced 3 5

Widowed 3 5

Total 60 100

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: the table 4.4 shows that 27 (45%) of the respondents (guest) are single, 21 (35%) of

the respondent are married, 6 (10%) of the respondent are separated, 3 (5%) of the respondent are

separated while 3(5%) are widowed. This implies that all status of the guest visits Amena Resorts

and Hotels Limited having the single guest more since they are 27 (45%) of the guest population.

31
Table 4.5: Nationality of Respondents

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

Nigerian 60 100

Ghanaian - -

Cameroonian - -

Chadian - -

Others - -

Total 60 100

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: from the table 4.5 above, it indicates that all the respondents are Nigerians and also

residents of Nigeria.

Table 4.6: Purpose of Visit

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

Leisure 33 55

Business 6 10

Meeting/Conference 12 20

Others 9 15

Total 60 100

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: the table 4.6 shows that 33 (55%) of the respondents (guest) visited for the purpose of

leisure, 6 (10%) of the respondent visited for the purpose of business, 12 (20%) of the respondent

visited for the purpose of meeting/conference while 9 (15%) of the respondent visited for other

32
purpose. It could be observed that more of the guest visited for the purpose of leisure since they

are 33 (55%) of the guest population

Table 4.7: Number of visits to this Hotel

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

First visit 15 25

2 to 5 visits 27 45

6 to 10 visits 12 20

more than 10 visits 6 10

Total 60 100

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: the table 4.7 shows that 15 (25%) of the respondents (guest) visited the hotel for the

first time, 27 (45%) of the respondent were visiting the hotel for the 2nd to 5th time, 12 (20%) of

the respondent visited the hotel for the 6th -10th time while 6 (10%) of the respondent were visiting

for more than the 10th time. This implied that more of the guest were visiting for the 2nd to 5th time

since they are 27 (45%) of the guest population.

33
4.2.1 Data Presentation and Analysis of Ascertaining the Factors Influencing Customer

Satisfaction Via Amena Resorts and Hotels Limited

The following seven tables (4.8 4.14) presents the information obtained from Section C

questionnaire statement and measures.

Table 4.8: Hotels physical facilities and Hotels equipment

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

Strongly Agree 33 55

Agree 18 30

Neutral 6 10

Disagree 3 5

Strongly Disagree - -

Total 60 100

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: table 4.8 above shows that 33 (55%) strongly agree, 18 (30%) agree while 6 (10%) of

the respondent are neutral that hotels physical facilities and hotels equipment is a factor that

influences customers satisfaction. 3 (5%) of the respondent disagree.

Table 4.9: Appearance of hotel employees and Timeliness of service

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

Strongly Agree 27 45

Agree 24 40

Neutral 6 10

34
Disagree 3 5

Strongly Disagree - -

Total 60 100

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: table 4.9 above shows that 27 (45%) strongly agree, 21 (40%) agree while 6 (10%) of

the respondent are neutral that the appearance of hotel employees and timeliness of service is a

factor that influences customers satisfaction. 3 (5%) of the respondent disagree.

Table 4.10: Communication materials and Consistency of service

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

Strongly Agree 18 30

Agree 27 45

Neutral 9 15

Disagree 6 10

Strongly Disagree - -

Total 60 100

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: table 4.10 above shows that 18 (30%) strongly agree, 27 (45%) agree while 9 (15%)

of the respondent are neutral that communication materials and consistency of service is a factor

that influences customers satisfaction. 6 (10%) of the respondent disagree.

35
Table 4.11: Prompt attention to guests requests and Willingness to help

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

Strongly Agree 21 35

Agree 30 50

Neutral 9 15

Disagree - -

Strongly Disagree - -

Total 60 100

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: table 4.11 above shows that 21 (35%) of the respondents strongly agree, 30 (50%)

agree while 9 (15%) of the respondents are neutral that prompt attention to guests requests and

willingness to help is a factor that influences customers satisfaction.

Table 4.12: Behavior and Courtesy of employees

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

Strongly Agree 21 35

Agree 27 45

Neutral 9 15

Disagree 3 5

Strongly Disagree - -

Total 60 100

Source: field survey, 2017

36
Narration: table 4.12 above shows that 21 (35%) of the respondents strongly agree, 27 (45%)

agree while 9 (15%) of the respondents are neutral that behavior and courtesy of employees is a

factor that influences customers satisfaction. 3 (5%) of the respondent disagree.

Table 4.13: Safety and Security

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

Strongly Agree 39 65

Agree 21 35

Neutral - -

Disagree - -

Strongly Disagree - -

Total 60 100

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: table 4.13 above shows that 39 (65%) of the respondents strongly agree and 21 (35%)

of the respondents agree that safety and security is a factor that influences customers satisfaction.

Table 4.14: Concern towards guest interest and Understanding guest specific needs

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

Strongly Agree 33 55

Agree 21 35

Neutral 6 10

Disagree - -

Strongly Disagree - -

37
Total 60 100

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: table 4.14 above shows that 33 (55%) of the respondents strongly agree, 21 (35%)

agree while 6 (10%) of the respondents are neutral that the concern towards guest interest and

understanding guest specific needs is a factor that influences customers satisfaction.

4.2.2 Data Presentation and Analysis of Ascertaining the General Expectation and

Perception of Customers Service Quality Via Amena Resorts and Hotels Limited

The following six tables (4.15 4.20) presents the information obtained from Section D

questionnaire statement and measures.

Table 4.15: The hotel has good looking facilities and its physical facilities are visually appealing

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

Strongly Agree 18 30

Agree 39 65

Neutral 3 5

Disagree - -

Strongly Disagree - -

Total 60 100

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: table 4.15 above shows that 18 (30%) of the respondents strongly agree, 39 (65%)

agree while 3 (5%) of the respondents are neutral that the hotel has good looking facilities and its

38
physical facilities are visually appealing which is an expectation and perception of their customers

service quality.

Table 4.16: The hotel employees are neat appearing and materials associated with the service are

visually appealing

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

Strongly Agree 21 35

Agree 33 55

Neutral 6 10

Disagree - -

Strongly Disagree - -

Total 60 100

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: table 4.16 above shows that 21 (35%) of the respondents strongly agree, 33 (55%)

agree while 6 (10%) of the respondents are neutral that the hotel employees are neat appearing and

materials associated with the service are visually appealing which is an expectation and perception

of their customers service quality.

Table 4.17: When you have a problem the hotel shows a sincere interest in solving it

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

Strongly Agree 15 25

Agree 27 45

Neutral 6 10

39
Disagree 12 20

Strongly Disagree - -

Total 60 100

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: table 4.17 above shows that 15 (25%) of the respondents strongly agree, 27 (45%)

agree while 6 (10%) of the respondents are neutral that when you have a problem the hotel shows

a sincere interest in solving it which is an expectation and perception of their customers service

quality. 12 (20%) of the respondent disagree making the statement not an expectation and

perception of their customers service quality.

Table 4.18: The hotel employees tells exactly when service will be performed and gives prompt

service

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

Strongly Agree 6 10

Agree 15 25

Neutral 6 10

Disagree 21 35

Strongly Disagree 12 20

Total 60 100

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: table 4.18 above shows that 6 (10%) of the respondents strongly agree, 15 (25%) agree

while 6 (10%) of the respondents are neutral that the hotel employees tells exactly when service

will be performed and gives prompt service which is an expectation and perception of their

40
customers service quality. 21 (35%) disagree while 12 (20%) of the respondents strongly disagree

making statement not an expectation and perception of their customers service quality.

Table 4.19: You feel safe in your transactions with the hotel

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

Strongly Agree 42 70

Agree 18 30

Neutral - -

Disagree - -

Strongly Disagree - -

Total 60 100

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: table 4.19 above shows that 42 (70%) of the respondents strongly agree while 18 (30%)

of the respondents agree that they feel safe in their transactions with the hotel which is an

expectation and perception of their customers service quality.

Table 4.20: The hotels operating hours are convenient to its guest

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

Strongly Agree 48 80

Agree 12 20

Neutral - -

Disagree - -

Strongly Disagree - -

41
Total 60 100

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: table 4.20 above shows that 48 (80%) of the respondents strongly agree while 12 (20%)

of the respondents agree that the hotels operating hours are convenient to its guest which is an

expectation and perception of their customers service quality.

4.2.3 How to Meet and Exceed Hotel Customer Satisfaction to Develop a Business Service

Model and Strategy to Improve Service Quality Via Amena Resorts and Hotels Limited

The following four tables (4.21 4.24) presents the information obtained from Section E (section

one) questionnaire statement and measures.

Table 4.21: Reception Experience: Efficiency of reservation, Courtesy of receptionist, Efficiency

of check in / check out

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

Excellent 6 10

Good 15 25

Average 21 35

Poor 18 30

Unknown - -

Total 60 100

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: table 4.21 above shows that 6 (10%) of the respondents records excellent, 15 (25%)

records good while 21 (35%) of the respondents records average on the reception experience

42
ranging from the efficiency of reservation, courtesy of receptionist to efficiency of check in / check

out which meets and exceeds their customers satisfaction. 18 (30%) of the respondents records

poor meaning the reception experience did not meet or exceed their customers satisfaction.

Table 4.22: Room Experience: Cleanliness and room maintenance; Quality, comfort and dcor;

Attention to special request

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

Excellent 9 15

Good 21 35

Average 18 30

Poor 12 20

Unknown - -

Total 60 100

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: table 4.22 above shows that 9 (15%) of the respondents records excellent, 21 (35%)

records good while 18 (30%) of the respondents records average on the room experience ranging

from cleanliness and room maintenance, quality, comfort and dcor to attention to special request

which meets and exceeds their customers satisfaction. 12 (20%) of the respondents records poor

meaning the room experience did not meet or exceed their customers satisfaction.

43
Table 4.23: Meal Experience: Quality at breakfast, lunch and dinner; Did the service meet your

expectation?

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

Excellent - -

Good 15 25

Average 27 45

Poor 18 30

Unknown - -

Total 60 100

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: table 4.23 above shows that 15 (25%) of the respondents records good, 27 (35%) of

the respondents records average on the meal experience ranging from the quality, at breakfast,

lunch and dinner which meets and exceeds their customers satisfaction. 18 (30%) of the

respondents records poor meaning the meal experience did not meet or exceed their customers

satisfaction.

Table 4.24: Other services: Quality of service at swimming pool; Guest entertainment; Laundry

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

Excellent 3 5

Good 6 10

Average 27 45

Poor 15 25

Unknown 9 15

44
Total 60 100

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: table 4.24 above shows that 3 (5%) of the respondents records excellent, 6 (10%) of

the records good while 27 (45%) of the respondents records average on the other services

experience ranging from the quality of service at swimming pool, guest entertainment to laundry

which meets and exceeds their customers satisfaction. 15 (25%) of the respondents records poor

meaning the other service experience did not meet or exceed their customers satisfaction and 9

(15%) records unknown.

4.3 DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF EMPLOYEES

This section has a close look at the questions asked by the researcher which were applicable to the

employees of Amena Resorts and Hotels Limited.

Table 4.25: Distribution of Questionnaires to Employees

Numbers Percentage (%)

Total number of questionnaires distributed to 20 100

the guest

Total returned 18 90

Variance 2 10

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: from the table 4.25 above, it shows that 20 questionnaires were actually distributed.

18 (90%) respondents returned it while 2 (10%) respondent failed to return theirs. This figure can

45
however be said to be representative because majority of the respondents returned their

questionnaire for evaluation.

Table 4.26: Sex of the Respondents

Table 4.26 was the data and analysis to question one (1) of section B of the research

questionnaire given out to the respondents (employees)

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

Male 8 44

Female 10 56

Total 18 100

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: from the table 4.26 above, 8 (44%) of the respondents were males while 10 (56%) of

the respondents are females. This implies that there are more female to male employee working

at Amena Resorts and Hotels Limited.

Table 4.27: Age of Respondent

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

18-25 15 83

26-35 3 17

36 45 - -

46 55 - -

56 and above - -

Total 18 100

46
Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: table 4.27 above shows that 15 (83%) of the respondents (employees) are between the

age range of 18-25 years and 3 (17%) of the respondents are between the age range of 26-35 years.

From the analysis above, it could be observed that ages between 18-25 are more of the employees

since they are 15 (83%) of the employees population. This implies that the hotel functions with

young vibrant people.

Table 4.28: Martial Status of Respondents

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

Single 16 89

Married 2 11

Separated - -

Divorced - -

Widowed - -

Total 18 100

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: the table 4.28 shows that 16 (89%) of the respondents (employees) are single and 2

(11%) of the respondent are married. From the analysis above, it could be observed that the

employees are more of single persons since they are 16 (89%) of the employees population. This

implies that the hotel employs more single persons to in order implement its function effectively

and also find easy on running hotel shift.

47
Table 4.29: Nationality of Respondents

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

Nigerian 18 100

Ghanaian - -

Cameroonian - -

Chadian - -

Others - -

Total 18 100

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: from the table 4.29 above, it indicates that all the respondents (employees) are

Nigerians and also residents of Nigeria.

Table 4.30: Educational level: which one is your highest qualification

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

Primary school - -

Secondary 4 22

National Diploma 13 72

HND 1 6

Others - -

Total 18 100

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: the table 4.30 shows that 4 (22%) of the respondents (employees) have secondary

qualification, 13 (72%) of the respondents have National Diploma qualification and 1 (6%) of the

48
respondent have HND (Higher National Diploma) qualification. From the analysis above, it could

be observed that the employees are more of National Diploma qualification holders since they are

13 (72%) of the employees population. This implies that the hotel employs more National

Diploma qualification holders in order maintain an average payment scheme and at the same time

use well educated employees to implement its function.

Table 4.31: Years of Experience: How long have you been working in Amena Resorts and Hotels
Limited?
Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

1-2 4 22

3-4 7 39

5-6 6 33

7 above 1 6

Total 18 100

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: the table 4.31 shows that 4 (22%) of the respondents (employees) have 1-2 years

experience, 7 (39%) of the respondents have 3-4 years experience, 6 (33%) of the respondents

have 5-6 years experience while 1 (6%) of the respondent have 7 or more years experience. From

the analysis above, it could be observed that the employees with 3-4 years experience are more

since they are 7 (39%) of the employees population.

49
Table 4.32: Monthly (Salary) Income: Which is your monthly income

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

Between N10,000 to N20,000 6 33

Between N21,000 to N30,000 9 50

Between N31,000 to N40,000 2 11

Between N41,000 to N50,000 1 6

Between N51,000 Above - -

Total 18 100

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: the table 4.32 shows that 6 (33%) of the respondents (employees) receive a monthly

income of between N10,000 to N20,000, 9 (50%) of the respondents receive a monthly income of

between N21,000 to N30,000, 2 (11%) of the respondents receive a monthly income of between

N31,000 to N40,000 while 1 (6%) of the respondents receive a monthly income of between

N41,000 to N50. It could be observed that the employees with 3-4 years experience are more

since they are 7 (39%) of the employees population.

4.3.1 How to Meet and Exceed Hotel Customer Satisfaction to Develop a Business Service

Model and Strategy to Improve Service Quality Via Amena Resorts and Hotels Limited

The following seven tables (4.33 4.39) presents the information obtained from Section E (section

two) questionnaire statement and measures.

50
Table 4.33: Management of this hotel should share information of guest experience with

employees

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

Strongly Agree 9 50

Agree 7 39

Neutral 2 11

Disagree - -

Strongly Disagree - -

Total 18 100

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: table 4.33 above shows that 9 (50%) of the respondents strongly agree, 7 (39%) agree

while 2 (11%) of the respondents are neutral about the hotel management sharing information of

guest experience with employees. This implies that the employees support the idea of the hotel

management sharing information of guest experience.

Table 4.34: Management of this hotel should implement strategies focused on quality and work

standards should be based on quality rather than quantity alone

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

Strongly Agree 10 56

Agree 8 44

Neutral - -

Disagree - -

Strongly Disagree - -

51
Total 18 100

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: table 4.34 above shows that 10 (56%) of the respondents strongly agree while 8 (44%)

of the respondents agree that the hotel management should implement strategies focused on quality

and work standards should be based on quality rather than quantity alone. This implies that the

employees support the idea of improving on the hotel service quality.

Table 4.35: Management should implement inspections, reviews and checking of this hotel

facilities on a sustained basis

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

Strongly Agree 8 44

Agree 7 39

Neutral 3 17

Disagree - -

Strongly Disagree - -

Total 18 100

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: table 4.35 above shows that 8 (44%) of the respondents strongly agree, 7 (39%) agree

while 3 (17%) of the respondents are neutral about the hotel management implementing

inspections, reviews and checking hotel facilities on a sustained basis. This implies that the

employees support the idea of the hotel management carrying out inspections, reviews and checks

hotel facilities on a sustained basis.

52
Table 4.36: Management should develop a system for the recognition and appreciation of quality

efforts and success of individual and team of this hotel

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

Strongly Agree 13 72

Agree 5 28

Neutral - -

Disagree - -

Strongly Disagree - -

Total 18 100

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: table 4.36 above shows that 13 (72%) of the respondents strongly agree while 5 (28%)

agrees that the hotel management should develop a system for the recognition and appreciation of

quality efforts and success of individual and team of the hotel. This implies that the employees

support the idea of the hotel management recognizing and appreciating quality efforts and success

of individual and team so as to improve the service quality of the hotel.

Table 4.37: Management should compare its serve quality with competitors to improve on its

customers satisfaction

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

Strongly Agree 15 83

Agree 3 17

Neutral - -

Disagree - -

53
Strongly Disagree - -

Total 18 100

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: table 4.37 above shows that 15 (83%) of the respondents strongly agree while 3 (17%)

agrees that the hotel management should compare its serve quality with competitors to improve on

its customers satisfaction. This implies that the employees support the idea of the hotel

management comparing its standards service quality with competitors so as to improve its service

quality to customers satisfaction.

Table 4.38: There should be a specific process of gathering customers suggestions, feedback and

complaints to access customers satisfaction

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

Strongly Agree 7 39

Agree 11 61

Neutral - -

Disagree - -

Strongly Disagree - -

Total 18 100

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: table 4.38 above shows that 7 (39%) of the respondents strongly agree while 11 (61%)

agrees that there should be a specific process of gathering customers suggestions, feedback and

complaints to access customers satisfaction. This implies that the employees support the idea of

54
gathering customers suggestions, feedback and complaints to access customers satisfaction in

order to improve its service quality to customers satisfaction.

Table 4.39: Management should ensure that the initial work training offered to employees is

sufficient and Quality related tanning should be giving to employees

Variables Numbers Percentage (%)

Strongly Agree 16 89

Agree 2 11

Neutral - -

Disagree - -

Strongly Disagree - -

Total 18 100

Source: field survey, 2017

Narration: table 4.39 above shows that 16 (89%) of the respondents strongly agree while 2 (11%)

agrees that the hotel management should ensure the initial work training offered to employees is

sufficient and quality related tanning should be giving to employees. This implies that the

employees support the idea of the hotel management offering initial work training and quality

tanning to its employees in order to improve its service quality to customers satisfaction.

4.4 TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS

The hypothesis will be tested using the chi-square method of data analysis, conclusions will also

be drawn using the decision rule which states That if the calculated value is greater than the

critical/table value we reject the null hypothesis otherwise we accept the alternative and vice versa

55
In testing for the hypothesis, the average of the data gotten from each section was used to calculate

the chi-square value.

()2
The formula for Chi-square ( 2 ) =

Where:

O = Observed Data

E = Expected or theoretical frequency of an even under the null hypothesis

Colum
The formula is

OE = The difference between the frequency or deviation

()2
= The deviation square and weighted

()2
= Sum of all the deviation square and weighted

In determining the tabulated chi-square, the degree of freedom and the level of significance are

imperative. The degree of freedom (DF) refers to vary randomly and independently one the border

total has been specified. The degree of freedom = n-1 = 5-1 = 4.

4.4.1 Hypothesis One: The Factors Influencing Customer Satisfaction in Hotels

Alternate Hypothesis (Hi): factors influencing customer satisfaction is a major determinant to

improving customer service and customer satisfaction.

Null hypothesis (Ho): improving customer service and customer satisfaction is not dependent on

the factors influencing customers satisfaction.

56
Calculating the average value for each of the liked type data gotten from Section C of the

questionnaire

Table 4.40: Average value table Hypothesis One

Test level Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Sum Avg = Sum/7

SA 33 27 18 21 21 39 33 192 27.42

A 18 24 27 30 27 21 21 147 21

N 6 6 9 9 9 - 6 45 6.43

D 3 3 6 - 3 - - 15 2.14

SD - - - - - - - - -

SA= Strongly Agree, A= Agree, N= Neutral, D= Disagree, SD= Strongly Disagree

Table 4.41: Calculating Chi-square Value Hypothesis One

Test level O E O-E (O E)2 ( )



SA 27.42 12 15.42 237.77 19.81

A 21 12 9 81 6.75

N 6.43 12 -5.57 31.02 2.58

D 2.14 12 -9.9 98.01 8.17

SD - 12 -12 144 12

Total X2 49.31

Expected Value = Total Population Evaluated / Test Level

57
60
E= = 12
5

Chi-square Value X2= 49.31

Degree of freedom = n-1 = 5-1 = 4

Level of significance = 0.01

Calculated chi-square value = 49.31

Table value is obtained from 4 degree of freedom at 0.01 significant level

Table/ Critical value = 13.28

Decision rule:

Since the calculated value 49.31 is higher than the table value 13.28, we accept the alternate

hypothesis (Hi) which states that factors influencing customer satisfaction is a major determinant

to improving customer service and customer satisfaction and reject the null hypothesis (Ho) which

states that improving customer service and customer satisfaction is not dependent on the factors

influencing customers satisfaction. Therefore, this implies that the statements used to validate the

factors influencing customer satisfaction is valid and customer satisfaction is truly affected by such

factors.

4.4.2 Hypothesis Two: Customer Expectations and Perceptions of Service Quality in Hotel

Alternate Hypothesis (Hi): Customer expectations and perceptions of service quality in hotels is

a determinant to customers satisfaction.

58
Null hypothesis (Ho): Customer satisfaction is not dependent on customer expectations and

perceptions of service quality.

Calculating the average value for each of the liked type data gotten from Section D of the

questionnaire

Table 4.42: Average value table Hypothesis Two

Test level Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Sum Avg = Sum/6

SA 18 21 15 6 42 48 150 25

A 39 33 27 15 18 12 144 24

N 3 6 6 6 - - 21 3.5

D - - 12 21 - - 33 5.5

SD - - - 12 - - 12 2

SA= Strongly Agree, A= Agree, N= Neutral, D= Disagree, SD= Strongly Disagree

Table 4.43: Calculating Chi-square Value Hypothesis Two

Test level O E O-E (O E)2 ( )



SA 25 12 13 169 14.08

A 24 12 12 144 12

N 3.5 12 -8.5 72.25 6.02

D 5.5 12 -6.5 42.25 3.52

59
SD 2 12 -10 100 8.33

Total X2 43.95

Expected Value = Total Population Evaluated / Test Level


60
E= = 12
5

Chi-square Value X2= 43.95

Degree of freedom = n-1 = 5-1 = 4

Level of significance = 0.01

Calculated chi-square value = 43.95

Table value is obtained from 4 degree of freedom at 0.01 significant level

Table/ Critical value = 13.28

Decision rule:

Since the calculated value 43.95 is higher than the table value 13.28, we accept the alternate

hypothesis (Hi) which states that customers expectations and perceptions of service quality in

hotels is a determinant to customer satisfaction and reject the null hypothesis (Ho) which states

that customers satisfaction is not dependent on customer expectations and perceptions of service

quality. Therefore, this implies that the statements used to validate the customers expectations

and perceptions of service quality are valid and customer satisfaction is truly dependent on

customers expectations and perceptions of service quality.

60
4.4.3 Hypothesis Three (Section One): Relationship Between Service Quality and Customer

Satisfaction in Developing an Excellent Business Service Model in Hotels

In this section, the hypothesis test was carried out on the guest and employees data gotten for their

data analysis in other to achieve a collective decision in accepting the stated hypothesis.

Alternate Hypothesis (Hi): There is a relationship between service quality and customer

satisfaction in developing an excellent business service model in hotels.

Null hypothesis (Ho): There is no relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction

in developing an excellent business service model in hotels.

Calculating the average value for each of the liked type data gotten from Section E (section one)

of the questionnaire

Table 4.44: Average value table Hypothesis Three (Section One)

Test level Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Sum Avg = Sum/4

E 6 9 - 3 18 4.5

G 15 21 15 6 57 14.25

A 21 18 27 27 93 23.25

P 18 12 18 15 63 15.75

U - - - 9 9 2.25

E= Excellent, G= Good, A= Average, P= Poor, U = Unknown

61
Table 4.45: Calculating Chi-square Value Hypothesis Three (Section One)

Test level O E O-E (O E)2 ( )



E 4.5 12 -7.5 56.25 4.68

G 14.25 12 2.5 6.25 0.52

A 23.25 12 11.25 126.56 10.55

P 15.75 12 3.75 14.06 1.22

U 2.25 12 -9.75 95.06 7.92

Total X2 24.89

Expected Value = Total Population Evaluated / Test Level


60
E= = 12
5

Chi-square Value X2= 24.89

Degree of freedom = n-1 = 5-1 = 4

Level of significance = 0.01

Calculated chi-square value = 24.89

Table value is obtained from 4 degree of freedom at 0.01 significant level

Table/ Critical value = 13.28

Calculating the average value for each of the liked type data gotten from Section E (section two)

of the questionnaire
62
Table 4.46: Average value table Hypothesis Three (Section Two)

Test level Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Sum Avg = Sum/4

SA 9 10 8 13 15 7 16 78 11.14

A 7 8 7 5 3 11 2 43 6.14

N 2 - 3 - - - - 5 0.71

D - - - - - - - - -

SD - - - - - - - - -

S= Strongly Agree, A= Agree, N= Neutral, D= Disagree, SD= Strongly Disagree

Table 4.47: Calculating Chi-square Value Hypothesis Three (Section Two)

Test level O E O-E (O E)2 ( )



SA 11.14 3.6 7.54 56.85 15.79

A 6.14 3.6 2.54 6.45 1.79

N 0.71 3.6 -2.89 8.35 2.32

D - 3.6 -3.6 12.96 3.6

SD - 3.6 -3.6 12.96 3.6

Total X2 27.10

Expected Value = Total Population Evaluated / Test Level


18
E= = 3.6
5

63
Chi-square Value X2= 27.10

Degree of freedom = n-1 = 5-1 = 4

Level of significance = 0.01

Calculated chi-square value = 27.10

Table value is obtained from 4 degree of freedom at 0.01 significant level

Table/ Critical value = 13.28

Decision rule:

Since the calculated chi-square value for the guest and employees are 24.89 and 27.10 respectively

which is higher than the table value 13.28, we accept the alternate hypothesis (Hi) which states

that there is a relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction in developing an

excellent business service model in hotels and reject the null hypothesis (Ho) which states that

there is no relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction in developing an

excellent business service model in hotels. Therefore, this implies that the statements used in

assessing the guest and employees with respect to hotel service quality and customer satisfaction

is valid. Improving on this assessment shows a significant relationship between service quality and

customer satisfaction in developing an excellent business service model in hotels.

64
CHAPTER FIVE

DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 INTRODUCTION

Having carried out the research work on customer service and customer satisfaction in hotels

using Amena Resorts and Hotels Limited as a case study, findings were made and it was found

that the quality of service offered to customers is a major determinant to the customers

satisfaction.

Also, there are more females to male employees working in Amena Resorts and Hotels Limited

and it was observed that most of the employees are single. Due to this fact the hotel is able to

implement its function effectively and also find it easy on running hotel shift in order to meet with

the operating hours stated to customers. During the study period of investigation using

questionnaire, it was observed that the ratio of male to female guest was almost at equilibrium and

their age/marital status showed that the guests who visited the hotel, age ranged from 18 years to

56 years above with their marital status evolving through the stated options on the questionnaire.

This implied that Amena Resorts and Hotels Limited has a sensational touch for leisure and its a

cool place for relaxation thereby making it favorable in accommodating persons with age ranging

from 18 years to 56 years above and different marital status.

Findings were made with respect to the research question and research hypothesis were designed

in order for the researcher to reject or accept thereby answering the research questions. From the

findings made, all alternative hypothesis (Hi) were accepted and it gave answers to the research

question with respect to the parameters used in conducting the investigation.

65
5.2 CONCLUSION

This research study set out to understanding and identifying the relationship between customer

service quality and customer satisfaction in hotels in Nigeria using a case study of Amena Resorts

and Hotels Limited, Oghara. The main effort of the management and the employees should be focused

to satisfy the customer during their stay, and respond to their individual requirements. Assessing

customers and receiving their reactions and responses are seen as key factor to customers satisfaction

cause in return it brings about the awareness of general problems of the hotel and repeated complaints.

Customer satisfaction information can also be applied in such activities as evaluating employee

performance for the purpose of recognition and improvement. As the literature indicates Huber et al.,

(2006) satisfied employees have all the means to make customers happy by offering a superior quality

service and thus reducing the occurrence of complaints substantially. The eventual result on the

profitability of the organization can only be encouraging, even at its most basic level. Fewer complaints

mean less complaint expenditure, and thus improve profits.

This research raises a number of issues for management. The interactive concepts of external and

internal quality and their importance raise issues of giving the initial work training offered to

employees after recruitment in order to achieve the right blend of employee skills and motivation.

Adopting a management-employee relationship is a strategy clearly evident to assure the best attributes

from employees. Periodic review of performance and reward schemes are considered of vital

importance, to aid the co-evolution of mutual understanding between management and employees, and

hence the development of superior service quality.

66
5.3 RECOMMENDATION

In order for the hospitality industry (hotels) to realize its potential to achieve broad-based service

quality to customers satisfaction, the following recommendations are made:

i. It is important to have a key person in the organization to stimulate and facilitate the process

of implementing a quality model. Ideally this person should have an excellent knowledge

of quality processes and who has the necessary support from top management to implement

the programs effectively.

ii. Top management should review the current employee training programs and develop new

efficient and effective methods that could empower employees to make excellent decisions

when dealing with customer satisfaction.

iii. Front line employees should give a good impression of the hotel by demonstrating a

friendly and willingness to assist, thus making first impressions to last in customers

memories.

iv. Employees should be equipped with the good working conditions and correct tools and

equipment in order to deliver an excellent service.

v. Hotel staff and managers must develop the ability to serve and manage customer

expectations that are continually changing, and must ensure ongoing improvements in

quality within their organizations.

vi. The overall recommendation to managers is that they should consider the importance of

managing quality as a complete process. To achieve this, organizations need to create a

culture of quality in which staff are empowered and in which managers facilitate the

consistent delivery of high-quality services.

67
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71
APPENDIX I

QUESTIONNAIRE

SECTION A

INTRODUCTION TO SURVEY DESIGN FOR HOSPITALITY: CUSTOMER SERVICE

AND SATISFACTION IN HOTELS A CASE OF AMENA RESORTS AND HOTELS

LIMITED, OGHARA, DELTA STATE.

Department of Hotel and Tourism Management,


College of Social and Management Science,
Western Delta University,
Oghara, Delta State.
Dear respondent,

Survey Design for Hospitality: Customer Service and Satisfaction in Hotels A Case of

Amena Resorts and Hotels Limited, Oghara, Delta State.

I am a student offering B.Sc. (Hons) in Hotel and Tourism Management Department of College of

Social and Management Science in Western Delta University Oghara in Delta State. I am carrying

out a study on the subject matter (topic) above. The research work is carried out as a partial

fulfillment of the requirement for the award of B.Sc. (Hons) in Hotel Management.

Please sir/madam, I am requesting for some of your time to fill the following self-completion

questionnaires designed to find out:

iv. Factors influencing customer satisfaction at Amena Resorts and Hotels Limited.

v. General expectation and perception of customers about Amena Resorts and Hotels Limited

in terms of service provided.

72
vi. How to meet and exceed hotel customer satisfaction to develop a business service

excellence model and strategy to improve service quality at Amena Resorts and Hotels

Limited.

All information submitted during this survey is completely anonymous and will be treated with

confidence and need ONLY for this particular research work.

Yours faithfully,

Name:

Phone number:

73
SECTION B

This part is on general information about you as respondent. Please provide answers to the

following questions by ticking () against the most suitable alternative or giving narrative

responses in the spaces provided. Your response shall be accorded all the confidentiality it deserves

and will only be used for academic purposes.

Applicable to Guest [ ] and Employees [ ]


1. Gender:
(a) Male [ ]
(b) Female [ ]

2. Age Group (Yrs):


(a) 18-25 [ ] (b) 26-35 [ ] (c) 36 45 [ ] (d) 46 55 [ ]
(e) 56 and above [ ]

3. Marital Status:
(a) Single [ ] (b) Married [ ] (c) Separated [ ] (d) Divorced [ ]
(e) Widowed [ ]

4. Nationality:
(a) Nigerian [ ] (b) Ghanaian [ ] (c) Cameroonian [ ] (d) Chadian [ ]
(e) Other (Specify)

Applicable to only Guest [ ]


5. Purpose of Visit:
(a) Leisure [ ] (b) Business [ ] (c) Meeting/Conference [ ]
(d) Other (Specify)

6. Number of visits to this hotel:


(a) First visit [ ] (b) 2 to 5 visits [ ] (c) 6 to 10 visits [ ]
(d) more than 10 visits [ ]

74
Applicable to Employees [ ]

7. Educational level: which one is your highest qualification


(a) Primary school [ ] (b) Secondary [ ] (c) National Diploma [ ] (d) HND [ ]
(e) Other (Specify)

8. Years of Experience: How long have you been working in Amena Resorts and Hotels
Limited?
(a) 1-2 [ ] (b) 3-4 [ ] (c) 5-6 [ ] (d) 7 above [ ]

9. Monthly (Salary) Income: Which is your monthly income


(a) Between N10,000 to N20,000 [ ] (b) Between N21,000 to N30,000 [ ]
(c) Between N31,000 to N40,000 [ ] (d) Between N41,000 to N50,000 [ ]
(e) Between N51,000 Above [ ]

SECTION C

ASCERTAINING THE FACTORS INFLUENCING CUSTOMER SATISFACTION VIA

AMENA RESORTS AND HOTELS LIMITED

This part concerns the factors that influence your satisfaction with hotel services. Please show the

extent to which you think each factor influences your satisfaction with the hotel services. Do this

by putting a tick () in the appropriate box. A 1 means you strongly disagree while a 5 means

that you strongly agree. You may tick any of the number in the middle that shows how strong your

feelings are. There are no rights or wrong answers.

75
Applicable to Guest [ ]

S/N Please indicate the extent to which you agree

Strongly Disagree
Strongly Agree
that the following factors influence guest

Disagree
Neutral
Agree
satisfaction with hotel services.

CODE 5 4 3 2 1

10. Hotels physical facilities and Hotels

equipment.

11. Appearance of hotel employees and Timeliness

of service.

12. Communication materials and Consistency of

service.

13. Prompt attention to guests requests and

Willingness to help.

14. Behavior and Courtesy of employees.

15. Safety and Security.

16. Concern towards guest interest and

Understanding guest specific needs.

76
SECTION D
ASCERTAINING THE GENERAL EXPECTATION AND PERCEPTION OF CUSTOMERS

SERVICE QUALITY VIA AMENA RESORTS AND HOTELS LIMITED

This part concerns the general expectation and perception of customers service quality of Amena

Resorts and Hotels Limited. Please show the extent to your expectation and perception of

customers service quality of the hotel. Do this by putting a tick () in the appropriate box. A 1

means you strongly disagree while a 5 means that you strongly agree. You may tick any of the

number in the middle that shows how strong your feelings are. There are no rights or wrong

answers.

Applicable to Guests [ ]

S/N Please indicate the extent to which you agree

Strongly Disagree
Strongly Agree

with the following statements.


Disagree
Neutral
Agree

CODE 5 4 3 2 1

17. The hotel has good looking facilities and its

physical facilities are visually appealing.

18. The hotel employees are neat appearing and

materials associated with the service are

visually appealing.

77
19. When you have a problem the hotel shows a

sincere interest in solving it.

20. The hotel employees tells exactly when service

will be performed and gives prompt service.

21. You feel safe in your transactions with the

hotel.

22. The hotels operating hours are convenient to

its guest.

SECTION E
HOW TO MEET AND EXCEED HOTEL CUSTOMER SATISFACTION TO DEVELOP A

BUSINESS SERVICE MODEL AND STRATEGY TO IMPROVE SERVICE QUALITY VIA

AMENA RESORTS AND HOTELS LIMITED.

Section One (1)

This part concerns the guests on customers service quality and customers satisfaction of Amena

Resorts and Hotels Limited. Please show the extent to which you are satisfied with the customers

service quality and customers satisfaction of the hotel. Do this by putting a tick () in the

appropriate box. A 1 means its Unknown while a 5 means its Excellent. You may tick any

of the number in the middle that shows your satisfaction rate. There are no rights or wrong answers.

78
Applicable to Guests [ ]

S/N Please indicate the extent to which you are

Unknown
satisfied with the following statements.

Excellent

Average
Good

Poor
CODE 5 4 3 2 1

23. Reception Experience: Efficiency of

reservation, Courtesy of receptionist,

Efficiency of check in / check out

24. Room Experience: Cleanliness and room

maintenance; Quality, comfort and dcor;

Attention to special request.

25. Meal Experience: Quality at breakfast, lunch

and dinner; Did the service meet your

expectation?

26. Other services: Quality of service at

swimming pool; Guest entertainment;

Laundry

79
Section Two (2)

This part concerns the employees on how to improve customers service quality and customers

satisfaction of Amena Resorts and Hotels Limited. Please show the extent to which you are

satisfied with the following statement on improving customers service quality and customers

satisfaction of the hotel. Do this by putting a tick () in the appropriate box. A 1 means you

strongly disagree while a 5 means that you strongly agree. You may tick any of the number in

the middle that shows how strong your feelings are. There are no rights or wrong answers.

Applicable to only Employees [ ]

S/N Please indicate the extent to which you agree

Strongly Disagree
Strongly Agree

with the following statements.

Disagree
Neutral
Agree

CODE 5 4 3 2 1

27. Management of this hotel should share

information of guest experience with

employees.

28. Management of this hotel should implement

strategies focused on quality and work

80
standards should be based on quality rather than

quantity alone.

29. Management should implement inspections,

reviews and checking of this hotel facilities on

a sustained basis.

30. Management should develop a system for the

recognition and appreciation of quality efforts

and success of individual and team of this hotel.

31. Management should compare its serve quality

with competitors to improve on its customers

satisfaction.

32. There should be a specific process of gathering

customers suggestions, feedback and

complaints to access customers satisfaction.

33. Management should ensure that the initial work

training offered to employees is sufficient and

Quality related tanning should be giving to

employees.

81
APPENDIX II

82
83