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Philipp Mainlnder

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Contents of the first volume

Preface. V
Analytics of Knowledge. 1
Physics. 47
Aesthetics. 113
Ethics. 167
Politics. 225
Metaphysics. 317
Criticism of the teachings of Kant and Schopenhauer. 359
Analytics of Knowledge. 363
Physics. 463
Aesthetics. 489
Ethics. 527
Politics. 583
Metaphysics. 601
Conclusion. 621

Table of contents of the second volume

Twelve philosophical essays

I. Realism and Idealism.
1. Essay: The realism 1
2. Essay: Pantheism 27
3. Essay: Idealism 37
4. Essay: The Budhaismus 71
1. The esoteric part of the Budhalehre 73
2. The exoteric part of the Budhalehre 95
3. The Legend of Budha's Life 115
4. The character image of Budha 176
5. Essay: The dogma of the Trinity 189
1. The esoteric part of the doctrine of Christ 191
2. The exoteric part of the doctrine of Christ 205
3. The character of Christ 219
6. Essay: The philosophy of redemption 233
7. Essay: The true trust 243
II. Socialism.
8. Essay: The theoretical socialism 275
1 Introduction 277
2. Communism 280
3. Free love 305
4. The gradual realization of the ideals 329
5. Higher view 333
9. Essay: The practical socialism 339
Three speeches to the German workers 341
1. Speech: Ferdinand Lassalle's character 343
2. Speech: The social task of the present 372
3. Speech: Divine and Human Law 410
10. Essay: T he regulative principle of Socialism 427
foreword 429
Statute of the Grail Order 437
Motive 455
conclusion 460
11. Essay: Aehrenlese 461
1. On Psychology 463
2. On Physics 464
3. On aesthetics 470
4. Ethics 477
5. About politics 489
6. On Metaphysics 506
A science satire 512
12. Essay: criticism of Hartmann's Philosophy of the Unconscious 529
foreword 531
1 Introduction 539
2. Psychology 553
3. Physics 567
4. Metaphysics 595
conclusion 651


Table of contents of the third volume

A dramatic poem in three parts

King Enzo V
King Manfred 87
Duke Conradino 205


Table of contents of the fourth volume

Literary estate 1857-1875

Tarik (1857-1858) 1
The power of motives (1867) 79
From the diary of a poet (1858-1863) 189
Rupertine del Fino (1875) 231
Out of my life (1874-1875) 311
dramas fragments
Tiberius (1875) 437
Buddha (1875) 451

From the life of Philipp Mainlnder. Messages from the hand-written self-biography of the philosopher (Fritz Sommerlad)
[Journal of Philosophy and Philosophical Criticism. 112-113. 1898] ZpK: 74-101
From the last years of life of Philipp Mainlnder. According to unpublished letters and notes by the philosopher (Walter
[Sddeutsche Monatshefte. 9th year 1911/12] SM: 117-131
Philosophy of salvation
i - I
Philipp Mainland.

Who once tasted criticism, disgusts forever everything

Dogmatic litter.
Philosophy has its value and dignity in it
They reject all assumptions which are not justified
Their data only captures what appears in the vivid
External world, in our intellect
Forms for the conception of the same and in all
Common consciousness of one's own self

Publisher of Theobald Grieben.
i -III
Preface. V
Analytics of Knowledge. 1
Physics. 47
Aesthetics. 113
Ethics. 167
Politics. 225
Metaphysics. 317
Criticism of the teachings of Kant and Schopenhauer. 359
Analytics of Knowledge. 363
Physics. 463
Aesthetics. 489
Ethics. 527
Politics. 583
Metaphysics. 601
Conclusion. 621
i -V

He who engages in the development of the human mind, from the beginning of civilization to our own days, will
have a remarkable result. For he will find that reason first conceived the indisputable power of nature, always
fragmented, and personified the individual expressions of power, Thus forming gods; Then these gods were melted
together into a single god; Then, by means of the most abstract thought, made this God into a being that was in no way
conceivable; But at last it became critical, tore apart its fine whip, and put the real individual on the throne, the fact of
the inner and outer experience.
The stations of this route are:
1) polytheism,
2) Monotheism - pantheism,
a. Religious pantheism,
b. Philosophical do.
3) Atheism.
Not all cultural peoples have traveled all the way. The spiritual life of most has remained at the first or second
developmental point, and only in
i-VI Two countries were reached: India and Judea.
The religion of the Indians was initially polytheism, then pantheism. (Des religious pantheism seized later very fine
and important heads and trained him for philosophical pantheism [Vedanta].) Since Budha, the magnificent King's son
entered, and founded in his great Karma -Teaching atheism to belief in the omnipotence of individual.
Likewise, the religion of the Jews was first crude polytheism, then strict monotheism. In him, as in pantheism, the
individual lost the last trace of independence. If, as Schopenhauer very aptly remarked, Jehovah had tormented his very
powerless creature sufficiently, he threw them on the dung. On the other hand, critical reason reacted with elemental
force in the sublime personality of Christ. Christ reintroduced the individual into his unchanging right, and based on it,
and based on the belief in the movement of the world from life to death (the downfall of the world), founded the
atheistic religion of redemption. That pure Christianity is, at bottom, genuine atheism (ie denial of a personal God
coexisting with the world, but affirmation of a vast atheism of a pre-worldly dead divinity that permeates the world)
and only on the surface is monotheism.
Exoteric Christianity became world religion, and |
i-VII According to his triumph, the above-mentioned mental development has not taken place in any individual nation.
In addition to the Christian religion, in the communion of the Western nations, the Western philosophy came, and
has now come near to the third station. It was connected with Aristotelian philosophy, which had been preceded by the
Ionic. In this, individual, visible individualities of the world (water, air, fire) have been made into principles of the
whole, similarly, as in every primitive religion, individual observed activities of nature have been designed to be gods.
The simple unity gained in the Aristotelian philosophy, by the combination of all forms, was then transformed into the
philosophically justified God of the Christian Church in the Middle Ages (the pure Christianity had long since been
lost); Because scholasticism is nothing other than philosophical monotheism.
This was then transformed into philosophical pantheism by Scotus Erigena, Vanini, Bruno, and Spinoza, who, on
the one hand, led to pantheism without a process (Schopenhauer) under the influence of a particular philosophical
branch (the critical idealism: Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Kant) Pantheism with development (Schelling, Hegel) was
further developed, ie pushed to the top.
In this philosophical pantheism (it is no matter whether the simple unity in the world is called will or idea, or
absolute or matter) move
i-VIII Present, like the distinguished Indians in the time of Vedantaphilosophy, the most educated of civilized peoples whose
basis is Western civilization. But now the day of the reaction has come.
The individual demands, more loudly than ever, the restoration of his torn and crushed but undeliverable right.
The present work is the first attempt to give it to him fully.
The philosophy of redemption is the continuation of the teachings of Kant and Schopenhauer and confirmation of
Budhaism and pure Christianity. These philosophical systems are corrected and supplemented, and these religions are
reconciled with it by science.
It does not base atheism upon any belief, like these religions, but as philosophy, on knowledge, and therefore
atheism has been scientifically established by it for the first time.
He will also pass into the knowledge of mankind; For this is ripe for him: she has become mature.
Analytics of Knowledge.
i 1

The more familiar the data are, the harder it is to get them
A new and yet correct way to combine, since already
An exceedingly large number of heads at them
And the possible combinations of the same
Has exhausted.
i 3

T he true philosophy must be purely immanent, that is, their material both as its limit must be the world. It must
explain the world of principles, which can be recognized by every human being, and can not help either out-of-the-
world powers, of which absolutely nothing can be known, or powers in the world, which, however, by their very nature
can not be recognized call.
True philosophy must also be idealistic, that is, it must not overthrow the knowing subject, and speak of things as
though they are the same as the eye, independent of an eye which she sees, a hand which she feels Sees the hand she
feels. Before she dares take a step to solve the enigma of the world, she must have carefully and precisely investigated
the ability to know. It may be that:
1. That the discerning subject produces the world entirely from his own means;
Second That the subject perceives the world just as it is;
Third That the world is a product, partly a subject, a part independent of the subject, of the phenomenon.
The output from the subject is thus the beginning of the only safe way to the truth. It is possible, as I may say here,
that the philosopher must also make a leap over the subject; But such a method, which gives everything to chance,
would be unworthy of a prudent thinker.
The sources from which all experience, all knowledge, all our knowledge flows, are:
i 4 1) The senses,
2) The self-consciousness.
There is no third source.
We first consider sensuous knowledge. - A tree standing in front of me throws straight back the beams of light
which strike him. Some of them fall into my eye and make an impression on the retina, which the excited optic nerve
transmits to the brain.
I touch a stone, and the sentient senses redirect the sensations received to the brain.
A bird sings and thus produces a wave movement in the air. A few waves hit my ear, the eardrum trembled, and the
auditory nerve gave the impression of being brains.
I take the scent of a flower. It touches the mucous membranes of the nose and excites the nerve nerve, which brings
the impression to the brain.
A fruit arouses my taste-buds, and they take the impression of the brains.
The function of the senses is, therefore, the transmission of impressions to the brain.
Since, however, these impressions are of a very definite nature, and the product of a reaction, which is likewise a
function, it is advisable to separate the sense into the sense-organ and the apparatus of conduction. Accordingly, the
function of the organs of sense should simply be placed in the production of the specific impression, and the function of
the conduction apparatus, as above, in the transmission of the definite impression.
The sensuous impressions transferred from the brain to the outside are ideas; The totality of this is the world as an
idea. It disintegrates into:
1) The intuitive idea, or briefly the intuition;
2) The non-intuitive perception.
The former is based on the facial sense and partly on the |
i 5 Sense of touch (feeling); The latter on the sense of hearing, smell, and taste, as well as partly on the feeling.
We now have to see how the intuitive notion, the intuition, arises for us, and begin with the impression which the
tree has made in the eye. More has not yet happened. There has been a certain change in the retina, and this change has
affected my brain. If nothing else were done, the process would be ended, my eye would never see the tree; For how
could the weak change in my nerves be made into a tree in me, and in what wonderful way should I see it?
But the brain reacts to the impression, and the faculty of knowledge, which we call understanding, comes into
action. The understanding seeks the cause of change in the sense-organ, and this transition from the action in the sense-
organ to the cause is its sole function, is the law of causality. This function is congenital to the understanding, and lies
in its essence before all experience, as the stomach must have the ability to digest before the first food comes into it. If
the law of causation were not the a priori function of the understanding, we would never arrive at an intuition. The law
of causality is, according to the senses, the first condition for the possibility of conception and therefore is a priori in
On the other hand, however, the intellect would never be able to function, and would be a dead, useless intelligence
if it were not aroused by causes. If the causes which lead to intuition lie in the senses, as are the effects, they must be
brought forth in us by an unknowable, omnipotent, alien hand, which must reject the immanent philosophy. It remains,
therefore, only the assumption that completely independent causes are produced by the subject in the organs of sense,
that is, independent things put into operation the understanding.
Thus certainly the law of causality lies in us, and indeed before all experience, so on the other hand is the existence
of things in themselves, independent of the subject, whose effectiveness first sets the mind into function.
i 6

The mind searches for the sensation of the sense, and by following the direction of the incident beams of light, it
reaches it. He would, however, perceive nothing unless there were in him, before all experience, forms in which he
poured the cause, as it were. One is the space.
When one speaks of space, one usually emphasizes that he has three dimensions: height, width, and depth, and is
infinite, that is, it is impossible to imagine that space has a limit, and the certainty of never being in its measurement To
come to an end is just his infinity.
That the infinite space exists independently of the subject, and that its limitation, the spatiality, belongs to the
essence of things, is a view which is surmounted by critical philosophy and which originates from the naive childhood
of mankind, which would be a useless work. There is neither an infinite space nor finite spaces outside of the observing
But the room is also not a pure a priori intuition of the subject, nor has this pure a priori intuition of finite space,
through whose concatenation it the perception of an all comprehensive and could reach some space, as I will prove in
the Appendix.
The space as a form of the intellect (of the mathematical space is now not the speech) is a point, ie the space as a
form of the understanding is to be thought only under the image of a point. This point has the ability (or almost the
ability of the subject) to limit the things which affect the sense organs in question in three directions. Thus the essence
of the room is the ability to interact in three dimensions in an indeterminate length apart (in indefinitum). Where a
thing in itself ceases to function, space sets its limits, and space does not have the power to extend it to its very first
extent. It is completely indifferent in respect of expansion. It is equally pleasing to give a palace like a quartz grain, a
horse like a bee the border. The thing in itself determines him to unfold as far as it does.
i 7 If on the one hand the (point) space is a condition of the possibility of experience, an a priori form of our knowledge,
then on the other hand it is certain that every thing in itself has a completely independent sphere of activity from the
subject. This is not determined by space, but it is intended to limit the space exactly where it ceases.
The second form, which the understanding takes to help the found cause, is matter.
It is likewise to be thought of under the image of a point (the substance is not mentioned here). It is the ability to
accurately and faithfully objectify every property of things in themselves, any special efficacy, within the form drawn
by space; For the object is nothing other than the thing passed through the forms of the subject in itself. Without the
object no object, no objects no external world.
With the intention of the division of meaning in sense-organism and conduction-apparatus described above, matter
is to be defined as the point where the transmitted sense-impressions, which are the processed special effects of
intuitive things in themselves, unite. Matter is, therefore, the common form for all sensory impressions, or else the sum
of all the sensuous impressions of things in themselves of the intuitive world.
Matter is therefore a further condition of the possibility of experience, or an a priori form of our knowledge. It
stands, completely independently, the sum of the efficacies of a thing in itself, or, in a word, the force. Insofar as a force
is the object of the perception of a subject, it is matter (objective power); On the other hand, every force, independent
of a perceptive subject, is free of matter and only force.
Note well, therefore, that, as accurate and photographically faithful to the subjective form of matter reproduces the
specific modes of action of a thing in itself, the only use for rendering but toto genere of the force is different. The form
of an object is identical with the sphere of activity of the object underlying it, but the objectified by matter
i 8 The expressions of power of the thing in itself are not identical with these, in their essence. There is also no resemblance,
which is why one can only draw with the greatest reservation a picture for clarification and say that matter represents
the qualities of things, as a colored mirror shows objects, or the object is related to the thing itself as one Marble floor
to a clay model. The essence of power is just the nature of matter toto genere different.
Certainly, the redness of an object points to a special property of the thing itself, but the redness does not have
equality with this property. It is quite clear that two objects, one of which is smooth and pliable, the other rough and
brittle, make distinctions appear in the essence of the two things in themselves; But the smoothness, the roughness, the
flexibility, and the brittleness of objects, with the respective properties of things, have in themselves no equality of
We therefore have to explain here that the subject is a major factor in the production of the external world, although
it does not falsify the effect of a thing in itself, but only exactly reproduces what is working on it. It is here the object of
the thing-in-itself, the phenomenon different from that which appears in it. Thing in itself and subject make the object.
But it is not space which distinguishes the object from the thing in itself, nor is it the time, as I shall show immediately,
but matter alone produces the gulf between the appearing and its appearance, although matter is entirely Indifferent,
and can not, by his own means, place a property in the thing itself, or strengthen or weaken its effectiveness. It simply
objectivizes the given sense-impression, and it does not matter whether it has to render the fundamental property of the
thing, which is the basis of the most screaming red, or the softest blue, the greatest hardness, or the full softness; But it
can present the impression only by its nature, and here, therefore, the knife must be employed in order to make the
right, so exceedingly important, cut through the ideal and the real.
i 9

The work of the understanding is terminated with the discovery of the cause for the corresponding change in the
sense-organ, and with its infiltration into its two forms space and matter (objectification of the cause).
Both forms are equally important and support each other. I emphasize that without the space we would have no
successive objects, that space, on the other hand, can only apply its depth dimension to the tinted colors provided by
matter, to shadows and light.
The intellect alone, therefore, has to objectify the sense-impressions, and no other capacity of knowledge supports it
in its work. But the mind can not deliver finished objects.
The sensuous impressions, which are objectivized by the understanding, are not whole but partial representations.
As long as the mind alone is active-which is never the case, since all our capacities of knowledge, the one and the other
less, always function together, but a separation is necessary here-only those parts of the tree which clearly represent the
center The retina, or such places as are very close to the center. For this reason we continually change the position of
our eyes during the observation of the object. Soon we move our eyes from the point of the root to the extreme point of
the crown, sometimes from right to left, sometimes reversed, and sometimes we let them glide over a small flower
countless times: only to bring every part into contact with the center of the retina. In this way we obtain a number of
distinct distinct representations, which, however, can not be joined by the mind to an object.
If this is to be done, they must be handed over by the intellect to another faculty of knowledge, reason.
Reason is supported by three faculties: memory, judgment, and imagination. |
i 10 All the powers of knowledge, the human mind, are summarized:
The function of reason is synthesis or conjunction as activity. From now on, whenever the function of reason is
used, I will use the word synthesis, and, on the other hand, establish a connection for the product, the connected one.
The form of reason is the present.
The function of memory is: to preserve the sensory impressions.
The function of the power of judgment is: the composition of the other.
The function of the imagination is: to hold the intuitions connected by reason as images.
But the function of the mind is, at all events, to accompany the activity of all faculties with consciousness, and to
link their knowledge to the point of self-consciousness.
In communion with the power of judgment and imagination, reason stands in the most intimate relations with the
mind, for the preparation of the intuition with which we are still exclusively concerned.
To begin with, the judging power of reason gives the related representations. This, in turn, connects these (and, for
example, those which belong to a leaf, a branch, to the stem), by the fact that the imagination always keeps the
connected one a new piece, and that the whole can be held back by the imagination And so on. It then unites the
dissimilar, ie, the stem, the branches, the branches, the leaves, and the flowers in a similar manner, and repeats their
connections individually and as a whole, according as necessary.
i 11 Reason exercises its function on the almost continuous point of the present, and the time is unnecessary; But the
synthesis can also take place in this one: More details later. Imagination carries the respective connected from the
present to the present, and reason fits in a piece, always remaining in the present, that is, on the point of the present.
The ordinary view is that the understanding is the synthetic faculty; Indeed, there are many who maintain in good
faith that synthesis does not take place at all, that every object is immediately understood as a whole. Both views are
inaccurate. The mind can not connect because it has only one function: transition from the action in the sense-organ to
the cause. But the synthesis itself can never fail, even if one looks at the head of a pin, as a sharp self-observation will
show to each; For the eyes will move, albeit almost imperceptibly. The illusion arises chiefly from the fact that we are
conscious of finished connections, but are almost always unconsciously active in the synthesis: first, because of the
great rapidity with which both the most perfect organ of sense, the eye and impressions are received and the
understanding is objectively the same; Reason itself; Secondly, because we remember so little that we, as children, had
to learn to apply the synthesis gradually and with great difficulty, just as the depth of the space was at first quite
unknown to us. As we now, upon the opening of the eyelids, immediately perceive every object at the correct distance
and itself, in its extent, without flaw, while it is an undisputed fact that the newborn is the moon as well as the pictures
of the parlor and the face of the As the colors of a single surface, float close to our eyes, we now at once see the
objects, even the largest, as a whole, while we, as infants, certainly saw only parts of objects, and as a result of the
slight exercise Of our judgment and imagination, could neither judge the cohesion, nor hold back the vanished parts.
The illusion also arises from the fact that most objects, viewed from a suitable distance, take up their whole picture
i 12 The retina are drawn, and the synthesis is so relieved that it escapes the perception. To an attentive self-observer,
however, he compels himself irresistibly when he confronts an object in such a way that he does not entirely overlook
it, so that perceived parts disappear in the course of the synthesis. It appears even more distinctly, if we pass by a
mountain train closely and grasp its entire form. But it is most clearly recognized when we skip the facial sense, and
leave the sense of touch alone, as I will show in detail in an appendix.
The Synthesis is an a priori function of the faculty of knowledge and as such a condition a priori the possibility of
conception. It stands completely independent of it, the unity of the thing in itself, which forces it to connect in a very
definite way.
We have not yet fully measured the field of intuition, but must now leave it for a short time.
In this way the visible world arises. It is, however, to be noted that, by the synthesis of partial representations to
objects, thinking is by no means brought into intuition. The connection of a given manifold of intuition is, of course, a
work of reason, but not a work in terms or concepts, either by pure a priori (categories) or by ordinary concepts.
Reason, however, does not limit its activity to the synthesis of the partial presentations of the understanding to
objects. It exercises its function, which is always one and the same, in other fields of which we shall first consider the
abstract, the domain of the reflection of the world in concepts.
The representations of the understanding connected to whole objects or to whole parts of objects are compared with
the judgment. The same or the like is compiled by it, with the help of the imagination, and handed over to the reason
which connects it to a collective unity, the concept. The more similar is the summarized, the closer to the |
i 13 The concept stands as an example, and the more easily the transition to an intuitive representative is made. If, on the
other hand, the number of the features in the combined objects becomes ever smaller, and the concept is thus always
farther and farther, it is the further to the intuition. However, even the broadest concept of his mother's ground is not
quite detached, even though it is only a thin and very long thread that holds him.
In the same way as reason reflects visible objects in concepts, it also forms, with the aid of memory, concepts from
all our other perceptions, of which I shall speak in the following.
It is clear that the concepts which are drawn from intuitive representations are made more easily and more quickly
than those which originate in non- To have; For, as the eye is the most perfect organ of sense, the imagination is the
most powerful faculty of reason.
When the child learns the language, that is, acquires ready-made concepts, it has to perform the same operation
which was at all necessary to form concepts. It is only made easier by the finished concept. If it sees an object, it
compares it with what is known to it, and composes the like. It thus forms no concept, but subsumes only one concept.
If an object is unknown to him, it is without question, and the right concept must be given to him. -
Reason then combines the concepts themselves into judgments, that is, they combine concepts which compose the
power of judgment. Moreover, it combines judgments with premises from which a new judgment is drawn. Their
method is guided by the known four principles on which the logic is based.
In the abstract sphere, reason thinks, likewise on the point of the present, and not in time. But we must turn to this
now. In doing so, we enter an extraordinarily important domain, namely that of the connections of reason on the basis
of a priori forms and functions of the faculty of knowledge. Smmtliche compounds which we will get to know, are in
the hand of experience, so a posteriori emerged.
i 14

Time is a conjunction of reason, and not, as one ordinarily assumes, an a priori form of cognition. The reason of the
child accomplishes this connection in the domain of the imagination, as well as on the way into the interior. We now
want to let the time arise in the light of consciousness, and choose the latter path, since it is the most suitable for the
philosophical investigation, although the inner source of experience has not yet been dealt with.
If we detach ourselves from the external world, and submerge ourselves in our inner being, we find ourselves in a
continuous elevation and reduction, briefly in an incessant movement. The place where this movement touches our
consciousness, I will call the point of movement. On it, the form of reason, the point of the present, floats (or sits as
screwed). Where the point of movement is, there is also the point of the present, and this is always exactly above that
point. He can not advance ahead of him, and he can not stay behind: both are inextricably linked.
If we examine with attention the process, we find that we are always in the present, but always at the expense or by
the death of the present; In other words, we move from present to present.
Now, when the reason becomes conscious of this transition, the imagination keeps the vanishing present and
connects it with the evolving. It pushes, as it were, under the rolling, flowing, intimately connected points of movement
and presence a fixed surface on which it reads the path which has passed through, and acquires a series of fulfilled
moments, that is, a series of fulfilled transitions from present to present.
In this way it attains the essence and concept of the past. If it then rushes away in the present, for it can not separate
it from the point of motion, and advance it before the movement, and if it connects the coming present with the one
following it, it gains a series of moments which will be fulfilled Gains the essence and concept of the future. Is she now
connecting the past?
i 15 With the future to an ideal fixed line of indeterminate length, on which the point of the present advances, it has the time.
Just as the present is nothing without the point of the movement on which it floats, time is nothing without the
foundation of the real movement. The real movement is completely independent of time, or, in other words, the real
succession would also take place without the ideal succession. If there were no discerning beings in the world, the
existing uncritical things in themselves would nevertheless be in a restless movement. If knowledge emerges, time is
only the condition of the possibility of recognizing the movement, or also time is the subjective criterion of movement.
Above the point of the movement of the individual is the point of the present, in the case of knowing beings. The
point of the single motion stands next to the points of all other individual motions, that is, all the individual motions
form a general movement of uniform succession. The presence of the subject always indicates precisely the point of the
movement of all things in themselves.
We go, the important a posteriori - Connection time in hand, back to view.
I have said above that the synthesis of partial representations is independent of the time when reason, on the moving
point of the present, accomplishes its connections, and the imagination keeps the connected. But the synthesis can also
take place in time when the subject draws his attention to it.
It is no different with changes which can be perceived on the point of the present.
There are two kinds of change. One is change of location and the other inner change (drive, development). Both
combine the higher concept of movement.
If the change in position is such that it can be perceived as a displacement of the moving object against stationary
objects, its perception does not depend on the time
i 16 But is recognized on the point of the present, as the movement of a branch, the flight of a bird.
For the reflective reason, however, all changes, without exception, like the intuition itself, do for a certain time; But,
like perception, the perception of such changes is not dependent on the consciousness of time; For the subject
recognizes it directly on the point of the present, which is to be noted. Time is an ideal connection; It does not flow, but
is an imaginary firm line. Every past moment is as it were frozen and can not be shifted by a hairline. Likewise, every
future moment has its definite fixed place on the ideal line. But what is continually moving is the point of the present: it
flows, not time.
It would also be quite wrong to say that it is precisely this flow of the present time, For if we pursue only the point
of the present, we never get to the idea of time: one always remains in the present. We must look backwards and
forwards, and at the same time have fixed embankments, in order to gain the ideal connection time.
On the other hand, changes in the locality, which can not be directly perceived on the point of the present, and all
the developments are recognized only by means of time. The movement of the hands of a watch is beyond our
perception. If I now recognize that the same pointer was first at 6, then at seven, I must be aware of the succession, that
is, in order to be able to attach two contradictorily predicates to the same object, I need time.
This is the case with changes of location, which I might have noticed, but not perceived, in the present
(displacement of an object behind my back), and with developments. Our tree is blossoming. If we now move into the
autumn and give the tree fruit, we need the time to recognize the flowering and the early tree as the same object. The
same object can be hard and soft, red, and green, but it can always have only one of the two predicates in a present.
i 17

We have now measured the whole field of intuition.
Is it, that is, the totality of spatial- Material objects, the whole world of our experience? No! It is only a part of the
world as an idea. We have sensory impressions, the cause of which the understanding, exercising its function, seeks,
but which can not be spatially and materially shaped. And yet we also have the notion of non- Intuitive objects and
thus, first and foremost, the idea of a collective unit, the universe. How do we get there?
Every mode of action of a thing in itself, in so far as it affects the senses for intuition (facial and tactile sense), is
objectivized by the form of matter, ie it becomes material for us. An exception does not take place in any way, and
therefore matter is the ideal substrate of all visible objects, which in itself is without quality, but in which all qualities
have to appear, similar to the space without expansions, but which traces all forces.
In consequence of this lack of quality of the ideal substratum of all visible objects, reason is offered a similar
manifold which links it to the unity of the substance.
The substance is, therefore, as the time to connect a posteriori the reason on the basis of an a priori shape. With the
help of these ideal connection now reason thinks about all those sensations, which can not be pour into the molds of
mind, matter and should come in this way to present non-physical objects. These and the physical properties make up a
coherent set of substantial objects. Only now the air, colorless gases, smells and sounds are us (vibrirende air) to
objects, if we can not make spatially and materially the same, and the sentence has now unconditional validity: that
everything that makes an impression on our senses, is necessarily substantial.
The unit of the ideal bonding substance is on real areas compared to the universe, the Collectiv unit of forces, which
is totally independent of that.
i 18
This leaves the taste sensations. They do not lead to new objects, but to those which are already provided by
impressions on other senses. The mind seeks only the cause and then leaves to reason the more. These easy exercises
its function and connects the effect with the existing object, eg the taste of a pear with the substantive bite of it in our
In general only reason can recognize the different emanating from an object effects than a single force sphere
entflieend; because the mind is not a synthetic assets. -
To sum it all together now, we see that the idea is neither sensual nor intellectual, nor rational, but spiritual. It is the
work of the spirit, that of all the faculty of cognition.
As I have shown above, all sensations lead to objects that make up the objective world in its totality.
The reason reflects this whole objective world in concepts and wins in addition to the world of immediate
perception, a world of abstraction.
Finally, they arrived at a third world, to the world of reproduction, which is located between the first two.
Reason reproduced, separated from the outside world, faded everything perceived by the aid of memory, namely
either accomplished entirely new compounds, or turns Entschwundenes accurate but weak and again before. The
process is quite the same as with immediate impressions on the senses. The reason quite remembers not complete
images, smells, taste sensations, words, sounds, but only of sensations. She calls, with the help of memory, in the
sensory nerves (and not what we have to think of as mind at their tips, but where they open into that part of the brain)
produces an impression and the mind objectifies him. we take our tree, the mind shapes the impressions that has
preserved the memory, to partial ideas that |
i 19 judgment, this together, reason connects the Collated that imagination holds the Related fixed and a pale reflection of the

tree stands before us. The extraordinary rapidity of the process should not blind us, as I said, lead to the false
assumption that an immediate recall of the objects takes place. The process is just as complicated as the emergence of
objects on the basis of real effects on the senses.
The dreams occur in a similar manner. They are perfect reproductions. Their objectivity they owe in general, the rest
of the sleeping individual and the specifics Dern full inactivity of the ends of the sensory nerves.
We have now to consider the rest of the important compounds that, due to a priori functions and forms of the faculty
of knowledge, accomplished the reason.
The function of the mind is the transition from the action in the sense organ to the cause. He practices it
unconsciously, because the mind does not think. It can also its function not exercise reversed and go from cause to
effect, because only an effect puts it into action, and so long is an object for him, that as long as the mind is ever in
action, he can come up with nothing more employ, as with the found cause. Set, he could think and wanted to go from
cause to effect, would disappear the object at that moment and it could only be recovered, that the mind recently
investigated the cause to effect.
The mind can thus expand its function in any way. But reason can.
First, it recognizes the function itself that it recognizes that the function of the mind is to look for the cause of a
change in the sense organs. Then the reason sets back the way from cause to effect. So you see two causal
1) the law of causality, ie the law, that any change in the sensory organs of the subject must have a cause;
2) that things seem to be on the subject.
i 20 In this way the causal relationships of undisputed validity are exhausted, because the knowing subject can not know

whether to recognize other beings in the same way, or whether they are subject to other laws. So, however praiseworthy
the careful management of critical reason is so reprehensible they would be if they gave up the further penetration into
the causal relationships here. You can also not be swayed and stamped first the body of the knowing subject to an
object among objects. Based on this knowledge, they arrived at an important third causal relation. Namely, it extends
the law of causality (relation between thing in itself and subject) for general causality that I bring into the following
It affects thing in itself on thing in itself and any change in an object must have a cause which precedes the effect in
time. (I think intentionally thing in itself and object here apart because although we know that thing works itself on
thing in itself, but things can be perceived by the subject only as objects in themselves.)
So by means of general causality reason linked object with the object, ie the general causality is the condition of
possibility, the relation in which things in themselves are to each other, to recognize.
Now here is the place to establish the concept of cause. Since thing acts on to the thing in itself, so there is ever only
effective causes ( causae efficientes ), which can be one-heal
1) mechanical causes (pressure and shock),
2) stimulation,
3) motives.
The mechanical causes occur mainly in inorganic realms that stimuli mainly in the plant kingdom, the motives only
in the animal kingdom on.
Further, since the man who time the can look forward to come, he can set goals, that is for the people and for him
there are final causes (by virtue final causes ), or ideal causes. They are, like all other causes, acting, because they can
only act whenever they are on the point of the present.
The term accidental cause is to limit the effect that he |
i 21 designates only the occasion, which gives a thing in another, to act on a third. Draws a cloud that shrouded the sun,

continued and my hand warm, so is the withdrawal of the cloud exciting cause, not the cause itself, the heating of my
The reason further extends the general causality which two things linked (the acting and suffering) to a fourth causal
relationships which comprises the validity of all things in themselves, to the Community or interaction. The same states
that every thing continuirlich, directly and indirectly, affects all other things in the world, and that at the same time to
the same all other continuirlich, directly and indirectly, act, which it follows that no thing may have to be an absolutely
independent efficacy.
As the law of causality to set an independent from the subject effectiveness and overall causality for setting the
independent from the subject action of things led to another, so the community is only a subjective link virtue
recognized what the real dynamic context of the universe becomes. The latter would also be present without a knowing
subject; but the subject could he not realize when it would be unable to accomplish the Association of Community in
itself, or in other words, the community is the condition of the possibility to capture the dynamic context of the
Reason has now produce only one connection: the mathematical space.
The (point) space is different from the present thereby significantly that he entirely sufficient to bring the vision,
while the present is not sufficient to detect Smmtliche movements of things.
It would therefore appear at all as useless, for construction of a connection between the mathematical space, a
posteriori to proceed, as is the time. But this is not the |
i 22 the case; because mathematical space is essential to human knowledge, because mathematics is based on it, the high value

will also recognize one who willingly that her boyfriend is not. Not only is the mathematics, the unshakable basis of
various studies, including the all-important for the culture of the human race astronomy, but it is also the cornerstone of
art (architecture) and the foundation of art, which in its further development, the social conditions of the people is
totally redesign.
Mathematical space created by reason determines the point-space auseinanderzutreten, and then connects any pure
space into a whole of indefinite extension. It shall proceed in this case, as in the formation of entire objects from partial
Mathematical space is the only connection to a priori reason, which does not help determine the thing in itself.
Accordingly, it is on real areas not a thing in itself, nor a totality such but absolute nothingness against which we can
imagine in any other way than by the mathematical empty space.
Among the manifold relations which has reason to understanding, finally enters this: the appearance, ie to correct
the mistake of the mind. So we see the moon on the horizon greater than in height, a stick broken in the water, a star
that is already extinguished, even all the stars in places where they actually not on (because the Earth's atmosphere
refracts all light and can search the understanding the cause of the sensory impression only in the direction of falling
into the eye rays); we mean also that the earth does not move, the planets sometimes stands still or moving back and so
what All rights the thinking reason.
We will now summarize the previous close.
The human faculty of cognition has:
i 23 a. various priori functions and forms, namely:
1) the law of causality,
2) the (point) area,
3) the matter,
4) the synthesis,
5) the presence,
faced by on real areas, completely independent, the following provisions of the thing itself:
1) the efficiency at all,
2) the efficacy sphere,
3) the pure force
4) The unit of each thing in itself,
5) the point of movement.
The human faculty of cognition has:
b. different due to a priori functions and forms, bewerkstelligte by reason, ideal connections, respectively.
1) the time,
2) the general causality
3) the Community,
4) the substance,
5) the mathematical space.
The four former correspond to real areas following provisions of things in themselves:
1) the real succession,
2) the action of a thing in itself to another,
3) the dynamic context of the universe,
4) the Collectiv unit of space.
The mathematical space is absolute nothingness over.
We have also found that the object is appearance of the thing in itself, and that matter alone produces the difference
between the two.
The thing in itself, as far as we have examined it so far is force. The world the totality of things in themselves, is a
whole of pure forces, which are the subject to objects. |
i 24 The object is appearance of the thing in itself, and although it depends on the subject, yet we have seen that in any way it

falsifies the thing in itself. We must therefore trust the experience. Now what is the strength in yourself, that has not
been dealing with us now. We initially remain still on the bottom of the world as representation and consider the force
in general, which we anticipate physics as little as possible. -
The law of causality, the function of the mind, always looking for only the cause of a change in the sense organs.
Changes in them nothing, so it rests entirely. the other hand, changes a sensory organ by a real effect, so the mind
occurs immediately in activity and seeks to effect the cause. Did he find it, the law of causality as it occurs to the side.
The mind, and this is well to remember, is not in a position to continue to apply the law of causality and ask about
the cause of the cause, for he does not think. So he will never abuse the law of causality; also is obvious that no other
faculty of cognition can do this. The law of causality conveys only the idea that the perception of the outside world.
Changed under my eyes the discovered object to the law of causality only serves to seek the cause of the new
change in the sensory organ, not the change in the object: it is as if a whole new thing would have exercised in itself an
effect on me.
So due to the causality law, we can never, for example, for the cause of the movement of a branch that was
previously motionless, wondering. We can only due to the movement thereof perceive and only because itself, in which
the movement has changed my sense organ by the transition of the branch from the state of rest.
Can we not ask for the cause of the movement of the branch now? Certainly we can do it, but only on the basis of
universal causality, a compound of the reason a posteriori ; because only through this we can see the influence of
object to object while the Cau | salittsgesetz
i 25 , only the threads between subject and object spins itself.

So we ask because quite rightly the cause of the movement of the branch. We find them in the wind. we like it so we
can ask first for the cause of the wind, then so on for the cause of this cause, that we can make causality ranks.
But what happened when I asked for the cause of the moving branch and found the same? I jumped as if from the
tree and took a different object, the wind. And what happened when I found the cause of the wind? I just left the wind
and stand for something completely different, such as when sunlight or heat.
It follows very clearly:
1) that the application of the general causality always derived from things in themselves,
2) that causality ranks only linking efficiencies of things in themselves, that is never self-contained things as
members in itself.
Let us try to pursue further (every man for himself) the broken up in the heat causality series further, it is clearly
apparent to everyone, that it
3) is also difficult to form proper Causalreihen, as it seems to be slightly in the first moments, so that it is for the
subject quite impossible, starting from any change, a proper causal series a parte ante produce which an
unimpeded progress in indefinitum would.
Things in themselves are therefore never in a causality row, and I can for the cause of being a thing in itself neither
by the hand of the causality law, to ask the hand of the general causality; because a thing changed about him that I
virtue of the causality law've found as an object, and I wonder virtue of the general causality of the cause of the change,
the general causality leads me immediately from the thing itself from flat. The question: what is the cause of a thing in
itself in the world, must not only but they can not be made at all.
i 26 It is evident that never lead to the past of things in us the causal relationships, and it shows an incredible lack of
reflection, when one considers the so-called infinite causal series for the best weapon against the known three proofs of
God's existence. It is the dullest weapon that there can be, yes she is not holding a weapon: it is the Lichtenberg's knife.
And strange! Just what makes this weapon to nothing, which also makes the imaginary evidence untenable, namely the
causality. Opponents of the evidence claim frischweg: the chain of causality is endless, without even ever just trying to
make a series of fifty right limbs;and the originator of the evidence made easily, the things of this world to members of
a causal series and then ask extremely naive about the cause of the world. Two parties is as above to explain: The
general causality never leads into the past of things in themselves.
The seed is not the cause of a plant; for seed and plant are in no causal but in a genetic connection. In contrast, you
can ask for the causes which brought the seed in the ground to germinate, or the causes which made the fuhohe plant
to such six feet high. but you answered these questions, so everyone will find what we have found above, namely: that
each of these causes is derived from the plant. Finally, you will find the plant completely cocooned in members of
Causalreihen, but where they never appear as a member.
Is there now no means to be able to penetrate into the past of things? The aforementioned genetic relationship
between seed and plant answers the question in the affirmative. Reason can form series of developments, which are
something quite different from Causalreihen. These are created with the help of causality, those only with the help of
time. Causality rows are the concatenated effectiveness is not one but many things; Development series, however it
have to do with being a thing in itself and its modifications. This result is very important.
i 27
Let us now, based on the natural science, in this single path, which leads into the past of the things on, so we must
reduce all rows organic forces on the chemical forces (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, iron, phosphorus, etc.) ,
That we will succeed, even these simple chemical forces, the so-called simple substances, due to a few forces, is an
unshakable conviction of most naturalists. However, it is for our investigation quite immaterial whether this will
happen or not, because it is an irrefutable truth that we will never reach immanent areas on the multitude out of the
unit. It is therefore clear that we would not take only three simple chemical forces as hundreds or thousands.So let's
stop at the number, which still angiebt us the science of our day.
In contrast, we find in our thinking not only no obstacle, but even logical necessity to bring the multiplicity least on
their simplest expression, duality, because the reason is what is all objects to basically force, and what would be more
natural than that they, their function exercising, even for the present and valid all future associations the forces to a
metaphysical unity? Not the varied effectiveness of forces could prevent them, because it has only the general, the
effectiveness absolutely every thing is in itself, in the eye, that is the essential equality of all forces, and their function
but solely the fact that diverse Similar that bergiebt to her judgment, connect.
We must, however, their not give here, but must, speaking the truth glancing, preserve the sanity by strong curb in
front of a safe fall.
I repeat: we can on immanent field, in this world, never about the multiplicity addition. Even in the past, we must,
as a bona fide researchers who multiplicity not destroy, and must at least remain at the logical duality.
Nevertheless, the reason can not stop, over and over again to point out the necessity of a single unit. Their argument
is that already mentioned, that for all |
i 28 forces, which we consider separately, as forces are essentially identical to the deepest reason and therefore should not be

What is to be done in this dilemma? This much is clear: the truth must not be denied and the immanent area must be
preserved in all its purity. There is only one way out. In the past, we are already. So we can because the last forces that
we were not allowed to touch it, if we did not want to be visionaries come together to transscendentem areas. There is a
past, Gewesenes, sunken area, and with it, the simple unity has passed and gone down.
By fused multiplicity to unity, we have destroyed the power above all; because the force is only valid and meaning
on immanent regions in the world. Already from this it follows is that we can form no conception, let a term us of the
essence of a primeval unity. Clearly, however, the total unknowable this antediluvian unit when we all all a priori
functions and forms and a posteriori derived compounds of our mind, one after the other, before they lead. She is the
head of Medusa, before they solidify all.
First, the sense refuse to work; because they can react only to the effectiveness of a force and the unit does not act as
force. Then the mind remains completely inactive. Here, yes basically just here, has a saying: the mind stands still in
full force. Neither he can apply his law of causality because no sensation exists, nor can he use his shapes space and
matter, because it lacks a table of contents for these forms. Then the reason collapses unconscious. What should she
join? What you use is the synthesis? what their form, the present, which is missing the real point of the exercise? What
do you avails the time, to even be something that the real succession as support needs? What should the simple unit to
start over with the general causality, whose job it is,the effectiveness of a thing in itself, as the cause, with the action to
another to link the effect? can |
i 29 they use the important link community where simultaneous entanglement of various forces, a dynamic context does not

exist, but where a simple unit aligns the inscrutable Sphinx eyes on them? What should ultimately benefit the substance
that is the ideal substrate of various effectiveness of many powers?
And so they weaken all!
We can thus determine the simple unity only negative, and indeed, on our present positions, as: inactive,
ausdehnungslos indiscriminately, not cut fragmented (easy), motionless, timeless (forever).
But let's not forget, and we are sticking right that this mysterious, utterly unrecognizable simple unit has set with its
transcendental areas and no longer exists. At this knowledge, we want to raise us up and returned us go with fresh
courage to the existing area, which alone is valid, clear and distinct world.
It follows from the foregoing that Smmtliche development series, we like to go out of whatever we want, a parte
ante in a transcendent unity lead which our knowledge completely closed, an X Nothing is the same, and we can
therefore say quite clearly that the world was created out of nothing. However, as we on the one hand this unit a
positive predicate, the need of existence attach, although we can not form the allerrmlichsten term us on the nature of
this existence, and our reason is simply impossible on the other hand, think of a creation out of nothing, so we are
dealing with a relative nothingness ( nihil privativum to do), which can be described as a past, incomprehensible
primordial, in which everything is contained in a us incomprehensible way.
From this it follows here:
1) that Smmtliche development series have a beginning, (which by the way already follows from the concept
development with logical necessity);
2) that it is therefore no infinite Causalreihen a parte ante can give;
i 30 3) that all forces are created; because what they transscendentem on areas in which simple unit were that eludes our

knowledge completely. Only we can say that they had the very existence. Furthermore, we can say categorically
that they were not in the simple power unit; because the force is the nature, essentia , a thing in itself to
continuous performance areas. But what was the simple unit in which nevertheless Everything exists contain the
essence was to - that is, as we have seen clearly veiled our minds with an impenetrable veil for all time.
The transcendent area is in fact no longer exists. But if we go with the imagination back in time to the beginning of
the inherent territory, we can figuratively represent the transcendent next to the immanent field. But then both separates
a gap that can never be exceeded by any means of the Spirit. Only one thin filaments bridges the bottomless abyss: it is
the existence. We can do this on thin filaments all the forces of immanent domain to the transcendent over: this load
can wear it. But once the forces have arrived on the far field, they also listen to, to be forces for human thought, and
therefore the important theorem:
But although all that is, was not created out of nothing, but vorweltlich already existed, so is all that is, any force
just emerged as a force, that she had a definite beginning.
So to these results we get when we go back from any current being in his past. Now we want to check the behavior
of things on the continued rolling points of the present.
First, we look into the inorganic realm, the realm of simple chemical forces, such as oxygen, chlorine, iodine,
copper etc. As far as our experience goes, the case has never occurred, that any one of these forces, shown in the same
circumstances, other properties have; well, no case be | known
i 31 where a chemical force had been destroyed. Do I come sulfur in all possible connections and come out of all possible

again, he shows his old properties again and his Quantum is neither increased, nor been reduced; at least everyone in
the latter regard, the unshakable certainty is that it is so, and rightly so: for nature is the only source of truth, and their
statements are to be considered alone. Never lie, and asked about the issue at hand, she answers every time that there is
no simple chemical force can pass.
Nevertheless, we must admit that this statement against skeptical attacks can be made. What they wanted to me then
respond when I generally attacking and without mentioning even a single feature in the matter, resulting in the
transience which objektivirenden force could be closed in it, as said: It is true that until now no case has become known
where a simple substance had been destroyed; but you are allowed to say that will teach the experience in the future of
all the same? Is it possible to a priori anything to say about the power? Not at all; because the force is, the real thing is
totally independent of the knowing subject in itself. The mathematician may well in the wild of limitations of the
mathematical space - pulling sets of unconditional validity of the formal of things in themselves, because of the
mathematical space underlying point room has the ability - whether it is equal only in our imagination
auseinanderzutreten in three dimensions, and because every thing is extended itself in three dimensions. It is also no
matter whether I speak of a certain real succession in the nature of a thing in itself, or whether I translate the same in
the ideal succession, that they bring in a Zeitverhltni; because the ideal Succession keeps pace with the real.But the
naturalist must Nothing from the nature of the ideal connection infer substance, which would affect the force; because I
can not repeat often enough that the essence of matter in every respect, toto genere , is different from the nature of the
force, although these until it pulls the trigger smallest their properties exactly in the matter. Where are touching the real
power and the ideal material, since it is precisely the important point, from where the |
i 32 border between the ideal and the real has to be drawn where the difference between object and thing in itself, between

appearance and cause of the phenomenon, between the world as representation and of the world as a force is evident.
As long as the world is, as long as things will be extended to her in three directions; as long as the world is, as long as
this power spheres will move; but you know because what new - (new for you, not emerging) - laws of nature you will
be discovered later experience that will make you appear in a whole new light the essence of power? For it is rock
solid, that on the inner nature of the force never a priori But a statement is always possible only on the basis of
experience. but euere experience complete? Do you take already all laws of nature in your hand?
What did you answer me?
That now even those skeptical attacks on the above sentence can be made, should we agree very careful and
determine us, the question for physics, and especially for metaphysics in which the threads of all our investigations are
converging on purely immanent areas open to keep. But here, in the analysis, where we the thing is opposed to itself as
something very general, where we therefore take the lowest point of the thing in itself, we must unconditionally the
statement of the nature that a simple chemical force never fades cheap, ,
however, we take a chemical compound, such as hydrogen sulfide, this force is already transitory. It is neither sulfur
nor hydrogen, but a third, a fixed self-contained power sphere, but a destructible force. Dismantle I put them in the
ground forces, it is destroyed. Now where is this peculiar force a very specific, both as different impression made from
hydrogen to me from the sulfur? She's dead, and we can think that this compound at all, under certain circumstances,
from the appearance of always occur to us quite well.
In the organic realm consistently Same is the case. The difference between the chemical compound and the
organism will occupy us in physics; Here it does not concern us nothing. each |
i 33 -organism is composed of simple chemical forces, such as sulfur and hydrogen sulfide in a single higher, entirely closed

and uniform, force are canceled. We bring an organism in the chemical laboratory and examine it, we will always, he
was an animal or a plant found only simple chemical forces in it.
Now what does the nature when we ask them about living in an organism higher power? She says the power is
there, as long as the organism lives. he dissolves, so the power is dead. Another testimony she gives off not because
they can not. It is a testimony of the utmost importance, which can rotate only a darkened mind. The death of an
organism, the tied up in forces are free again without the slightest loss, but the force that dominated the chemical forces
since then, is dead. Should they still live apart from them? Where's the hydrogen sulfide destroyed? where the higher
power of the burned plant or animal slain? They float between heaven and earth? They flew on a star of the Milky
Way? The nature, the only source of truth alone can provide information,and nature says they are dead.
Impossible as it is for us to think of a creation out of nothing, so easily we can think destroys us all organisms and
all chemical compounds forever.
From these considerations, we draw the following results:
1) are all simple chemical forces, as far as our experience goes far, indestructible;
2) all chemical compounds and all organic forces, however, are destructible.
The confusion of substance with the chemical simple forces is as old as philosophy itself the law of the permanence
of substance is.:
"The substance is uncreated and eternal."
According to our investigations, the substance is an ideal link, due to the a priori form of the understanding of
matter, and the nature of a totality of forces. The intended law would read in our language:
All the forces in the world are uncreated and eternal.
We have however, found in good research:
i 34 1) that all forces are without exception, originated;

2) that only a few forces are immortal.

At the same time we made to reconsider this eternity of simple chemical forces in physics and metaphysics the
We have seen that every thing has a force sphere itself, and that the same not a vain pretense is that the a priori form
of the understanding space conjures up its own resources. We have also, of extremely important means of linking
community recognized that these forces are at the deepest dynamic context, and thus arrived at a totality of forces in a
tightly closed Collectiv unit.
But hereby we maintained the finiteness of the universe, which is to establish closer now. Will we previously clear
about the importance of the matter. Not a closed finite intrinsic region which would be surrounded on all sides by an
infinite transcendental, it is; but because the transcendent area no longer exists in fact, a alone does existirendes
immanent, which is to be finite.
How can these seemingly audacious claim to be justified? We only have two paths before us. Either we provide
evidence with the help of imagination, or purely logical. -
The point room is, as I said above, the same complacent to give a grain of sand and a palace the border. The only
condition is that it such, will sollicitirt from a reproducirten sensation of a thing in itself, or, failing. Now we have a
present world: our earth among us, and the starry sky above us, and a naive mind it therefore may well seem that the
idea of a finite world is possible. Science, however, destroys this illusion. Every day it extends the power sphere of the
universe, or, more subjective, forcing daily point space of the mind to extend its three dimensions. The world is
therefore the time being immeasurably great, that the mind can you still put no limit. Whether it will reach it, we must
leave undecided.We must therefore refrain from outer space on a small scale in a similar manner |
i 35 to make clear how we can make by plastic replica of the earth's surface the design of our earth we comprehensible, and

there have even to say that we do not get in the way of presentation to the goal, so they can not prove clearly reflect the
finite nature of the world , Thus, we only the inexorable logic remains.
And, in fact, she finds it very easy to prove the finiteness of the world.
The universe is not a single power, a single entity but a totality of finite power spheres. Now I can not give to this
force spheres an infinite expansion; because first of all I would thus destroy the concept itself, then make the majority
of the singular, that is the experience hit in the face. In addition to a single infinite no other force sphere has more
space, and the essence of nature would simply be canceled. but a totality of finite power spheres must necessarily be
Against this objection would be that, although found only finite forces in the world, but that an infinite number of
finite forces are present, therefore, the world is no totality, but it is infinite.
Then must be answered: All forces of the world are either simple chemical forces, or combinations of such. The
former are to include organizations and all connections are due to these few simple forces. Infinite, can not be a simple
force as set forth above, if we may use any summarily described as immensely large. Consequently, the world,
basically, the sum of the basic forces that finally all, that the world is finite.
Why now something over and over again leans forward to against this outcome? Because reason with the mind
molding space drives abuse. The space is only significant for the experience; he's just a condition a priori the
possibility of experience, a means to detect the outside world. The reason is, as we have seen, only entitled to enter on
its own space apart (as you press the pen of a stick sword) if it reproduces or for mathematics pure intuition of space |
i 36 has to produce. It is clear that the mathematician has such a space necessary only in the smallest dimensions to

demonstriren his Smtliche evidence; but it is also clear that just making the mathematical space for the mathematician
is the rock on which the reason is perverse and commits the abuse. Because if we logically secure finiteness of the
world (like so well it go up) to capture the image of endeavor us and let come to room for this purpose apart so
immediately perverse reason causes the space, its dimensions beyond the borders of the world beyond to expand. Then
the lawsuit is heard: we do have a finite world, but in a space that we can never finish because the dimensions extend
constantly (or rather, although we have a finite worldbut in absolute nothingness).
Against this there is only one agent. We have to base ourselves firmly on the logical finite nature of the world and to
the knowledge that is a thing of thought to a limitless mathematical space with positive advanced point-space exists in
our heads alone and has no reality. In this way, we are like immune and resist with critical prudence to the temptation to
exaggerate lonely lust with our spirit and to betray the truth there.
Likewise, only critical prudence can keep us ahead of other great dangers, which I will explain now.
As it is in the nature of the dot space that he zero in indefinitum occurs in three dimensions apart, so it is also in his
nature to be any any pure (mathematical) space are becoming smaller, until he point space, that is zero. As the worm
their feelers, he pulls his dimensions in back and is again unthtige mind form. This subjective ability, called space, can
not be thought of differently constituted, because it is a condition of the possibility of experience alone predisposed to
the outside world, without which it has no meaning. Now, however, sees a even the stupidest that a form of knowledge,
on the one hand (the most diverse things the largest and the smallest and soon |
i 37 den grten, bald den kleinsten) als Objekten die Grenze setzen, andererseits auch helfen soll, die Totalitt aller Dinge

an sich, das Weltall, zu erfassen, im Fortschreiten sowohl als im Rckschreiten bis Null, unbeschrnkt sein mu; denn
htte sie eine Grenze fr das Auseinandertreten, so knnte sie eine reale Kraftsphre jenseits dieser Grenze nicht
gestalten; und htte sie fr das Zurcktreten eine Grenze vor Null, so wrden alle diejenigen Kraftsphren fr unsere
Erkenntni ausfallen, welche zwischen Null und dieser Grenze lgen.
In the last section we saw that reason with the immensity of the point-space drift abuse in divergence and could
reach a finite universe in an infinite space. Now we have to light the abuse, the reason drives with the limitlessness of
space in the back falls to zero, or in other words, we stand before the infinite divisibility of mathematical space.
Let us imagine a pure space, such as a cubic inch, we can use this in indefinitum share, ie the recession of
dimensions in the zero point is always prevented. We may share many years, centuries, millennia - always, we are
faced with a remaining space that can be divided again and so on ad infinitum . This is the basis of the so-called infinite
divisibility mathematical space, as on the divergence in infinitum of the dot space the infinity of the mathematical space
But what we do, by starting from a certain space and they divide restless? We play with fire, we are big kids, each
Prudent to beat on the fingers. Or is not comparable to that of children who, handle futile in the absence of parents, a
loaded pistol that has a very specific purpose, our method? The space is intended only for the knowledge of the outside
world; he should limit each thing in itself, it was as big as the Mont Blanc, or as small as a infusoria: that is his purpose
as that of the loaded gun to stretch a burglar to the ground. Now we solve the room from the outside world and make
him |
i 38 by a dangerous toy, or as I have above, according Pckler, said: We drive with our spirit "lonely lust."

The division in indefinitum a given pure space, incidentally, has so far an innocent side as a thought-entity, a space
which is located in the head of the part ends and has no reality, is divided. Its danger is, however, doubled if the infinite
divisibility of mathematical space, almost sacrilegious, is transferred to the force, the thing in itself. The punishment
follows the nonsensical begin immediately on the heels: the logical contradiction.
Each chemical force is divisible; against this nothing can be objected, because that experience teaches. But it does
not consist of parts before the division is not an aggregate of parts, because the parts are only really in the division
itself. The chemical force is a homogeneous simple force of quite the same intensity and then based its divisibility, ie
each detached portion is , by its nature, not the whole of the at least different.
Now we see the real division from which both the nature its laws, and the man in plan of work accomplished to
practischem benefits, and their results are always certain force sphere, so remains the idle frivolous division.
The perverse reason some take a portion of a chemical force, such as a cubic inch iron, and informs him continually
in thought, constantly in indefinitum , and finally gaining the conviction that they never, they want to share even
trillions of years, came to an end. At the same time you say the logic that a cubic inch of iron, so a finite force sphere
that could not possibly be composed of an infinite number of parts, so that it is completely inadmissible at all to speak
of infinitely many parts of an object; because only in the unfettered activity in indefinitum a faculty of knowledge is the
support for the concept of infinity, |
i 39 here so the unimpeded progressus the division, never, never on real areas.

So into the cave the perverse reason can at the hands of the restless division, but, once in, it must also always
forward. Back to the finite power sphere from which they went out, they can not. In this desperate situation she breaks
away from their leader violently off and postulated the atom, that is a force sphere that should no longer be divisible.
Of course, they can now, through concatenation of such atoms, for cubic inch iron back, but at what cost: it has set
itself in contradiction with itself!
Will the thinker remain honest, he must be prudent. The prudence is the only weapon against the abuse that feels
like driving a perverse reason with our faculty of knowledge. In the present case is therefore not provided by us on real
areas of the divisibility of the chemical forces in question. But we balk us with all his might, first, of the infinite
divisibility of forces because such a can be claimed only if, in the most amazing way to the thing in the (also abused)
being a faculty of knowledge is transmitted; secondly, the composition of the force from parts. So we reject the infinite
divisibility of the force and the atom.
As I said above, a faculty of knowledge, which will put all the forces that can occur in an experience that borders
must necessarily be such that it can come apart without restriction and on the way back to zero, no border encounters.
Let it, however, on one side, ie detached from the experience for which it is determined alone, and make conclusions
which we drew from its nature, binding on the thing in itself, we fall into contradiction with the pure reason: one great
We have finally to escape even with a critical spirit a danger that rises out of time.
The time is, as we know, an ideal combination , a posteriori , won on the basis of a priori form of presence |
i 40 and is nothing without the basis of the real succession. With their powerful leadership, we reached the top of the world, to

the border of a lost antediluvian existence of the transcendent area. Here she passes out, here it ends in a past eternity,
which word is merely a subjective term for the lack of any and all real succession.
The critical reason is content; not so perverse reason. This calls time again into life back and goads them into
indefinitum weiterzueilen without real support, regardless of the prevailing eternity.
Here lies naked than anywhere abuse to light, which can be made with a faculty of cognition. Empty moments are
constantly connected and a line continues, which until transcendent areas probably had a solid, reliable basis, the real
development, but now hovers in the air.
We have to do here nothing else than to rely on pure reason and simply prohibit the foolish goings.
Now if a parte ante real movement whose subjective scale is the time alone, had a beginning, it is therefore by no
means to say that they a parte post must have an end. The solution to this problem depends on the answer to the
question: the simple chemical forces are indestructible? For it is clear that the real movement must be endless if the
simple chemical forces are indestructible.
So it follows:
1) that the real movement has taken an initial;
2) that the real movement is endless. The latter judgment we make with the reservation of a revision in physics and
These studies and the earlier of our faculty of knowledge justify I am convinced the real transcendental or critical
idealism, not alone but really can with words to things in their empirical reality, that they stretch and movement,
independent of the subject, of space and time, grants. His main | point
i 41 is located in the material Objektivirung force, and it is transcendental in this respect, which word denotes the dependence

of the object from the subject.

He is critical idealism against it because he perverted reason ( perversa ratio curbs) and does not allow her
a. to misuse the causality for the preparation of infinite series;
b. the time of their indispensable basis, the real development to replace and turn them into a line of empty
moments that come from infinity and hurries into infinity;
c . the mathematical space and the substance for keeping things as mere thoughts more, and
d . In addition to impute absolute insistence that real space infinity and this real substance.
Furthermore, the critical idealism even less the perverse reason allows the arbitrary transmission of such chimeras to
things in themselves and annulled their bold statements:
a. the pure existence of things fall into the endless Causalreihen;
b. the universe is infinite and chemical forces are divisible in infinitum, or they are an aggregate of atoms;
c . the World Development had no beginning;
d . All forces are indestructible.
The two propositions which we had to make:
1) the simple chemical forces are indestructible,
2) the development of the world has no end,
we declared in need of revision.
As an important positive result we have then to lead that brought us the transcendental idealism to a transcendent
areas that can not harass the researchers, because it no longer exists.
In this way the critical idealism freed every honest and loyal nature observation of inconsistencies and fluctuations
and makes the nature again the only source of all truth that no one, attracted by deception shapes and mirages, impunity
leaves: for he must perish in the desert.
i 42
A guy who speculated,
Is like an animal on barren heath,
led by an evil spirit around in circles,
And all around is beautiful green pasture.
The most important for our further investigations result of the previous is that things in themselves for the subject
substantial objects, independent of the subject, moving forces with a certain effectiveness sphere are. We acquired it
through careful analysis of the outward faculty of cognition, so completely on the ground of the objective world;
because we had the extra time on the way to the inside as well have produced in our consciousness of other things in
our body or.
but more than the knowledge that the thing the object underlying itself is a force of a certain extent and having a
certain mobility can not be obtained on the way to the outside. What the force and is in itself as Am working as they
move up - this all we can not see outside. The inherent philosophy would have to conclude here, if we were only
knowing subject; because what they would testify due to this one-sided truth about the art, about the actions of men and
the movement of all mankind, would be of doubtful value: it could be and could not be so short it would lose the safe
ground below and all courage, and, therefore, would have to cancel their research.
But the way out is not the only one who is open to us. We can penetrate into the very heart of power; because every
person belongs to nature, is itself a force and that a self-conscious force. The essence of the force must be recognized in
So we want to draw from the second source of experience, self-confidence because now.
We immerse ourselves in our inner being, so listen to the senses and the mind, the outward faculty of knowledge, |
i 43 entirely to function on irish; they will be posted as it were, and only the upper faculty of cognition remain in action. We

have no impressions to which we would have to look for a different cause of them only in the interior; we can also
internally not make space and are completely immaterial, that is in us the law of causality does not apply and we are
free from space and matter.
Although we are completely non-spatial now, that can not get to view a form of our interior, we are therefore not a
mathematical point. We feel our effectiveness sphere just as far as she goes, just missing us to make it the means. Until
the very tips of our body the common feeling of force is sufficient, and we are not concentrated in one point, nor
deliquescent in indefinitum , but in a certain sphere. This sphere I shall call from now on the real individuality: it is the
first cornerstone of a purely immanent philosophy.
we examine ourselves further, we find ourselves, as stated above, in perpetual motion. Our strength is essential
resting and restless. Never, not even for the duration of the smallest part, of a moment, we are in absolute peace;
because silence is death, and the smallest possible interruption of life would Verlschung the flame of life. We are so
much restless; However, we feel only in motion in self-consciousness.
The state of our innermost being touched as it always, as a real point of the movement, consciousness, or floats, as I
said earlier, the presence at the point of the movement. Our inner life, we are always conscious in the present. If,
however, the presence of the main thing and stands therefore the point of movement on it, so my being would have
during each intermittency of my self-consciousness (in blackouts during sleep) total rest, that death would hit it and it
could not re-ignite his life. The assumption that really the point of the movement of the present (the real movement of
the time) is dependent, how that space things lend expansion, as absurd as it necessary for the |
i 44 was course of development of philosophy, which I want to express that it can not give a higher degree of absurdity.

By now the reason of transition from present is aware of the present, she wins the earlier discussed ways that time
and at the same time the real succession, which I by now, in relation to the real individuality, will call the real
movement: it is the second pillars of the inherent philosophy.
It is the greatest deception in which one can be biased if one believes, on the way to the inside, we would like on the
way to the outside, knowing and the knower would be a Detected opposite. We are in the middle of things in
themselves, from an object can no longer be any question, and we immediately grasp the core of our being, by self-
consciousness, the feeling. It is an immediate awareness of our being by the Spirit, or rather by the sensitivity.
So what is the core of our Inside there entschleiernde force? It is the will to live.
Whenever we enter also the way in - we may find ourselves in apparent calm and indifference, we may be saved
tremble under the kiss of beauty, we may rush and run around in the wildest passion or melt into pity, we like "sky high
shout" or "be sad" to death - we are always will to live. We want to be there, always be there; because we want to
existence, we are and because we want to existence, we remain in existence. The will to live is the innermost core of
our being; he is always active, though often not on the surface. To be convinced of this, to bring the ermattetste
individual in real danger of death and the will to live will reveal themselves, carrying on all trains with terrible clarity
the desire for existence: his hunger for life is insatiable.
But if man really do not want this life, he annihilated immediately by deeds. Most wish for death, they do not want
This desire is a developing individuality, which is identical to the found external moving effectiveness sphere. But
he is thoroughly devoid of matter. |
i 45 This immediate apprehension of the force on his way to the inside and free of matter I consider to seal that expresses the

nature under my Erkenntnitheorie. Not the space, not the time to distinguish the thing in itself from the object, but the
matter alone makes the object to a mere phenomenon which is related to the knowing subject and falls.
As the most important outcome of the analysis, we consider the totally independent from the subject individual
moving will to live firmly in hand. He is the key that leads into the heart of physics, aesthetics, ethics, politics and

i 47

Magnet's secret, tell me that!
No greater mystery than love and hate.
Seek in you, and you will find and rejoice
To you, if out there, as you always mean, one
Nature, who says Yes and Amen to everything you have in you
i 49

To the foundation of physics, I do not take the genus which is invisible between heaven and earth, the metaphysical
concept of nature, without mark and juice; Still less the so-called physical forces, such as gravity, electricity, etc., but
the real individual wills gained in analytics. We have grasped it in the innermost core of our essence as the foundation
of the (externally perceptible) power, and since everything works in nature without ceasing, but efficacy is power, we
are justified in concluding that every thing in itself is more individual Will to life.
"Will to live" is a tautology and an explanation; For life is not to be separated from the will, even in the most
abstract thought. Where there is will, there is life and where life is the will.
On the other hand, life explains the will when explanation is the return of an unknown to an acquaintance; For we
perceive life as a continuous flow, upon whose impulses we can lay the finger at any moment, while the will clearly
stands out for us in arbitrary actions.
Moreover, life and movement are interchangeable concepts; For where life is, there is motion, and vice versa, and a
life that is not movement would not be conceived with human thought.
Also motion is the explanation of life; For movement is the recognized or felt feature of life.
Thus the movement is essential to the will to live; It is his only real predicate, and to it we must
i 50 Hold us in order to make the first step in physics.
A clear view into nature shows us the most diverse individual wills. Diversity must be grounded in its essence;
Because the object can only show what lies in the thing itself. The difference is now most evident in the movement. If
we examine these details more closely, we must gain the first general division of nature.
If the individual will has a uniform, undivided movement, because it is wholly and undivided, it is an object as an
inorganic individual. Here, of course, only the impulse, the inner movement, within a certain individuality, is spoken
If, on the other hand, the will has a resulting movement which results from its division, it is an object as an
organism. The excreted part is called organ.
The organisms then differ from one another in the following way:
If the movement of the organs is only irritability, which only reacts to external stimuli, the organism is a plant. The
resulting movement is growth.
Moreover, the individual will has thus manifested itself in itself in such a way that a part of its movement has split
into a moving and a moving one, into a steered and a guide, or, in other words, into irritability and sensibility, which
together again takes up the whole part of the movement As object, it is an animal. The sensibility (consequently also
the mind) is, therefore, nothing more than a part of the movement essential to the will, and as such a manifestation of
the will as well as irritability or the rest of the whole movement. There is only one principle in the world: individual
wills to life, and he has no other beside him.
The greater the intelligence, the higher is the stage on which the animal stands, and the more important is the guide
to the individual; And the more unfavorable the ratio of sensibility to the remaining uncleaved movement,
i 51 The greater is the rest of the whole movement, which here occurs as an instinct, from which the art drive is a diversion.
Finally, when a further division of the rest of the movement has led to thinking in terms of individual will, he is a
The resulting movement is manifested in the animal, as in man, as growth and voluntary movement.
The driver, on the one hand, and the motion, as well as the uncleaved motion on the other, I present under the image
of a seeing rider and a blind horse, which are interwoven with each other. The horse is nothing without the rider, the
rider Nothing without the horse. It is, however, to be noted that the horseman has not the slightest direct influence on
the will, and can direct the horse as he possibly can. The rider proposes only the directions; The horse alone determines
the direction of his movement. On the other hand, the indirect influence of the mind on the will is of the utmost
The mind stands in the will of the animal in a double, to that of man in a threefold relation. The Community
relations are the following. First, the mind directs, ie, it gives different directions and proposes the ones chosen by the
will. Then he chained to the will the feeling which he can increase to the greatest pain and the greatest lust.
The third relation, in man alone, is that the guide, through self-consciousness, gives the will the ability to look into
its innermost being.
The last two relations can give great influence to his influence, although he is an indirect one, and completely
transform his original relation to the will. From the slave, who has only to obey, becomes first a warner, then a berater,
finally a friend, in whose hands the will faithfully lays his fortunes.
The essence of the will is, therefore, only motion, and not imagination, feeling, and self-consciousness, which are
i 52 Are a particular split movement. - Consciousness is manifested in man
1) As a feeling,
2) As self-consciousness.
The idea in itself is an unconscious work of the mind and becomes conscious of it only through its relation to
feeling or self-consciousness.
The will to live is thus to be defined as an originally blind, violent impulse or instinct, which becomes conscious,
conscious, and self-conscious by the division of its movement.
Insofar as the individual will to life is under the law of one of the modes of movement cited, he reveals his essence
in general, which I, as such, call his idea in general. So we have
1) The chemical idea,
2) The idea of the plant,
3) The idea of the animal,
4) The idea of man.
But as far as the particular nature of an individual will to life is concerned, of its peculiar character, the sum of its
qualities, I call it an idea par excellence, and so we have exactly as many ideas as there are individuals in the world.
The immanent philosophy places the center of gravity of the idea where nature places him, namely, the real individual,
not the genre, which is nothing but a concept, such as chair and window, or into an inconceivable dreamed transcendent
unity , Over or behind the world and coexisting with this.
We now have to approach the ideas in general and the particular ideas, in reverse, in the order given above, because
we grasp the idea of man most directly. It would be "explaining the form of a thing from its shadow," we wanted to
make organic ideas understandable by the chemical.
The above separation of ideas according to the nature of their movement has been accomplished by the help of the
fact of the restless movement found in self-consciousness. If now also the inner
i 53 Experience, with a view to the immediate apprehension of the essence of things in themselves, and to the external ones,
the latter, on the other hand, falls before the latter, with the intention of ascertaining the factors of motion. In me, I
always find only the individual will to live in a certain movement, a particular state of which I am conscious. I receive
only the results of many activities; For I do not know within myself. Neither do I recognize my bones, my muscles, my
nerves, my vessels, and their viscera; nor do I perceive their individual functions as conscious: always I feel only a
state of my will.
For a perfect knowledge of nature, therefore, we need the idea of the idea, and we must draw from both sources of
experience; But we must not forget that on the way to the outside we never get into the nature of things, and that is
why, we should choose between the two sources of experience, the inner one deserved the privilege. I will make this
clear in a picture.
You can see a locomotive in three ways. The first kind is an exact investigation of all parts and their connexion. One
looks at the firebox, the boiler, the valves, the tubes, the cylinders, the pistons, the rods, the cranks, the wheels, etc. The
other kind is a much simpler one. One asks only: What is the total power of all these singular parts? And is wholly
satisfied with the answer: the simple motion of the complicated, puffing impetus forward or backward on straight rails.
Anyone who is content with the recognized connection of the parts, and surveys the movement of the whole, in
astonishment at the miraculous mechanism, stands for the one who considers the movement alone. But both surpasses
the one who first makes the movement and then the composition of the machine clear.
Thus, from a very general point of view, we will now supplemented by the idea of what we have found by the hand
of inner experience.
The human body is object, that is, it is the idea-man who has passed through the forms of knowledge. Regardless of
the subject, man is pure idea, individual will.
i 54 What we, therefore, only consider the movement in mind, called Lenker, is on the way outward function of the nerve
mass (the brain, spinal cord, the nerves and the knot nerves) and the hinged (irritability) function of the muscles. All
the organs are formed of blood, and have been excreted from it. In the blood there is therefore not the whole will, and
its motion is only a complete movement.
Every organ is, according to this, an objectification of a certain tendency of the will, which it can not exert as blood,
but can only act. Thus the brain is the objectification of the endeavor of the will to recognize, feel, and think the
external world; The digestive and reproductive organs are the objectification of their striving to maintain themselves in
existence, & c
But if the blood, considered in itself, is not the objectification of the whole will, yet it is in the organism the
principal thing, the Lord, the prince, that it is a true will to live, though weakened and limited.
On the other hand, the whole organism is the objectification of the whole will: it is the development of the whole
will. From this point of view, the whole organism is the objectified, objective sphere of the will, and every action of the
organism, that it is digestion, respiration, speaking, grasping, walking, is a whole movement. Thus the grasping of an
object is, first, the union of the nerve and the muscle into a whole part of the movement, but the combination of this
movement with the rest of the whole movement of the blood leads to a whole movement of the will. The unified
movement of the chemical force is a simple action, the movement of an organism a compound, resulting action.
Basically, both are identical, as is equal, whether ten people are united, or a strong one alone, a burden.
Just as we can separate the motion of the human will only in sensibility and irritability on the one hand, and the rest
of the whole movement on the other, the factors of movement in the organism also appear as nerves and muscles on the
one hand, and blood on the other. Everything else is secondary. And of these three factors, the blood is the principal
and the original, the nerve and the muscle has excreted. It is the one looked at
i 55 Uncleaved will to live, the objectification of our innermost being, the demon, which plays the same role in man as the
instinct in the animal.
It is, however, to be remarked that although the nerve mass, like every other part of the body, is the objectification
of the will, it nevertheless occupies a very exceptional position in the organism. We have already seen above that she is
in very important relations with the demon and, albeit in total dependence on him, is alien to him. In any case, the
muscles are much closer to the blood, ie they contain the greater part of the divided movement, as is evident from the
color and chemical composition. To this end, no organ can function without nervous irritation, while the brain works
only with the help of the blood. For these reasons it is advisable, at this time, to find much more important reasons-at
least to emphasize this part of the nervous mass (the objective mind), and to place the idea of man in an inseparable
union of will and spirit; But always keeping in mind that all that belongs to the body is nothing but the objectification
of the will, the only principle in the world, which I can not sufficiently enmity.
The idea of man is therefore an inseparable unity of will and spirit, or an inseparable conjunction of a particular will
with a particular mind.
I have already decomposed the mind in analytics: it comprises the power of knowledge united to an inseparable
It is a definite in every man, because his parts can be deficient, little, or highly developed. If we pass through the
fortunes, individual senses may at first be extinguished or weakened. The mind always exercises its function-transition
from action to cause-and indeed, in all men, with the same rapidity, which is so incomparably great that a greater or
lesser degree must completely escape the perception. His forms, space, and matter also objectify to all men
i 56 evenly; For any imperfections, such as blurredness of the outlines and incorrect color determination, are due to the
defective nature of the sensory organs in question (myopia, the limited ability of the retina to the qualitative division of
its activity).
In the higher capacity of knowledge, therefore, one must seek what distinguishes the fool from genius. It can not lie
in reason alone, for its function, the synthesis, like the function of the understanding, can not be atrophied in any man,
but is united in reason with its aptitudes: memory, judgment, and imagination. For what helps me the synthesis, that is
to combine the assets in indefinitum when I arrived at the third thoughts have already forgotten the first, or if I want to
memorize a shape and, having reached the neck, missing his head, or if I Can not, with rapidity, make similar things to
similar things, to like to like? For this reason, the highly developed abilities of reason are indispensable conditions for a
genius; it is manifested as a thinker or an artist.
There are, on the other hand, people who can not speak three words together, because they can not think together,
and on the other, those who read a great work once and never forget their thought. There are men who long for an
object, and yet whose form can not be clearly impressed, but others, which slowly, clearly, allow the eye to glide over a
wide region, and from then on they carry it clearly forever. The one has a weak memory, the other a strong memory, the
one weak, this a gifted imagination. But it must be borne in mind that the mind is not always able to reveal itself purely
because its activity depends on the will, and it would be wrong to infer from the stifling speech of a timid, timid man
his lack of spirit.
It is also to be noted that geniality is a phenomenon of the brain, but is not based solely on a quantitatively and
qualitatively good brain. As a large heap of carbon metal can not melt, if only the conditions for a slow combustion are
given, but a powerful bellows quickly leads to the goal, the brain can only show great genius
i 57 When an energetic blood-stream is active, which, on its part, is essentially dependent on a powerful digestive system and
a strong lung.
If we turn to the will of man, we must first determine his individuality as a whole. It is a closed self-being or egoism
(selfishness, egoism). Where the ego ceases, the non-ego begins, and the sentences apply:
Omnis natura vult esse conservatrix sui. -
Pereat mundus, dum ego salvus sim. -
The human will, like everything else in the world, is at first the essence of existence. But then he wants it also in a
certain way, ie he has a character. The most general form of the character, which is, as it were, the inner side of egoism
(the skin of the will), is temperament. As is known, four temperaments are known:
1) The melancholy,
2) The sanguine,
3) The choleric,
4) The phlegmatic,
Which are fixed points between which many varieties lie.
Within the temperament are the will qualities. The main ones are:
envy - goodwill
greed - generosity
cruelty - compassion
stinginess - extravagance
falsity - loyalty
arrogance - Demuth
Despite - despondency
bossiness - clemency
presumptuousness - modesty
meanness - generosity
rigidity - suppleness
cowardice - audacity
injustice - justice
i 58 obduracy - openness
insidiousness - conventionality
effrontery - modesty
voluptuousness - moderation
baseness - Ehrbegierde
vanity - holiness
And between each of these pairs there are gradations.
The will qualities are to be seen as designs of the will to life at all. They have all sprung from egoism, and since
every human being is the will to live, which egoism embraces, so is the germ of every will-quality in every human
being. The qualities of the will are to be compared with scoring, which can be extended to channels into which the will
flows at the slightest occasion. But it must already be remarked here that the human will enters life as a character. If we
remain in our picture, the infant shows, besides mere scorings, large depressions; The former can, however, be
broadened and deepened, the latter narrowed and flattened.
The states of the will are strictly distinguishable from the will-qualities. In them, as I have often said, we grasp our
innermost being alone. We grasp it directly and do not recognize it. Only by bringing our states, which are nothing
other than sensed movements, into reflection, do we become self-conscious and the states at the same time objective for
us. Thus we first find in abstract thought that the will of our states is the basic will to live, and then, by drawing
attention to those motives which direct our will at any time into a certain movement, from the ever-recurring states The
nature of our character, the qualities of which I have called will-qualities. Thus we can only determine our
temperament from the abstract classification and compilation of many states.
We now have to recognize the principal states of our will, as we feel them on the way inward, and will, if necessary,
help the idea.
i 59 The basic condition we have to go out from is the normal way of life. We do not feel at all, the will is perfectly
satisfied: its clear mirror disturbs nothing, neither desire nor displeasure. If we look at the body, it is perfectly healthy:
all the organs function without disturbance; we nowhere feel either a slackening or an increase in our sense of life,
neither pain nor pleasure.
This state could also be seen in the mirror of the subject, the normally warm and mild- Shining; For the impression
of the body on our feeling objeces the matter (substance) as heat, and the impression of the eyes, in which the inner
movement so eloquently reveals itself, objeces the matter as light, mild light. The fact that light and warmth are
nothing but mere phenomena of motion is now an indisputable scientific truth. When we look at the chemical ideas, we
shall approach the light and the warmth, and will then also show that they are not phenomena of the movement of a
mysterious ether, but of every known idea; For there is in the world only individual wills, and there is no place in it for
beings which are not perceptible to the senses, and whose logical definition speaks against all natural laws.
All other states of the will are based on this normal (which may also be called equanimity) and are only
modifications of the same.
The principal modifications are: joy and sorrow, courage and fear, hope and despair, love and hate. The latter are the
strongest; They are modifications of the highest degree. They are all due to the transformation of the normal state,
which the will, under the stimulus of a corresponding motive, provokes. Nothing mysterious, supernatural, foreign,
penetrates into its individuality, asserts itself and reigns in it: not the mighty spirit of a dreamed species, no god, no
devil; Because individuality is sovereign in their home. As the chemical force is impenetrable, man is a closed sphere
of force, which can be forced from the outside to show itself in this, now in that way, soon to pass into this, now into
that state; But the motive always causes only excitation
i 60 And the will only reacts to its nature, according to its character, by its own strength.
If I now pass on to characterize the stated states of the will, it is clear that I can only represent the results of a self-
observation which makes no claim to infallibility; Because this type of self-observation is extremely difficult. It is
demanded that, for example, in the highest affection, which overflows the mind completely, one preserves so much
clarity and prudence in order to recognize its movement: an almost unfulfillable demand.
In the normal state, the will moves, as it were, as a calmly flowing current. If we imagine the will under the image
of a sphere, the motion would be a uniform, ring-shaped one around the center: a self-soothing circle.
All other movements mentioned, on the other hand, either flow from the center to the periphery, or vice versa. The
difference is in the way the way is covered.
Joy is a leaping, jerky excitement from the center, now strong, sometimes weak, in now broad, sometimes short
waves. It is said that the heart bounces, the heart jumps with joy, and often the movement also comes out in the outside:
we bounce, dance, laugh. His individuality is too narrow for the joyful; he calls:
"Be embraced, millions!"
The courage is a calm, calm outflow in short, regular waves. The courageous steadily and surely occurs.
The hope, on the other hand, always sets the path back in a wave. It is a blessed, light movement from the center.
They say: to the swing of hope, hopeful, and often the hopeful spread out the arms, as if he were already aiming and
put his hand on it.
I compare love with a violent surge from the center to the periphery; It is the strongest outflow: the waves rush and
form swirls. The will wants to break through his sphere, he wants to become the whole world.
Hate, on the other hand, is the most intense backflow of the
i 61 From the periphery to the center, as if every expansion was repugnant to him, and he could not concretize the dear I, be
compressed and compressed enough. Like an army on the run, the feeling twists together.
The despair, like a jump, leads the way back to the center. Man, abandoned by all, convinces that there is no longer
any salvation for him, escapes into his innermost core, to the last thing that he can clasp, and this last also breaks. It is
said that he gave himself up.
The fear is a trembling movement inside. The individual wants to be as small as possible, it wants to disappear. It is
said that fear drives a mouse hole.
In grief, the will moves in large, regular waves to the center. One looks for oneself, one tries to find in the heart the
consolation, which one can not find anywhere. It is said that mourning gathers the mind; the heart is relieved by grief.
For state, one often puts mood and says: he is solemn, hopeful, courageous, sad; It is also said to be misunderstood
to indicate that the circling movement is no longer regular.
Let us now take a brief look at the qualities of will, which, on the incentive of motives, provoke hatred and love.
In general, one can say that in love man is endeavoring to expand his individuality, but to strive to limit it in his
hatred. But since neither one nor the other is to be accomplished, the individual can only endeavor to increase or limit
his external sphere of action.
Man first expands his individuality demonically through the sex drive (voluptuousness) and here love emerges as
sexual love. It is the most excited state of the will, and in it, its vitality reaches the highest degree. The individual, who
is caught up in sexual love, endures the greatest pain with steadfastness, accomplishes unusual things, patiently
obscures obstacles, and even, under certain circumstances, does not shy away from certain death because it is purely
i 62 (Unconsciously), only in connection with a certain other will.
Through the love of love, man extends his individuality to the family.
He also expands his external sphere and places himself in the state of love by means of the will-quality of
domineering or ambition. He submits to other individuals and makes them his will to the law. Love occurs here as the
joy of the power. The man who is at the center of the greatest sphere speaks proudly: a sign of me and hundreds of
thousands overthrow themselves into death, or what I want is for the law of millions.
Then love shows itself as a love of money, on the basis of avarice.
Love, moreover, manifests itself as a joyous feeling of spiritual superiority, a glory of fame at the hand of the will-
to-be. The sphere is extended by the children of the Spirit, who submit to the spirit of the Father through all lands and
other spirits.
Here, too, the friendship is to be mentioned, which is based on the will-quality fidelity. When the ratio is true, it
produces a restricted expansion of the sphere.
After all, love still appears as a love for mankind, which I will treat in ethics.
The individual, on the other hand, narrows his outer sphere and moves into the state of hatred by envy. It feels
repelled by the apparent happiness of other individuals and thrown back upon itself.
The sphere then narrows by hatred towards individual parts of the world: against men at all, against certain classes,
against women and children, against priests, etc., on the basis of the qualities of will in question.
Hate then appears in a peculiar form, namely as the hatred of man against himself, and I shall touch it more closely
in ethics.
There are many gradations between the above-mentioned principal states; Besides, there are many other conditions
which I, however,
i 63 Because I can not stay too long in the special. In aesthetic and ethics we shall also learn several important conditions.
On the other hand, we must consider a second kind of movements of the will which I shall call double movements,
as distinct from the simple movements which have since been investigated.
In hatred, the individual retreats to his innermost core. It is concentrated, it wants to be uncultivated. If hatred is
very great, he often jumps into the opposite movement; that is, the will suddenly flows to the periphery, but not to wrap
around lovingly, but to destroy it. This movement is the anger, the rage, the furor brevis. In it, the individual annihilates
his opponent either with words: it floods him with a flood of insults, insults, curses; Or it may lead to violence that can
end with death and murder.
In aesthetics and ethics, we will learn several other double movements.
There is no longer a word about the intoxication and sleep.
The intoxication is an increased blood-life, which becomes the more aware of the individual, the more the senses,
and with them, the understanding. The intoxication is complete in anesthesia by narcotics (nitric oxide, chloroform,
etc.). The senses are quite inactive, and the understanding is suspended; however, self-consciousness is a very reiner
Spiegel. The Stunned to the blood circulation is very clearly conscious; he feels it clear how the blood is racing and
raging and presses against its vessels, as if it would burst them. He thinks we reflect about it and all, but with
wonderful rapidity.
Sleep is first necessary for the organism. The force that so much is consumed in its dealings with the outside world
must be renewed and disorder in the organs repaid. Therefore, the sense of complete and the will, not limited to its
sphere and restless as ever, his house in order and |
i 64 prepares for new and Actions. Now it truce in the struggle for existence.

Then sleep for the daemon itself is necessary. He must be stateless from time to time in order not to despair; and
stateless it can only be in deep sleep.
Is not it, sleep is God himself who embraced the weary people?
It was like listening to 'I shout: Sleep no more!
Sleep murdered Macbeth, the unschuld'gen,
The innocent holy sleep, unprotected,
The sleep of the verworr'nen skein of worry
Unraveled, the every day pain and pleasure
Burying and re-awakens to new dawn,
The fresh bathroom sore full chest,
The linden oil for every heartache:
The best food on the life meal.

All states of the will unites the immanent philosophy in terms pleasure and pain. Pleasure and pain are the
immediate conditions of the demon, there are whole, undivided movements of real will to live or, more objectively
states of the blood, heart.
Pain and pleasure, however, are indirect conditions of the will; because they are based on vivid sensations of the
organs which are secretions from the blood and maintain a certain independence of the blood against.
This difference is important and must be maintained. Sign me up thereto some observations on objective areas.
The states of pleasure are expansion that displeasure concentration of will. I hinted above, that the individual would
like to show in the former states of out and around the world, how blessed it is. It expresses for the whole body in its
state of gestures, movements (hugging, hopping, jumping, dancing) and especially by laughing, |
i 65 screaming, shouting, singing, and by language. All this is due to the efforts of one man to show his state and others - if it
were up around the world - to communicate.
In contrast, the individual is reflected in the states of pain up. The luster of the eyes goes out, the faces are serious,
the limbs are motionless or contract. The forehead skin wrinkles vertically, eyes shut, the mouth is silent, his hands
clench convulsively and man crouches, falls into it.
Even the wines is worthy of mention. It is as if the resigning blood ceases to perform the requisite pressure on the
lachrymal glands and these empty, therefore. Crying is a heart spasm ahead, and you almost feel the back flow of the
will towards the center. In impotent rage, however, the tears are squeezed out by force.
Finally, I'm on the peculiar phenomena of light in the eyes, caused carefully matt or violent inner movements, and
the heat and cold sensations. The poet rightly speak of glowing, glow full, glowing, phosphorescent eyes; of gloomy
fire in the eyes; Glitter of eerie thereof; of Zornesblitzen; from lighting up, flashing eyes. They also say that the eyes
sparks, it thunders in the eyes, etc. In addition, it gives many expressions denoting the cessation of symptoms, such as
the light went out of the eyes; his eyes lost their fire; tired souls, tired eyes; in the latter expression to skip the
appearance, emphasizing only its foundations.
However, it is to be noted that all these phenomena in the eye (including the darkening of the iris, namely the blue,
when the individual is angry, belongs) to changes of the organ based. The excitement of the will change the voltage of
the body part (cornea, iris, pupil, etc.) such that the light is substantially reflected differently than natural, or in other
words, the inner movements of people, as far as they reveal themselves in the eye , modify only the ordinary light, are
not independent light sources.
i 66 The heat and cold sensations are very diverse. We feel icy chills, shivers us; however, we glow, hot Lohen beat up on us,

we burn, we melt, it boils in our veins, boils the blood.

But not only do we have these inner feelings, but also our body shows a change in temperature. The extremities are
cold in the states of pain, they die; and on the other hand, the body has a higher thermal shows states of pleasure, or in
the effluent portion of the dual movement, such as in anger. Even the fever belongs here.
We are now leaving the people and descend in the animal kingdom, and that we deal first with the higher, the people
standing closest to animals, his "under-age brothers."
The animal is, as a man, a compound of a certain intent with a specific spirit.
His mind has first of all, the same sense as man, which, however, many individuals are sharper, ie, a greater
susceptibility to impressions have than that of humans. His mind is the same. He examined on each impression the
cause and made it its forms space and matter in accordance. , The animal has also how the human reason that is, to the
ability to connect. It also has a more or less good memory, but a weak Einbildungs- and weak judgment, and in this
imperfection is due to the great difference that exists between man and animal.
This imperfection was the first consequence is that the animal connects the partial ideas of the mind usually only
parts of objects. Only those objects which completely reflected onto his retina, is regarded as whole objects; all others
are presented as whole objects do not exist for the same, as his imagination can not hold many vanished partial ideas.
So one can say that the wisest animal, closely standing in front of a tree, the whole picture will not win.
Then he lacks the important bewerkstelligten from reason to reason a priori forms and functions of connections. |
i 67 It can not construct the time and therefore, lives only in the present. hereby communicates that the animal recognizes
only those movements which are perceptible on the point of the present. The whole course of the change in location of
an object an imperceptible change in location and all internal movements (evolutions) escape his mind. The animal is
also the effect of an object with the change in another can not link, because it lacks the general causality. The
knowledge of a dynamic relationship of things is quite impossible for him of course. Only the causal connection
between his body and such things, their action on this has already experienced it, so that mentioned in analytics second
causal relation, but significantly limited,it is seen by the aid of memory. Because it lacks the substance, his world is
flawed as an idea and fragmentary.
Finally, it can not form concepts. It can not think in terms, and his spirit lacks the crucial, erlangende just by
thinking about, tip: self-consciousness. His consciousness manifests itself:
1) as a feeling,
2) (as a self-esteem common sense of individuality).
If you now also the higher animals abstract thinking has not been resolved, we must contrast them thinking in
images, on the basis of judgments in pictures, go on. The trapped in a leg irons fox, which bit through his leg to free
himself, precipitated by addition to the other he held the free leg figuratively, two correct judgments and drew from
them a correct conclusion: Everything pictorially (without concepts) supported by direct observation.
The reason the animal is thus a one-sided educated and his spirit at all a much more limited. Since the Spirit is
nothing more than a part of a split movement, so it follows that to the rest of the whole movement of the animal will be
more intense, so the instinct significant must come to the fore in the animal as the demon in man. And in fact, the
driver of the beast is everywhere strongly supported by instincts, where he chained efficiencies and future |
i 68 , can not detect conditions upon which the preservation of the animal. So the instinct determines the time when the

migratory birds have left the north, and drives other animals in the autumn to collect food for the winter.
Let us now turn to the will of the animal, so is his individuality, as a whole, like the man, a self-self or selfishness.
As man, the animal wants to live in a certain way also, that it has a character.
With regard now to the temperaments and will qualities of the animal, it is clear that the same must be less
numerous than those of the people; because his spirit is imperfect, and only in conjunction with a developed spirit of
the will can make in many ways, ie unwrap. It is therefore meet the right thing when, speaking of the higher animals, in
general, their temperaments two will qualities, vitality and inertia limits. Only a few domestic animals, whose
intelligence and character have been raised by the millennial dealing with people and designed to meet the human
temperaments, and has to be mentioned before all the horse.
How important is this dealing with people for the animal show feral horses and the prairie dogs. The latter often fall
as Humboldt says, bloodthirsty man to, for the defense of their fathers fought. In such feral animals regression has
taken place in such a way that the intelligence is reduced and thus the whole motion of the blood (the instinct) intense,
the character contrast was easier.
Of the will qualities all those who will be eliminated, which have the human mind to condition such as greed,
justice, determination, modesty, etc. Of the remaining, such as envy, falsehood, loyalty, patience, Sanftmthigkeit,
malice, etc. show the monkeys, elephants, dogs, foxes, horses, most of them. Often you can with a single will, quality
denote the whole character of an animal, often even this is not |
i 69 once and there is only the character of the individuality of all: selfishness.

The feeling of the animal is, because of the comparatively lower nerve mass and also because of their coarser
texture, weaker than the human. His pain and voluptuous sensations are therefore more subdued and less intense than
that of humans.
The states of pleasure and pain in animals are weaker and less numerous than those of the people; because their
depression and duration depends on the abstract thinking. Only the animals the highest level know the state of joy and
sorrow. mourn lasting and as intense as the man rejoice, may very likely only the dog.
Furthermore, the despair turns out, and only a few animals will take the place of hope, which presupposes the
concept of the future, enter a state of expectation. however, the fear knows every animal, because the animals are
generally cowards. Brave the animal is only when it has instinctively chosen the extended individuality (Fight of males
to females, defense of brood). The dog itself is boldly out of loyalty and appears here as the noblest animal.
Hate and love all animals eventually show more or less clearly. The love appears as sexual love (lust) and because it
is rooted in the blood of life and the instinct is much more intense than the demon, a poacher and ausschlielicherer
state than in humans. The spirit reached its highest level. The body is bristling, the movements are lively and the inner
violent excitement propagates as sound. The birds sing, draw, whistle, gargle; bellows cattle; the cat cries; the fox
barks; the deer whistles; the reindeer lures; the rutting deer raises a loud, widely audible cry. The excitement is further
demonstrated in the sultry, rolling eyes; in the incessant movement of the ears; the stamping of feet and the churning of
the earth with the antlers, respectively. with the horns.The rutting animal hardly noticed the danger and often forgets
hunger, thirst and sleep.
Love then still occurs as a pleasurable feeling of power. Taurus |
i 70 and ram, Hahn and Drake move with a certain pride in their family.

The hatred manifests itself as dislike, even hatred of the sexes after mating and, because of selfishness (a single will,
quality rarely wears it) as a hatred of the whole environment or against individuals, when existence is at stake.
Like the man, so also the animal turns on its own the normal movement in Smmtliche other states. The heat is the
erregteste state.
appears the more you now descend in the animal kingdom, the more easier by the increasingly unfavorable to
formative relation of intelligence to will and always simple nascent spirit, the individual will. Whole sense missing,
wither the forms of the mind, its function is sollicitirt increasingly rare, and the higher faculty of cognition eventually
fall away completely.
We now enter the hidden realm of plants. No sensitivity, that no idea, no sense, no sense of self, no self-
consciousness: these are the features, making the plant from the animal is different.
The plant has a resultant of movement. There are two whole part of movements that resultant of a merge. Not like
the animal, the one party movement has split again, but remained whole, and therefore the plant has no sensitivity, and
is devoid of all phenomena accompanying the sensitivity.
The herbal irritability and therefore under the still contains the sensitivity and is therefore essentially different from
the animal. It reacts directly to the external stimulus and is thereby actuirt from the original, remaining whole
Let's take the idea to the aid, as is the juice of genuine plants will. But he is not the objectification of the whole will.
Root, stem, leaves and reproductive organs are excretions from the juice and form, with this, the objectification of the
whole plants will. The big difference between plant and animal is that the juice immediately actuirt the organs |
i 71 as the blood, the brain, while the other organs of the animal could not function irish by the mere Actuirung of blood. There

is a need for these above all the concentration between nerve and muscle and only now can, as stated above, the blood
cause the whole movement.
The plant is an individual will to live and is a closed-itself. You want life in a very specific way, that is, it has a
character. But this character is very simple. He does not enter into the will qualities apart, but for all plants recorded
from the inside, a blind urge growth of a certain intensity. Viewed from the outside, however, it shows salient own
character or, in other words, it shows us its character as an object: she wears it on display.
One can distinguish only three states in the plant, which correspond to the normal state, the hatred and love of the
animal, namely growth, flowering and withering. Under withering I understand Concentration here.
In the state of flowering, the plant has reached its highest life. They "glows and lights," and most of the urge to
expand their sphere even more exhaliren fragrance. It is as if they wanted to give their happiness all over the world
customer; But is this comparison requires consciousness that we must deny decidedly the plant. What the language of
the people, the sound of the animal, this is the fragrance for the plant.
I hereby would like to mention that the deep emotion of the plant in the state of flowering very often kundgiebt in an
increase in its temperature, which is nothing short of astonishing in individual cases. Thus, the flower of shows Arum
cordifolium example at a temperature of the air of 21 degrees, a heat of 45 (Burdach I, 395).
In a state of withering the plant narrowed their sphere. (As an analogue of animal hatred after mating can view the
bending back the stamens of fertilization.) There wither the stamens, the petals, the leaves; the fruit drops and the idea
of the plant concentrates itself in the juice.
i 72 In the case of annual plants and other, as in the sago palm, Agave americana, Foucroya longaeva , withering is identical to

die. Here the idea of the plant is concentrated entirely in the fruit.
The states of the plant will be based, like all states of the individual at all, on the conversion of its normal movement
on their own.
The life of the plant, although, because of the lack of sensitivity, a dream life, but for that very reason an
extraordinarily intense. It's just a seemingly quiet and gentle. Consider the exuberant fertility, showing the intense drive
the plant to receive in existence, and the known attempt by Hales, after which the force of the flowing vine juice is five
times stronger than the force with which the blood is large in the femoral artery of the horse moves.
We now enter the inorganic kingdom, the kingdom of inorganic or chemical ideas whose feature is the undivided
The chemical idea is how all the individual will, a closed-itself. The genuine individuality in the inorganic kingdom
is the whole idea. However, since each part has the same nature as the whole, so is each closed sphere of a
homogeneous chemical force, which is found in nature, an individual.
The chemical idea want life in a certain way, that it has a character. Is detected from within the same, a never-ending
simpler, blind urge. All Thtigkeiten chemical idea due to this an urge. He reveals himself as that of the plant,
significantly OUTDOOR: it is completely pushed off the property.
Nothing can be more wrong than to deny a chemical idea life. At the same moment, where a piece of iron, for
example, his inner movement, which is still the only feature of life would lose, it would not disintegrate around, but are
actually about nothing.
i 73
Dry ideas are now first of all the so-called simple substances such as oxygen, nitrogen, iron, gold, potassium,
calcium etc pure, without admixture. Then Smmtliche pure compounds simple substances with each other ideas, such
as carbon dioxide, water, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, iron oxide, manganous oxide, and the compounds of these with
each other as sulphate of lime, chrome potash, nitrate of soda; So Smmtliche simple Acids, bases and salts are simple
special ideas.
Special ideas are also those compounds which, at the same (procentischer) show composition, various properties,
and which has been called polymeric substances. Thus, the pentathionic (is S 5 O 5 ) from the lower sulfurous acid ( S 2 O
2 ) is significantly different, although sulfur and oxygen in both compounds in the same proportion, according to
percentages and equivalents, are met.
Further, the organic chemical compounds independent idea, thus the radicals and their compounds such as ethyl ( C
4 H 5 = Ae ) and Ethyl ( EO ), ethyl iodide ( AEJ ), sulphate of ethyl ( AeO.SO 3 ), as well as the polymeric organic
substances such as aldehyde ( C 4 H 6 O 2 ) and ethyl ether ( C 8 H 8 O 4 ).
There are, after all double salts and conservirten remains of organisms, such as bone, wood, etc, special ideas
because they are special chemical compounds.
In contrast, Conglomerate, as such, no particular ideas.
In this context, we have given the inorganic kingdom, are not merely the chemical preparations; he is not a
framework for chemical formulas alone; but it encompasses all individuals inorganic nature. So it would be wrong for
example aragonite and calcite, which have a completely different Crystallbildung not be separated; because any
difference in object points to a difference in the thing in itself, and even after such differences the particular ideas are to
be determined.
I make this general part with the remark that it is quite indifferent to the immanent philosophy, whether the number
of simple chemical substances and their compounds, will be the progress of science, increased or diminished. The
philosopher should not constrict the natural sciences and tie. |
i 74 His task is merely: sift the collected by naturalists material and bring it under general points. He must define it only the

chemical ideas, worry about whether the under certain terms objects are increased or diminished.
We have now to classify due to three very specific conditions, the objects of the inorganic kingdom and then to
investigate the character of the objects each division.
All bodies are either solid, liquid or gaseous.
All have in common is extension and impenetrability, which is nothing more states than that each individual
inorganic body will to live is. He has a force sphere and asserts itself in life that he wants.
The solids then show seriousness, that they have a main quest: to reach the center of the earth. Each individual of
the inorganic kingdom wants to be in the center of the earth: that is its general character. Its special character is the
intensity with which he makes his pursuit submits its cohesion, or its specific gravity (specific gravity).
In the exercise of this effort, which has the solid body forever and never loses, he reveals inertia.
Each fixed body is also more or less extendable or compressible. Thereafter determining its extensibility and
compressibility, determine its hardness, brittleness, elasticity and porosity short his so-called physical properties, which
in no way are ideas, independent forces, but only the nature of the chemical ideas in more detail. You will read on the
object (the previous by the subjective forms thing in itself) and rightly referred to the bottom of the phenomenon.
Regardless of a chemical idea they are not even imaginable: they stand or fall with it.
Some of these properties are based on a modification of the state of aggregation, which you can also call normal.
The expandability by heat only states that a body by foreign stimulus in a more excited state in a violent |
i 75 inner movement has passed, and is looking to expand her his sphere. Warmer it is not therefore become as a part of a

particular idea of heat called, penetrated to the wonderful way in his individuality, Lord would have been in it or even
entered into a connection with her, but has become warmer, because he his movement has to external stimulation,
however, but by very own power, changed and in this new movement now makes a different impression on the sense of
touch of the observer than before.
On the other hand, a body shrinks and becomes colder because either stopped the strange suggestion, or he, acting
on another body loses its erregtere movement. He goes from the more agitated state to the normal back, and now we
say he has become colder, because he also makes a particular new impression in his new state. -
The gaseous bodies show a tendency, a movement which is the exact opposite of gravity. While the solid body seeks
only the center of the earth, or, in general terms, for an ideal, lying besides him certain points, wants the gaseous
incessantly spread in all directions. This movement is absolute expansion. It forms, as I said, the direct contrast to the
heaviness, and I must, therefore, the claim that the severity gases are subjected decided to reject. That they are heavy, I
do not deny; but this is due, first, to act precisely in all directions, so even where one determines their weight, then in
the context of everything that does not allow the rampant spread.
are the liquid between the solid and gaseous bodies. The liquid shows a single undivided movement which is to be
determined: as a flowing apart in the quest for an ideal lying except their center points. It is limited expansion or
modificirte severity.
The various efforts solid, liquid and gaseous bodies are most evident when it inhibits. So a stone only expresses his
support because he only has a direct pursuit of the Center of the Earth; a liquid contrast suppressed so far as it goes, all
the parts of the vessel, because of |
i 76 all directions acts that are below their mirror; a gas eventually fills a closed balloon completely out and makes it

consistently bursting because his pursuit urges all directions.

Comparing the so-called physical states according to its intensity with each other, so each one is immediately the
movement of the gaseous idea as the most violent and most powerful call. When speaking of riots, wars, revolutions,
one will rarely fail to weave into the speech words like storm, explosion, outbreak. Less often will use images, which
are borrowed from interaction of liquids and beaten by the violence of Wasserfluthen, mountain streams, cloudbursts
speak. The effectiveness of solid bodies is not used then. Likewise, it is called Wuthausbrchen, volcanic eruptions of
passion of the individual and also says, bursting with rage, burst.
Very thoughtfully comparing the persistent pursuit of a single goal with severity; the mobility of a character with the
waves; the demeanor of the individuality with the steam, and speaking of the soundness of an individual in the good
from its slowness in mkelnden sense of its versatility and moodiness. The French say: une femme vaporeuse and
Italians often apply the word vaporoso to a character who does not pursue certain objectives, sometimes this,
sometimes that wants, and nothing in truth.
The degree of the intensity is thus to the gaseous state, the first; is it follows the liquid and the least violent of the
The physical state is the normal one inorganic body. This normal state, any chemical idea on external cause, modify
without losing it completely. The state of a hot iron is substantially different than that of a iron from the ordinary
temperature, and yet the hot iron is not stepped out of its state of aggregation. In this |
i 77 but limit its movement more intense than before. The same is true of liquids and gases, such as boiling water and

compressed air.
In addition to these normal conditions and their modifications we find two inorganic kingdoms: the positive and the
negative- ELECTRICAL.
The chemical idea in the normal state is indifferent, that it is neither positive nor negative electricity. However, it is
stimulated in some manner, so it changes its state in the positive or negative ELECTRICAL.
Is it in the excitement an extension of individuality, the force is positive- electrisch, otherwise negative-electrisch,
and you therefore chemical compounds unjustly on affinity or affinity leads, in my view, back. The process resembles
much more an act of Nothzucht as a loving union. The individuality wants a new movement, a new life in a third party;
the other struggles against with a vengeance, but is defeated. In any case the chemical compound is the product of
conception. In the begotten both individuals live on, but bound, so that very different properties shows. The simple
chemical compound is a Generated which can testify again. This creates the salts, namely the base is the real
convincing principle because they always electro-positive acts against the acid.
That something takes place when connecting chemical ideas of what we, it would be accompanied by
consciousness, would not call mutual longing Search Nothzucht and violent subjecting seems thus to find confirmation
that the same force soon positive- soon negative- me is electrisch, according as it plays the leading role in the
witnesses. Thus, sulfur acts in the positive-generating moments against oxygen, iron against negative- electrisch. If the
lime chalk combines with hydrochloric acid and the carbon dioxide escapes, one must not speak of an exemption
inappropriate well.
two metals and will touch her opposite electrisch, then this is of course not about procreation, but it shows only a
great excitement in each individual, as in dogs and cats.
i 78 that the chemical compound is possible only in the excited state ELECTRICAL the body, is clearly evident from this that

can be prevented by cooling, so destruction of the requisite stimulus, compounds. A force not obtained the power to
attack, so that others do not, the resistance and both remain indifferent.
The decomposition of chemical compounds by heat due to the fact that the external stimulus acts unevenly on the
bound forces. The suppressed comes in a more excited and more powerful state than the previously stronger and can
now free. The same takes place in the decomposition by electrische streams.
The three Hauptmodificationen of elective affinity, single, double and predisposing: 1) Fe + Cl H = FeCl + H ; 2)
FeO + ClH = FeCl + HO ; 3) Fe + HO + SO 3 = Fe . OSO 3 + H , explain just any electro- from the desire to have
positive power, a certain new movement or way of being. In the latter case the iron decomposes water because it wants
to connect as ferrous oxide with sulfuric acid and the sulfuric acid, it is irritating to decomposition.-
A distant extension of individuality finally takes place by simple attraction, ie the individual expresses adhesion.
The connection through adhesion, the inorganic analogue of the extended outer sphere of human beings.
We look back on the far dialed in physics way, we see everywhere, we may turn to where we want, a single
principle, the fact of inner and outer experience: individual will to live and its states.
The individuals who are part of our world of experience, first separate into 4 large groups by the special nature of
their movement.
Then they differ in the groups from each other:
a. in inorganic and plant kingdom, from the inside, by analogy, detected by greater or lesser intensity of the drive,
the outwardly in physical properties, resp. a wide variety of forms disclosed;
i 79 b. in the animal kingdom and in humans by larger or smaller development of the will (the will qualities) and mind
(especially the Hlfsvermgen of reason).
Smmtliche individuals are in perpetual movement, and every movement causes a certain state. Smmtliche states
are modifications of a normal state, which accomplishes the will of its own, and only to external stimulation.
The members of the series:
Sex love - lust - bloom - Positive electricity; Human hatred - hatred of animal - withering - Negative electricity

are not identical, but probably very closely related to each other.
We now have the life of the chemical ideas, then look at the procreation and life and death of the organic.
The simple chemical ideas, and to all observations that have been made, they do not change their nature, nor can
they be destroyed. But because they can connect with each other, they are, as materialism says, engaged in a ceaseless
(not eternal) circuit. Connections come and go, re-emerge and disappear again: it is an endless change.
it summarizes compounds in the eye alone, one can very well speak in the inorganic realm of procreation, life and
Combines a simple chemical idea with another, the result is a new idea with its own character. In turn, this new idea
has power of procreation; it can with others to whom it has affinity, form a new idea with its own character. Suppose an
acid, a base and a salt, such as SO 3 , FeO and FeO.SO 3 . The ferrous oxide is neither iron nor oxygen; The sulfuric
neither sulfur nor oxygen; the sulphate of iron neither sulfuric acid nor of iron; and yet the individual ideas in the
connection are all included. However, the salt has no procreative power.
In the inorganic kingdom procreation is merger and the individuals go entirely to the begotten. Only by |
i 80 they all sacrifice themselves temporarily, or rather, only by the one temporarily all sacrifices and the other is entirely

sacrificed to the former can vibrate at a higher level, that is, give yourself another movement, what is important for
procreation alone ,
The life of the chemical force is the insistence in a certain movement, or when circumstances are favorable,
according to a new movement, which desire the deed immediately follows in the manifestation of desire, if not stronger
individual it prevents (such as touching the that takes copper with iron in such a claim that it can not connect with the
carbon dioxide of the air to cupric carbonate). The insistence is made possible only through persistent defense, and
even here the truth clearly emerges that life is a struggle.
The death of the chemical compound appears finally as a return of, what has been in their bound, simple materials
for the original motion.
In the organic realm is the sexual reproduction in general and the sexual reproduction of the most important people
in particular, and, therefore, let us consider the latter alone.
A man and a woman, each with a very specific character and a certain spirit, copulate. Fertilization takes place, the
result is an individual (or more) to the plant to a certain character and a specific spirit.
That the seed of the man fertilizes the egg of the woman, although it can not go directly to the ovaries, is a fact. The
egg and the seed are secretions from the innermost core of the individual and included his Smtliche qualities
nachbildlich. So everyone Convincing enters the copulation, which is in the greatest excitement going on. The state
now where everyone Convincing is determined in the second place, the type of fruit, and this is a very important
moment; because depending on the woman or the man passionate, solid and energetic acts in copulation, the new
individual is more reveal the individuality of the woman or the man. Also it should be noted that the woman, burned in
great love for the man whose time is significantly increased, and conversely |
i 81 the man who can be a free game from a great love for women, the decisive action of the woman.

In this way, the will qualities of generating individuals are strengthened, weakened or completely tied; others
unchanged transferred to the child and also determines its mental abilities. But the nature of the seed is not absolutely
immutable; for now the host in the body of the mother, the new individual is under the direct influence for a fairly long
period begins. What can not happen all in the meantime! Harder work or more careful care, aversion or increased
affection for the man, spiritual inspiration, love for another man, illness, violent transient arousal or a persistent fever
state by wars, revolutions: all this is, when necessary, not flow past without a trace on the embryo, but touch it easier or
deeper. One may assumethat the German people, both gained more mental activity after the French tyranny and the
French after the great revolution and wars Napoleon'schen a modificirten in general character that more determination,
this even more volatility, and that it does not to the state stuff ends must be returned during copulation alone, but also
on factors during pregnancy of women.but must also be attributed to exposure during pregnancy of women.but must
also be attributed to exposure during pregnancy of women.
The new individual is nothing more than a narrowing of the parents, an afterlife, a new movement thereof. Nothing
can be in it, which was not in the parents, and the poet is right when he says of himself:
'I have the stature of the Father,
Serious conduct of life;
From the mother the Frohnatur
And fabuliren pleasure.
Urahnherr had hold of the most beautiful,
The haunted so every now and then;
Urahnfrau loved jewelry and gold,
The jerks probably through the limbs.
Now, if the elements do not
to separate from the Complex,
What is it about the whole Wicht
to name original?
i 82 That in children traits, stature, hair and eye color of the grandparents occasionally erupt there, his explanation is that a
bound will quality by favorable circumstances, be free again and can be revealed.
This so simple ratios that only who does not see that they do not want to see are violent by many to go through and
made by mysterious, so that one would exclaim indignantly with Goethe:
because the world is not already full of enigma enough that you also have to make riddles the simplest phenomena?
Soon the incomprehensible powerful genre should bethtigen the generation business, soon otherworldly principle is
to determine the nature of the child, sometimes the character of the newborn should be totally without quality. The
most superficial observation must lead to the rejection of all these chimeras and the knowledge that the parents live on
in the children.
On the diversity of the states of the parents in copulation, and also the age flows, based the diversity of the children.
One is violent and more alert, the other soft and dreamy, the One gescheidter, the other stupid, the selfish A, the other
liberal. It is not at all wonderful that children sometimes show very different properties than the parents because the
Neutralisirung and amendment of will qualities that can make very asserted in circumstances.
We enter the animal and vegetable kingdoms, we shall find that the farther we go, the less the difference between
the child and parents; because the individual will increasingly apart enters qualities, its number of states getting smaller
and the states themselves are becoming easier. Usually then said to the individual have only generic character, by which
is meant that the individuals of a species are all equal. That the begotten nothing else than the tapered parents, is clearly
evident in some insects that immediately after mating, respectively. Elimination of greed, die; then still very apparent in
the annual plants and in those perennial which die after seed formation.
i 83
The individual thus appears as a particular individuality into life. As I said above, we need him next salient will
qualities also award the germs to everyone else. You can wither or flourish. We must also not give his mind a too tight
metered trainability; because if it will never be possible to make it through the most careful education of a simpleton a
genius, yet it is no mistaking how powerful circumstances can affect the higher faculties verkmmernd or inspiring.
The world assumes the new individual, making it out. It is initially irrepressible will to live, violent urge easier; but
soon it expresses the innate individuality, show individual character, and instantly penetrate other individuals on
limiting it in. It has an insatiable thirst for existence and want it, according to its special nature, delete; but the others
have the same thirst and the same drive. From this stems from the struggle for existence in which develops
individuality, tempers or weakens, and either wins, or subject, ie a freer movement wins, or is bound. The innate
individuality turns into an acquired which may be identical to that under certain circumstances, and we, within narrow
limits, however, must admit the ability to further amendment,as I will demonstrate in ethics.
Every organism dies, that is, the idea is destroyed. The type, which during life, insisting on change, the constituent
him simple chemical ideas assimilated and retired again disintegrates itself.
In front of a corpse standing, the immanent philosopher has to ask the question to nature: Is the idea destroyed or
lives her away? Nature will always answer: She's dead and she lives on. She is dead, if the individual has not been
rejuvenated through procreation, and she lives when it looked at children.
i 84 The answer not only satisfies him, but her first part is for some whose character we must accept as a fact, as that of

Domineering, or ambitious, or lustful, (which can not make three steps without falling into a to fall brothel), the
Trosteswort the words of comfort and it will be once for all.
Our Earth is a small Collectiv unit in an immeasurably large but finite power sphere outer space. The probable
nature of our planet, the constitution of the universe and finally the movement of celestial bodies should occupy us
The deeper one penetrates into the interior of the Earth, the greater the heat, ie the more intense is the movement of
chemical ideas that we encounter. So no metal can already at a depth of only 34 more miles get in the solid state and
becomes liquid. From this we may conclude that at a certain distance from the periphery and the liquid state can no
longer receive and the core of the earth of gases, namely, filled with extremely comprimirten gases to which all liquids
floats. The liquid would then be enclosed by the solid crust.
This hypothesis Franklin's must adoptiren the immanent philosophy as the best; because it is clear that our earth,
indeed the whole universe may only be a stock that the pursuit of each chemical idea never finds a perfect satisfaction.
Only an inch, a line from the ideal mathematical center of the earth removed, a solid or liquid body would still fall;
because he wants to be in this central point: that makes his whole being made. Now if it were possible such a body to
reach the center of the earth, he would have lost his desire, and therefore all his effectiveness, his whole being, and he
would be in fact at the moment of arrival to nothing.
In a very different relation on the other hand is the center of the earth to the gaseous ideas. These have no
relationship with him, because they are always striving in all directions, never for a single. So is a gas at the center |
i 85 of the earth as it continues to exercise its activity, because his desire is not satisfied.

From this it is that we had to create our earth with the existing material until we could meet no other means than the
existing, that we would have comprimirte gases into the interior of the sphere, solid bodies on their surface and
between both a put sea of molten chemical ideas.
This agreement of immanent philosophy that has a found in the innermost self-confidence and consistently
confirmed by nature single basic principle: the individual will to live, with the empirical fact on the one hand that the
temperature grows, the deeper one penetrates into the interior of the earth, the Kant-Laplace theory on the other hand,
the Franklin's hypothesis gives a very great power of conviction.
If we look at the universe, the infinitely large, but finite, so shows us a single force sphere, that we gain the notion
of a Collectiv unit of countless individual ideas, each of which affects all others and at the same time experiencing the
effectiveness of all others. This is the dynamic context, we recognize with the extended community for general
causality of the universe. Now, since on the one hand our experience so far could not exceed a certain circle and is
essential limitirt, on the other hand, the air surrounding our planet shows all the symptoms of inhibited activity, we
must assume a dynamic Continuum and chemical ideas, but whose nature we have no judgment, between set the single
world body.The best we summarize them under the common term ether together, but we decided verwahrend against
the assumption that he is imponderable.
We have already mentioned the heat and the electricity returned to the state of ideas and seen that they are only
phenomena of motion; because the movement is the only predicate of the individual will, and the most diverse states of
a particular will are only modifications of his nor | painting
i 86 movement. It is neither sensible heat still free electricity, no bound (latent) heat. Is a body warm and it loses its heat to

another, this means only that it increases the state of the other and lost in the pursuit of the stimulus force, that one's
condition has weakened. Latent heat is on one side only the expression of the ability (the intrinsic power) of the will to
change on corresponding appeal his condition, and on the other side of the expression for the return of the will from an
excited state to the normal. Such as heat and electricity, as well as the magnetism is not transcendent, lurking behind
things being who soon pounces on her and she subjugated soon cavalirement leaves and withdraws into her dwelling
(a dwelling that could only be described as a "Everywhere and Nowhere"), and the same is true of light.
The light is nothing else than the made visible, very violent movement of ideas or objectified by the subject
impression of a violent movement to the sense of sight. The knowledge that the light is not perceived vibrations of a
surrounding all bodies the ether, but the body itself, breaking more and more trains and will become an undisputed
scientific truth. Completely convincing this view must act on every one who the world than may otherwise finally think
and, to deepen in the dynamic context of numerous things with the diverse aspirations, recognizes all in incessant
action and reaction grasped and a universe of tremendous edge voltage Tension wins. Wherever takes place a
movement within the universe,- not a thing will remain unaffected by it: it will suffer the impression and react to it.
Now the sun is a Center for our system, where the most violent movement propagates in all directions, the sources
in the allerintensivsten combustion processen, in the vast poking, the cosmic masses, Dashing in the sun, exercise, and
in the contraction of the solar body to look for themselves.
But if a movement that propagates in all directions, the state of our air, at a distance of 20 Mil | lionen
i 87 miles, may modify such a way that it produces an impression on the sense of sight, which objectifies the white glare is that

they must also enter in the tropics an impression on the sense of touch, which, objectified, which is almost devastating
sun glow us - so it must be of a force, for their determination we lack all measure; because in the way our bodies react
to these stimuli, we find so little a measure stick, as in the playful ease our limbs movements for the immense air
pressure that our body suffers.
From this we see:
1) that the sunlight on earth only a perceived peculiar movement of air (perhaps only its oxygen) is that movement
in the end, if one skips the terms of the series, has its basis in the resultant of from processen on the sun
movement - similar to the sound is only a perceived by the ear peculiar movement of air;
2) that the sunlight figuratively if you have only the violence in the eye with which the original movement
propagates, can call an extraordinarily large force.
According to Newton's theory of the Earth from two different forces is moved around the sun: from an original, the
throwing power, and the attraction of the sun. the earth would push away in any straight line that alone, this alone they
pull in a straight line itself. But while both work together, the Earth describes a curved line around the sun.
These forces Newton has set simply postulates and when available. Its essence is completely unknown and we only
know the laws according to which they act. The law of inertia is:
A body which is even in motion, without the action of external forces, to continue its movement with fixed speed in
unmodified direction until it is canceled by external obstacles;
i 88 and the law of gravity is:
The attraction of each body behaves directly as its mass and indirectly as the square of its distance, or also: the attraction of
a body is equal to its mass, divided by the square of its distance.
It is subject to no doubt that can be explained all the movements of celestial bodies after these two laws the whole
celestial mechanics. Whatever may be the true causes of the movement forever, under these laws, they must act.
But what must exceptionally to interest us, these are precisely the causes of the movement, and it is an object of
immanent philosophy that they may not refuse to try at least to make the ultimate ground located. The trial itself will be
a merit if he fails. Posterity will hardly be able to believe that one has calmed down so long in the laws and not
researched the true forces. But when it is considering how everything unexplainable ado transcendent beings has been
blamed in the period, their astonishment will cease.
That the immanent philosophy is not in the two unknowable forces, attraction and repulsion, calm, clear. You must
reject it, like all the other alleged natural forces that will be everywhere and nowhere and, behufs revelation of their
nature, are intended to fight a so-called objective matter; they must reject them as the supernatural genre that live
behind the real individuals, and sometimes one, sometimes to meet the other with its overwhelming power; they must
reject them as any simple unit to exist in, alongside or behind nature, just like everything that cloud the view of the
world, confuse the judgment about them and can pick up the purity of the intrinsic region.
The "first pulse" of which the astronomers deduce the tangential force, must first raise the most serious concerns in
any clear head; because they put him on the external impetus of a foreign power. The inherent philosophy on the other
hand makes the first pulse no difficulty because they do not have to be attributed to a foreign force him but can derive it
from the first movement, from which all movements that were, |
i 89 will be and are, merely are sequels. - This first movement is the disintegration of the unit in the transcendental inherent
multiplicity, a transmutation of the essence. When the primeval simple unity, the absolute silence and the transcendent
area went down, the multiplicity, the motion and the inherent territory, the world was created. The movement, which
had each individual will then, was a first impulse, but no strange; because if we can never explain the nature of the
antediluvian unit from the nature of the individual will, it is certain that the nature of the unit, although changed, is
present in this world, and the movement, the only predicate of the individual will, sprung from the interior is not flown
from the outside. Having regard to this, you just go to the hands of the Kant-Laplace ''s theory on the movement of a
finished ground.
Not so the astronomers. , The first impulse is like saying to them, the effect of a foreign power. However, we use the
case we would have at this blatant begging calm, so we will immediately scare the question which summarizes Littrow
in the words:
Because the body, as we assume, without the effect of an external force can not move, how they should nevertheless, the
same assumption as obtained in this movement without external force?
Here lies a difficulty which can only be lifted when you moved the momentum into the nature of the body itself and
makes him either themselves to a constant continuous acting force, or can be obtained continuirlich him by a detectable
foreign, equally constant force acting ,
As the first pulse by a foreign force, including gravity can not stand a critical examination. It is the extension of all
of us known severity of universal gravitation. As we have seen above, the severity is not to be sought outside the solid
and liquid bodies, but in them. It is their inner drive and only expresses the freedom of any solid and liquid body wants
to be in the center of the earth. The intensity of this drive, which objectively constitutes its specific gravity, is the
especial character of the body.
i 90 The physicists and astronomers say the exact opposite; They thereby provide the thing upside down and entangled in the

greatest contradictions, as I will show now.

First, they are forced to replace the severity of the bodies to make it a them foreign force acting on it from outside
and forces them to follow her. Furthermore, since it is inconceivable that at a distance of only a line from the center of
the earth this mystical force cease to act, the physicists have also the seat of power lay in the center of the earth, which
is necessary ausdehnungslos. "Who likes to receive it, let him receive it."
Now supposing that we were silent here so we could but the actual phenomena on Earth and explain the
hypothetical in their interior or in other words, for the simple gravity extends the seat of the attraction force at the
center of the Earth. However, immediately the thing changes when we pass on the severity of universal gravitation, that
the attraction force in our solar system. Now the mass of the attracting celestial body is a moment of attraction force,
which calls for a satisfactory explanation. Since the seat of power is no longer sufficient in the ideal center of a world
body. Astronomers reflect Also in this embarrassment not last long. Lift the seat of the attraction force outside the body
simply and embarrassed him in all the power sphere of the same.
It this is an act of desperation. On Earth, gravity is not inhere the body in the solar system, however, the severity
should lie in the bodies.
This apparent contradiction makes every thinking suspicious. Even Euler (letters to a princess) bemkelte gravity;
he tried a poking the ether to explain to the body, "what would be reasonable reasonable, and the people who love
bright and comprehensible principles." He also speaks of "a peculiar inclination and desire of the body", to which I will
come back.
Also Bessel could not reconcile, though not because it is self-contradictory, but because they could not explain his
actions in the light cone of Halley's comet with the gravity.
i 91 The core of the comet and its emanations granted the reputation of a burning rocket whose tail is deflected by drafts. "
(Humboldt, Cosmos I. band.)
Bessel closed from multiple measurements and theoretical considerations:
"That the cone of light emanating from the direction of the sun, both right and left, considerably distant: but always returned to
this direction to get to the other side of the same move."
From this he convinced himself:
"Of the existence of a polar force of the action of a force which is significantly different from the gravity or ordinary attractive
force of the sun, because those parts of the comet, which form the tail, experienced the effects of a repulsive force of the solar
So while the laws of tangential and attraction force is accurate and very well explain all movements (even those of
Halley's comet, as arising), the forces must be themselves decided discarded from philosophy. But what can you
replace them with?
I would remind you that the gravity of the engine, or how Euler says that "passion and desire" is the solid and liquid
body to be in the center of the earth. In contrast, the expansion of the inclination and desire of the gaseous body to
expand in all directions, or their disgust with any particular points. We had to explain Franklin's hypothesis about the
Constitution of the Earth compelling reasons for the best, and they have adoptirt. We attach to explain them our
experiments, the movement of the earth around the sun, as a basis, our earth is a Collectiv unit of individual will, which
have diametrically opposite tendencies. In addition, each individual exercises his quest with a special intensity. In such
a composition,in such diverse movements of individuals but must be a resultant of movement for the whole arise that
we want to characterize as a desire for the center of the sun at every moment.
On the other hand, we have seen that the sunlight is nothing other than the visible become violent movement of our
air, |
i 92 which is due to massive expansion of the surrounding gases, the sun, and we therefore called the light figuratively an

extraordinarily large force. It is clear that it can only be a repulsive force because we have to deal with the state of
gases whose essence consists precisely in the absolute expansion. You always want to spread, spread in all directions,
and we have to imagine the light as the appearance of a force that exerts the most intense repulsive pressure as in a
gunpowder explosion, the massive pursuit of ideal center points out.
To summarize these considerations, the elliptical motion of the Earth around the sun would be the result of two
movements: the movement of the earth towards the center of the sun and the repulsive force of the sun or figuratively
of light.
The roles were reversed so outright. While in Newtonian theory the Earth escapes in consequence of their tangential
force, the sun, and the sun will draw due to the attractive force of the earth itself, wants comes to our hypothesis, the
earth to the sun and the sun it off.
In addition, laws for the two movements would be as follows to formulate:
1) the pursuit of the earth to the sun behaves just like the intensity of their drive and indirectly, as the square of the
2) the rejection of the sun behaves just like the intensity of the caused of her expansion and indirectly as the square
of the distance.
The sameness of the law, according to which the light and the attraction effect, puts all that deal with nature, in
amazement. Now here is even a hypothesis which derives the movement of the heavenly bodies of two forces whose
effectiveness partly just finds expression in one and the same law, the law of light and gravity. At the same time all fall
paradoxes continue because these forces are not metaphysical mystical beings, just aspirations of the only real in the
world of the individual will, respectively. dynamically related individuals. The rotation of the Earth around itself and
the associated progressive movement of its center |
i 93 which movements are only natural sequences of the first pulse (the disintegration of the unit in the multiplicity) can be

easily obtained by the repulsive force of the sun: this is the constant continued acting tangential force; however, the
earth will simultaneously in the sun: this is the gravitation. Both cause the rotation of the earth around the sun in a
curved line.
The different types of speed at which the Earth moves around the sun, can be explained on the Zwangloseste
further: because the closer is the earth of the sun, the greater their eagerness towards the center of the same, but at the
same time the greater the repulsive force of the sun and vice versa. The larger but the sides of the parallelogram the
forces, the greater the size and vice versa.
In this way, the aforementioned strange movement of Halley's comet, without resorting to a new force, a polar force
also explains enough, because the power of the sun is much more repulsive, unattractive.
We could drop the lust of the earth and simply replace them with the reaction to the repulsive action of the sun.
(Third Newton's law.)
I must leave the subject here. That in a physics that is consistently put on a new principle, the individual will to live,
and the all so comfortable transcendent Hlfsprincipien how the simple unity, the Absolute, the idea of the infinite, the
eternal, the eternal forces of nature, the "eternal allverbreitende force" etc. spurned, was not allowed to remain
unaffected, the movements of the heavenly bodies, that was my excuse for the above hypothesis. I do not deny their
weakness; I know that it would be very difficult for the perturbations of the planets with each other, the movement of
the satellites and with it around the planet. At the. to explain, although it is not about the light, but basically the
intensity of violent shocks in one, in continuous tension contained universe and the reactions are to it.And yet it seems
to me as if I had seen in that direction, but not long enough, the unveiled face of the truth. May one mightier than I,
whose special subjects are physics in the narrower sense and astronomy, reach the end of the road.
i 94
The first movement and the creation of the world are one and the same. The transformation of the simple unity into
the world of multiplicity, the transition of the transcendent into the immanent field was just the first move. It is not the
task of physics to explain the first movement; she has to accept as a fact that was already found in the analysis on
continuous performance areas, but on the border of the added imaginary transcendent. Therefore, the final expression
for this first exercise can also in physics not be won, and we must, in our current positions, just characterize as a
collapse of the simple unity in a world of multiplicity.
All subsequent movements were only sequels of this first, that they could be nothing more than re-decomposition or
further fragmentation of ideas.
This further decay could only express itself in the first periods of the world through real division of simple materials
and compounds. Each simple chemical force had the addiction to expand their individuality, ie to change their motion,
but met with each other in the same addiction, and so the most terrible battles of ideas against each other arose in
violent, most excited state. The result was always a chemical compound that is the victory of the stronger over a
weaker force and the entry of the new idea in the ceaseless struggle. The efforts of the compound was initially aimed to
get to, if possible, to expand their individuality again. But two efforts came from all sides towards other ideas to
initially connect to solvethen to connect with the separate ideas.
In the continuation of this incessant dispute the immortal ideas that were all connections to reason, were formed
world body, of which our earth was gradually ripe for organic life. We interrupt here the development and take the
existing individuals and their states as final products, so the question immediately forced upon us: What happened?
Smmtliche ideas from which our earth was composed at the time, were in the fiery nebula from which the Kant-
Laplace |
i 95 theory emanates. There fierce battle of gases, vapors, chaos, here's a closed world body with a solid crust whose

depressions filled a hot sea, and over all a steamy, misty, carbonated atmosphere.
What happened? or better: are the individual will from which these compulsory retirement becoming earth is
composed, the same which revolved in the fiery nebula? Certainly! The genetic connection is available. But is the
essence of any individuality not the same that it was in the beginning of the world? No! it changed. His power has lost
its intensity: it has become weaker.
This is the great truth which teaches geology. A gas, its essence, its drives to, more than one liquid, and this stronger
than a solid body. Let us not forget that the world has a finite force sphere, and that therefore an idea whose intensity
decreases, can not be strengthened again at some without another idea would lose momentum. Strengthening is
possible, however, but always at the expense of another force, or in other words, if, in the struggle of inorganic ideas,
the same is weakened one, the objectified in space force sum is weakened, and for this failure there is no substitute,
because the world is flat at last and entered with a certain force in existence.
So if we assume that our earth once scored using as the planet between Mars and Jupiter has fallen apart so but can
melt all the solid crust again and all liquid to vapor, but at the expense of the ideas which deliver the stimuli for this
purpose. So anyway the soil in the intensive state in appearance, is reflected by such a revolution, it is nevertheless a
whole, as a certain force sum, become weaker.
And if today the violent processes stop on the Sun and all the bodies in our solar system, thereby re-unite with the
sun, and flare the sun and planets in a huge conflagration, so are, in appearance, but the solar system constituent forces
in a more excited state passed, but at the expense of the collective force that is included in our solar system.
i 96 no different, it is still in the inorganic realm. The ideas are fighting incessantly with each other. It created without

interruption new connections, and they are forcibly separated again, but the separate forces unite soon with other, partly
compulsory, partly forced. And the result is also weakening the force, although the same thing, is not slow because of
development open to day, and escapes of perception.
In the organic realm, barked at the moment of its formation and there continually, as a continuation of the first
movement, the decay into multiplicity. The pursuit of any organism is merely aimed to obtain in existence, and this
drives following, he is fighting for his individual existence as well, on the other hand it provides, by means of
procreation, for its preservation after death.
That this growing fragmentation on the one hand and the resulting more intense and horrific expectant struggle for
existence on the other hand must have the same result as the fight in the inorganic realm, namely weakening of
individuals is clear. Against this speaks only apparently the fact that the most powerful in the broadest sense individual
remains in the struggle for life winner and the weaker subject; as well usually always the stronger, but in each new
generation the stronger individuals are less strong, the weaker wins weaker than in the previous one.
As the geology of the inorganic kingdom, then the palaeontology of the organic the important document which,
beyond doubt, the truth is drawn that for existence individuals perfect in the struggle itself though and climb ever
higher levels of the organization, but it will be weaker. This truth forces itself upon anyone who browsed the document
while comparisons doing with our current plants and animals. The certificate can only teach so because they reported
an extremely long series of development or translated into's subjective, about the changes in undetectable long periods
of time because they hold final links to initial terms of very large series and can thus make the difference obvious. |
i 97 Watching the attenuation directly, is not possible. And yet the evidence of the weakening of the organisms can, even

without penetrating the primeval world and call paleontology to help, provide - but only in politics, as we shall see. In
physics, we can not provide direct evidence and must be content to have found an indirect way, in the stone document
of the earth's crust, the great law of the weakening of the organisms.
Thus we see in the organic realm, as in inorganic, a basic movement decay into multiplicity, and in both cases, as a
first consequence, the dispute, the fight, the war and, as the second episode, the weakening of the force. But both the
decay in the plurality, the same as the two sequences, are greater than in the inorganic in the organic Reich in every
Here the questions arise for us: In what relation the two kingdoms are at each other? and really is a unausfllbare
gap between the two?
we have actually already answered at the beginning of physics both questions; However, we have to treat again in
more detail.
We have seen that there is only one principle in the world, moving will be individual to life. If I have a piece of gold
or a plant, an animal, a man in front of me, is purposely look to their substance, in general, no matter. Each of them is
individual will, every living, aspires, wants. What separates them from each other is their character, that is the way how
they want the life or movement.
This must thank appear incorrect; because they represent a man next to a block of iron, so they see dead calm here,
there mobility; Here a similar mass, there the most wonderful complicated organism, and they look sharper, here a dull,
simpelen drive to center of the earth, there are many skills, many will qualities, constant change of conditions, a rich
Gemths-, a wonderful spiritual life, briefly delightful interplay of forces in one unit. Since they shrug their shoulders
and say: the inorganic kingdom could |
i 98 , after all, be nothing else than the solid, solid ground for the organic realm, the same as what is probably the timbered

stage for the actors. And they say, for the "organic realm," so they are very unprejudiced people, for the most part the
people and check the whole nature of this glorious masters of the world being alone.
But it is as that which, as I showed above, in the details of a Locomotive is lost and forget the main thing, their
resultant of movement about them. The stone, as man wants be there, want to live. If life there is a simple dark instinct
here is the result of many Thtigkeiten a deal entered into organs unified will, that is, in regard to the life alone, all the
But is this the case, it seems certain that every organism is basically just a chemical compound. This must be
As I explained above, two simple chemical ideas which are in affinity, a third form, which is different from each of
them. They are totally committed and in their connection something new. Had the ammonia ( NH 3 ) self-consciousness,
it would feel neither nitrogen nor as hydrogen, but as a unified ammonia in a given state.
Simple compounds may testify again, and the product is again a third, one of all individual elements totally different
things. Had the ammonium chloride ( NH 3 . HCl .) Self-consciousness, it also would not feel as chlorine, nitrogen and
hydrogen, but simply as hydrochloric aueres ammonia.
Seen from here is no difference between a chemical compound and an organism. This and that one unit in which a
certain number of simple chemical ideas are merged.
But the chemical compound, considered in itself, as long as it exists, constant: it separates no constituent and takes
no new element, or in short, it is no so-called metabolic activity.
Furthermore, the generation in the inorganic kingdom is much limitirt; and not only this, but also the individual who
bears witness goes, |
i 99 under in the generated; the type of a connection based on the bound individuals, he stands or falls with them, he does not

hover over them.

An organism against it separates from the compound now this, now those materials and assimilated to the
replacement, with constant maintenance of the type; then he testifies, that is separate from it in any way part have his
type and unfold also under constant maintenance of the same.
This, the organism of the chemical compound outgoing movement growth in the broadest sense. So we have to say
that although every organism is basically a chemical compound, but with a completely different movement. but the
difference lies only in the movement and we have it here, as there, to do with individual will to live, so there is also no
gap between organic and inorganic ideas, but both kingdoms bordering hard together.
The organs are what usually dim the eye of the researcher. Here he sees organs, there is no; since he mean in good
faith, it is an immense gap between a rock and a plant. He simply takes too low point, from where, is not visible, the
main thing that motion. Each institution is there only for a specific movement. The stone does not need organs because
he has a single undivided movement, the plant on the other hand need organs because of their intended particular
movement (resultant of movement) can only be achieved through organs. In the motion, not in the way of their
creation, is what matters.
In fact, there is no gap between the organic and inorganic world.
However, it would appear however that the difference itself is still a fundamental, if you look at the organs as
marginal and raises on the higher standpoint of pure movement.
but this is not the case in physics. From the standpoint of pure movement is initially no major difference between a
plant and hydrogen sulfide, as on the one hand (all within the inorganic realm) between water vapor and |
i 100 water between water and ice, or other hand (all within the organic empire) between a plant and an animal; an animal and a

human. The movement in all directions, the movement towards the center of the earth, growth, movement on
ideological motives, movement on abstract motifs - all these movements explain differences between the individual
will. For me at least, the difference between the movement of water vapor and ice can not be more wonderful than that
between the movement of the ice and the growth of the plants.
So, the thing from outside. From the inside, it simplifies even more. I could anticipate what follows, I could solve
the problem in a word. But we still occupy the lower point of view of physics, and so we must yearn also at every step
in it after a metaphysics, we may yet both disciplines not let flow into each other, which would cause hopeless
In physics now arises, as we know, as a collapse of the transcendent unity is the first movement in the multiplicity.
All the movements that followed her, wearing the same character. - decay into multiplicity, life, movement - all these
terms refer to one and the same. The disintegration of the unit in the plurality is the constitution in inorganic both, as in
the organic kingdom. but in the latter it is a much broader application: it cuts much deeper, and its consequences, the
struggle for existence and the weakening of force are greater.
So we come back there from where we started, but with the result that no gap separates the inorganic body of the
organisms. The organic kingdom is only a higher level of inorganic, it is a more perfect shape for the struggle for
existence, that is, for the weakening of the force.
As a deterrent, even as ridiculous as it may sound, that man is a chemical compound basically and the only way of it
differs in that it has a different movement - but this is so true result of physics. It loses its repulsive |
i 101 character if you keep firmly in mind that wherever you like by researching the nature, you always find only one principle,

the individual will, who wants only one thing: live, live. The essence of a stone is simpler than that of a lion, but only
on the surface, basically it is the same: an individual will to live.
By the immanent philosophy returning the organic realm to the inorganic, it teaches indeed the same as materialism,
but it is so different from him. The existing between both fundamental difference is this.
Materialism in no immanent philosophical system. The first thing he teaches is the eternal matter, a simple unit that
still no one has seen, and no one will ever see. Materialism was immanent, that is merely be honest in the
contemplation of nature, he would have to explain first of all the matter for an independent from the subject Collectiv
unit and say that it is the sum of so many simple substances. This he did not do, and although there is still no one has
managed to make oxygen, hydrogen, copper gold, materialism is but behind every simple substance mystical simple
entity that indiscriminate matter. Neither Zeus nor Jupiter, nor the God of Jews, Christians and Muslims, nor the Brahm
of Indians, just not unknowable,been transcendent entity is ever so fervently believed so from the heart, like the
mystical deity matter of the materialists; for because it is undeniable that everything organic can be attributed to the
inorganic kingdom is the materialists, the head of the bunch with the heart and inflames it.
Meanwhile, despite the monstrous, all experience beating in his face assuming a simple matter, but it is not enough
to explain the world. So because materialism must deny the truth for the second time, be transcendent for the second
time and various mystical entities, the forces of nature, postulate, which are not identical with the matter, but for all
time associated with it. In this way, materialism is based on two fundamental principles, or in other words, it is
transcendent dogmatic dualism.
i 102 In the immanent philosophy, however, the matter is ideal, but an undifferentiated unity, but also ideal in our heads, a

subjective capability for the knowledge of the outside world, and the substance in our head, connect a posteriori , on
the basis of matter obtained from the synthetic reason, without recognizing the slightest reality and only available to all
Independent of the subject there is only power, only individual will in the world: a single principle.
So while materialism transcendent dogmatic dualism, is the immanent philosophy of pure immanent dynamism: a
difference in how he can not be thought bigger.
Materialism to name the most rational system, is quite wrong. Each transcendent system is eo ipso not rational.
Materialism, regarded only as a theoretical philosophical system is worse than its reputation. The truth is that the
simple chemical ideas are the sea from which everything organic has risen, making it is and where it sinks back, throws
a pure immanent light on materialism and thus gives him an impressive spell. But the critical reason can not be fooled.
They carefully examined, and so she finds the old chimera behind the dazzling certificates: the transcendent unit in or
above or below the world and coexistirend with her, which soon in this, now in those always occurs in fantastic shells.
We now have the relation of the individual being the totality, to prove to the world.
Here, a great difficulty it follows. Namely, the individual will to live, the only principle in the world, it must be
quite independent. But if he is self-employed and quite independent, so a dynamic connection is not possible.
Experience now teaches precisely the opposite: it pushes every faithful observer of nature the dynamic context and at
the same time shows him the dependence of the individual from the | same.
i 103 result (it is trying to close) can not be the principle of the world of the individual will.

In the philosophical language of art, the problem is this: Either the individuals are independent substances, and then
is influxus physicus an impossibility; for how can another act on a quite independent being, changes can cause forced in
him? or individuals are not independent substances, then there must be a simple substance actuirt the individuals from
which to speak, the individuals have life only as a fief.
The problem is extremely important, yes, you can declare it the most important of all philosophy. The high-
handedness of the individual is in the greatest danger, and it seems, according to the above presentation, as if it were
irretrievably lost. failure by the immanent philosophy to rescue the individual that she has since protected so faithfully
here, the forced logic is there to explain it to a puppet and return unconditionally to the almighty hand of any
transcendent being. It just is: either monotheism or pantheism. Then lying nature and pushes us fool's gold, rather than
real, in their hands when they all show us only individuals and nowhere a simple unit; then we lie to ourselves when we
record our innermost self-consciousness as anxious or defiant,blessed or suffering I; then there is no purely immanent
field, and it can therefore also an immanent philosophy only be a Lug- and deceit work.
If we succeed, however, to save the individual will, the fact of inner and outer experience, - but then also the forced
logic is there, definitely, and to break forever with all transcendental Hirngespinnsten, whether they occur in the shell
of monotheism or Pantheismus or materialism; atheism scientifically justified - then - and for the first time.
You see, we are facing a very important issue.
However, one must not forget that physics is not the place where the truth can make all their veils fall. Your face
will Edele us in all its gracious clear only later | standardize
i 104 and beauty show. In physics issues, such as Present can be, at best, solved only half. But this is just enough.

I'm going to be very brief. We have not surreptitiously us the transcendent area in the analysis. We have seen that no
causales relation, neither the law of causality, nor the general causality, can return to the past of things, but only time.
On her hand, we followed the developmental series a parte ante But found that we can never immanent in areas on the
multiplicity addition. How aeronauts never reach the boundary of the atmosphere, but they may not rise as high, will
always be enclosed in the air, never left us the fact of the inner and outer experience: the individual will. In contrast,
our reason demanded relentlessly the simple unity with law. individuals to coalesce beyond the immanent territory in
an incomprehensible Unit: In this distress was only one way out. We were not in the present, in which you never, never
can absolute being the object out, but in the past, and we therefore declared the found transcendent area for no more
existing, in but for vorweltlich and set,we carried no logical coup, but rather served faithfully to the truth.
Everything that is, was, therefore, in a simple premundane unit, before which, as we will recall, broke down all of
our faculty of knowledge. We could "neither a likeness, nor any to make a parable" by it, and therefore also gain no
idea of the way as the immanent world of plurality has once existed in the simple unit. But an indisputable certainty we
won, namely that this world of plurality had once been a simple unit, could exist beside which nothing else.
Here lies the key to the solution of the problem with which we are engaged.
Why and how the unit was divided into multiplicity, these are questions that may be asked in any physics. Only we
can say that, on whatever attributed the decay here |
i 105 may be, he was the act of a simple unit. If we therefore see an immanent areas only individual will and the world is

nothing more than a Collectiv unit of these individuals are the same but not quite on their own, as they were
vorweltlich a simple unit and the world has been the fact that unit. So is, almost like a reflex, about the world of
multiplicity, the primeval unity, as it embraces all individuals An invisible, unbreakable bond, and this reflex, this band
is the dynamic context of the world. Each will affect all other directly or indirectly, and all others will affect him
directly and indirectly, or all the ideas in "continuous interaction".
Thus we have the independent half individual, semi-activ on their own, half suffering through the other ideas. It
engages in the development of the world-handed, and the development of the world reaches into his individuality.
All fetishes, all gods, demons and spirits owe sided view of the dynamic relationship of the world their origin. Was
it the man in the gray antiquity, well, he was not thinking about fetishes, gods, demons and ghosts. Since the individual
felt his power and held, the never-resting influence of other ideas, his current linden action because, not sprend, just
for activ and donor finished himself like a god. Griffen, however, the other ideas in a terrible, terrible effectiveness of
the people, since disappeared his power completely from his mind as he looked at the effectiveness of the other ideas
that all crushing omnipotence of an angry transcendent essence and smashed his head in front of portraits of wood and
stone, trembling all over and in nameless agony.Today, it will probably be different.
Since then, before the transcendent area was separated from the immanent, namely such that the former alone
existirend for vorweltlich, this was declared alone now existing, in one precipitated rightly the disjunctive judgment:
either the individual is self-employed, then that is influxus physicus ( the dynamic context) impossible or it is not
independent, then that is influxus physicus the effectiveness of some simple Sub | punching.
i 106 now but this Either - or no longer justified. The individual will to live, saved the only principle in the world despite its

half independence.
However, the result of the half-handedness is unsatisfactory. Each clear, unprejudiced head asks for the supplement.
We will win us in metaphysics.
In the analysis we have tested negative by the character of the antediluvian simple unit of the faculty of cognition.
We have found that the unit inactive, ausdehnungslos indiscriminately, not cut fragmented (easy), motionless, timeless
was (ever). Now we have to determine it from the standpoint of physics.
What we like for an object in nature up in the eye, it is a gas, a liquid, a stone, a plant, an animal, a human, we
always find it in a relentless pursuit, in an incessant inner movement. The transcendent unity but the movement was
strange. The opposition movement is rest, which we can not in any way make us an idea; as is apparent from the
outward calm here the speech that we, however, the same in opposition to the change in location of an entire object or
of parts, very well imagine are able, but from the inner absolute immobility. So we have to the primeval unit ascribe
absolute peace.
Then we go into the dynamic context of the universe on the one hand and the specific character of the individuals on
the other hand, we recognize that everything in the world moving with necessity. What we may also consider: the stone
that our hand lets go, the growing plant, the moving animal, the man who has no resistance arising a sufficient motive
in a clear motives and inner urge - all are under the iron laws of necessity , In the world there is no room for freedom.
And, as we shall see clearly in ethics, it must be so, if the world is to have any meaning.
i 107 What freedom (in philosophical significance liberum arbitrium indifferentiae ) However, we can indeed determine with

words and about to say that she was the ability of a person of a certain character, a sufficient motive against wanting or
not wanting; but we think for a moment about this so easily bewerkstelligte combination of words after, we see at once
that we will never gain a real testament to this freedom, it would be also possible for us for thousands of years the
actions of all the people to the ground to consider. So we are concerned with freedom as the rest. we must include the
freedom precisely because it was a simple unit of simple unity but. At it forced the subject, one factor we know each
movement continued, as she was swallowed fragmented, all alone and lonely. Falls
The inherent scheme:
World of plurality - movement - necessity
is therefore the transcendent scheme:
Simple unity - peace - freedom
across from.
And now we have to make the final step.
Even in the analysis, we have found that the force once it has gone through the thin filaments of the existence of
inherent territory on the transcendent ceases to be force. It is completely unknown to us and unknowable as the unit in
which it sets. In the further progress of the section we found that what we call power, whether individual will, and in
physics we have finally seen that the spirit only the function of a segregated the will organ and on the very bottom
nothing more than a Theil was a divided movement.
The well-known forward to continuous performance areas such as intimate a fundamental principle, the will, and his
subordinate, secondary, we also so intimate principle, the spirit, lose, as the force as soon as we let them violate the
transcendent area, all and any meaning for us. Them their own nature completely and entirely beyond our knowledge.
Thus we are forced to declare that the simple unity neither will nor mind, nor a peculiar |
i 108 was interweaving of will and spirit. In this way, we lose the last clues. Nothing that we press the springs of our

ingenious, wonderful apparatus for the knowledge of the outside world: the meaning, understanding, reason, paralyzed.
In vain we keep within us, in self-consciousness, found principles, will and spirit as a mirror to the mysterious,
invisible beings on the otherworldly level of the gap counter, hoping it will be revealed in them: they radiate back no
likeness. But now we also have the right to give this being the familiar name The designated always what no
imagination, no flight of the boldest imagination, not an abstract matter how deep thinking, not collected, reverent
mind, not enraptured, erdentrckter spirit has ever achieved: God.
But this simple unit has been; it is no longer. It has, its nature changing, fully fragmented to a world of multiplicity.
God died and his death was the life of the world.
Herein are of prudent thinkers two truths that satisfy the spirit deep and raise the heart. First, we have a pure
immanent area, lives in or behind or above which no force can call it how you will, which, as the hidden director of a
puppet theater now this, now that'll do the dolls individuals. Then raises us the truth that all that is, existed before the
world in God. We existed in him no other word we can use. we wanted to say we lived and wove in him, this would be
wrong, because we would be transferred Thtigkeiten the things of this world to a being that was completely inactive
and motionless.
Furthermore, we are no longer in God; because the simple unity is destroyed and dead. However, we are in a world
of multiplicity, which individuals are connected to a fixed Collectiv unit.
From the original unit we have derived the Zwangloseste the dynamic context of the universe. In the same way we
derive from it now the usefulness in the world from which will deny no reasonable. we |
i 109 stop in front of the disintegration of unity in multiplicity, without now to ponder on why and how it took place. The fact is

sufficient. The disintegration was the fact of a simple unit, their first and last, their only deed. Everyone present will
give the nature and movement in this single fact, and therefore everything in the world meshes: it is universally
appropriate disposition.
Finally, we derive indirectly from the original unit, and directly from the first movement of the course of
development of the universe from. The disintegration into multiplicity was the first movement, and all the movements
that followed it, they may still diverge so far, intertwine, apparently confuse and unravel again, only their sequels. Over
and over, continuirlich, of all the standing from the actions in a dynamic context, individuals resultant of a movement
in the world is the fate of the universe.
So it was God who are world whose individuals in continuous interaction. But since the dynamic context is that
each individual will act on the whole and the effectiveness of the whole learns effectiveness but movement, fate is
nothing more than becoming the world, the movement of the Orphic Conjunktur, the resultant of from all individual
More I can not say here about the fate. Now, however, we have the questions kept open in analytics to connect with
The propositions which we reserve to further study were:
1) The simple chemical forces are indestructible;
2) The real movement had a beginning, but it is endless.
From all the foregoing, it is evident that the physics is not able to overturn the sentences, or in other words: in
physics the two questions kept open can not be answered by the destruction of the simple chemical ideas and after the
associated end of the world. The fate of the world presents itself to us accordingly here initially appears as a continuous
movement in the world: in the inorganic kingdom |
i 110 we see an endless chain of connections and childbirth, in organic an endlessly progressive development from lower to

higher life forms (organisms).

But this has to be modified by the gained important moment of weakening the force. We THEREFORE above
section is summarized in one, which is:
The world is indestructible, but the sum of force contained in it weakens, in the course of an endless movement,
We will place only in metaphysics again to try, with the help definitively answer the important question of the end
of the world in the meantime gained on the exclusive domain of mankind results. This sentence
I close here the physics with the repeated observation that it is the first attempt to explain the fact of the inner and
outer experience, the individual will to live alone (without the help of any supernatural force) nature. This probability is
also given that I have been in some places to zag and overlook important details.
Consider also what it wants to say in the present state of science: to master all disciplines. The load of the empirical
material is almost overwhelming, and the screening can be only with the magic wand of a clear, incontrovertible
philosophical principle reasonably accomplish how the chaotic stone masses downstream of the tones of the orphischen
Leyer to symmetrical structures.
Such incontrovertible principle is the individual will to live. I press him, as if a gift, every faithful and honest
naturalist with the wish in his hand, that he explain to him the phenomena on its defined field better than ever since. In
general, however, I hope that this principle of science opens up a new path on which she was so successful as to that
which you opened up Baco by its inductive method.
I also consider the pure, transcendent from the haunting entities totally freed immanent field as a second Ge | gift,
i 111 I'll do naturalists. Will be as quiet to work on it!

I see it ahead (and may I say it because the end result of my philosophy is the only light that fills my eyes and tied in
them all my will hold): the accomplished separation of the immanent from transcendent areas, the separation of God
from the world and the world of God will be the most beneficial effect on the course of development of mankind. She
can only be accomplished on the bottom of genuine transcendental idealism: the right section of the ideals and Reale
had to precede.
I see the dawn of a beautiful day.

i 113

Est enim verum index sui et falsi.
i 115

Aesthetics is about a special state of the human will which is called for by a special mode of perception of ideas,
and is a science because it brings countless cases under certain points of view and fixed rules. By constructing them,
we shall always hold that there is only one principle in nature: the individual will to life, and that, independent of the
subject, thing-in-itself, depending on it, is object.
Everyone wants life in a certain way, because he has a certain will and a certain spirit, ie a certain movement. If he
now takes up things in the ordinary way, they are either of equal importance to him, or they awaken in him a desire, or
they repel him, and his interest is the standard for them, and he judges them according to the relation They stand to his
will. There can be no question of a clear and clear reflection of the object; Neither does man recognize the full and
complete efficacy of a thing, or the sum of its relations, because he conceives only one of them, and falsifies them by
his interest, distorted, exaggerated, or underestimated.
If he is to mirror the object, the relation of which is to be grasped correctly, his relation to the object must undergo a
change; that is, he must enter into a completely uninteresting relation: it may only be interesting to him.
Thus in aesthetics, as noted, there is a very special relation of man to the world, which establishes a particular state
of his will. To call the relationship
i 116 I the aesthetic relation and the state the esthetic state or the aesthetic pleasure. It is essentially different from ordinary
Everyone has the ability to enter the aesthetic relation; But the transition to the one is easier in the one, the other in a
more severe manner, and what is offered is more complete and richer in the one, and more limited and poorer in the
The peasant, who at night, when the work is at rest, throws a glance into nature and looks at the form, the colors,
and the train of the clouds, without thinking of the usefulness or injuriousness of the rain for his sowing; Or delights in
the waving of the cornfields, the radiant redness of the ears at sunset, without considering the yield of the harvest,
considers things aesthetically. The mower, who has cleared a lark's nest, and is now free to look at the beautifully-
shaped and dabbed eggs, or the piped boys, and the ancients, in their great anxiety, which is manifested in disturbed
gaze and restless fluttering, has the usual mode of knowledge And is located in the esthetic state. The huntsman, who
forgets to shoot at the sudden hint of a magnificent deer, because the attitude, the forms, the course of the game binds
his mind, has entered the aesthetic relation to the object.
It is, however, a pure, surely free knowledge, but in no way an independent life of the mind which is detached from
the will. The will is always the only thing we find; We may seek where we will, we may rouse nature as deeply and so
often as we want: he is always there, and only his states change.
The ideas reveal their essence in the object in very different ways. Let us take the highest idea known to us, man, so
he reveals his essence:
1) In form and shape;
2) In the limb movement;
i 117 3) In the mienenspiel and in the eyes;
4) In words and sounds.
In this order, the interior emerges more clearly in the external; In words and sounds it is most clearly objectified.
Because with objects, we always have to do it in the world and only ourselves are not in our interior object. This
distinction is also very important for aesthetics. Sound and word have the ground of their appearance in the vibrations
of the will, in its motion, which is communicated to the air. This peculiar continuation of the movement in an alien idea
is perceived by us sensually and is objectively objective.
Sounds and words are therefore objects, like everything else; And even though the state of an idea in them shows
itself in the lightest veil, it is never the thing-in-itself that immediately reveals itself to us. Only the one who moves into
the state of another idea by the fact that he creates it in himself arbitrarily, that is, the artist, grasps in his breast the
alien will directly as a thing in itself and not as an object.
The objectification of an idea in tones and words is, however, so complete that the will of the objectifying listener is
grasped by the movement and resonates, while the simple consideration of the form and form of an object does not
exert the same effect on the aesthetically determined subject.
We must therefore distinguish between two main types of esthetic state:
1) The aesthetic contemplation and
2) The aesthetic touch or esthetic compassion.
In deep aesthetic contemplation it is the will, as if his ordinary movement had suddenly ceased and he had become
motionless. He is completely deceived, he rest fully, all desire, all urge, all pressure is taken from him, and he is only a
purely knowing being: to him is, as if he were bathing in an element of marvelous clarity, he is so Light, so
inexpressibly well.
i 118 In this real state of deep contemplation, we can only place completely quiet objects. Because they have no external
movement, we do not bring them into a relationship at the time. At the same time, we become timeless, because the
movement of our will has entirely disappeared from our consciousness, and we are sunk in the quiet object. We live, as
it were, in eternity: by deception we have the consciousness of absolute calmness and are unselfishly blessed. If we are
disturbed in the deepest contemplation, we awaken in a strange way; For our consciousness does not begin, just as after
sleep, but the movement only fulfills it: we return from eternity to time.
The calmest nature is most easily brought into the depths of contemplation, especially the sight of the smooth
southern sea from which the coasts or small islands are gathered, dreamlessly still, surrounded by the blue hint of the
distance, or the glow of the setting sun.
The true expression of the deep contemplative state of the facial features and eyes has not been so praised by a
painter as Raphael in the two angelic heads at the feet of the Sistine Madonna. We must take our gaze from them: they
take us completely captive.
If, on the other hand, the objects are moved more or less, the contemplation is also less profound, because we bring
the objects into a temporal relation, and thereby notice the flow of the present within us. Thus, to a lesser degree, the
charms of the painless condition surround us.
In aesthetic feeling, as I said above, our will resonates with the moving will of the object. Thus we listen to the song
of a bird, or the expression of the feelings of other animals; Or the accompaniment of love-whispering, outbursts of
rage and anger, lamentations of mourning, sorrow, joyous rejoicing, with no more direct interest, with more or less
strong vibrations of our own will. We do not oscillate as strongly as the acting persons, for if this occurs often enough,
we become active individuals from aesthetically tuned listeners and fall from the aesthetic relation into the |
i 119 ordinary. In aesthetic sensibility, our will vibrates only softly, like the string, which lies beside a sounding sound.
To these two main types of the aesthetic condition, a double movement follows: the aesthetic enthusiasm. Their first
part is either aesthetic contemplation, or aesthetic compassion, but their second part either pleasure, joy, courage, hope,
longing, or a very passionate excitement of the will.
It rarely arises from contemplation and is then also the weakest movement. One would like to move with the clouds
over all countries, or, as the bird, weigh themselves easily in the air.
A bird sings: Witt, witt, witt!
Come with me, come with me! -
Oh, could I go with you, little birds,
We wanted to flee across the mountains,
Through the blue beautiful air,
To bathe in the warm sunbeam.
The earth is narrow, the sky wide,
The earth is poor, has nothing but suffering,
The sky is wide, has nothing but Freud! -
The bird has already swung itself,
Swirling the air with the sweet tone.
O birds, that God preserve thee!
I sit on the shore and can not go.
(Folk song.)
Or the longing desire in us emerges: always be contemplative, always to be able to linger in the salvation of
On the other hand, it often occurs as a connection of a state with the aesthetic compassion. The efficacy of the
nerves is clearly felt as cold passages; They, as it were, urge the will to rest, concentrating it; Then the spark sparkles
into him and he blazes up in hot glow: it is the inflammation to the bold deed. Thus speeches, wars, drumming, military
i 120

Just as every human being has the ability to be placed in the aesthetic state, every object can also be looked upon
aesthetically. However, one will invite more, the other less. For many people, it is an impossibility to look at a snake
calmly. They feel an insuperable abhorrence against this beast, and do not hold up, even if they have not to fear it.
Every human being can apprehend esthetically, and every object can be regarded aesthetically, but not every object
is beautiful. What is the meaning of an object?
We have to distinguish:
1) The subjective-beautiful;
2) The foundation of the beautiful in the thing-in-itself;
3) The beautiful object.
The subjective-beautiful, which can also be called the formal beauty, rests on a priori forms and functions of the
subject, resp. To connections of reason on the basis of a priori forms, and divide it into the beautiful:
1) Of the (mathematical) space;
2) The causality;
3) Of matter (of substance);
4) currently.
The formal beauty of space expresses itself in the form of the objects and in the relation in which the parts of an
object stand to the whole, in the regular form and symmetry.
The regular shape is initially a whole of lines. Beautiful lines are the straight line, the round line, the straight round
line (wave line), and the straight spiral line (spiral).
The beauty of the figure is then shown in the pure figures of geometry and its parts, especially in the equilateral
triangle, in the square, rectangle, hexagon, in the circle, semicircle, and ellipse.
Further, the beauty of the form in the bodies of the |
i 121 Stereometry, on which the pure figures of geometry are based, ie in the pyramid, the cube, the pillar, the sphere, the
cone, and the cylinder (column).
Symmetry finally appears in the harmonic arrangement of the parts of a whole, that is, in the correct proportion of
height to width and depth, at the correct distance, and in the exact repetition of the parts at the corresponding points.
The formal beauty of causality reveals itself in the uniform external movement, or in the flowing transition of a
movement into a more rapid or slower movement, and especially in the appropriateness of movement to its intended
purpose, as grace.
The formal beauty of matter, resp. Of the substance, emerges firstly in the colors and in the composition of them, in
the color harmony. The three primary colors are yellow, red, and blue, and the three pure blends of the same are orange,
green, and violet, the six colors being the fixed points of the long series of color nuances, and the poles white and
black. Even more pleasing is the case when the imaginary six colors are inherent in clear liquids.
It then reveals itself in the purity of the tone, in the harmony of the voice.
The formal beauty of the time finally manifests itself in the regular succession of the same or different moments, ie,
in a regular measure of time. A short connection of such moments is the beat and a connection of bars of the rhythm.
I shall have to touch the subjective-beauty more frequently in the course of this treatise, and then pursue its further
ramifications. Here I was concerned only with showing his main branches.
The ground of the beautiful is now that which is inherent in the thing-in-itself, which corresponds to the subjective-
beauty, or which forces the subject to object it as beautiful.
From this the explanation of the beautiful object flows spontaneously. It is the product of the thing-in-itself and the
i 122 Or the beautiful object is the appearance of the ground of the beautiful in the thing-in-itself.
The relation is the same as that of the thing itself to the object in the representation at all. The subject does not bring
anything forth in the thing-in-itself, expands or restricts his being in any way; But it only objectively, according to its
forms, faithfully and precisely the thing-in-itself. But as the sweetness of the sugar, or the red color of madness, though
pointing to certain definite qualities in things, can not be attributed to it, the beauty of an object has its ground in
things, but the thing itself Even may not be called beautiful. Only the object can be beautiful because only in it can the
ground of the beautiful (thing-in-itself) and the subjective-beautiful (subject) mingle.
Beauty, therefore, would exist so little without the spirit of man as without the subject the world as an imagination at
all. The beautiful object stands and falls with the subjective-beautiful in the head of man as the object stands and falls
with the subject. "Beautiful" is a predicate, which, as materially (substantively), belongs only to the object.
On the other hand, it is just as true that the foundation of the beautiful is independent of the subjective-beautiful;
Just as independently of the subject, the thing-in-itself, the ground of the phenomenon, exists. But as here the object
falls, so there the beautiful object.
If, as we remember, the thing-in-itself, independent of the subject, is immaterial, only force, will, what is the
foundation of the beautiful, independent of the subjective-beautiful?
There is only one answer to this: it is the harmonic movement.
We have seen in analysis that the individual will does not separate the movement, that it is his only predicate with
which he stands and falls. Because this is the case, I have so far spoken of the movement alone; For it was always self-
evident that the individual will to life, the idea, lay at the basis of it. Movement is par excellence, inner movement,
which manifests itself in the object as well as |
i 123 Form and form (objectivized forces of the will, which he has accomplished in an incessant movement), as well as in the
external movement, which is shown in the higher ideas as the movement of the limbs, the mienenspiel, the eye-life, the
language, and the singing.
All striving, all movement in the world, is due to the first movement, to the disintegration of simple unity into
multiplicity. This first movement, because it was the act of a simple unity, was necessarily uniform and harmonious,
and since all other movements were but continuations of it, every striving of a thing in itself must be harmonious in the
deepest sense, or how We want to say as a precaution, it should be harmonious in the deepest sense.
This is also revealed in the mechanics of heaven and in inorganic nature. If here a uniform striving, or a resultant of
uniformly acting efforts, can show itself pure, or at least essentially unhindered, we always have to do with harmonious
or, if objectively, with beautiful figures or beautiful external movements. Thus the bodies of the world move in ellipses
or parabolas around the sun; The crystals, if they can freely interfere, are quite beautiful; The snowflakes are six-sided
regular stars of various forms; A glass plate painted with a fiddle elbow arranges the sand lying on it to form splendid
figures; Falling or thrown bodies have a nice movement.
It is certainly significant that, according to Orphic Philosophy, the Dionysoscopus played with cones, balls, and
dice; For Dionysus was the artist of the world, the unity of God into the multiplicity, and this symbolically symbolized
the regular shape of the universe and its harmonious movement. Pythagorean philosophy also rests on the conformity
of the universe with the subjective and beautiful of space and time. -
But even in the inorganic kingdom, where the striving of the will is uniform and extraordinarily simple, it can be
seen that in the struggle of the individual with one another (partly in the struggle for existence) the harmonic inner
movement can rarely be expressed purely. In the organic realm, where the struggle for existence and much greater
intensity prevails throughout the world
i 124 Almost no effort can now be revealed. Soon this part, or part of it, is most frequently inflamed, and the consequence is
usually an inharmonic movement of the whole. To this end, every individual has a more or less stunted movement in
procreation; because the inner movement of the organism is not a uniform anymore, but a resultant of from many, and
as the organs are virtualiter contained in the fertilized egg, an organ but may be more or less at the expense of the other,
so many individuals are already with impaired harmonious Movement into the world.
In the organic kingdom, however, we find the most beautiful and most beautiful objects. This is because, partly by
natural means, partly by artificial means, harmful influences are prevented by the organism, when it is most sensitive
and in the most important formation. In the higher stages of the animal kingdom, especially, the new individual is, for a
more or less long time, quite distant from the struggle for existence because the parents lead him there. Then almost
everything rubs and thrusts itself in the inorganic kingdom, while the organisms can develop in yielding elements
(water and air).
Thus we always find beautiful individuals, where a deterioration did not take place in the formation of organisms,
and later injurious influences were hardly noticeable. Most plants grow like an artistic design, and the animals are, with
few exceptions, regularly built. On the other hand, we find very rarely very beautiful people, because the struggle for
existence is nowhere more bitterly led than in the state and occupation and way of life rarely permit the harmonious
formation of the whole.
Here, too, the artifice of animals is to be mentioned. In the products of art, which we are so astonished and admired,
we admire only the harmonious, in the true will (here instinct) remaining whole movement. Thus the bee builds regular
six-sided cells; Even the raw savage gives his hut, not the spirit, but the demonic drive, the circle, the square, or the
hexagon to the basic form.
This leads us back to the subjective-beauty.
i 125 The human mind, in which alone the subjective-beauty is present, is, as we know, only a split movement. It is a part of
the earlier whole movement, which was thoroughly harmonious. Thus we can say that the subjective-beauty is nothing
other than the one-sided harmonic movement developed according to a particular direction, developed for all
movements in the world as a norm and a mirror. Dieselbe has, as it were, been brought into a sanctuary, which, though
circulating, but in which they can not penetrate. Here she is enthroned in secure tranquility, and confidently determines
what is right and not according to what is beautiful, which is not.
If we look at the beautiful objects in nature a little closer, we find in the inorganic kingdom, for the reasons
mentioned, rarely beautiful solid bodies. The "well-grounded" earth is to be seen as a terrible stiff struggle. Pure and
perfectly formed crystals are found only in exceptional cases in nature. They show clearly that they have been pushed,
pushed, pushed, and their efforts have been impaired.
Particularly beautiful is the movement of thrown round body.
Individual mountains and mountain ranges are distinguished by their pure contours.
The water is almost always beautiful. The sea is particularly beautiful, in calm as in motion, with its main appeal in
the color, which moves between the deepest blue and the brightest emerald green. Also the beautiful form of the
waterfalls is to name, at least the flow.
Very beautiful is the air and many appearances in it: the blue vault of heaven; The manifold clouds; The colors of
the sky and of the vault at sunset; The glow of the Alps and the blue scent of the distance; The train of the clouds; the
Rainbow; The northern light.
In organic nature we first encounter the various regular cells of the plants; Then single trees, such as palm trees,
pines and firs; Then those plants, which are especially distinct, in the state of the leaves and branches, symmetrical
i 126 To show; Then many leaves and the flowers. Almost every flower is beautiful by the arrangement of its leaves, by its
regular shape and its colors. So also all fruits, which could develop undisturbed.
In the Thierreich the objects are beautiful by their symmetrical structure. The animal, divided in the middle, almost
always forms two equal halves. The face has two eyes, which are equidistant from the center. The nose is in the middle,
the mouth likewise, etc. The legs, fins, wings are always present in pairs.
Then some figures or parts of the body are excellently beautiful, as individual horses, deer, dogs, like the neck of the
swan, etc
We must also pay attention to the colors of the fur, the plumage, the armor, the eyes, and the graceful movement of
many animals, as well as the pure forms of birds.
Beautiful, above all, is the beautiful man. At the sight of a perfectly beautiful human being, the delight of a rosary
bursts in our heart. It works through the flow of the lines, the color of the skin, the hair and the eyes, the purity of the
form, the grace of its movements, and the harmony of the voice.
If we sum up, then the subject is the judge and, according to his forms, what is beautiful, what is not. The question
now is: Does every person have to find a beautiful object beautiful? Without doubt! Even though the subject is a
sovereign judge of beauty, it is wholly under the necessity of its nature, and must objectify every foundation of beauty
in the thing itself as beautiful: it can not be otherwise. The condition is only that the will of the judgmental subject is in
the esthetic state, that is to say, it is completely unrelated to the object. If the will modifies this relation, for example,
when judging the forms of a woman, the sexual impulse is behind the discerning subject, a generally valid judgment is
no longer possible. If, on the other hand, the will is in the purity of the aesthetic relation, the subject can only be wrong
i 127 It is deficiently organized. Such men, however, have no right to vote.
What is important here is the formation of the so-called beauty sense (a modification of the power of judgment),
which falls uncritically, according to the laws of the subjective-beautiful, its verdict. Like the power of judgment, it
occurs in innumerable gradations and can, like these, be perfected, which alterations are inherited. It can occur
unilaterally as form, sense of color, musical hearing; But what he declares in a perfect state is beautiful, though a
multitude of individuals with weak beauty, or with a heart of interest, rebel against his judgment. As a man who,
according to his will, judges his inclination, I can prefer the Rhine to Lake Como; As a purely esthetic judge, on the
other hand, I must give preference to the latter.
True beauty is never mistaken. He must judge the circle over the triangle, the rectangle over the square, the
Mediterranean sea over the North Sea, the handsome man over the fair woman, he can not otherwise judge; For he
judges according to clear and unchangeable laws.
We have seen that the foundation of the beautiful in the thing-in-itself, independent of the subject, is the inner
harmonic movement, which can not be called beautiful, but only harmonious, uniform. Only one object can be
beautiful. If we apprehend directly in self-consciousness, as a thing-in-itself, or if we apprehend the will of another
man as a harmonious movement, which here appears as a very peculiar interaction of will and spirit, , When, as a soul,
we comprehend the will and the spirit, according to the use of language, of a harmonious soul. For this, however, the
term "beautiful soul" is usually used. This expression is false. Nevertheless, we want to keep it, since it is once
naturalized. With a beautiful soul, we designate the idea of man, whose will to the mind is in a very special relation, so
that it always moves moderately. If she loses her focus
i 128 Depression, or passion, she soon finds it again and not in a bump, but in a fluid way.
I can very easily define the ugly. Ugliness is all that does not correspond to the laws of the subjectively beautiful.
An ugly object, like a beautiful object, can be regarded aesthetically as any object.
The sublime is ordinarily placed next to the beautiful as something similar to it, which is related to it, which is
inaccurate. It is a special condition of man, and therefore one should always speak of the sublime condition of a man. It
is a double movement. At first the will varies between fear of death and contempt for death, with a decided
preponderance of the latter, and has succeeded in the latter, he enters into aesthetic contemplation. The individual is
repulsed by an object, pushed back on itself, then flows out into admiration.
It is peculiar to the sublime state that in most cases it is always produced anew, that is, its parts pass through, or, in
other words, we find it difficult to reach its final part. Again and again, from Contemplation, we sink back into the
struggle between fear of death and contempt for death, and we are continually, for a longer or shorter time,
The object that raises us above ourselves is never sublime. However, if we hold this firmly, and designates only
certain objects as sublime, because they are easily sublime to us, there is no objection to the name.
From this point of view, the objects are very properly divided into:
1) Dynamic-sublime and
2) Mathematics and sublime.
All phenomena of nature are dynamically sublime, threatening the core of man, his will to live. In the wilderness, in
wildernesses, which can offer no food, on the bank of the stormy sea, before enormous waterfalls, during
thunderstorms, etc., man is easily absorbed in the sublime
i 129 Because he is staring at death, but he knows in great or full security. He clearly recognizes the danger in which he
hovers; But in him, on the basis of his security, the illusion arises that he would defy the danger when it came to him. It
is quite indifferent from what convictions he draws the imagined power, whether he believes in his immortality,
whether he is held by the hand of an all-gracious God, whether he despises life and longs for death, or whether in him
there is no reasoning And unconsciously rises above the danger.
The fact that most people are exalted only by deception is easy to see. To many, it must first be demonstrated that no
danger is to be imagined, and yet they have not the power to go into the contemplative state for a very short time, but
are in constant anxiety, and are compelled to proceed. How few can give themselves entirely to the enjoyment of a
powerful thunderstorm! They make it, like the greedy lottery player, who is constantly contemplating the most unlikely
event. In the same way, very rarely will a man in the open sea perceive a storm in a sublime atmosphere. If, on the
other hand, the storm has ended happily, man will assemble the individual, which he has glimpsed in the most
consuming anxiety, and then rise above himself with satisfaction.
Mathematically sublime are those objects which reduce us to nothing, show us our insignificance compared with the
universe and how Cabanis tells us on the brevity and transience of life, as opposed to so-called eternity of the world, or,
to ternelle jeunesse de la nature to draw attention. From this state of humiliation, fear, even of despair, we rise above
ourselves, according to our education, through the diverse considerations and be contemplativ. The idealist from the
school of Kant directed at the thought, time and space are in me, the universe is so vast in size only in my head, the
thing ausdehnungslos in itself, and the flowing of appearance in time is an illusion; pantheist thinks I'm even this
immense universe and immortal: hae omnes creaturae in totum |
i 130 ego sum et praeter me aliud ens non est ; the pious Christian thinks: all my hair on his head are numbered, I am in a

faithful father hand.

The raised state is based on the imaginary will strength or quality boldness and is produced by self-deception. But
there's a will really fearless and strong, so is inherent in the grandeur of which is here simply to define it as a defiance
of death, the thing in itself and you talk to law of raised characters.
I distinguish three types of raised characters:
1) the hero,
2) The Wise,
3) the wise hero.
The hero is clearly understood in serious documents that his life is really threatened, and although he loves it, he is
not yet at, necessary to make it when. A hero is so every soldier in the fire, which has overcome the fear of death, and
anyone who puts his life on the game in order to save another.
The wise man has recognized the worthlessness of life, which summarizes Jesus Sirach so aptly in the words:
It's a miserable lamentation to all human life from the womb until they are buried in the earth, and she is our mother. There
is always worry, fear, hope, and finally death;
and this knowledge) has kindled his will. The latter is a condition sine qua non for the ways that we have in mind,
because the thatschliche survey of life is the only criterion of grandeur. The mere knowledge that life is worthless, the
sweet fruit of resignation may not timely.
The sublime character is the wise hero. He is on the point of view of ways, but do not expect like this, resigned to
death, but regarded his life as a valuable weapon to fight for the good of humanity. He dies by the sword in his hand (in
a figurative sense or real) for the ideals of humanity, and every minute of his existence is |
i 131 he prepared to life and property for the realization of the same surrender. The wise hero is the purest manifestation on

earth, his very sight elevates the other people, because they are caught up in the illusion that they had, precisely
because they are also people who suffer the same qualifications and die for others like him. It is owned by the sweetest
personality and live the genuine, blessed life:
Because if it was large han misfortune
What does it matter?
The exalted state most closely related is the humor. However, before we determine it, we want to immerse ourselves
in the essence of humorists.
We found above that the genuine way to be actually superior to the life that his will be must have ignited on the
knowledge of the worthlessness of life. If only this knowledge exists, without being as it were, passed into the blood,
the demon, or also: recognize the will, as a spirit, that he will never find satisfaction in life, he is looking for, but he
embraces the next moment covetousness full of life with a thousand arms, the genuine way will never come into
This strange relation between will and spirit is now the essence of humorists basis. The humorist can not get on the
clear summit, where the way is, permanently located.
The ordinary man is completely on in life; he did not rack their brains about the world, he wonders neither: where
do I come from? still, where do I go? he has his earthly objectives always firmly in mind. The way on the other side,
lives in a narrow sphere, which he himself has drawn around him, and herself - in what way is quite indifferent -
become clear about himself and the world. Each of both rests firmly on themselves. Not so the humorist. He has tasted
the peace of ways; he felt the bliss of aesthetic state; he has been a guest at the table of the gods; he lived in an ether of
transparent clarity. Yet an irresistible force pulls him back into the mud of the world. He escapes him because he can
only one pursuit, the pursuit of peace of the grave cheap, and |
i 132 everything has to discard other than folly; But again and again the sirens lure him back into the vortex, and he dances and

leaps in the sweltering hall, deep longing for peace and quiet in the heart; because you can call him the child of an
angel and a daughter of the people. He belongs to two worlds, because he lacks the strength to renounce one of them.
In the fixed hall of the gods his pure joy disrupts a call from below, and he throws himself down the lust in his arms,
denatured him longing for up to pure enjoyment. So his demon is tossed and feels like torn. The mood of the humorist's
But what is not soaked in it and staggers, which firmly stands that he has taken, and not let go, that is the knowledge
that death is preferable to life, "that the day of death better than the day of birth is." He is not a wise man, much less a
wise hero, but he is sure that which the size of these men, the majesty of her character fully recognizes and the blissful
feeling that they met, whole and fully feel the effect. He carries her as an ideal in itself and knows that he, because he is
a person who can realize the ideal in itself, if - yes if "the sun is low in greeting the planet."
Thereto and to the solid knowledge that death is preferable to life, he directed from his displeasure and rises above
himself. Now he is free from the discomfort and now what is very aware he is of his own state , which he has escaped,
representational. He measures it to the state of his ideal and ridiculed the folly of his indecision: because the laughter
arises always when we discover a discrepancy, that is when we measure something on a spiritual scale and find it too
short or too long. entered into the brilliant relation to his own state, he did not lose sight of the fact that he will fall back
into the ridiculed folly again soon, because he knows the power of his love to the world, and so only the laughs one
eye, the other weeps now kids of mouth,bleeding while the heart and want to break now hidden under the mask of
serenity of the deepest seriousness.
The humor is therefore a very strange and very peculiar double movement. My first part is an unpleasant full |
i 133 vacillation between two worlds, and its second part is not a purely contemplative state. In him the will between the full

freedom of displeasure and sadness thrnenvoller fluctuates.

The same is the case if the comedian looks to the world. At every phenomenon in it he shuts down his ideal and no
covers the same. Since he can not help smiling. But immediately he remembers how powerful attracts life as
unspeakably hard it is to renounce it, as we are all thoroughly hungry will to live. Now thinks, speaks or writes about
others just as delicious mild, as he judged, and with tears in his eyes, smiling, joking with quivering lips, almost breaks
his heart with pity for the people:
"The whole mankind Jammer understood him." (Goethe).
Since the humor in each character, each temperament can occur, he will always be of individual coloring. I recall the
sentimental star, the torn Heine, the dry Shakespeare, the gemthvollen Jean Paul and the gallant Cervantes.
It is clear that the humorist than another mortal is capable of more some to be a true sage. fires once the captive
knowledge in any way in the will, the joke will flee from the smiling lips and both eyes are serious. Then comes the
humorist, like the hero, the wise and the wise hero, the aesthetic areas entirely on the ethical.
The funny thing has several points of contact with the beautiful and with humor.
I share the funny one in:
1) the sensory-comic,
2) the abstract-comic.
When sensual and Komische we have to distinguish:
1) the subjective scale,
2) the strange object, and
3) the funny state of the will.
The subjective scale, the indispensable condition of the comic at all, for the Sensual-comic one |
i 134 normal shape with certain movements (the limbs, faces, eyes), or if only, as it were detached from the object motions:

words and sounds, be judged, a mean normal way of speaking or singing.

Both standards hanging from although they have a game room in fairly wide limits, but not on the whim. They are a
liquid median, which is not derived in a mechanical way, but by a "dynamic effect" from all kinds of people and the
natural way to give of their individuals. Herein lies already the condemnation of each yardstick gained unilateral
manner. but it also lies the big difference between the subjective measure of sensory-comic and makes up for the
beautiful. That is liquid, this sampling. A circle that only very insignificant from the exits at one point a certain form
and for all, is no longer beautiful. However, the fairly wide margin for the standards of the comic is compensated for by
an object is only comicalif it follows a fairly large discrepancy in the measurement with the standards that must
obviously fall beyond the margin.
The beauty, resp. the ugly, is in no relation to the comic. It can be very beautiful and at the same time comical an
object; it can be very ugly and not funny; finally, it may be ugly and funny. It is also noted that major physical
deformities but be funny (as laughter and ridicule of Raw shows a day), but the funny thing is then smothered in finer
natures immediately from pity.
Comic is now any object that does not match the subjective scale, ie, which is held to it, either such short or such
projects beyond it, that a significant discrepancy is it follows.
As the subjective scale of beauty, with intent to certainty differs substantially from that of the comic, so also the
subject is in a completely different way, the object funny when it is the same beautiful. Beautiful is an object if it
corresponds to the subjective-Fine; is funny, however, a |
i 135 object if it does not match the subjective scale. The funny thing is, therefore, in its relation to the scale, negative as the

ugly, which is why I must also refrain to determine the subjective scale. The Sensual-funny thing is read the best of the
comic objects themselves.
I share the sense-comical how subjective-Nice, one in the comic:
1) of the room,
2) of causality,
3) the substance (the material),
4) time.
The funny thing of the room is initially in large variations in shape from the normal type of man: so in inordinately
long, small, spindly and thick individuals; then in parts of the body, such as in long or plates, shapeless thick or thin,
pointed noses; in their mouths; in too long or too small ears, feet, hands, legs, arms, necks, etc. The extraordinary
delicacy of small hands, feet and ears always admired with a smile. Just think about the very strange impression that
make the hands and feet of infants, because we (here, however, quite inappropriate) compare with our hands and feet.
The funny of the space is further demonstrated in tower-like hair braiding and those in costumes of women who either
the individual give a colossal circumferential (hoop skirts)should show developed or individual parts of the body as
unnatural: wasp waist, false breasts,cul de Paris . Finally, I mention the grimaces, the faces, the masks and caricatures.
The funny thing of causality emerges in cumbersome transition from effect to cause, so in ignorance; in improper or
unnecessary movement: violent Gestikuliren, stiff wandering about with the poor, affektirte hand movements, splayed,
wooden aisle, waggling, awkward bows at all awkward manners, Chinese ceremonial, fussiness, pedantry; in crashed
movements: slipping, tripping, unsuccessful jumps; in unverhltnimigen expenditure of force to achieve one
purpose: hammering open doors as Ado About Nothing, massive preparations and a tiny result |
i 136 large discharges, fab ado; in the use of false means to an intended purpose: Incorrect use of foreign words, false

quotations, incorrect phrase in a foreign language both, as in the mother tongue, stuck in the speech; in imitation which
does not match the essence of Imitative: all affectation, European court, Hofceremoniell, etc. titles were in the
Sandwich Islands, men in women, women in men's clothes; finally in the inappropriateness of the costume.
The funny thing of the time comes out too quickly or in the slow pace of language: precipitancy of words, unctuous
stretching the words; in stuttering; in Herauspoltern; the abrupt emergence Slotting words; in churn out melodies.
The funny thing of the matter is shown by the screaming compilation striking colors in clothing; in grunting, nasal,
dull, hollow or very thin, fine tone of voices.
The odd state is a double movement, the first part is the aesthetic contemplation; because the individual is not in a
disinterested relation to the comic object, the discrepancy on subjective scale will only annoy or alienate it. The second
part is a cheerful expansion of the will, externally, depending on their intensity, moved to the gradations from slight
smile to spasmodic, dwarf fell shattering laughter. This is also the point of contact of the comic with the humor;
because here, as there, gives the perception of a discrepancy joy in us.
When abstractness Komische must be distinguished:
1) the subjective scale;
2) attached to it is displayed incongruity.
The term plays the abstractness starring comic, although here only more or less clearly realisirte terms are compared
with each other, so ideas, one of which is the benchmark, the other is the Measured.
i 137 The Abstract-funny thing is divided into:

1) the irony
2) the satire,
3) the joke,
4) the foolish act
5) the pun.
In the irony of a man as he really is, is taken to scale. In addition to the same features of the scoffers, in all
seriousness, with words, a copy of which is now, whether in the form or character, much different from the original,
and that decision is different in his favor. Each Attentive immediately recognizes the scorn, respectively. the
discrepancy between original and copy, and can not help laughing. Those will want when they are of course the most
challenging the irony that hold either really better than they are, or at least better, more beautiful, noble, talented seem.
The scoffers going to their imagination an embellished or refines them skilfully, seemingly innocuous way until finally
an ideal addition to a dreary reality is: two ideas which, with the possible exception of the mocking,no man can be
Also, opinions, views, assumptions, prejudices and so a good ground for the development of the irony. The mocker
is apparently the view of to a mocking, develops them in every direction and pulls the consequences. Since she sinks
into the swamp of logical contradiction and absurdity, to the great delight of all present.
In the satire are rotten political or social conditions of a nation, a province, a city, even rotten conditions in families,
measured against an ideal, whether this be the good old days or the life of another people or even the distant future of
the people borrowed and then the discrepancy is ruthlessly exposed by the satirist. Here, too, laughed, but it's an angry
jeers that resounds.
In Jokes either two ideas by matching comparison are first brought under a term or two under terms already
standing ideas together in the eye. Then the term realizes, and testified the same from each of the two performances,
which but both at once |
i 138 diverge. The discrepancy is a total: the scale and the measured touch only at the end points.

In the very funny grave signature of a doctor: "Here he is, like a hero, slain lie about him" is brought by striking
comparison, first the doctor with the brave military leader under the term "hero". Then, however, the same thing
predicated of both, namely that they should rest among of them slain, which both completely separated again; because
the slain redound to the One to honor the others to shame. (Scale: the hero in the narrower sense).
In the well-known anecdote of the Gascon in summer clothes at great winter cold, on the laughs of the king, and
what it responds: "Would you put what I put on, that your whole wardrobe, so you would not laugh," already two are
very different objects under a concept: whole wardrobe. Then both of the same thing is said, and immediately go the
objects apart. (Scale: the large wardrobe of the king).
In the foolish act of the actor goes from a given terms of like Don Quixote from the general maxim: a good
Christian is to help all afflicted. After this he is, intentionally or unintentionally, in such cases, which are no longer
entirely under the rule. Thus freed Don Quixote galley slaves, although they were afflicted, but not those which a
Christian should help. Here is the standard of reasonable thought: Harried should be freed from their oppressive
situation, but not criminal.
In pun finally equal or similar sounding terms are reversed (in perfect pun only identical) with different meanings
on your mood. Here is the word in its ordinary sense of the scale and the word in its more distant meaning the
Measured. The discrepancy is a total.
We have, behufs determination of the comic, have put on the highest point of view. There we found the
philosophical standards for Sensual-comic and can rest easy. but we do not want to close but without |
i 139 to take a look at the already mentioned false standards which cours irish in everyday life and to assert it.

The basis of the comic: Measurement and Measured, of course, must not be touched. The discrepancy that can only
indicate a certain measure rod is conditio sine qua non of the comic. The arbitrariness now can not claim to the object,
because as it appears, it is. So there are the standards alone, which can be changed.
For their production in the nation now the ordinary is the rule. What occurs in people unusual weird he calls easily.
So you say, you come to me today before so weird, that you give yourself differently today as usual. Yes, I've often
need to hear: the wine tastes funny, the clock strikes weird, leaving only an existing discrepancy should be indicated.
Sun is also a farmer who comes for the first time in a big city, everything there comical, ie find unusual and when,
standing in the aesthetic relation, discovered a large discrepancy, laughing heartily. A Chinese is found to still funny in
Europe, San Francisco anymore because with us he breaks through the narrow circle of the ordinary, there he stands in
the same.
Furthermore, we speak often of comic characters and understands eccentric people, characters whose doings is just
another than that of ordinary people. Such individuals rarely meet judged because you do not exist the effort to
penetrate its essence, but usually also because you have not the ability to do it. Thus the same short scale is then always
applied to all those who have left the great highway and convert their own way. The philistines will find some,
ridiculous, which has a fine, free character, even the dreary spirits do not die out, holding a wise man or a wise hero for
a fool.
The false standards when they are created by the individual in the aesthetic relation, of course, evoke the same
weird state as the right ones. Therefore, but more and less laughed at in the world, should be considered laughed.
i 140 It is clear that almost all humans can be strange object. There is very little funny animals (such as a used as a riding horse

cab-horse). They are mainly only funny when you deliberately into human situations brings (Reynard the Fox), or it
must be compared with the people almost like the monkey.
we look back from here, we find absolutely confirms what I said at the beginning, namely, that the aesthetics is only
one special condition of the people in the places him a special conception of ideas. The state of the aesthetic state,
showed us two main types: the contemplation and aesthetic compassion.
All other states which we touched, are composite, emerged from the compound of aesthetic state with the treated in
physics, which I, for brevity, will call physical here. Only in the humor we found a moral state of the will, the
compassion (pity for yourself, compassion for others), we will have to look more closely at the ethics. The aesthetic
enthusiasm, the sublime and ridiculous state are so physical- aesthetic double movement and humor, a physical-
aesthetic- ethical movement of the will.
The aesthetic condition is not due to a liberation of the spirit of the will, which is absurd and impossible, but on the
desirelessness of the demon that is always present when expressed physiologically, the blood flows calmly. Then there
actuirt preferably the brain, the will, as it were sunk completely in one of its bodies and embraces him here because the
organ can feel all the movements, but not their own, the deception, may he rest completely. easier for the demon of
entry into the aesthetic relation, and he will get into it by an object not incite him. Met him in the aesthetic relation an
object that arouses his desire, all the collection is gone immediately.
If the will is not quite satisfied, it is very difficult contemplativ, so most people are then the Get used | Liche
i 141 can not place of contemplation of things. Bring someone that it freezes, has the pain or his stomach growls, before the

most beautiful picture in the most glorious nature - his spirit is may be not a reiner Spiegel.
On the other hand that the more developed the mind applies, in particular, depending trained sense of beauty, the
more often the will enjoy the aesthetic pleasure; is because the mind is born from the will of counselor of the same, and
the greater his face circle is, the greater the number of powerful opposing motives, which he may submit to the will
until he finally gives him a motive him when glow fully grasped, all tied holds and all other desires choked in it, of
which the ethics act.
So we would be reached because prior art and the artist. However, before we the same our attention, we want to
enter a field where the human esthetic, acts that the laws of the subjective-beauty according to natural objects and
educates as it aesthetically.
First we meet there the gardener. He first takes care, by holding all harmful influences and increase the stimuli that
the plants develop freely and develop their inner harmonic motion powerful. He refines the natural growth in this way.
Then he finished, by acting on the fertilization, the flowers and the fruits.
Then he designed the floor area. Here he places small hills, valleys there to; he shares the terrain by straight or well
curved paths and records to the individual sections beds which regular figures: forming circles, ellipses, stars.
He also uses the water by now he collects it in ponds, sometimes falling from rocks, can soon rise as a fountain.
Then he planted the prepared terrain. Here he conjures juicy, beautiful lawns out there it forms avenues here groves
whose foliage displays all shades of green color, there probably manicured hedges. He occupied the beds of flowers
and foliage plants for pattern (flower beds) and brings on the lawn here |
i 142 and then to a rare and noble tree or a group of larger plants. He also draws from tree to tree garlands of creepers on which

the eye dwells with pleasure. -

Few animals can be embellished. At Agree beautification can be achieved indirectly by finishing, then directly,
within narrow limits, however, by Dressage, like the horse whose movements you can do decided graceful.
In contrast, the human is that natural object, which, in different directions, is very capable of embellishment. Man
can be educated aesthetically.
By cleanliness and care of the skin, as well as temperance, you can start by giving a freshness to the body that
brings pleasure. Then the tasteful arrangement of the hair in both sexes and of the beard in man is an important
improvement agent; because often gives a small change in hairstyle that changed position of Locke, face a different,
much more appealing expression.
but the main emphasis should be on training the body and to the beautification of his movements. That is achieved
through diligent exercise, jumping, running, riding, fencing, swimming, these through dance and education in the strict
sense. Grace, however, is innate, but they can learn also, at least angular movements can be sanded and useless habit.
The physical exercises give the body except the suppleness, often a change in shape because they cause him strong and
muscular fullness, solid round off the fleshy parts. also the face often gets a profit whose expression: man has learned
his forces know and trust them.
An important institution for the aesthetic education of man is the army. Not only the body of the soldier is formed
by the aforementioned means, but it is also his sense of beauty in the regular, beautiful movements of individuals and
troops parts; because strapping Exerciren and running maneuvering are beautiful.
Man may further include the sound of his voice ( a soft, gentle and low voice - an excellent thing in woman
Shakespeare..) And language ever embellish; the latter, by avoiding all mindless chatter, trains himself to speak fluently
i 143 without falling into verbiage, and imparts a certain needle his address.

Furthermore, people embellish simple manners.

Also heard a distinct handwriting here.
Finally, I mention a simple but tasteful and well-fitting clothes, which brings out the beauty of the body, sometimes
even increased. The color of clothing is also important, especially for the woman. It is said that this color clothes a lady
who becomes her to face. -
Art is the transfigured reflected image in the world, and the one who accomplishes this reflected image, is an artist.
The requirements for the artist are: first, the ability to easily transition to the aesthetic state; secondly the creation
Reproductions- or impulse; thirdly, a developed sense of beauty; fourthly, a vivid imagination, a sharp judgment and a
good memory, that is, the reason must be very Hlfsvermgen formed.
With this feature, it detects the ideas as appearances (objects) and the idea of man and its innermost essence, as a
thing in itself, and makes its ideals.
The ideas (the individual will to live) are engaged in a constant river of becoming. Movement is life, and since we
can imagine the will without movement not even so we always have, we may still lose ourselves so far into the past of
the world, or even the very anticipiren their future, the flow of becoming. In it, the individuals fight incessantly, dive
under and rise to the surface again as the same or subtly modified. These modifications can be inherited in organic
beings, can dig deeper into the essence of the idea and press on it a special character. The deeper the idea of standing
on the ladder, the simpler its nature is, the more constant it will be; But the higher they organized is,the less they can
assert their individuality in the struggle, the more it has to give the most varied influences.
i 144 Nowhere does the crowd and the friction is larger than in the state of man. There is always severe distress and a death of

the other life. Where one may look towards grins us at the shameless selfishness and the full whole ruthlessness. It says
be careful and shocks, giving right and left, with caulked arms so they would not torn to the ground, trampled. And so
it is that no two people are alike, and each has a special character.
Nevertheless, everything in nature only individual will to live, and although each person has a peculiar character, yet
the general idea of the people is expressed in each. But it is a big mistake - a mistake that umwindet the judgment with
a veil and she sunk into a fantastic dream life - assuming that, hidden, resting behind the similar individuals a unit, and
that this unity the true and genuine idea be. It is this: take shade for real things. The species or genus is a conceptual
unit which in the real reality corresponds to a multitude of more or less equal real individuals - nothing more. Going
back to the hand of science and interrupt arbitrarily the flow of becoming, we can arrive at an original form,in which all
now living individuals of a species praeexistirten virtualiter. But this archetype was shattered, she is no more, none of
the now living individuals is their equal.
The ideal of the artist is now but a single form, but not the scientific archetype which an imaginative naturalists, on
the basis of paleontology, for a genre, more or less accurately, would be able to design well, but a shape in the middle
of the living now hovering individuals of a species. The artist observes the individuals exactly grasped the essence and
characteristic, the unessential can withdraw, in short, judges, combines and allows the Related of the imagination hold.
This all is done by a "dynamic effect", not by a mechanical superposition of individuals to obtain a middle, and connect
even the sense of beauty is active. So the artist wins a half-finished ideal which he then, in the reproduction,if he is a
great artist, remakes according to the laws of the subjective-Fine, it totally |
i 145 is submerged in the cleansing tide of the formal-beauty, from which he takes out the same transfigured and thaufrisch.

Now here is the root point in where the art in two large trunks occurs apart:
1) the ideal of art,
2) the realistic art.
The knowing subject must, adapt themselves in ordinary life, the outside world, ie it must objectively irish what it
presents itself, precisely and without the slightest amendment arbitrary: it can not help. It can not see an object that is
dirty green pure green; can not see an irregular figure regularly; can not see a stiff graceful movement; it must listen to
the presentation of a talking, singing, musicirenden man as he is; it can not be heard as a series of rhythmic structure,
the chains of unequal, irregular following on each time parts; it must objectively irish, as they are also the outbursts of
passion, and may they not be so daunting. In a word, the subject must reflect the outside world as it is: ugly as
beautiful, repulsive as attractive objects,buzzing, squeaking, as well sounding tones.
Not so the artist. His mind is not the slave of the outside world, but creates a new world: a world of grace, the pure
forms, pure colors; He reveals the inside of people in states which are moderate, and combines sounds and melodious
words rows that dominated the rhythm: in short, he takes us to the wonderful paradise that is formed under the laws of
the subjective-Fine alone.
Now the artist makes only beautiful individual objects or groups of such, in a harmonious arrangement around a
center point; He reveals to us the beautiful soul, he is at the service of the ideal art and is an ideal artist.
But the art would not reflect the whole world, what is their job but if they only wiedergbe beauty. You should the
nature of all living things reveal the bitter fruit of the tree of knowledge, he only rarely and reluctantly takes from the
hand of religion and philosophy, saccharified in her peculiar magical manner, that they should man |
i 146 and proffer thoroughly sweetened, so he liked to enjoy and then open his eyes, or, as the poet says:

Cos all'egro fanciul porgiamo aspersi

Di soave licor gli orli del vaso;
Succhi amari inga nato intanto beve ei
E dall 'inganno suo vita riceve.
Tasso .
(So we pass drug to the sick child,
The cup edge wetted with sweet wet;
It now drinking so deceived the bitter juices,
And deception brings him new life forces.)
What the sober notion and dry doctrine is not capable of causing the captivating image and the insinuating melody.
Now the artist shows the world as it is the terrible struggle of their individuals for existence; the malice, malice and
wickedness of a, mildness, gentleness and grandeur of others; the agony of a, the desire of others, the restlessness of
all; the different characters and their cross certificates in corporeality, where the reflex of insatiable lust for life, there of
renunciation - he is the realistic artists and serves the realistic art.
Each of these genres has fully justified. While the products of ideal art put us much easier than real objects in the
aesthetic mood and let us enjoy the bliss of peace after which we always long to return heartfelt and intimate, the shells
and bustle of the world, - allow us the works of realistic Art in the moving aesthetic state: we know what we are, and
we rocked back away. What a field of art, we also enter, - always we see the blue haze of distance, longing inspiring
heights of the ethical area, and here clearly shows the close relationship between art and morality.
The esthetician requires only one thing from realistic artists, namely that he idealisire and not be pure naturalist, that
he should glorify reality, not copiren photographically faithful. Does it the latter, so have his works only by chance
appeal because by chance, as so often with landscapes that reality already |
i 147 is full whole ideal; usually they will be flat and repulsive. He is to mitigate this increase there, damp here, strengthen

there, without blurring the character. In particular it is intended to cover an event where it is most interesting is the
expression of a face then, when it shows the character most clearly, and do not deal folding groups.
next to the ideal and realistic art, you can still make a third type: the fantastic art. In their structures are not the
world reflected from, but only parts of it, which the artist can either, as they are, or arbitrarily changed, and which he
then combines into a whole.
Such structures can be of extraordinary beauty; but usually they have understood only a cultural and historical value
and are presented as whole objects, mostly ugly and repulsive.
The fantastic art is rooted in the rich soil of religion and must as the mother of the other two types of art are
considered; because in the youth of humanity, where the individual was still completely in the bonds of nature and from
the trembling before the sovereignty and omnipotence of the whole, it could not understand, did not come out, the man
struggled afterwards to make the supernatural imaginary powers and to bring them by his feeling closer. He wanted to
see his gods and, trembling with them standing, can sacrifice them his dearest to reconcile them. Since he now nothing
else for the design of idols was faced with than the visible world, he had to make in their forms; but because he was not
allowed to put on a level with the gods on the other side, so it was no other way out but the forms in 'increase s
Colossale and also to make the whole thing so that it corresponded to no being in nature. So the idols originated with
many heads, countless eyes, many arms (which also omniscience and omnipotence was indicated symbolically), the
winged bulls and lions, sphinxes, etc. Later, when the religion had become pure and spiritualized, the artists knew it
beautiful people with wings (Amor, Nike, etc.). The Christian artists were the most fantastic |as the religion had
become pure and spiritualized, the artists knew it beautiful people with wings (Amor, Nike, etc.). The Christian artists
were the most fantastic |as the religion had become pure and spiritualized, the artists knew it beautiful people with
wings (Amor, Nike, etc.). The Christian artists were the most fantastic |
i 148 characters (wonderful lovely children with wings), but also the ugliest (devil with horns, horse and goat legs, bat wings

and thaler large glass eyes).

Here also those structures which are not sprung religion, but the legend and the tales to the ground have, as drakes,
centaurs, mermaids, goblins belong etc
The art includes five individual arts:
1) the architecture (Architecture),
2) the Bildnerkunst (sculpture),
3) painting,
4) poetry (poetry),
5) the art of music (music) -
which is generally called the fine arts, to distinguish between the useful, which occur in the wake of the former.
The three former arts have to do with visible objects, and their products are thus spatially and materially, but free of
the time. Poetry and music against (former describes and depicts only incidentally objects) deal directly with the thing
in itself, by the sound artist in his own breast Smmtliche states and the poet Smmtliche states and will qualities of the
people, more or less clearly detected; because the genius just has the ability to temporarily generate the will qualities
that leave him and to put themselves in each state. but found is deposited in substantial objects, in words and sounds,
and the works of poets and Musicians are therefore free of space and matter, but in time. (The substance, the vessel will
disappear before the content.)
Architecture is the most subjective of all arts, that is, the most independent of the objects; for they reproduced
objects, but creating such completely free. The architect does not put the chemical ideas, but rather it forms only in
them; they are mere material to which he discloses Formal Beautiful the room clean. A beautiful building is nothing
more than the visible |
i 149 become Formal Beautiful of the room in a certain direction.

The ideas of the material are, as I said, a minor matter. They are only important in so far as a material to another can
be more than the formal Beautiful in the matter, by its color, its luster and so correct, but this is important. A temple of
white marble will be much more beautiful than another, of the same form of red sandstone. Emphasizes one but the
nature of the material, gravity and impenetrability, and sets the purpose of the beautiful architecture in the
representation of the game of these forces to do, in other words, load and support the main proceedings and can
withdraw the mold so it pays homage to a great error.
The architecture reveals therefore almost exclusively the subjective-Nice of the room by presentation and
juxtaposition of the discussed already above beautiful figures and body or its parts.
All regular figures and body are beautiful, but her beauty has degrees.
In view of the floor plan, the circle is the most perfect figure. According to him, the rectangle composed of two
squares coming; This is followed by the rectangles in different ratios of length to width, the square, etc.
In elevation, the vertical straight line prevails, and arise Cylinder, pillars, cubes. Determines the inclined straight
line the building, so arise cones, pyramids.
Let us turn finally to the roof, we find the more or less high pitched roof, the dome etc. and inside the horizontal,
gabled, barrel-vaulted, pointed arches and hollow spherical ceiling.
All ratios and outlines a beautiful Bauwerkes dominated with relentless rigor, symmetry and formal-Beautiful of
causality, occurring in architecture as a scarce practicality. Every part should correspond to its purpose in the simplest
way, nothing will be overweight or useless wound. How disturbing a violation of the beauty of causality works, you
can clearly see the spiral columns.
The freest scope, within the laws of the subjective-beautiful, the architect in executing the company threads. One
can call this the flowers of a building.
i 150 The main styles of architecture are, as is known, Greek, Roman, Moorish, the Gothic and Renaissance style. The Greek is

the most noble simplicity and reveals the subjective-Beautiful architectural most glory. It is called the classical or ideal
In the wake of the beautiful architecture are: useful architecture, the naval architecture, mechanical engineering art,
the technical architecture (bridges, viaducts, aqueducts, etc.), the carpentry and pottery industry (furnaces). The
gemstone is mentioned.
In the Bildnerkunst it is no longer a question of realizing the Formal Beautiful completely free, but the
representation of ideas in pure forms. The artist makes them either as ideals, or he only idealizes them.
The subjective-Nice of the space reveals itself in the field of sculpture in the pure flow of lines in proportioned
physique and in rounding off the fleshy parts; the matter in the color and purity of the material; the causality as grace.
Every movement, every position must be the intention of the simplest relation, and the act of the will must be pure and
clear voice in it. All stiffness, woods awareness, pomposity, they still kick so wrapped up, cometh of evil.
The main object of the sculptor is man. However, the same in the representation it is much more limited.
First, the inner life of man can express only imperfectly OUTDOOR: it occurs heavily veiled to the surface. It is
reflected, as far as considered here, at least accurate in shape, clearly in the position, and most clearly in the face,
especially in the eyes.
In the presentation of these externals, the sculptor is also very limited. In the form we miss the warm tints of the
flesh that is unable to replace the finest material. This lack felt the subtle Greeks very well and they tried him aside by
they formed the artwork from different materials: the fleshy parts of ivory, the Ge | wnder
i 151 of gold. Yes, they went so far as to dye your hair and use colored eyes. The defect but not to pay, and a plastic plant,

formed from a single colored, beautiful material, always to be preferred. A painting of the figure is quite inadmissible
because the contrast between the rigid image and pulsating reality would be too great. Front of a painting we know that
we have to do it only with a certificate bodies, and disappointment is not possible. In plastic but the lifelike statue
would only deceive, then disappointed, and all collections in the subject would be lost.
Then the sculptor can show the object only in one position. Is this now the expression of a violent movement, the
danger lies close (as it is frozen, while the natural man claiming never one and the same position a long time) that they
are not true contemplativ the viewer long. usually so it makes the artist the people in the state of tranquility in which
we can imagine an individual for a considerable time, and therefore does not affect the contrast with life disturbing.
For the same reason a passionate movement in the facial features is not to advise. The passionate states, they may
still occur as often, are always temporary. It is therefore advisable, in the features only the collection of the outbreak,
not to set this yourself; but the voltage must be expressed clearly and as speaking.
Finally, the sculptor nor limited by the brittleness of the material and the difficulty is to make easily clear groups.
The Farnese bull, as a group, a failed art. The single figure and groups of no more than two or three people is therefore
usually form the artist.
Free it can move in relief, which, to say the plastic so transgresses to the field of painting. The movement in relief
may be passionate, because the eye does not linger long with the individual.
In contrast, the sculptor can represent the shape, the outline of corporeality, perfect.
The ideal of the human form is not one. In every race there will be another. But the human ideal of the Greeks will
be the most beautiful through all times and |
i 152 claiming noblest. The Greek people was a beautiful race of men, and it is likely that some individuals have been so

outstandingly beautiful that the artist had only to recognize this beauty and replicate. To this end, entered public and
private life, which allowed the development of corporeality for most flourishing. From an early age on the body of the
nobles of the people was practiced in the gym; the joints were made supple and able to show the greatest expression of
power effortlessly and with grace. Due to the social facilities were all rough work, forcing the body to develop on one
side, the removed make Greeks, while on the other hand, the passion which can act on the organism so destructive, by
natural conditioning and custom in the flowering of the people,only moderately expressed. Will and mind were, in the
trendsetting individuals this gifted people, in the most favorable relation to each other.
And so those always valid pattern of the noblest human physicality, which, although for the most part available to us
only in copies, delight our hearts and so easily rise to the aesthetic contemplation emerged. As there were no people in
front of the ancient Greeks, which, it is not a second act the idea of man as pure in the form in which she expressed, in
the development of the human race, which, in itself and its civilized life, the conditions for such services were wearing.
Among the Greeks Everything came together: Beautiful objects in abundance, consummate sense of beauty, youth of
the nation, rising of the whole ego harmoniously noble sensuality, serene nature, free public life, a mild religion, mild
but strictly Wielding customs.
the face Let's go now to the details of the ideal closer to a so firstly shows a noble oval. The forehead is moderately
high and smooth curved. The eyes are calm and clear. The nose is the direct continuation of the forehead, its head is a
little rounded and the nostrils can be seen in that they will move in the excitement. The mouth is not too small and
made up of graceful swollen lips. The chin protrudes noble. The magnificently domed skull covered full curls.
The not too short neck rests freely on a broad chest, and so |
i 153 the rest of the body flows into radiant beauty more than slender body, narrow pelvis, strong legs, full calves, until shapely

In this common ideal was now wearing of artists young and old, or the specific character of the god or hero,
continued here taking, there auftragend.
The female body was formed in a similar manner. The chest is narrower shoulders falling inclined from the pelvis is
wider and the whole figure is more delicate, feeble, self-sacrificing than that of man.
If the figure is wholly or partly clothed, then offers the artist ample opportunity to present the subjective-Beautiful
of space in the flow of the garments in the folds etc..
Hellenic sculpture and ideal sculpture are interchangeable concepts.
In the realistic sculpture it is now not a question, to represent ideal structures in which the individual peculiarities
are wiped out, but highlighting and idealization of individuality. Especially to the big important man who towered
above his contemporaries, will receive the coming generations in the picture. The object is gone by the subjective
forms thing in itself, and this imprinted in him faithfully in as far as it is perceived. The artist has, therefore, to keep in
the realistic plastic, preferably to the given phenomenon, but it has a sufficient scope to glorify them. The individual is
reflected in various moods that change the trains. This considered the artist and selects that expression which is the
most beautiful.One then likes to say, the artist had captured the individual in his best moments. Further, it may, without
compromising the resemblance mitigate an ugly train here can have a lovely emerge.
The finest works of realistic plastic are, in the 13th century, built on the base of the Christian religion. They are
good, pious, holy people who are completely penetrated |
i 154 borne by the belief in the redemptive power of the gospel and the stamp of longing for the eternal, painless kingdom of

God. The whole figure is broken and full of humility; the head gracefully inclined; the transfigured features speak from
clear that this desire is completely extinguished to the earthly life, and, where the plastic can show it at all out of sight,
lights chastity and love and the peace that surpasses all reason.
In the wake of the sculpture, gold and silver work, the stone carving, wood carving art and the commercial occur
which manufacture the manifold objects from bronze and other metal, made of baked clay, glass, porcelain, etc. lava.
The Steingravirkunst be mentioned.
The painting, like the Bildnerkunst, the presentation of ideas, as phenomena, to an end. but they can do more than
this, and is a more perfect art, first because they, by means of color, reality can ever and reflect the inner life of the idea
in particular that so wonderfully reflected in the eyes and facial expressions, faithful and better ; secondly, because they
hampered by any difficulty in the material that attracts whole nature and also the works of architecture and sculpture in
the region of their representation. The lack of physicality finished replacing enough by appearances.
Depending on the ideas with which they preferably concerned, it is landscape, the animal, portrait, genre and history
painting, which branches considered the especial aesthetics closer.
The subjective-Beautiful sculpture is also in painting; but because the representation of ideas through the painting is
a more perfect, so new laws still emerging. The beauty of the room calls for a proper perspective; the causality the
effective grouping of individuals to a real or ideal focal point, the clear expression of the action in its most significant
moment and speaking nature of the relationship in which the actors relate to each other: in short, a sophisticated
composition; the consummate matter coloring, live warm flesh tones, harmonious color collocation, pure effectiveness
of Light |
i 155 and properly tinted Far (center, background) in the landscape.

Although the Greek sculpture has found the ideal of the human form, so formed and still painting independently
forms the pure beautiful corporeality where the mind has free play: in the realm of legend, mythology and religion.
Like a rother Faden, the ideal history painting runs through the history of art, and I remember the Galatea of Raphael,
his Madonnas and Venus Pictures of Titian.
The ideal history painting, the ideal landscape painting joins. The ideal landscape is nature in its highest
transfiguration: the sky without clouds or with such delicate shape with golden fringes, clear and longing awakening:
"It's as if he would open;"
the sea in a glassy blue stain; the mountains of beautiful curved lines to rest in the scent of distant lands; the trees in the
foreground, the finest of its kind and wonderful fantasy, dream of quiet rest; among them there is a couple or a
shepherd with his flock or a cheerful group. Pan sleeps, and all is saved, light drunk and breathes peace and comfort.
There are the landscapes of Claude Lorrain unforgettable.
But the ideal direction is difficult outweighed by the real world. Because the painter can easily work, he likes to
look for the individuality and sunk in its particularity. It shows the nature in most ardent tropical splendor and in icy
torpor, in rain or shine; it shows men and animals individually and in groups, at rest and in the most ardent movement;
it represents the quiet happiness of family and destroyed peace, as the horrors of the battles and the most important
events in the civilized life of mankind. Even the weird phenomena and the ugly to the limit, beyond which it would act
disgusting, he treats. Where he can, he idealizes and gives its structures the purifying bath in Subjectively-famous.
Even at the sculpture we have seen how the time of the most flourishing of Christian faith sculptor tried to express
in face and figure that blessed inwardness of religious people. Also, they succeeded within the boundaries of their art |
i 156 completely. The Holy painters of the Middle Ages now approached on the same idea and revealed them in the most

glorious consummation. In the eyes of these poignant figures glowing an unearthly fire, and from her lips read off the
most beautiful prayer: "Thy will be done" She of illustrating the profound words of the Savior: "Behold, the kingdom
of God is within you."
Especially tried the most brilliant painter of all time, Christ himself, the God-Man, his idea to fully capture all and
to make objective. In all important moments of his life sublime tried to capture him and reveal his character. Among
the many relevant images of Titian's Tribute Money, highlight Leonardo's studies head to communion and Correggio's
Veil of Veronica. They show the intellectual superiority, the chaste holiness, the consummate humility and
overwhelming acting steadfastness in all sufferings of the wise hero. They are the most precious pearls of Fine Arts.
What is held against them, the Zeus of Otricoli, the Venus de Milo? So much higher, the overcoming of life over the
desire for life, or the ethics of physics is,so much higher they are above these structures from the fun-loving, best time
of the Greeks. -
In the wake of the painting, the mosaic art, the copper piercing art, xylography, lithography, the ornamentation, the
Musterzeichnerei (for wallpaper, fabrics, embroidery) is located.
The architecture and visual arts support each other, because basically it is a question, prepare the homes of gods and
men according to the laws of beauty.
We can not leave without having thought of pantomime, the ballet and the tableaux painting and sculpture. In them
these arts unite with real life; the artists form, as in living matter and put in it the beauty perfectly represents.
By now move on to poetry, we keep at this stage that we have to do immediately on the merits, not with objects but
with the thing in itself.
We like each other inside us whenever we want and when |
i 157 always sinking, always we will feel in a particular state. We have examined the main conditions of the people in physics,

have from barely noticeable normal state to the passionate hatred, and, in the beginning of this aesthetic, yet others
come to know. Each state is due to a special internal movement, either a single or a double movement.
These sensed with the self-consciousness movements are thus immediately given us and guide us to the naked core
of our being. Because by first on the look out for what ever moves us what we want tirelessly, we come to that which
we are, insatiable will to live, and by we remember those states in which we pass the easiest and Topics put together
that move us most easily, we recognize the canals into which our will preferably flows and call the same traits, the sum
of which is our peculiar character, our demon.
It now belongs to the nature of man that first push out its expansive movements beyond the sphere of individuality,
that he has the desire to communicate to yourself and to proclaim his condition. So the sounds that are otherwise arise
when the now audible inner movements: they are continuations of the inner vibrations in a foreign substance.
As with the developed and trained higher mental faculties, the terms entered into human life, seized feel the same
and made the sounds of nature to carriers thereof. So the language is the most perfect means of people to communicate
and to reveal conditions arose.
In words and in its characteristic timbre so man shows off its interiors, and are therefore the material of poetry,
which, almost exclusively concerned with the highest idea of man; because it makes use of the other ideas just to give
the feelings of the people a background from which they stand out more clearly, and the schwrmerischeste description
of nature is nothing else than the expression of the sensation of moving the human heart.
I said that it is particularly the expansive movements that want to impart. | And indeed by the be
i 158 peripheral walking to the center movements usually not accompanied by sounds and words. Only in the greatest sorrow of

the natural man sobbing in the highest fear he shouts. Meanwhile, we have become by civilization Gernkogel and
frequent speaker; most people are talkative, listen to with pleasure and are happy when they communicate to their
hatred, their grief, their concerns, etc: can short out their hearts.
The poetry is the highest form of art because it reveals the one hand, the whole thing in itself, its states and its
qualities, and on the other hand the object abspiegelt by describing it and forcing the listener to figure it with the
imagination. So it includes in the true sense the whole world, nature, and reflects them in various terms.
From this, the first law of subjective-Fine for poetry it follows. The terms are epitomes and most of them epitomes
of the same or very similar objects. The narrower the sphere of a concept of the latter type, the easier it is realizes, that
the easier the mind finds a vivid representative for it, and the tighter turn, such a term is a qualifier, the clearer will be
the representative. The transition from concept horse to present a horse is easily accomplished; It is, however, the A
one black, the other a white, of a an old, the other a young, the one imagine a lazy, the other a fiery etc. the poet says
now: a fiery black horse;he forces the reader or listener to a particular idea, which has no big game length for more
modifications. Thus, the subjective-Beautiful causality demands a poetic language that is above all terms that make the
transition easily in the image.
Furthermore, the beauty of causality, in the compounds of terms in the sets, as clarity and emerges. The longer the
period is, the more intermediate elements it contains, the less beautiful is the style. What is clear thought or purely felt,
is also spoken clear and pure and written. No style empes but concise diction, "a chaste style."
i 159 Reflects the poet merely moods, shall invite the beauty of causality noble, concise representation of the same and a real

relation of effect to cause. Whining about nothing, or accesses the poet after the gold of the sun to decorate his mistress
so, then the Beautiful loses without a trace, because it is always moderate.
In contrast, shows the poet acts of will, so the beauty of causality appears as a strict law of motivation, which can
never be impunity violated. It is impossible for someone without zureichendes motif handle, than a stone can remain in
the air, and as impossible as it is that he was acting against his character without compelling motive. So every action
requires a detailed justification, and the intelligible is the motive for the action, the more beautiful it is. If the accident
in the narrowest sense into play, he must not come out of the blue, but must have already shown in the distance;
because in real life are soon reconciled with surprising coincidences, but in the art of tune every improbability because
it insinuates her intention and every deus ex machina is ugly.
The beauty of causality appears finally in the crowded development. The ordinary flow of life is all too often
uninteresting, the moods are distributed on an hourly, effects often show up only after days, months. The poet
concentrated all and gives it were in a drop of rose oil the scent of thousands of roses. The events follow each other
quickly, the effects are moved closer to the causes, and the connection is thus clear, that is beautiful.
The beauty of time is the meter in poetry. The terms are simple syllables or compositions of such of unequal length
and different emphasis. Are now the words regardless of this quantity and quality combined, the whole does not flow
easily out but can be compared with a current ice sheets that rub and bump. It is not necessary that the speech was
perfectly measured, even in prose an elegant flow is possible if the masses are at least rhythmically structured, but of
course the beauty of time revealed completely in the bound speech. Each meter is |
i 160 beautiful, one more, the other less, and the Sapphic stanza eg

enjoys as a mere scheme.
As I explained above, and the Formal Beauty of the substance occurs in poetry (and music) because the
communication of feelings, is possible only through substantial objects, words, and sounds. It is shown here in the
change of vowels (avoid hard Consonantenhufungen, melodic vocalization), and especially in rhymes, which is often
magical effect; the spoken word, it is revealed in the melodious sound of the voice.
It is clear that the discussed here Subjectively-Nice can not justify the difference between ideal and realistic poetry;
because poetry has the revelation of the thing in itself for the main purpose, and this is independent of the subjective-
famous. The subjective-Nice, after its various directions, lies just to the expressions of the inner man.
The ideal poetry is based on the beautiful soul that is the true ideal of poetry; because it is essential to the ideal that
it is a middle, and the beautiful soul is equidistant from the sublime character that has wiped out all human desire in
itself and no longer rooted in this world, as from pure natural person who is not his individuality has formed a
Therefore, if we follow the usual division of poetry in lyrical, epic and dramatic poetry, we will put the ideal poetry
the purpose of the moods of the beautiful soul that stays away from all extremes to reveal in an impeccable manner,
their deeds to praise and praise and to sing her pure relation to divinity. The beautiful soul is not cold in itself, but
rather in comparison with the passionate individuality; because this is a fiercely moving flame, that a quiet |
i 161 clear light. Besides, it is indeed in the nature of the beautiful soul, as I have already pointed out that it is the passionate

excitement than capable, but in a way which gives the salutary certainty that the return to equilibrium will occur soon.
Your sensation may therefore be an upbeat.
The realistic poet contrast will let go more and glide on the waves of the most diverse sensations.
As the epic poetry presents the characters, moods and actions of many people in her larger works us, the field for the
epic must be further defined. Can be given the task of drawing the plurality of characters free from crudeness one hand,
and free from a marked individuality other hand, their only. The songs of Homer will always mustergiltig in this regard.
His heroes are not exuberant noble and not common; they pursue real purpose, consistently supported by a strong
youthful belief; they fear the gods without trembling; they honor their leaders without Sclavensinn and develop their
individuality within the limits of custom.
The realistic epic hand, leads all the characters without exception before: Wise and fools, both good and bad, just
and unjust, passionate and passive natures, and the realistic epic is any individuality justice.
Most perfect, man is reflected in the drama. In this talk and act the persons themselves and reveal their most hidden
traits. should not be as thought, felt and acted, but as actually traded in the world, is felt and thought - that is to show
the good drama: the triumph of the wicked and the fall of the righteous; the friction of the individuals, their distress,
their anguish and their alleged happiness; the gear of the general fate, which generates from the actions of all
individuals, and the gear of the single fate, which is formed from the random one hand and the shoots of the demon
other. Shakespeare will remain for all time most realistic playwright.
The ideal contrast playwright chooses from those persons who are not too far from the ideal of the beautiful soul.
He shows us the rest and in motion, to blame | full
i 162 and innocent, but always glorified, not lifeless and senseless frantic, not eccentric and extravagant. Among the older

dramatists especially Sophocles presented to us such people. Among the younger ideal dramatists our great Goethe to
name alone. One can not read the Tasso and Iphigenia, without feeling the deepest satisfaction. The Princess and
Iphigenie are the true and genuine archetypes of the beautiful soul. And how did the poet, within the limits of the ideal
poetry, lift the other characters so clearly from each other. Where the A or wanted Others, like Tasso and Orestes, step
out, as he held the magical web of beauty over the flame, and she stepped back. -
It is clear that the laws of the subjective-pretty for the realistic poets apply to both, as for the ideal; they are binding
on both and can not be violated.
In the wake of poetry we find the Deklamations- and acting, which breathe an increased life the works of poetry and
substantially enhance their appearance.
As we have seen, poetry shows us the idea of man on the one hand as a thing complete in itself and also as an
object, by, by apt description, forcing the subject to draw a picture of her, and I said, therefore, that they the Reflect
whole idea, the interior and exterior; also draws by describing the Smtliche other ideas in their area, and I said,
therefore, that they abspiegele all of nature and the highest art must be mentioned. The music now has to do only with
the people Smmtliche other ideas are alien to her, and that it treats only the interior of man and of which only the
states. Accordingly, it is a much more imperfect art than poetry. But because their material is the sound, not the audible
Word,so it speaks an understandable for all language and is the one art that puts us most easily in the aesthetic state,
which is why it must be called the most powerful art.
We realized earlier that the sounds are nothing more than the now audible internal movements of people or Fort |
i 163 of the inner vibration in a foreign substances. However, one must probably notice that the sound is not identical to the

emotion, but the object, as well as the color of an object, is not identical with the nature of the thing in itself that causes
The seelenbestrickende magic of the human singing now is that the sounds, put the will of the listener in the same
state from which they sprang, but so that we mourn and not grieve, rejoice and not cheer, hate and yet not hate, love
and not love, and this can not be explained otherwise than that the sounds only partially take the own movement and
give us theirs for it. We turn to speak only on the surface of our movement, like the sea in violent storm is quiet at
depth. The same effect also the sounds of instruments exert on us when to tell them the artist to his soul, his will-state
breathed, because otherwise its effect is more mechanical and not heated.
The material of the musical artist is so the sound. The tone sounds and fades away. Accordingly, it has a duration
and a distinction is made whole, half, quarter, eighth, etc. sounds. The Formal Beauty of the time is now to the rhythm,
which includes the clock, the accent, the break and the pace of related sounds. The clock is the periodicity of a time
segment in which a tone or more, which summarizes the duration of a tone have to move. To mark the irish regular
recurrence significantly, use is made of the accent, that it is always the first sound of a clock highlighted. The whole
movement affiliated tones can be a slow, fast, stretched, sluggish, fiery etc and is called Tempo.
From the powerful effect of the rhythm alone convinces most of the drumbeat.
The Formal Beauty of the substance is reflected in the pure sound of the tone, the timbre and harmony.
The height and depth of sound is rooted in the number of oscillations. The above middle c is twice as many
oscillations | conditions
9 5 4 3 5 15
i 164 as the c of the small Octave, the second / 8 , the third / 4 , the fourth / 3 , the fifth / 2 , the sixth / 3 , the seventh / 8 times
as many, or in expressed simple figures makes
c d e f G a H c
24 27 30 32 36 40 45 48
Vibrations in the same time. If now the sound on the move, respectively. time based, so its vibrations but do not fall
into the consciousness, they are called objectifies a unit that comes to rest only by their time under the time, hence part
of the rhythm. The sound as such and its purity covered by the Formal Beauty of the substance.
The harmony is the simultaneous sounding of several tones, that sounds as if giving her individuality, and there is,
as with the chemical compound, a new individuality, a higher unity. The harmony is completely pure in consonance. If
the individual sounds not entirely abolished in it, but denies even one or the other with it, the dissonance is created.
Consonance and dissonance are facing each other as satisfaction and desire which states should be so well represented
by the music, and must necessarily alternately emerge as a result of consonant chords would be unbearable.
The Formal Beauty of the substance still occurs then in major and minor forth.
The music can, apart from ideal and realistic music, only divided into instrumental and vocal music, since, from a
philosophical point of view, only the states of the people revealed and therefore indivisible in itself. If I hear a simple
song or polyphonic singing, duets, trios, or a sonata, cantata, Missa, motet great hymn, a requiem, Oratory, a symphony
over and over told me the music from the weal and woe of the sadness , love, longing, joy, despair, the peace of the
The ideal or classical music, preferably covers the states of the beautiful soul: the measured joy, the bound
jubilation, the moderate passion. Because all held these voluntary movements without precipitancy, the ideal Musicians
can |
i 165 bring Formal Beautiful completely advantage. His compositions are transparent, clear, simple, full of nobility and mostly

in major , which is strong and healthy, be.

The realistic Musicians contrast, portrays all the states of the people: the fear, the despair, the powerless fatigue, the
ungemessensten cheers, the sudden transitions from pleasure to pain, the unbridled passion that torn feeling. In order to
do this perfectly, it must also highlight the limits of the formal-Fine very far, but it is the brilliant realistic composer as
Beethoven, as often as he can move back closer. It is not often destroy the rhythm by long breaks, too many Syncopen,
by excessive enduring sounds, through continued robbery of the pace; it will obtain inexpensive effect by frequent
contrasts, let the whole storm of the orchestra suddenly fall into the sounds of a harp,produce by lingering on a few
tunes in the highest regions downright physical pain, it is also the clarity of harmony not obscure incessantly by
accumulating seventh, and ninth chords and the resolution of dissonance not always postpone again and again, but over
the wogendsten sea of sensation quiet and transfiguring let the beautiful, on creeping weave.
In the opera, the music comes decidedly into the service of poetry, as the sounds illuminate it were the heart of the
characters, reveal to us the sources from which the actions flow, and let the emotions flow stronger for us than mere
words it assets ,
We look back on the art, then shows us first of all that it easy for people to unspeakably happy and blessed, placed
in the aesthetic state. She makes him the cost of bread and wine of the purest sensory knowledge and awakened in him
the desire for a life of undisturbed rest. And the ribbon that ties him to the world of restlessness, worry and anguish
then she awakens in him love for the measure and hatred of the boundlessness of passion for what he sees and hears
what so delighted him in pictures, words and sound, that's all just |
i 166 vain measure and harmony. The formal-Nice is evolving in it until it unfolds purely on the flower of the perfect sense of

She tells him finally to the true nature of ideas by ushers him leveled, strewn with flowers paths, with sweet talk
into it and let the veil of its core fall before him. She holds him smiling tightly when he wants to flee in horror from
hell, and lead him to the very edge of the abyss, it whispering: they are the depths of your soul, you poor man; did not
you know?
And he knows it from then on. Well the tide of daily life is poured out again over the knowledge and again raise the
desire for life defiantly the main, but the knowledge has left an indelible mark in his heart; they burn like wounds and
give him no rest. He asks anxiously for a different life; But where should he find it? The art can not give him. You can
do it only from time to time, put in the blessed aesthetic state in which is not a permanent stay. As the ethics of his
The mental activity of man, which is in the aesthetic relation to the ideas that can be called aesthetic cognition, and
since this is not only the mother of art, but also of science, it is probably best objective or ingenious recognition.
The art prepares the human heart to salvation before, but science alone can deliver: for it alone has the word that
satisfies all the pain because the philosopher, in the objective knowledge which continuirlich the association of ideas
and of their effectiveness is generating fate of the world, the world's course, detected.

i 167

To expect that some one does something, for which no one can
Interest is like expecting a piece of wood to be
To move to me without a rope that would move.
Simplex sigillum veri: the naked truth must be as simple
And to be comprehended, that in their true form they are given to all
Must be able to teach them without myths and fables
i 169

Ethics is eudemonics or the doctrine of bliss: an explanation that has been shaken for thousands of years without
shattering it. The task of ethics is to examine happiness, that is to say the state of the satisfaction of the human heart, in
all its phases, to grasp it in its most perfect form, and to set it on a firm foundation, that is to say, Full heart peace, to
the highest happiness.
It is nothing else in the world, as an individual will, which has a main striving: to live and to maintain itself in
existence. This striving occurs in man as egoism, which is the covering of his character, that is, the way in which he
lives and wants to be preserved in existence.
The character is innate. Man comes into the life with very definite qualities of will, that is, the canals are indicated,
into which his will in the development will preferably pour. In addition, all the other will qualities of the general idea
human being are present as germs, with the ability to unfold.
Man is the connection of a particular demon with a particular mind; For if there is only one principle, the individual
will, the individuals differ from each other by their movement. In man, the movement is not a simple one, but a
resultant one, and we are therefore compelled to speak of a connection of the principal- Movement factors. But this
connection is essentially inseparable, and the movement is therefore only one; For what expresses this particular
character and this particular mind as something other than this particular movement of the will?
i 170

The egoism of man is manifested not only as a preservation drive, but also as a stroke of happiness, that is, man will
not only remain in life, according to his character, but also, at every moment of life, the full satisfaction of his desires,
his inclinations , Of his desires into which he places his greatest happiness. Desire - immediate pacification; New
desire - instant gratification: these are the limbs of a life chain, as natural egoism wants.
Such a life, which would be an incessant tumbling of desire to pleasure, is nowhere to be found and practically
impossible. No idea is completely independent and independent; It works incessantly and wants to bring out its
individuality, it is a chemical force or a human being, but the whole rest of the world is equally unceasing. If we take a
large part of these influences, and remain only among those who are exercised by man upon man, we are already
acquainted with the image of the highest struggle, the result of which is that only one is satisfied among a hundred
wishes, Whose satisfaction is least longed for; For every human being wants the full satisfaction of his particular
desires, and because he is disputed with him, he must fight for it, and therefore there is nowhere to be found a life
which would have arisen from the smooth contrasts of fulfilled desires, even where the individual is not Of unrestricted
violence is clothed over millions. For precisely in this position, indeed in the individual itself, there are unshakable
limitations, in which the will is always fired and thrown back unsatisfiedly.
Since the natural egoism of man can not have such a life, which he most willing to do, he endeavors to obtain
enjoyment (softened desire) as often as possible, or, since he can also come into situations where he is Is no longer
concerned with enjoyment, but with pain, which, according to the nature of the struggle, is the ordinary, the least pain.
If, then, man is conjoined to two pleasures, he will both of them; But if he has only the choice between the two, he
wants the larger one. |
i 171 And if he stand before two evils, he will not want any; If he has to choose, he chooses the smaller one.
Thus man acts before present evils or pleasures, provided that his mind can correctly weigh. But since, as a result of
his higher powers of knowledge, he is not confined to the present, but the consequences of what actions will have in the
future, he still has the choice in twelve other cases, namely,
1) a pleasure in the present and a greater enjoyment in the future
2) ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, Smaller enjoyment id Z.
3) ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, equal ,, ,,
4) ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, Greater suffering ,,
5) ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, smaller ,, ,,
6) ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, equal ,, ,,
7) ,, suffering ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, larger ,, ,,
8th) ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, smaller ,, ,,
9) ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, equal ,, ,,
10) ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, Greater enjoyment ,,
11) ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, smaller ,, ,,
12) ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, equal ,, ,,
There will be a fight in the cases
2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12,
In 8 cases, do not come, for the will must
1) In cases 2 and 3, a pleasure in the present is preferred to a smaller or equal enjoyment in the future;
2) In cases 5 and 6, enjoy a pleasure in the present, even if in the future a small or equal sorrow befalls him;
3) In cases 8 and 9, a suffering in the present is preferable to a less or the same suffering in the future;
4) In cases 11 and 12, to renounce a pleasure in the future, if in the present there should be greater or equal
The will would have to act in such a way, if it were certain that he would be able to cope with the suffering, The
enjoyment, in the future. But since no man can know how the future will be shaped
i 172 Whether the pleasure, resp. The suffering, and whether he will at any time still live at the time when the pleasure is to
be at his disposal, or the suffering is to befall him, the necessity is even more compelling in man's life, in the manner
indicated, in practical life act.
On the other hand, the will will fluctuate violently in cases 1, 4, 7, 10. If he now places himself at the standpoint of
the complete uncertainty of the future, the will is very often used for the enjoyable, Painless present; For who can give
1) In cases 1 and 10, to guarantee the greater pleasure which he acquires in case 1 by renouncing pleasure in the
present, and in the case of the mortal suffering of a present in the present? And who can assert
2) That in Case No. 4 he does not escape from the suffering which he is to suffer by a pleasure in the present, and
that, in case 7, he has really escaped from a greater suffering in the future by being a sorrow in The present?
If, however, the will of the future is certain in any way, and there are actions whose consequences in the future will
certainly meet man, he will indeed fight a violent struggle, but finally, in all four cases, Is prudent, decide for the
future. Then he must
1) In cases 1 and 4, to renounce a pleasure in the present, in order to buy a greater pleasure in the future, in case 1,
and, in case 4, to escape a greater suffering in the future;
2) In cases 7 and 10, suffer a suffering in the present, in order to escape a greater suffering in the future, in case 7,
and, in case of 10, a greater enjoyment in the future.
I will here point out that, because the power of the present is so important to the future, certain delights in the future
will attract the individual only in the future, and safe evils in the future can only be effective if they are significant The
pleasure in the present, resp. The suffering to be endured in the present, in size. |
i 173 The individual must clearly see his advantage, otherwise he will be infallibly inferior to the magic of the present.
From this it follows that man has a perfect capacity for deliberation, resp. Has a complete choice of choice, and,
under certain circumstances, must act against his character, namely, if an action were opposed to his welfare, as a
whole, or to his general welfare.
It is the mind which determines this general well-being in every single case, or once and for all; For, although it is
the will itself who thinks how it digests, grasps, passes, etc., We may, for the reason given above, keep the capacity of
knowledge apart from the will. We are always conscious of the fact that we are dealing with an inseparable connection
and, basically, with a single principle, and also that, as we have seen in physics, an antagonism between will and spirit
can never take place. It is only pictorially that one can say that the mind gives advice to the will, or struggles with it,
etc., for it is always the will itself, who, by virtue of one of its organs, is able to consult with itself. But completely
inadmissible, even in the image, is to speak of the compulsion of reason and of a possible dominion over the will; For
even if we had really to do with a fusion of two independent principles, the spirit would never enter into the relation of
a master to the servant, but could at most be his powerless adviser.
As we know, the spirit, though it enters into life with certain attachments, is now very capable of training. The
faculties of reason upon which the degree of intelligence alone depends, may, as a result of the treatment, become
stunted, so that nonsense occurs, or be brought to a development called geniality. To develop the mind is the only task
of education when one ignores the physical training; For the character can only be influenced by the mind, and so that
the disadvantages and advantages which are the consequences of actions are clearly shown to the pupil;
i 174 In other words, to show clearly where his true good is.
Good education strengthens judgment and memory, and awakens either the imagination, or restrains it. At the same
time, it allows the mind to absorb a greater or lesser amount of knowledge, which is based on experience, and is always
confirmed by it. All the other insights with which she makes him acquainted, she puts it with the stamp of uncertainty.
In addition to this good education, the bad ones, both in school and in the family, are the ones who fill the head of
man with brain spins, prejudices and prejudices, thereby rendering him incapable of giving a clear view into the world.
Later experience, however, will examine him and remove much of the imagined and false, but often also reinforce this
imagined and falsely, and let him be more prominent when the individual has the misfortune to come into circles where
all the absurd in him is receiving gracious care.
According as the mind of a man is a more or less educated or educated, developed, or stunted, the will will be more
or less capable of recognizing his true good in general, and of judging in each particular case what action Is best suited
to his interest, and this is the decision.
The character of man is innate, but not invariable; Its variability, however, moves within very narrow limits, since
the temperament and the individual qualities of the will can only undergo a change in so far as the early impressions of
doctrines and examples, or the strokes of fate, by great misfortune and severe suffering Everything depends on
knowledge, since it can flow only through the mind to the will-a striking will-quality can once again be reduced to a
mere germ, another can be awakened and unfolded.
If the human will were not recognizing, it would be absolutely invariable, as would be the nature of the chemical
force, or rather the incessant effects of the climate
i 175 Struggle for the existence of thousands of years, in order to produce a slight change, as has been demonstrated in plants
and animals. But by means of his mind, he is exposed to influences that penetrate much deeper into him than the
imagined influences that choke him and shake him. As we shall see later, knowledge may inflame him in such a way
that he melts and must be regarded as totally different from his deeds. Then it is as if a thornbush suddenly took figs,
and yet no miracle has occurred.
At every moment of his life, however, man is the connection of a particular demon and a particular spirit, in short,
he shows a very definite individuality, like every thing in nature. Each of his actions is the product of this momentary
character and a sufficient motive, and must be done with the same necessity with which a stone falls to the ground. If
several motifs act upon him at the same time, whether they stand vividly before him, or lie in the past and future, a
struggle takes place from which the victorious emerges, which is the strongest. Then also the act follows as if from the
outset only a sufficient motive had existed.
It is evident from what has so far been that the deeds of man do not always arise in the same way: either the will
follows only its inclination in the present without taking the future into account, without paying any attention to its
knowledge in the widest sense According to his general welfare. In the latter case he acts either in accordance with the
nature of his will, or against it.
If he now acts, under the magic of the present, according to his inclination, but against his better knowledge, he will,
according to his deed, feel violent or slight consciences, ie the same voice in him, In view of his general welfare,
i 176 To-day enjoyment, is, according to deed, made loud again, and accuses him of his insolence. She tells him that you
knew that the omission was in your true interest, and did the deed nevertheless.
The consciences of conscience increase to the point of conscience, either for fear of the discovery of a punitive act,
or for fear of a certain punishment after death.
Different from the conscience, but very close to him, repentance; Because repentance comes from a subsequent
knowledge. If I have acted in the agitation, that is, if my conscience had no time to warn me, or if I acted under the
influence of a motive which I considered to be genuine, which turned out to be false afterwards, I have deplored the
fact that I have dealt with my conscience in no way; For the voice which speaks to me in repentance has not spoken of
the deed.
Censure, conscience, and repentance are the ethical states of the will, and the unpleasure.
This is also the hallucination. Tortured by pangs of conscience, the demon (objectively expressed, the blood) comes
into such great excitement that he compels the mind to deal only with one object, whereby the impressions of the
external world are suppressed by the increased activity of the brain And now the murdered person, for example, points
clearly and purely objectively out of the darkness and faces the terrifying demon.
It would now seem that man is the liberum arbitrium indifferentiae have, ie that his will is free, because, as we have
seen, can perform deeds which by no means his character as, but its nature is completely contrary. But this is not the
case: the will is never free, and everything in the world is done with necessity.
Every person has, at the time when a motive approaches him, a certain character, which is sufficient for the motive.
The motif occurs with necessity (for every motif
i 177 Is always the link of a causal series, which governs necessity), and the character must follow it with necessity, for it is a
definite and the motive is sufficient.
Now I set the case: the motive is sufficient for my character, but insufficient for my whole ego, because my mind is
my general good, as a countermotiv, and this is stronger than that. Have I acted freely since I did not yield to a motive
sufficient for my character? In no way! For my spirit is by nature a definite, and its formation, in any direction, was
necessary, because I was a member of this family, was born in this city, had these teachers, used these relations, made
these definite experiences, and so on Spirit, which has become necessary, can give me, at the moment of temptation, a
counter-motive which is stronger than all others, does not necessarily break through the necessity. The cat, too, acts
against its character, under the influence of a countermotif, when it is not naked in the presence of the cook, and yet no
one has yet given free will to an animal.
I also point to the fact that the will, by knowing its true well-being, can be brought so far as to deny its innermost
core and no longer want to live, that is, to place itself in complete contradiction with itself. But, if he does so, is he
free? No! For, then, knowledge has necessarily arose in him, and with necessity he must follow it. He can not help
himself, as little as the water can flow uphill.
If, therefore, we see a man not acting according to his well-known character, yet we are faced with an action which
must be as necessary as that of another man who followed only his inclination; For in the former case it arose from a
definite will and a definite mind capable of deliberation, which both combined with necessity. To conclude from the
deliberative capacity of the mind to the freedom of the will is the greatest fallacy that can be made.
In the world we always have to do with the necessary movements of the individual will;
i 178 Or resulting movements. It is not because the will in man is connected with a spirit capable of deliberation that it is
free, but for this reason it has a different movement from the animal. And here is also the focus of the whole
investigation. The plant has a different movement from a gas or fluid or a solid body, the animal a different from the
plant, the man a different from the animal. The latter is the case because in man the one-sided reason has developed
into a perfect one. Through this new instrument born of the will, man looks over the past and looks to the future. Now,
in any given case, his well-being can generally move, to renounce a pleasure, or to suffer a sorrow, that is, to force a
deed , Which are not in accordance with his will. The will has not become free, but it has made a tremendously great
gain: it has acquired a new movement, a movement whose great significance we shall fully recognize below.
Man is thus never free, whether he has in himself a principle which can enable him to act against his character; For
this principle has become necessary, belongs necessarily to its essence, since it is a part of the movement inherent in it,
and works with necessity.
In the past we have spoken of the actions of men in general and found:
1) That the will of man is not free;
2) That all his acts be done with necessity;
3) That he can form a general good, on the basis of the impulse to happiness, and by virtue of the spirit;
4) That this well-being can occasion him, under certain circumstances, to act against his character.
These results stand, as it were, in the vestibule of ethics. Now we enter their temple, that is, we have to examine the
actions of man moving in certain circumstances and forms, and to examine his happiness.
The first relation we encounter is the state of nature. We have only to define it in ethics as simple
i 179 Negation of the state, or as the form of life of the people who have preceded the state.
If we now regard man as independent of the state, free from his power, that is, merely as a part of nature, like every
other individual will, he is under no other force than that of nature. It is a self-contained individuality which, like every
other individual, is a chemical force, a plant or an animal, wants life in a very definite way, and constantly strives to
maintain itself in existence. In this endeavor, however, it is confined by all other individuals who have the same
This creates the struggle for existence, from which the most powerful or covetous emerges victorious. Every man
struggles to keep himself in existence: this is his whole striving, and no voice, either from the heights, nor from the
depths, nor in him, restricts him in the means which can serve him. Everything is permitted to his egoism, to all the acts
which we call murder, robbery, theft, lug, deceit, desecration, & c. For what other power does it stand in the state of
nature, as an individual will, like him, who, like him, want to be preserved in existence?
Neither does he commit injustice in this struggle, nor does he have a right: only power decides or cunning. He has
neither a right to himself nor any possession, nor has he a right to other beings or their possessions. He is simple and is
seeking to preserve himself in existence. If he can do so only by murder and robbery, he will murder and rob without
injustice, and if he can not defend himself or his possessions, he will be robbed and destroyed, without injustice; For
who should hinder him? Who should hinder the others? A mighty, earthly judge? There is no judge in the state of
nature. A God-Consciousness? In the state of nature, man is no more a God-consciousness than the animal.
Right and wrong are concepts which are of no importance in the state of nature: they have only a meaning in the
state to which we now wish to pass.
i 180

Every act of man, the highest and the lowest, is selfish; For it flows out of a certain individuality, a particular ego,
with a sufficient motive, and can in no way be omitted. To enter into the cause of the diversity of the characters is not
the place; We simply have to take it as a fact. It is just as impossible for the merciful to leave his neighbor as the hard-
hearted, to help the needy. Each one of the two is selfish in character, nature, self, and happiness; For if the Merciful
did not dry the tears of others, would he be happy? And if the hard-hearted helped the sufferings of others, would he be
As a result, the irrefutable truth that every action is selfish is clearly expressed. I have mentioned them at this point,
since we can not do without them from now on.
In the state of nature, the strongest or most cunning is usually the victor, the weak or the stupid usually the
vanquished. But there may also be instances where the most powerful is overcome and the most cunning is outwitted;
For who protects the strong in sleep? Or when he is old or sick? Or how will he be victorious if he is attacked by
afflicted weaknesses? These easily displaceable relations of power in the state of nature led all the weak, as well as the
strong, to recognize that there was a mutual limitation of power in the interest of each.
It is not my task here to investigate how the transition from the state of nature to the state took place, whether on
purely demonic impulse, or by the rational choice of the smaller of two evils. We assume in ethics that the state is a
work of reason, and is based on a treaty which men have concluded with reluctance: out of necessity, in order to
prevent a greater evil than that of the limitation of their individual power.
The basic character of the true state, even in its most imperfect form, is that it gives its citizens more than he does
i 181 That he should give them all, in general, an advantage which prevails over the sacrifice; For if the advantage had been
as great as the sacrifice, the state would never have arisen.
Thus men, guided by the knowledge that a certain life in a state of nature would not be possible, that an uncertain
life was an evil founded on the constitution of nature and not to be destroyed in the ordinary way, came together,
saying, "We are all men of violence; Everyone is enclosed in his egoism and sees himself as the only reality in the
world; Where we can harm the other to our advantage, we do it; But our welfare is not encouraged. We must sleep, we
must get away from our hut, because otherwise we will starve, we may get sick, and our strength will fade in old age.
Our power is therefore soon great, sometimes small, and all the advantages which we obtain when it is great
disintegrate in a minute when it is small. We will never be glad of our possessions because they are not secured. What
then does the satisfaction of our desires help us if we lose all in all only by doing so? Henceforth we shall leave the
possession of every one of us unchallenged. "And now the concept of theft arose, which in the natural state was not
possible at all, for it stands and falls with a guaranteed possession.
They also said, "We are all violent men; When one is placed between us and our advantage, we only think how we
can destroy him, and strive after his life. But our strength or cunning is not always the same. Today we can be
victorious and defeated tomorrow. We can never be glad of our lives, because we are constantly in the danger of life.
Let us, therefore, sacrifice a part of our power so that our welfare grows as a whole, and we declare that henceforth the
life of every one of us shall be assured. "And now the concept of murder was born;
In this way people were restricted by the primal laws:
1) No one is allowed to steal;
2) No one is allowed to murder.
i 182 Thus, a treaty was concluded, the contract of the state, and now every one who had conquered him had duties and rights
which he could not have in a pure state of nature, for they stood and fell with a treaty. Everyone now had the duty of
leaving the lives and possessions of all others untouched, and he had a right to his possessions and his life. This right
was violated if he was stolen and threatened in his life, and he was wrong in doing so, which was quite impossible in
the natural state.
The immediate consequence of these laws was that each individual placed the ceded power in the hands of a judge,
thus creating a force greater than that of the individual. Now every one could be compelled to do justice, for the
transgression of the law followed the punishment, which is nothing but a countermotiv for a forbidden action. By
enforcing it, the law is only preserved in effect.
If in the State an individual is threatened in his possession or life, an injustice shall be done to him, which the state
can not keep from the danger, at the moment of danger, then, in opposition to the law-transgressor, it enters the state of
emergency. The law-transgressor has arbitrarily moved into the natural state, and the attacked individual may follow
him. Now all means, as in the state of nature, are permitted, and it can expel the aggressor with violence or cunning,
with deception and deception, and even kill him without injustice if his own life is threatened.
The state is, therefore, that institution which protects the individuality of the individual, whether it be so extended
(woman, child, property), and requires it to leave the individuality of all others untouched. He therefore demands, first,
every citizen as the first duty: submission to the law, obedience. Then he demands the granting of the means of
exercising his protective office, whether against the transgressors, or against external enemies, ie victims of good and
blood or, in general terms, as a second duty: the protection of the state.
i 183

The knowledge of man has been increased by the primal laws of the state. He now knows that if he does not want to
put his general good at risk, he must abandon his actions, and his mind, in moments of temptation, presents him with a
punishment as counter-motive.
Let us examine first the general well-being of man in the State, -we regard the state here in its original form, as a
pure compulsory institution, with the imagined laws, -so it can not be doubtful that it is much greater than in the natural
state; for man is now taken out of the constant concern for property and life. Both are guaranteed to him by a force that
can actually fulfill their obligations:
And every house, every throne
Floats the contract as a Cherubswaffe.
But what about the happiness of the people?
Now here is the place a little closer to deal with happiness at all. The will is, as we know, engaged in perpetual
motion, because he wants the life continuirlich. He heard only for a moment, wanting it, he would be dead. This basic
need is objectified in the blood of life, which is independent of our will, which is a will, which is composed of
sensibility, irritability and blood action. The demon, the genuine will to live, it must first be satisfied if he has life in
general, and then he comes, if we do not draw attention to him, only weakly in's consciousness. But, as we have seen,
the man wants secondarily an increased life: he wants with the help of the mind, a heightened awareness of life, and
thus the will to live to lust for life,the desire for a certain life. Every desire now is basically a deficiency, because as
long as it lasts, it does not have what they desire. It is therefore a lively feeling of displeasure. But if she be satisfied,
the satisfaction expressed also as an increased awareness of life, as a benefit, that is, as a lively feeling of pleasure. In
this way there will be a stabilization.
i 184 Each lively feeling of pleasure must therefore be paid for with a lively sense of pain, and, basically, the will has won

nothing with everyone such purchases. Yes, because the craving lasts much longer than the feeling of satisfying them,
the will is even all male when he interrupts his peace, in order to get through a craving pleasure cheated.
Happy therefore is the man under normal conditions, we have further defined in physics, and the more excited states
of pleasure. So the characteristic of happiness is always the satisfaction of the heart. We are happy when the smooth
mirror of the heart is not moved, and we are also happy for the stilling of desire.
From this definition of happiness, the misfortune of the flows by itself. Unfortunate we are in the states of
displeasure. However, it would seem that we can not be unhappy in the desire that in the lively movement already lies a
great pleasure after goals. But this is not the case; because we feel the desire already inclined, we escomptiren how the
merchant would say satisfying, and this oscillation between desire and ahead of perceived appeasement puts us in a
mixed state, which does not feel the pure deficiency. Then enters a satisfying, it is also much weaker.
Unhappy we are also then, and very unhappy if we inhibit and suppress with regard to our general well-being, a
desire or tolerate an evil, a moment when we must act against our character.
Now we can ask ourselves again the question: Is man happy in the state than in the state of nature? However, we can
not have the same answer in ethics, because this would require that the course of development of mankind would be
clear to us above all. We will take care of the issue in policy and content ourselves with the simple examination of
whether the person is above the state laws against overjoyed.
Here jump immediately in the eye that can not be the case. His character after the person wants for itself the
blessings of the legal status, the loads but he detests and carries them with great reluctance. It is located |
i 185 under the pressure of a stronger motive, just as in a natural state when he went to the stronger opponent out of the way;
he feels bound and not at all satisfied. Will he offended, he wants to avenge wildly; he insults the other hand, he wants
to can stand under the protection of the authorities. Furthermore, he wants to have a judge who awards him in disputes
within his rights, he wants ingleichen know protected his property and his life before the desire of foreign power, on
the other hand he holds the hand frantically on his money, if he is to pay the judges, and on the other hand resists with
all his might to defend his country with the weapon. He meditates constantly, like him, circumvent the law without
receiving punishment as to shift the burden to other shoulders while to enjoy the advantages of the Community.His
overall well has grown through the law, but for the laws he feels miserable.
The state, in the imaginary form, not more than he has himself bound by the treaty binds the individual. He only
asks that he help protect the community and does not violate its citizens. He punishes him when he steals a citizen or
murdered, he however, does not punish him if he sucks a citizens without violating the law, makes brodlos and can
However, it has located in the necessaries of development of the humanity that man, stepping out from the state of
nature even further limited in that his natural egoism will even more bound than the state was able to do. The violence,
which fell this task was the religion.
When the animal-man had become the people at the lowest level by the fact that the higher mental faculties linked
the past with the present, and this with the Future, the individual is looked helpless in the hands of a hostile power that
his property and his life could destroy at any time. The man realized that neither he nor the organization to align
anything against this omnipotence was able and fell in front of her, bleak and feelings of complete helplessness in the
dust. Thus arose in the raw primitive man, the first relationship with a transcendent incomprehensible violence in the |
i 186 was natural terrible destructive and devastating, reveal, and they made themselves gods. They could not do otherwise,

because on one hand the superiority was not to be denied, on the other hand, their intelligence is so weak that they
could understand the nature and its true context in any way.
It is not the place to follow the course of development of religion. We will get closer to him in politics, and make us
right now to an end, namely on the ground of the Christian religion, which must be recognized as the most complete
and best of all understanding. It teaches one all-wise, all-good, omnipotent and omniscient otherworldly God and
proclaimed his will. First confirmed the laws of the state, by command the people in the name of God: you shall be
subject unto the authorities. Then she says, but you shall not hurt, so do not steal not only the laws, adultery,
nothzchtigen, murder, but love your neighbor as yourself.
Outrageous demand! The cold, raw egoist, whose motto is: Pereat mundus, dum ego salvus sim , should love his
neighbor as himself, as himself.! Oh, he knows exactly what that means; he knows the full weight of the victim, that he
should bring. He should forget about being hated sake, which he may well concede to exist no authorization. He can
not be reconciled with the unreasonable demand and squirms like a worm. He rebels against this commandment with
all his, immediately captured individuality and summon the priests not to demand the impossible from him. But they
always have to repeat: You shall love your neighbor as yourself.
We assume here, of course, only temporary, in that all the people standing on the basics of Christianity. They believe
in God, in the immortality of their souls and to a court after death. Any violation of state laws, like any transgression of
the commandments of God, is a sin and no escapes the all-knowing God. And every sin is punished and any legal
action will be rewarded. They believe in a heavenly kingdom, the abode of the blessed, and a hell, the abode of the
i 187
But the Christian religion does not stop at the commandment of charity. First gives this commandment tightening in
that it demands of man that he should love his neighbor without exception, even his enemies.
For if ye love them which love you, what reward have ye?
And if ye salute does only euern brothers, what does it more than others?
Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you.
(Matt. 5)
Then she asks poverty and temperance in every allowable enjoyment. It does not require the suppression of the
sexual impulse, but the virginity she promises the highest reward: the immediate entrance into the kingdom of God.
It is clear that the natural egoism of the faithful is bound by all these commandments. Religion has taken possession
of the whole and partly by the state left something, and captivated him. Now the voice of conscience is much more
troublesome. The man can do as no longer act as good without the conscience speaks before. He must now refrain
Smmtliche actions that would flow from his character, if he does not want to endanger his general well-being; because
the eye of God escapes nothing. People he can deceive the authorities, he can deceive, but to God his art today.
In the corrupted currents of this world,
Offense's gilded hand may shove by justice,
And often 't is seen, the wicked prize itself
Buys out the law, but 't is not above this:
There is no shuffling, there the action lies
In his true nature. ( Shakespeare .)
(In the corrupted currents of this world
Can the vergold'te hand of iniquity
push away the right and a vile bag
Bought often the law. above not there!
Since no artifice is because the action appears
In their true nature.)
i 188 It is possible also no escape. Death must come, and then either an eternal life of bliss, or such agony begins. An eternal
life! What is held against eternity, the short time of life? Be eternally happy; suffer forever! And the kingdom of heaven
is believed and hell is believed: that is the focus.
The true good of man can not be on this earth, therefore. It is an eternal life of bliss after death, and whether the
essence of smart people rebelling against the commandments of religion - they are still followed: the hard-hearted
helping his neighbor, the miser gives to the poor, it is indeed Everything one day be a hundredfold and thousandfold
So lives the natural egoist according to the precepts of religion, no doubt subject that his well-being, all in all
considered has grown; because he believes in the immortality of his soul, and has to think of eternal life. But he's
happy? In no way! He struggles with God: "why I can not be saved without having tamed my instincts? why can not I
be happy here and there? Why do I have my blessed life, buy beyond the grave, so dear? "Although he detects the
lesser evil, he buys the greater good, but with thunderous, with ripped the heart. He is unhappy on earth to be happy
after death.
If we look from here to the state and religion back and consider the actions that can be enforced against the
character of the people, by the set stronger motives, they bear the stamp of legality, but they have no moral worth.
Now the question is: what is a moral act? That it must comply with the primordial laws of the state and the precepts
of religion, or in other words, that it must be legal, the state and divine laws as, it has never been disputed. All moralists
agree that it one or the other part of the set:
Neminem laede; imo omnes, quantum potes, Juva,
must comply. This is an irrefutable criterion. it |
i 189 but of course is not enough, and there must be another join him in order to recognize a moral act.
The absence of any selfish motivation can never be the second criterion of a moral act. All actions are selfish, and it
is an exception unthinkable, because either I handle my inclination according to, or against my character: in the first
case I act absolutely selfish and in the latter no different, as I must have an interest if I my character wants to force,
because I could so little else move as a resting stone. So not because an act is selfish, not because the hope forward to
pay (including the satisfaction with myself heard) or the fear of punishment (including the dissatisfaction of my heart
belongs) drove them it has no moral worth: this can never cancel their ethical significance.
A measure is of moral worth, if they:
1) as already noted, conforms to the laws of the State or the precepts of religion, that is legal;
2) liked happens, that when it results in the state of deep satisfaction, of pure luck in acting.
It is clear that hereafter all those act morally, whose character is honest and compassionate, because of such
character flow the moral actions of yourself and give the individual the satisfaction which Everyone feels that can act
according to his character. But what about To those who have no innate good will? Are they not capable of moral
action and can only act legally they at best? No! Their actions can have moral worth; but you will must find a
temporary or permanent transformation: he must catch fire on the knowledge, the knowledge must fertilize, inflame
I would remind you that we still find ourselves on the floor of the state and of Christianity.
All actions of man flow of necessity from his idea, and it does not matter whether they are in accordance with or
against his character, but his general welfare according to his character. They are always the product of his idea and one
suffice | to
i 190 subject. Act against the character, without having any advantage from it has absolutely no one: it is a Baare impossibility.
But probably can Each suppress his nature when he has an advantage from it, and then act as necessary as any other.
She only has a more complicated origin, as the reason shall analyze the motives, considering the will and the strongest
Now suppose initially an illiterate citizen who fulfilled his duty to the state with reluctance, for fear of punishment.
This should not be surprising, for he has no clear knowledge of the nature of the state. He never thought about it, and
yet never Someone has taken the trouble to tell him about it. However, he has heard from his youth complain of the
burdens of the state, and then learn to yourself, how painful it is to bring an institution heavy sacrifices whose benefits
you can not see. Nevertheless, he obeys because he need to do is feel too weak to deal with the authorities.
Now we put that knowledge of this man in any way has been purified. He felt the fear of man in the state of nature,
he us imagine the horrors of an entering anarchy, or a war with a foreign power on the native soil: he sees the fruits of
his many years of diligence in an instant destroyed, sees the desecration of his wife, which mortal danger of his
children, his parents, his siblings, short of loved ones, what he has. He also recognize the value of the people to which
it belongs, and respect it enjoys among other nations: he feels pride and sincerely desires that never lose this respect
that he never would in a foreign land, treated with contempt when he calls his country. After all, he still revel in the
viewing,like all Culturfortschritt of humanity depends on the rivalry between the folk-and how his people a very
special mission has fallen in this competition. At the same time he recognized quite clear that all just achieved this, or
is avoided if every citizen his duty fully met.
This knowledge then on working on his will. Probably the natural egoism is speaking out and say: it is better if you
dost toil the others and yet |
i 191 theilst fruits with them. But the knowledge does not rest and has repeatedly point out that everything can be achieved only

if each does his duty. In this struggle with himself the will can ignite and give birth to patriotism. The knowledge which
swam to speak, only as a piece of wood on the surface, can be heavy and sink to the bottom of the will. Now the
required sacrifices are willingly made and the actor met a great satisfaction. He also feels in keeping with the law, in
short, he acts morally.
Now we want to make a man who grudgingly, out of fear of punishment, to each his own gives. In a convenient
hour once he recognized quite clearly how the restriction imposed by the State to individuals, one is quite necessary;
what it would be pleasant indeed to be able to enrich themselves at the expense of others, but that if everyone wanted
this, the relapse would take place in the natural state; at the same time he vividly represent to the war of all against all
and the advantages which the law granted him so plentiful. He also linger with pleasure at the idea of a totality, of
which each term, in the smallest and in the greatest, honest concerns. Despite all the objections of the natural egoism,
the will can ignite on this knowledge, and summarize the virtue of justice in it root.It descends as if the maxim: I will
always act honestly and in good faith, to the heart and every action since then accompanied the feeling of pure
satisfaction. He also feels in keeping with the law, that he acts morally.
Finally, we think of a believing Christian who relieves the distress of his neighbor, where it can, but not from innate
compassion, but out of fear of hell and to the wages in the kingdom of heaven's sake.
Any disaster: a serious illness, a great loss, a resist extended his bitter injustice have, quite repulsed him and he was
looking for because he can never find comfort, solace with God. He thought of his past life and to see with pain that is
mixed with astonishment, as he has never been in such a recollection and therefore never giving him the most mundane
circumstances in such a bright light | seemed
i 192 are that his life has been nothing but a chain of misery and hardship, fear and pain, suffering and great short fleeting

pleasures. He also let the lives of acquaintances go by his spirit; He put together what he had heard in the sounds of the
day and soon lost sight of in the maze of things, and be astonished, on the grouping: what amount of unhappiness on
the one that meager pleasures on the other side!
It is a miserable miserable thing to all people life; from the womb until they are buried in the earth, which is our mother
There is always worry, fear, hope, and finally death; both the one who sits in high esteem, than in the least on earth. In both
the carrying Seiden and crown than in the one who has a rough smock; there is always anger, zeal, adversity, strife and danger
of death, envy and strife.
(Jesus Sirach. 40. Cap.)
And now he represent to the hour of death, which must come sooner or later. Does not he think of hell, but it float
him in full contrast with the just-considered painful earthly life, eternal life in the bosom of God before. He thinks it is
free from worry, free from sorrow, misery, strife, envy, strife, free of discomfort and physical pain, free of movement,
free from birth and death, and then, full of bliss. He remembers the unspeakably happy condition of his heart when he
was completely absorbed in of aesthetic contemplation and now thinks such a state, without interruption, at the sight of
God and the glories of his kingdom, whereas even the best part has to be unclean and ugly in this world , Eternal,
blissful contemplation!
Since a huge longing, a craving, as he perceived not have one, take and his will can it ignite. The heart has taken the
idea and does not let go of him: the idea has become a way of thinking. Only one desire is henceforth directed: eternal
life and peace. And in proportion as this desire is ardent, he dies more and more from the world. All motives that could
attract his character be, from one motive: to be blessed after death, defeated, and the mandrel | bush
i 193 transmits actually apricots, without a miracle or a character would have happened. It is as if the deeds flowed from a good

will and they bear the stamp of morality. Man acts in keeping with the commandments of God, in whom he firmly
believes he has the kingdom of heaven already on earth; because what is the kingdom of heaven else than peace of
"See the kingdom of God is within you."

The conversion of the will by knowledge is a fact to which the philosophy can not pass; yes, it is the most important
and significant phenomenon in this world. but it is rare. It takes place on individuals in silence and sometimes noisily
Several at the same time, always with necessity.
The knowledge is a condition, namely the clear knowledge of safe, large Vortheils which outweighs all other
advantages. This we must hold as a fundamental truth of ethics. The holiest action is only seemingly selfless; it is, as
the meanest and most despicable, selfish, because no one can act against his ego, his self: it is simply impossible.
but it is a distinction to be drawn, as illegal, legal and moral actions can be strictly maintained by the philosophy
apart if they are all the same selfish, and I say, therefore, that all illegal (forbidden by law) and all legal (with reluctance
,) exported from fear of punishment acts the natural selfishness and all moral actions (they like from an innate good or
an inflamed will arise) entflieen the refined egoism. In this way are Smmtliche human actions which to interest the
ethicist, classed. Your necessarily selfish character is preserved and still set an important difference. One can also say
that selfishness is the common root of two tribes: the natural (raw) and of the refined egoism,and any of these strains
every action belongs.
i 194
The greater the advantage is, the safer it is, the faster the will ignited at a clear knowledge thereof; yes it is certain
that the will must ignite when the advantage outweighs all other heavy and is not questioned by that individual. Here, it
is quite immaterial whether the advantage is really a great and safe, or whether it exists as such only in the imagination.
May all others condemn him and laugh at, if only the individual in question does not doubt it, and is permeated by its
The story is the fact of moral inflammation of the will incontrovertibly. One the one hand, not at the time of the
Persian wars, on the other hand, does not doubt the true and genuine patriotism of the Greeks in mind that just had to
appear their lives particularly valuable; because what was missing this gifted people? It was the only branch of
humanity, who had a beautiful happy youth; all others fared as the individuals who, by any circumstances, do not come
to consciousness of their youth and they get over withheld luck until dying. And precisely because the Greeks knew
how to appreciate life in their country, they had to exercise their civic duty in full glow of patriotism; for they were a
small people, when they were attacked by the colossal superiority of the Persians,Everyone had to be convinced that
only if each acquisition with his life, the victory would be possible, and each knew what fate brought him a defeat:
Fortschleppung into slavery. Since the will had to ignite, as each mouth had to say: prefer death!
How different, incidentally, the situation is today. Certainly not a defeated Culturvolk loses much; but the
disadvantage is much smaller than before, and most individuals do not come to see him. Here affects the corrosive
poison of cosmopolitanism that, in the present circumstances, a nation may be entered only with the greatest caution, if
it is to have a beneficial effect. "All men are brothers; we do not fight against our brothers; the world is our country ";
so call the immature minds that not even the history of their country, much less the hassle-filled destruction of mankind
by a |
i 195 know only great, immutable laws, which reveals itself in various forms. And that is why we so rarely now applies to the

real perennial patriotism, which should not be confused with rowdiness or with the rapidly verfliegenden patriotic
frenzy. -
Furthermore, the real rock-solid faith caused the most sudden conversions. You remember the uplifting effects of the
first three centuries of Christianity. People who were disposed on the same day prior to their conversion thoroughly
secular reveled, and praten, thought at once of nothing else more than to the salvation of their immortal soul and liked
breathy their lives under the most horrible tortures. Was a miracle happen? In no way! They had clearly seen where
their salvation lay; they realized that years of torment are nothing held against an agonizing eternity; that the happiest
life of this world is nothing against the eternal bliss. And the immortality of the soul, as well as a court, as the Church
taught, was believed. Since the man had in the rebirth,because the will had to ignite as the stone to the earth must. As
they feast before and had to be anxious, every pain of himself, he now had the arms give his belongings and go to
confess: "I am a Christian"; because it was simply resigned overnight an irresistibly strong motive in his knowledge:
Whoever acknowledges me before men, him will I confess also before my Father in heaven.
(Matt. 10.)
Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness' sake, for the kingdom of heaven.
(Matt. 5)
The atmosphere was so filled with the new doctrine, that it even caused a spiritual epidemic. It huddled masses all
around the Tribunal of the Roman governor and implored the most agonizing death. As Tertullian says, called a Praetor
such an amount to "wretch! If you want to die, so you have even ropes and precipices. " He did not know that it came
to the Kingdom of Heaven and this easiest of promise as was obtained by martyrdom.
We see, however, on the martyrs and consider the simpler phenomena, the pure genuine charity shines us from all
sides in people meet, from whose character she |
i 196 could not flow. They were all transformed, but - we want to hold - of necessity, in a natural way.

The moral inflammation of the will is a fact that I tried to explain purely immanent above. It is a fact, such as the
conversion of the normal state of a chemical in the idea ELECTRICAL, such as the conversion of the normal condition
of the people in the affect. I will call the moral enthusiasm. It is, as the aesthetic, a double movement, but essentially
different from her. First, it is not like this, a coherent movement, because its parts are in time far apart. The first part,
moved together, is an evoked by ingenious detecting violent fluctuation of the will between pleasure and pain, while
the first part of the aesthetic enthusiasm is the painless aesthetic condition.Her second part, however, is not a violent
outflow of will but of pure heart peace. This heart peace is capable of an increase, which is very strange. It can in fact,
under the continuing influence of the clear knowledge (ie not by the displeasure of a desire), increase to:
1) the moral Muth,
2) the moral joy
3) the moral love.
The individual who is in the moral enthusiasm, whether it be temporary or lasting, it was built on the pure soil of the
state, or with the help of faith, or by faith alone, has only one goal in mind, to be where real or perceived advantage is,
and everything else is dead. Thus the superior man who has been sparked in the mission of his country, his wife and
child comes back with the words: "begging when you're hungry"; if the righteous rather breaks down along the way
and starve in silence, as he defile its pure, light-filled soul with evil; so the Holy leaves his mother, his brothers and
sisters, yes, he denied it, saying, "Who is my mother and my brothers," because all |?
i 197 ties that bound took him to the world, torn, and only his eternal life keeps his whole being caught.

We have seen that a moral act is that it coincides with the statutes of the state and of Christianity and gladly done,
and that employees took no difference whether it springs from an originally good, or an inflamed will. We have also
seen that the will may ignite only in the clear knowledge of a large Vortheils. This is very important and must be
It is clear at last from the foregoing that a true Christian, whose will was sparked by and through the teaching of
mild Savior - that is a saint - the conceivable happiest person is; because his will is to compare a clear water level that
is so low that the strongest storm can not curl it. He has the full and complete inner peace that nothing can do more
worry in the world, and about what people view as the greatest misfortune and murky. Here, we also want to note that
although the conversion can be done only by the clear knowledge of the great Vortheils that but after it has taken place,
the hope of the kingdom of heaven after death can disappear, as the testimony of "deified" man ( as the mystics say)
clearly demonstrates. The reason is to light.They are in such inner joy, peace and invulnerability that they Everything is
indifferent: the life, death and life after death. They have on their condition, the certainty that he can not pass away, and
the kingdom of heaven that is in them, closing the kingdom of heaven, which is to come only perfect in itself. They live
unspeakably happy in the present alone, ie in the sense of constant inner immobility, although this is only an illusion; or
in other words: the volatile state of the deepest aesthetic contemplation has become permanently to the Holy, he always
continues, because nothing in the world is able to move the innermost core of the individual. And the subject both
when the object is lifted out of time as in the aesthetic contemplation,so also the Holy lives timeless; |
i 198 him is indescribably happy, feel in this apparent calm, that continual inner immobility, whether equal still move the

external man and must suffer. And he would not let this life:
if he wants to have an angel for life.
(The Franck Forter.)
This is also the ecstasy or the intellectual delight find a place. It is substantially different from the smooth, quiet
peace of the saints. It springs to see in this world of fierce desire the kingdom of God. The will, brought by
mortification and solitude in the most terrible excitement, concentrated all his energy in a single organ. He withdraws
from the peripheral nervous systems and flees to speak in the brain. The nervous life is thereby driven to the highest
possible level, the impressions of the senses are completely overcome, and the Spirit draws into the void, as in sleep,
what demands so much to see the will. But while the vision of the eyes are open and ecstatic consciousness is clearer
and brighter than ever.In the rapture of the man must feel the highest conceivable bliss, why one has the state also very
aptly called the intellectual delight; But how dear it is bought! The displeasure before and after the terrible relaxation
make it the most expensive pleasure.
The inherent philosophy must recognize the condition of the Saints as the happiest; but it can include ethics, after
having lit the greatest happiness of the people and showed how a lack of goodwill, although it the liberum arbitrium
missing, his may be partakers? Not at all. For even if the true saints:
is in a prison, so that he has lost the fear of pain or hell and hope of the salary or the kingdom of heaven,
(The Franck Forter.)
so only his will could be ignited by this hope of the salary or the kingdom of heaven but because it is a fundamental
principle of immanent ethics, the always always confirms the experience and that man no advantage so little to his
character |
i 199 can act as the water can run uphill without corresponding pressure.

Thus faith is the sine qua non the blissful state, while the immanent philosophy temporarily, to develop the ethics, as
it stake out their territory, could place on the ground of Christianity. , The result of our research to date is therefore that
we have probably found the happiest state of man, but on one condition, that we can not recognize, and ethics can not
be more complete, until we have investigated whether this blessed state can flow from an immanent Erkenntnigrunde,
or whether he is absolutely anyone who can not believe closed, that we face the major problem of ethics. Usually one
considers the same in the question of the scientific basis of morality, ie whether morality can be justified without
dogmas,without the assumption of a disclosed divine will. Had St. John right when he wrote:
Who is he that overcomes the world, but he that believes that Jesus is the Son of God?
(1 Epist. 5, 5)
The inherent philosophy which can not recognize any other sources than the exposed before the eyes Aller nature
and our inner being, rejects the assumption of a hidden unit in simple, above or behind the world. It only knows
countless ideas, that individual will to live, which, in their totality, a fixed form closed Collectiv-contained unit.
We recognize, therefore, on our present standpoint no other authority initially, as if built by the people of the state. It
came with necessity in the phenomenon because the gifted with reason will, according to real knowledge of the nature
of two evils, which must choose smaller. He can not do otherwise; because we see a man of two evils choose the larger,
so we were wrong either in the judgment, because we could not sink into the individuality of voters us, or he did not
recognize that the chosen evil was the greater. he had in the latter case our |
i 200 had spirit, wondering about the choice, he could not choose how he has chosen. This law is as tight as this, that every

effect must have a cause.

The insightful man can not want the state to be destroyed. Who wants to sincerely wants only a temporary
suspension of the law, namely as long as he needs time to gain a favorable situation. Did he acquired it, so he wants
with the same fervor the protection of the laws, with whom he previously wanted the suspension.
The state is thus the natural egotists a necessary evil, which they need to take, because it is the lesser of two. They
encountered it again in a way they would have more of this in hands.
The state only requires maintaining the treaty, strict fulfillment of its commitment, namely to respect the law and to
maintain the state. We may assume that almost nobody liked fulfills these obligations; because even a person with a
good heart is not always act in good faith towards his fellow men and mostly reluctant to pay to the state, and unwilling
satisfy his military obligation if it attracts not insurmountable inclination for soldiering. We want, however, concede
careful that there are people who are, and by nature of unswerving honesty love their country honestly and from the
heart. They give each his own likes and bring the state like the sacrifices that he must call for its preservation of
them.Their peace - their happiness - is therefore not disturbed by all these actions. We excrete it and now concern
ourselves with those that state law only subject for fear of punishment and with the greatest reluctance to. You do not
have peace in themselves and are unhappy over the laws. Her character, she moved to this direction and the violence
after that. So they are back and hergezerrt and are available from torment. If they fall on the side of violence, so they
sacrifice with thunderous heart; follow however, their tendency because the threatened evil is powerless by reflection
(chance to avoid detection), so they float, after an accomplished fact, in fear of discovery and their profits not happy.
When it detects even the crime and makes it the penalty, tortures |We excrete it and now concern ourselves with those
that state law only subject for fear of punishment and with the greatest reluctance to. You do not have peace in
themselves and are unhappy over the laws. Her character, she moved to this direction and the violence after that. So
they are back and hergezerrt and are available from torment. If they fall on the side of violence, so they sacrifice with
thunderous heart; follow however, their tendency because the threatened evil is powerless by reflection (chance to
avoid detection), so they float, after an accomplished fact, in fear of discovery and their profits not happy. When it
detects even the crime and makes it the penalty, tortures |We excrete it and now concern ourselves with those that state
law only subject for fear of punishment and with the greatest reluctance to. You do not have peace in themselves and
are unhappy over the laws. Her character, she moved to this direction and the violence after that. So they are back and
hergezerrt and are available from torment. If they fall on the side of violence, so they sacrifice with thunderous heart;
follow however, their tendency because the threatened evil is powerless by reflection (chance to avoid detection), so
they float, after an accomplished fact, in fear of discovery and their profits not happy. When it detects even the crime
and makes it the penalty, tortures |which state law to submit out of fear of punishment and with the greatest reluctance.
You do not have peace in themselves and are unhappy over the laws. Her character, she moved to this direction and the
violence after that. So they are back and hergezerrt and are available from torment. If they fall on the side of violence,
so they sacrifice with thunderous heart; follow however, their tendency because the threatened evil is powerless by
reflection (chance to avoid detection), so they float, after an accomplished fact, in fear of discovery and their profits not
happy. When it detects even the crime and makes it the penalty, tortures |which state law to submit out of fear of
punishment and with the greatest reluctance. You do not have peace in themselves and are unhappy over the laws. Her
character, she moved to this direction and the violence after that. So they are back and hergezerrt and are available from
torment. If they fall on the side of violence, so they sacrifice with thunderous heart; follow however, their tendency
because the threatened evil is powerless by reflection (chance to avoid detection), so they float, after an accomplished
fact, in fear of discovery and their profits not happy. When it detects even the crime and makes it the penalty, tortures
|Her character, she moved to this direction and the violence after that. So they are back and hergezerrt and are available
from torment. If they fall on the side of violence, so they sacrifice with thunderous heart; follow however, their
tendency because the threatened evil is powerless by reflection (chance to avoid detection), so they float, after an
accomplished fact, in fear of discovery and their profits not happy. When it detects even the crime and makes it the
penalty, tortures |Her character, she moved to this direction and the violence after that. So they are back and hergezerrt
and are available from torment. If they fall on the side of violence, so they sacrifice with thunderous heart; follow
however, their tendency because the threatened evil is powerless by reflection (chance to avoid detection), so they float,
after an accomplished fact, in fear of discovery and their profits not happy. When it detects even the crime and makes it
the penalty, tortures |in fear of discovery and their profits will not be happy. When it detects even the crime and makes
it the penalty, tortures |in fear of discovery and their profits will not be happy. When it detects even the crime and
makes it the penalty, tortures |
i 201 the conscience in an intolerable manner, and against the coercion and the endless chain of deprivations that freedom

needy heart fantastic without rest to: unsuccessful and unhappy.

Now we go further and imagine that many such people who are obedient out of fear of punishment, ignite in the
clear knowledge of their Vortheils. We see time being on the fact that the recognized advantage of probity, as he can not
work as from consideration as that could well jump up employees, so good. Very nice this St. Paul expresses in the
The law works wrath; for where no law is, neither is there transgression. justice must Wherefore come by faith.
(Rom. 4, 15, 16.)
We also refrain from that recognized advantage of state security nowadays also can the will seldom ignite and
assume that the inflammation ever come to pass.
In this way, we have, on purpose to the law, happy people in the state: Accessible by natural conditioning and
accessible by enlightened will. Yes, we want to go so far as to assume there were only accessible in our state. In this
state, therefore, all citizens live in harmony with the laws and are not unhappy with the requirements of state authority.
Each gives each his own, but nothing more. There is full honesty in all traffic; Nobody is cheating; All are honest. but
comes a hungry pauper to them and demanded a piece of bread, so they hit the door to front of him, with the exception
of those who are merciful; because this would not give, they would indeed act against their character and be unhappy.
We have, therefore, in our state, only a limited morality; because all actions that are in keeping with the laws and
you're welcome to have moral worth and are not merely legal. but the Merciful is not moral, when he straightens the
needy, as little as the hard-hearted is illegal if it can starve the poor at his door; because there is no law exists which
charity |
i 202 orders and it is one of the conditions for a moral act that they agree with the law. Of course, the Merciful can not act

illegally when he supported the poor. His act has absolutely no special character but carries only the general selfish. He
merely follows his refined egoism, does not violate any law and is happy.
Against this dispute, our inner leaning on, and we feel that it must be wrong. However, this is on our current
positions far from the case. What works in our feeling is either mercy or spook out of our formative years; because if
we even so much emancipated seem to us from all prejudices, we wear but all more or less, chains of faith, chains dear
memories chains loving words from verehrtem mouth. In our present positions but only cold reason may speak and
must speak above. It may later turn out a different solution: now it is impossible. The authority of religion does not
exist for us, and in its place is no other resigned. Would not it be an obvious follywhen the hard-hearted limited in favor
of the poor, that was acting against his character, without zureichendes motive? Yes, it would, anyway possible? And
how should a charitable deed be moral without the will of an omnipotent God who commands the works of charity?
For this reason, we would follow a wrong path, we wanted the mercy, or offset the merciful will of the suffering of
others the state: the compassion, made the basis of morality. For how could we presume to decree irish: merciful deeds,
deeds of compassion are moral deeds? Their independence from a commanding authority would just avoid that they
can be. Would not have any right to overturn our outrageous decree? And what we wanted to respond to the hard-
hearted or cruel when he frge with all the defiance of his rebellious individuality us, "as you can, without the
assumption of Almighty God say that I act immorally? I maintain the same rights that charitable deeds are immoral.
"Be sincere! could |
i 203 you answer him without putting you on the bottom of the Christian or even a religion which enjoins charity on behalf of a
recognized power?
So we need the time being maintain that in our imaginary state charitable deeds, can not be moral because no power
it commands and actions only have moral worth when they're welcome and agree with a law.
The citizens of our state are imaginary, as assumed all justice, that they never come in conflict with itself, if the
State makes a claim to their performance they committed themselves by contract to them. They like to obey and it is
therefore impossible that the laws can make them unhappy.
Now we go further and say: good; we consider the lives of these citizens only in its relationship to the state and its
basic laws, so it is a happy one. But life's not a chain of nothing else than fulfilling obligations to the state: from
unterlassenem theft, murder unterlassenem, tax payments and conscientious; the other relationships outweigh decided
against it. And so we ask: Are our righteous else happy?
This question is very important, and before it is answered, we can not take a step forward in ethics. Our next task is
therefore to express an opinion as to the value of human life itself.
I am well aware that all those who have been thinking only once purely objective about the value of existence, no
longer require the judgment of the philosopher; because either they come to the conviction that all human progress only
be apparent, or the other, that the human race always move actually through better conditions for better: in both cases,
but was painfully aware that human life in its present forms one was much more unhappy.
Also, I would not be able to understand me, the current |
i 204 to consider life. Others have done this and have done so masterfully that for each of understanding the Acten are closed

about it. Only those who have no overview of life in all its forms, or those whose judgment yet to be violent urge forges
for life, can exclaim, it is a pleasure to live and every one must consider themselves fortunate that he breathes and
emotional. With them is one to engage in any discussion, remembering the words of Scotus Erigena:
Adversus stultitiam pugnare nil est laboriosius. Nulla enim auctoritate vinci fatetur, nulla ratione suadetur.
You have not suffered enough and their knowledge in disarray. They are, if not, then at least awaken in their
individual lives in their offspring once, and their awakening will be a terrible.
Not with the life as it then flows now in the freest and best state, so we will deal us - for it is condemned - but we
take up the position of the aforementioned rational optimists who look to the future and of all humanity one day a
happy ascribe life because the real trend towards ever more perfect conditions can not be denied. We are therefore to
construct an ideal state and have to judge the life in it. We have quite an open question whether the same could ever be
in the development of things; but it is clear that we must construct it, because we are anxious to see life in a favorable
We face the same in the middle of this ideal state without dealing with its becoming.
He "includes everything that has a human face," it includes all mankind. There are no more wars and no revolutions.
The political power no longer rests in certain classes, but mankind is a nation that lives under laws have participated in
the drafting of all. The social misery is extinguished. The work is organized and not pressing any. The inventiveness
has passed Smmtliche heavy work on machines and line them robbing the citizens a few hours of the day. Anyone
who awoke can say the day is mine.
i 205 The whips and scorns of time,
The oppressor's wrong, the proud man 's contumely,
- - - -, the law's delay,
The insolence of office, and the spurns
That patient merit of the unworthy takes.
( Shakespeare .)
(The Times ridicule and scourge
The Mcht'gen pressure, the Proud mistreatment
- - - - of the right delay,
The arrogance of the offices, and the shame,
The Unwerth silent merit proves -)
This is all repaid.
Poverty is of the earth, where they dished terrible misfortune for thousands of years, fled. Everyone lives without
worrying about the body Nothdurft. The apartments are healthy and comfortable. No one can exploit the others,
because to the stronger barriers are down, and the weaker protects the totality.
We therefore assume that the awkward political and social conditions, the consideration of so many resulted in the
conviction that the life of toil it was not worthy smmtlich for the benefit of every man are ordered. Little work, a lot of
pleasure: that is the signature of life in our state.
We also assume that the people who have been through suffering, knowledge and gradual removal of all bad
motives, moderate and harmonious beings over time, in short, that we have to deal only with beautiful souls. Should
really be anything more in our state, which could excite the passion or the anguish, the aroused individual soon finds
his balance and harmonic motion is restored. The great misfortune, can not escape the passionate characters:
The heart-ache, and the thousand natural shocks
That flesh is heir to ,
( Shakespeare .)
(The heartache and the thousand natural shocks,
The uns'res flesh inheritance -)
This also is gone from the earth.
The most tense over worshipers of the will to live will have to admit that, given that man not entirely free |
i 206 can be of work since he eat, dress and live has a better social order and beings who deceive the conditions for a better life

in it, are not possible; because we have given everyone a noble personality and life all taken away from what may be
regarded as immaterial connected with it.
consequently, there remain only four evils that can be separated from life by any human power: pains of childbirth
and illness, old age and death of each individual. Man in the most perfect state must be born with pain, he has to go
through a smaller or larger number of diseases, it must, if not him
in youth power
The Norne streamlined, (Uhland)
old, that are physically infirm and mentally dull; Finally, he must die.
The smaller the existence associated evils we expect nothing; but we will mention some of them. First we have to
sleep, robs a third of lifetime (life is a joy, so sleep is of course an evil); then the first childhood, which only serves to
make the people with the ideas and their context so familiar to find his way in the world (life is a joy, the first
childhood is of course an evil); then the work that is very properly portrayed in the Old Testament as a result of a divine
curse; . Finally various evils which Pope Innocent III, as follows, compiled:
Impure generation, disgusting diet in the womb, wickedness of the substance, from which man develops, horrible stench,
secretion of saliva, urine and faeces.
These evils do not you think too small. Anyone who has reached a certain stage of nervous refinement, takes offense
at law more thereof. But could Byron Countess Guiccioli not even see eat what the reason was much deeper than the
English spleen is.
We pass over, as I said, these evils and remain with the mentioned four main evils. But of these we put three on the
side. We assume that the birth of the people in |
i 207 go future without pain from Equip, that would succeed the science to protect people from any illness, finally, that the age

of such shedded people a fresh and powerful was, which a gentle painless death suddenly put an end (euthanasia).
we can only death not take away, and we therefore have a short life suffering loose in front of us. Is it a happy? we
see it exactly.
The citizens of our ideal state are people of gentle character and developed intelligence. A, so to speak, ready
knowledge, free of perversity and error, has been inculcated, and how they like to think about it too, they always find it
confirmed. There are no effects, the causes of which were enigmatical. Science has reached the summit in fact, and
every citizen is saturated with their milk. The sense of beauty is powerful unfolds in all. we must also accept that all
artists are, they still have all the ability to easily enter the aesthetic relation.
All worries are taken away from them, because the work is organized in an unsurpassable way, and each governs
Are you happy? They would be if they empfnden not a terrible desolation and emptiness in itself. They are rescued
from distress, they are really no worries and suffering, but boredom has detected them. You have paradise on earth, but
its air is stifling humid.
It must be something to be desired to spare, not to be unhappy with happiness. The body wants to breathe and seek the
If they do not have enough energy really to endure such a life until natural death, they certainly have not the courage
again when tapered beings to go through it. Necessity is a terrible evil, boredom but the most terrible of all. Better a life
of misery, as a life of boredom, and that even that is preferable to total destruction, I do not have to prove a certainty.
And we would also indirectly pointed to the abundance that life in the best state of our time is worthless. Life in
general is a "miserable Jm | merliches
i 208 thing ": it has always been wretched and miserable and always will be wretched, and miserable, and non-being is better

than reality.
Now one could say: we give to all, just not that life in this ideal state is really boring. You've drawn the civil wrong
and your conclusions from his character and relationships are therefore wrong.
By direct evidence, I can not lift this doubt; but rather by an indirect.
I'm not going to rely on the generally accepted empirical proposition that people who have escaped the misery
happy to know nothing to begin with existence; because you can here to argue rightly that they not only knew to deal
for lack of spirit or education. Even less I will call the poet's words to his aid:
Everything in the world can endure,
Just not a series of beautiful days.
although it pronounce an irrefutable truth. I rely only that, if there has been on this earth is not an ideal state, but have
lived many citizens as I described above. They were free of trouble and led a pleasant industrious life. They had a
noble character and a sophisticated spirit, that they had their own thoughts and took foreign NOT BE RELIED in to.
All of these individuals had the great advantage over the imaginary citizens of an ideal state that their surroundings
one was much juicier and more interesting. Wherever they looked, they found distinct individualities, a wealth of pithy
characters. The company had not yet leveled and even nature was only the smallest part under the dominion of man.
They lived under the charms of opposites; their comfortable position eximirte waned rarely out of their consciousness,
because they stood out wherever they might see how a bright image of a dark background, from the other forms of life
from. Science was also not yet reached the peak of perfection; nor was there enigma in quantity effects enough of their
causes |
i 209 we broke the head. And who has already experienced that pure joy in searching for the truth lies in the pursuit of their

track being admitted that those individuals were actually in advantage; because had not Lessing right when he
If God in his right hand all truth, and in his left hand would consider the only inner rain instinct for truth, though with the
additives to be wrong forever closed and say to me: Vote! I fell to him with humility in his left hand.
And yet all of these outstanding individuals that form a chain ranging from prehistoric times of mankind to this day,
made life as a much hapless condemned, and the non-existence on the same. I will not dwell so to call them all and
repeat their most relevant sayings. I limit myself to make two of them designated that are closer to us than Budha and
Solomon, and know the all educated: the greatest poets and the greatest naturalists of the Germans, Goethe and
Is it necessary that I tell her happy life circumstances, their spirit and character prices? I just wish that all people be
in possession of such a noble individuality and want to be in the more favorable position as they had one. And what did
"We suffer all alive."
"They always praised me as a particularly favored by fortune; I also will not complain and do not scold the course of my life
me. basically alone it's been nothing but trouble and work, and I can say that I have not had four weeks real pleasure in my
seventy-five years. It was the eternal rolling a stone that always wanted to be raised again. "
(Conversations with Eckermann.)
And what does Humboldt?
"I'm not cut out to be a family man. Moreover, I consider marrying a sin, the begetting of children a crime.
It is also my conviction that one a fool, even more is a sinner who accepts the yoke of marriage itself. a |
i 210 fool, because he throws so his freedom of himself to win without a corresponding compensation; a sinner because it gives children's
lives without being able to give them the certainty of happiness. I despise humanity in its layers; I see it requires that our
descendants will still be far more unhappy than we -; should not be a sinner if I cared, despite this view for offspring, ie for
unfortunates? -
All of life is the biggest nonsense. And if one seeks eighty years, researches, so one must at last confess that strives for
nothing and nothing has researched. we know only at least, why are we in this world. But everything is and remains the thinker
enigmatical, and happiness is still the one to be born as a flat head.
"If we knew only least, why are we in this world!" So throughout the rich life of this gifted man Nothing, Nothing
he could have been understood as an end of life. Not the joy of creation, not the delicious moments of genius cognition:
And in our ideal state, citizens should be happy? -
Now we can bring ethics to an end.
We first encounter our ideal state to return. He was a fantasy and will never come into existence.
but what can not be denied, that is the real development of the human species and that a time will come when not
construirte by us, but an ideal state is established. It will be my task in politics, to show how all lineages, as their
destination, indicate the beginning of history on him. In ethics we must stand him without proof. The Company will be
actually leveled in the same and every citizen to know the blessings of a high intellectual culture. All of humanity will
live less painful than now than ever.
From this, it follows a necessary, with unwidersteh | Licher
i 211 Violence is executive movement of humanity which can stop or divert any power. She pushes the wills and the non-

wishers relentlessly on the path further, leading to the ideal state, and he must enter into the phenomenon. This real,
immutable movement is a part of the continuirlich from the movements of all individual property in the dynamic
context, ideas can be generated course of the world, revealing here as a necessary fate of humanity. It is as strong as
any individuals on power and might think - because it, too, the effectiveness of any particular individual being contains
within itself - as the will of a simple unit, above or behind the world, and if the immanent philosophy in place is this
simple unit, it fills the space from perfect.But while the simple unity must be believed and always temptations and
doubts exposed and will be, is the essence of fate, by virtue of the enlarged Community to general causality, clearly
recognized by the people and therefore can never be denied.
If it was now a commandment of God for the people to be just and merciful, shall invite the fate of humanity with
the same authority by each person strictest justice and human love; for though the movement to the ideal state will take
place in spite of dishonesty and callousness of many, they demanded but by everyone loudly justice and human love, so
that she could take place more quickly.
Now the difficulty is solved, we had to leave abruptly above, and while our heart rebelled, namely, that a charitable
deed, in the state without religion, could have no moral worth; for now she also bears the stamp of morality because it
coincides with the demand of fate and willingly done.
The state is the form in which the imaginary movement is taking place, the fate of mankind unfolds. Its basic form
as we discovered above and used, it has expanded already almost everywhere: he's, best possible from a coercive
institution, so not stolen, not murder and that he would get himself into a wide shape for the progress of mankind for
Community trained. His |
i 212 to approach citizens and institutions and they remodel until they have become suitable for the ideal community, ie until

the ideal community become real, - that is the meaning, which is the required virtues of patriotism, justice and
philanthropy basis , or in other words: the inexorable fate of humanity calls from any citizen that the great Heraclitus
already having deep into the heart burrowing words taught devotion to the universal, almost a love for the state. It is to
everyone having the ideal state as a model in mind, lay vigorous hand to the current Real and help it transform.
The commandment is thus present and a power it is flowed from that, because of their terrible violence, it receives
each individual against upright and is unchangeable always get upright. The only question is: how does the individual
bids the opposite?
Let us recall here the already above deep saying of the Apostle Paul:
The law works wrath; for where no law is, neither is there transgression. justice must Wherefore come by faith.
The inherent philosophy changes the last sentence there from:
the devotion must Wherefore come to the General by the knowledge.
By natural conditioning the just and merciful has a lighter level before bids than the natural egoist. He gives,
according to his character, like to each his own, or rather, he likes leaves him to his own, and his neighbor in harried
position, he will support him to the forces. But you can see immediately that this behavior the requirement of fate can
not quite match. Each to make his own, not to cheat him is not enough. The nothdrftigen fellow man when my path
just goes past him to give up, is not enough. I, as a righteous man should act to him that is all he can ask as a citizen, to
act so that every citizen will all blessings of the state to part, and I, as a philanthropist, should thus act with all other
Merciful .that the necessity of the state disappears.
i 213. Such a way of thinking can in man, which is justified by natural conditioning and charitable, only under the stimulus of

knowledge, a knowledge arise as the bud can only open under the stimulus of the light. Or, in other words, the original
good will of both, than the poor can only be ignited, that is, the general completely and fully indulge, likes to make in
the direction of the movement of humanity, if them the knowledge of a great advantage of it promises.
Is this possible?
The natural egoist, whose motto is: Pereat mundus, dum ego salvus sim , takes place against a bid entirely on back
and turns the real movement hostile counter. He thinks only of his personal advantage, and it can only him (but to come
up with the laws in Conflikt) gain at the expense of peace and prosperity of many, the complaints and pain of many in
no way troubling him. He can slip through the fingers of the gold pieces, and the tears of robbed his senses are as dead.
Furthermore: by natural conditioning righteous and merciful is indeed each like to be his own, and now and then
relieve the distress of his fellow men; but set themselves such in the movement of humanity that he sacrifices all his
possessions, his wife and child leave and his blood spilled for the good of humanity: he will not.
Christianity threatened his confessors with hell and promised them the kingdom of heaven, but the immanent ethics
knows no court after death, no reward, no punishment of an immortal soul. In contrast, she knows the hell of the
current state and the kingdom of heaven of the ideal state, and by pointing to both, it is clear on the physics.
So it detects any where it is rooted in humanity and in life and calls out to him, you live on in your children, in your
children you celebrate your rebirth, and what they will hit that hits you in them. but as long as the ideal state has not
become real, so long switch positions and positions in life. The rich man is poor, and the poor will be rich; the Mighty
is low and the Low powerful; the Strong |
i 214 becomes weak and the weak strong. In such a scheme of things you are today anvil, hammer tomorrow, today hammer,

anvil tomorrow. So you act against your overall well when you're anxious to get this order of things upright. This is the
threat of immanent ethics; but its promise is the ideal state, that is an order of things in which everything is separated
from life, which is not significantly associated with it: misery and distress She whispers the poor man to:. there will be
no fear and no more screaming, it will be because of distress and misery no tears and no more tired eyes.
This knowledge of man, rooted in life - because this is a condition: he must be unbroken will to live, must live and
want to get in life beyond death - that knowledge of man, I say,
1) that he lives on in his children, or, in general terms, that it is rooted in humanity, can get in life only in her and
through her;
2) that the present order of things the change of documents necessary conditions (Hamburg say the money bag and
the bag begging not hang a hundred years before one and the same door);
3) that in the ideal state, the best possible life is guaranteed to all;
4) Finally, the movement of the human, in spite of the non-wool ends and recalcitrant has and reach the ideal state to
the targets;
this knowledge, this all-minded intrusive knowledge can ignite the will: gradually or quickly. Then he enters
completely into the movement of the whole, then it floats with the stream. Now he is fighting courageously, joyfully
and lovingly in the state and, as long as the movement of humanity even in the Great generated mainly from the
cooperation and conflict work great folk-, big states, with his state (and possibly its allies) against other States the ideal
state. Now the real patriotism, real justice, real love glows through him to mankind: it is in the movement of fate, it is
in keeping with its bid and gladly, that his actions are eminently moral |
i 215 and his reward is: peace with yourself, pure bright happiness. Now he gives willingly, if need be, his individual life in

moral enthusiasm towards; because of the better condition of humanity for which he fought, he rises a new and better
individual lives in his children.
But the mood of the hero, a deep peace, that is pure luck rarely so it glows but almost only in great moments, his
chest; because life is an uphill battle for everyone, and who still firmly rooted in the world - even if the eyes are all
drunk with the light of the ideal state - will never be free from distress, pain and heartache. The pure ongoing heart
peace of Christian saints has no hero. Should he be without, really not to reach the faith? -
The movement of the mankind for the ideal state is a fact; but it only takes a short reflection, to see that in the life of
the whole so little as in the lives of individuals can ever a stoppage occur. The movement must be a restless to the point
where can not be spoken at all of life. mankind is therefore in an ideal state, so no peace can occur. But where should
they also be able to move? There is but a single movement even for them: it is the movement after the total
annihilation, the movement from being into non-being. And humanity (ie all single people then living) will execute the
movement, in irresistible longing for the peace of absolute death.
The movement of humanity for the ideal state is thus the other, from being in non-being, follow, or, in other words,
the movement of humanity in general, the movement from being into non-being. from the latter, however, we consider
both motions separately, occurs as the former from the requirement of full dedication to the General entered, the order
of virginity, which, however, not required in the Christian religion, but as a commended the highest and most perfect
virtue has been; because if the movement will take place despite thierischem sex drive and despite lust, so |
i 216 it occurs but to be chaste in order to get to destinations more quickly to each individual with the serious demand

Before this demand just and the unjust, merciful and hard-hearted, heroes and criminals cringe, and except for the
few who were as Christ said, born out of the womb blended, no one can like meet without experience a total
transformation of his will to to have. All conversions, all inflammations of the will, which we have since seen, were
alterations of a will, who also also wanted the life, and the hero, like the Christian saint, offered it only, that he despised
death, because he's a better life it received. Now the will is no longer merely despise death; but he shall love him,
because chastity is love to death. Outrageous demand! The will to live wants life and existence, existence and life.He
wants to live forever and he can only remain in existence through procreation, then its fundamental will concentrated in
sex drive, which is the most perfect affirmation of the will to live and significantly exceeds all other impulses and
desires in intensity and strength.
How to meet the demand now man, how he can use the sex drive of any honest observer of nature presents itself
almost insurmountable overcome? Only the fear of a large penalty in connection with all the advantages overwhelming
advantage, can give man the power to defeat him, that is, the will has to be ignited by a clear and very certain
knowledge. It is the already mentioned above knowledge that non-being is better than being or the knowledge that life
is hell, and the sweet silent night of absolute death is the destruction of hell.
And the man who first recognized clearly that all life is suffering, that it, step into whatever is for a form, much
unhappy and painful (even in the ideal state), so that he, like the Christ Child on the arms of the Sistine Madonna, can
only look back with horror-filled eyes in the world yet, and then considering the deep rest, the ineffable happiness in
the aesthetic contemplation and, in contrast to the waking state, perceived by reflection happiness of stateless sleep,
whose elevation to the eternity of |
i 217 absolute death just is - such a person must be ignited by the proffered advantage - he can not help. The idea: to be

reborn, that is, having to move on resting and restless in unhappy children on the thorny and stony road of existence, it
is both the scariest and most desperate, he may have; on the other hand is the idea: to cancel the long, long line of
development, in which he always pushed, tormented and afflicted with bleeding feet, languishing for peace, had to
forward, the sweetest and erquickendste. And he is just only on the right track so troubled him every step of the sex
drive less, with each step it will be easier to's heart until his heart last, blissful serenity and full immobility is to him the
same joy,like the real Christian saints. He feels in keeping with the movement of humanity from being into non-being,
from the anguish of life in the absolute death, he willingly enters into this movement of the whole, he is eminently
moral, and his reward is the undisturbed heart peace, the "Calm sea of mind," the peace that surpasses all reason. And
this all can take place without faith in a unit in, above or behind the world without fear of hell or hope of a kingdom of
heaven after death, without mystical intellectual intuition without incomprehensible grace effect without contradiction
with nature and our consciousness of one's self: the only sources from which we can draw with certainty - only as a
result of unprejudiced, pure,cold knowledge of our reason, "of man supreme power".
So we had the happiness of the saints what we had described as the largest and highest happiness, found
independently of any religion. At the same time we have found the immanent foundation of morality: it is recognized
by the subject real movement of humanity that the exercise of virtues: love of country demands justice, charity and
From this, it follows the important consequence that the movement of humanity is no more a moral way things are
beautiful in themselves. | No concerns from the standpoint of nature
i 218 Man morally; He who loves his neighbor, not meritorious than the one who hates him, tortures and torments. Mankind
has only one curve that the moral agents accelerated. From the standpoint of the subject however, every action is moral
which is consciously or unconsciously, in keeping with the basic movement of humanity and willingly done. The call to
act morally, draws its strength from the fact that they, therefore assuring the advantage of the individual, either
temporary peace of mind and a better life in the world, or the permanent peace in this life and the utter destruction in
death, redeemed earlier are considered the totality. And this latter advantage outweighs so much all earthly advantages
that he irresistibly draws the individual who recognizes him in the alley,where he is, as the iron to the magnet must.
At those people who have an innate merciful will, the conversion takes place most easily; because there are will, the
way of the world already weakened, has already converted their natural selfishness of the world run in the refined. The
suffering of their neighbor brings them forth the ethical, extremely important state of compassion, whose fruits are truly
moral deeds. We feel a positive suffering in our compassion; it is a deep sense of pain, the tears our heart, and we can
only pick up by making the suffering neighbor leidlos.
The inflammation of the will of the knowledge that mankind is moving out of being in the non-existence, and on the
other, that non-existence is better than being, or to the latter alone, which, independent of that, by a clear view in the
world can be obtained - is the philosophical negation of the individual will to live. The so inflamed will wills to death
the happy condition of the heart peace, without interruption, and in death the complete destruction, the full and
complete deliverance from himself. He wants to be coated from the book of life forever, he wants the extinct motion
life and lose with life the very core of his being complete. This particular idea |
i 219 will be destroyed, this particular type, this particular form will be shattered forever.

The inherent philosophy knows no miracles and know nothing of events in a different world unknowable to tell
what the consequences of actions in this world would be. Therefore, there is only a perfectly safe negation of the will to
life for them; it is by virginity. As we have seen in physics, man finds absolute annihilation in death; yet he is only
apparently destroyed if he lives on in children; because in these children, he has already risen from the dead: he has
recently taken in their lives and it affirmed for a period that is indeterminable. This feels Everyone instinctively. The
insurmountable aversion gender after mating, in the animal kingdom, occurs in humans as a deep sadness. In it laments
a soft voice, as Proserpina:
How engages's at once
Through these pleasures,
This open delight
With excruciating pain,
With iron hands
Hell by! - -
What have I done wrong,
I enjoyed?
And scornfully calls the world:
You are ours!
Fasting should recur
And the bite of the apple makes upon us!
Therefore, the immanent philosophy of the hour of death can not settle the slightest importance and significance. In
it, the man is no decision more about it if he wants to life again, or will be dead forever. Remorse for bad deeds, which
is why so often occurs on the deathbed, because the knowledge suddenly changes and it sees clearly and realize how
useless but was all earthly pursuit - Everything what the heart was to be abandoned - is the thrichteste self-torture. The
dying man should forget everything in Hin | view
i 220 that he suffered enough in this life and everything has already served alive, and should only be directed to his offspring,

they urgently exhorting to drain the life, the suffering is essential. And in the hope that his words have fallen on fertile
ground, that he will soon be redeemed in his children, he should calmly exhale his life.
In contrast, puts the immanent philosophy of the hour in which a new life to be inflamed, the greatest importance in;
for in it man has the full decision on whether to continue living, or really want to be destroyed in death. Not the
struggle of life with death on his death-bed, in the triumph of death, but the fight of death with life during copulation,
in the victorious life is meaningful. If the individual is reflected in violent passion his teeth into the existence and
clutching with steely arms: in the frenzy of lust salvation is forfeited. In the great boisterous cheers of the poor
infatuated does not notice that the most precious treasure is wound from his hands. For the short bliss he has changed
not endless, but perhaps long, long suffering, severe Daseinspein,and rejoice the Fates:
You are ours!
while his genius covers herself.
Although, therefore, the denial of the will only really cuts the thread of life of the individual in death if it is taking
place at the bottom of perfect chastity, yet it can take even those people who already live on in children. but it causes
then only the happiness of the individual for the rest of life. But should the imperfect and consequences of denial will
not disturb the individual in such cases. It will try to awaken in children the true knowledge and guide them gently to
the path of salvation. Then it will draw full comfort from the certainty that in addition to individual salvation general
herschreitet that the ideal state sooner or later include the whole humanity and this is then the "great sacrifices", as the
Indians say bring.Yes, he is |
i 221 thereto take the initiative, is fully in line with general surrender, making it the ideal state would real as soon as possible.

While those who look towards certainly of salvation through the death are uprooted in the world and have only one
desire: soon from their deep peace of heart over into the full destruction, but their original character is not dead. He has
emerged only in the background; and if he can not lead us to deeds also the individual who would be him in accordance
so he will still give the remaining life of the negation parties a special color.
For this reason, Those who are in the certainty of individual salvation, not present one and the same phenomenon.
Nothing would be more mistaken than to assume this. The one who was proud and silent, will not be talkative and
affable, the other whose loving nature wherever he came, spread the wohlthuendste heat will not be shy and dark, a
third party who was melancholy, is not left out cheerful be.
Likewise, the activity and employment will not be the same at all. The One will conclude completely from the
world, escape into solitude and how the religious penitents, afflict, because it starts from the knowledge that only a
constantly gedemthigter will in the renounced order can be obtained; Another will still remain in his profession; Mom
is still the tears of unfortunate quiet word and deed; a fourth is fighting for his people and for all mankind, will be quite
use his worthless life, so that the movement for the ideal state in which alone held the redemption of all, would a
Those who completely withdraws in the denial of the will to be, deserves the admiration of the world's children; for
he is a "child of light" and turns on the right track. Only the ignorant or evil dare to pelt him with mud. But more must
and should be appreciated Those, who can move immobile inside, the outer man violently and suffering to his darkened
brothers |
i 222 help: tireless, stumbling, bleeding again raising the flag of redemption never leaving out of his hand until he collapses in

the struggle for humanity and the magnificent gentle light in his eyes goes out. He is the purest manifestation on this
earth: a Sage, a savior, a winner, a martyr, a wise hero. -
Only it will all agree that she died of vulgarity and are immune to all that they can move the natural selfishness that
they despise the life and love death. - And a sign of recognition will carry all his forgiveness. "You're not jealous, it
does not swell up, they endure all that they tolerate everything," they do not and stony condemn not, they always
apologize and only friendly commend the way in which they have found such delicious silence and the glorious peace.
I mention here is the strange condition that can precede the denial of the will: the hatred of self He is to compare a
transition state, and the muggy spring night in which the buds open..
In conclusion, I still want to say a word about the religion of redemption.
By Christ only to the promised Kingdom of Heaven, which is not only just and merciful, but also bear injustices and
tortures without bitterness:
But I tell you that you should not resist the evil, but if anyone gives you a trick on the right cheek, turn to him the other also.
(Matthew, 5, 39.)
he demanded almost complete self-denial by humans. But while he also the One who suppress the sex drive, promised
a special reward, he urged the people to completely abandon its individuality to ertdten its natural egoism altogether.
Why does he put these heavy demands? The answer lies precisely in the promise of the kingdom of heaven; because
only he who its original individuality lost in Adam |
i 223 died and Christ is risen, can be truly happy and attain inner peace.

Because this is a truth that can never be overturned, yes because it is the highest truth, the philosophy can not set
others in their place. And therefore the core of Christianity is an indestructible and contains the flower of all human
wisdom. Because the irrevocable movement of humanity is the basis of Christianity, his ethics resting on unshakable
base and can go only when humanity itself goes down.
Now, if the immanent philosophy must confirm the claims of the mild Savior easy, it may on the other hand, of
course, the dogmatic reasons for it not recognize. The educated our time, it is equally impossible to believe the dogmas
of the Church, as it was impossible for the faithful Christians of the Middle Ages in against his Savior the gods of
Greece and Rome or the angry God of Judaism. Thus the indestructible core of Christian doctrine now will not be
thrown away with the belief and thus vanish the possibility for humans, in the very heart peace to partake, it is the task
of philosophy to establish the truth of salvation in harmony with nature.
This ethic is the first attempt to solve this problem in a purely immanent areas with purely immanent means. He
could only be made after the transcendent area had been completely separated from the immanent and proved that both
areas are not next to each other, or each other, but that one went down, as the other was. The immanent followed the
transcendent and consists alone. The simple premundane unit has set in multiplicity, and this made the origin of a
simple unit to a fixed self-contained Collectiv unit with a single movement which, as it relates to humanity, the
movement out of being in the absolute death is.
The Mohammedanism and Christianity: the former is the best of all bad religions, the latter the best of all great
ethical religions behave the immanent philosophy in |
i 224 Intention to what is promised after the death of morality of the mind, as the two eldest daughters Lear's his latest,
Cordelia. During Mohammedanism the virtuous a life full of promises intoxication and lust, so an increased blood life
and Christianity promises him the state of eternal contemplation and intellectual delight, so a geschwundenes out of
consciousness blood life can give him the immanent ethics only to sleep, "the best food on the life meal "offer. But as
the physically exhausted all deflects and only sleep willing, will also tired of life only death, the absolute annihilation
in death, and grateful he took the certainty out of the hand of the philosopher that no new state awaits him, neither of
bliss nor the agonybut that all states disappear by themselves with the destruction of his innermost being.

i 225

In the life of humanity everything is common, everything
Only one development; The individual belongs to the whole,
But also the whole to the individual.
Who knows the natural law also in the history and
Acknowledges, can prophesy; Who does not, do not know what
Tomorrow, and he would be minister.
Who is not from three thousand years
Knowing to give account,
Stay inexperienced in the dark,
May live from day to day.
i 227

Politics is about the movement of all humanity. This movement results from the aspirations of all individuals and, as
we had to show in ethics without proof, viewed from a lower point of view, the movement toward the ideal state, the
highest of which is the movement from life to absolute death, Since a standstill in the ideal state is not possible.
This movement can not bear any moral imprint; For morality is based on the subject, and only the actions of the
individual, contrary to the movement of the totality, can be moral.
It is carried out only by irresistible force, and is, as a general rule, the omnipotent destiny of mankind, all that
opposes it, be it an army of millions, crushed and broken like glass; But from then on, when it flows into the state, it is
called civilization.
The general form of civilization is therefore the state; Its special forms: economic, political and spiritual, I call
historical forms. The main law according to which it is carried out is the law of suffering, which causes the weakening
of the will and the strengthening of the mind. It is divided into several separate laws, which I call historical laws.
Our task is, first, to show the course of civilization at the chief events which history has handed down to us, and to
read off the forms and laws in which mankind has developed into our own time, on the basis of the turmoil of
phenomena; Then the currents
i 228 In our period of history, and finally to consider the point to which all the series of developments present point. We shall
at all times, especially in the latter work, avoid losing ourselves in detail; Because it would be almost presumptuous to
ask in detail how the future will be shaped.
In ethics, we have briefly led the state back to a treaty that brought an end to the natural state. We were allowed to
do so, because in ethics, for the time being, only the fundamental laws of the state are important. Now, however, it is up
to us to examine more closely the conditions which gave rise to the state.
The assumption that the human race has a single origin is by no means in contradiction with the results of natural
science, while on the other hand it gives an excellent foundation in every respect to philosophical politics. Moreover,
the set of full-bodied truth flows from it, freely and convincingly for all, that all men are brethren, and one must not, in
order to win them, believe in an incomprehensible unity concealed behind the individuals, By intellectual intuition.
The primordial man can only have moved very gradually from the animal to which he had sprung. The gap between
the two can not have been great at first. What they called forth at all was, as it were, the breaking up of the germs, in
which the faculties of reason were still completely closed, or, in physiological terms, a small increase in the mass of the
brain. From the point of view of my philosophy, however, it was the division of another part of the movement of the
will to life in the guide and the steered, as an expression of the deep longing of the will for a new mode of movement.
The new facilities were fortified and inherited. There can be no question of a rapid growth; It must rather be
assumed that after several generations a halt has taken place in this direction. The development lay entirely in the
development of the individuals, or, in other words, the law of the development of individuality prevailed
i 229 But the first period of mankind. It was only when the individuals had increased in such a way that they had to attack
and suppress animals, did the distress put on the intellect, and further developed it. There is no doubt that the
imagination was that which unfolded the earliest. With his help reason was able to think in pictures, to link the past
with the present, to fix causal connections in pictorial connexion, and thus to first construct raw weapons and kill them
intentionally. In the further development of the development, the tender germ of the power of judgment, probably in a
few privileged individuals, strengthened, and the first concepts were formed, from whose composition inflexible, crude
natural languages arose. Reason, as it were, drove coastal shipping; She could not yet go to the wide sea of abstraction,
but had to keep an eye on the individual things of the intuitive world.
The multiplication of men, favored by a very strong sexual impulse on the one hand, and on the other by the
favorable conditions of the country which inhabited the first people, aroused an ever-increasing spread. The people
were still divided into groups, on the other hand, in the contiguous fields with which they were concerned, and with the
animal world.
The gap between these herds of animals and the primitive peoples can not be filled with certainty. The long period
of time was governed by the laws of development and friction. The former weakened the intensity of the will
decisively, if only gradually, so that a great difference between generation and generation could not take place. In most
of the documents of the human race there are reports of gigantic individuals, and there is still less reason to doubt them
than all the living beasts of prey have preceded more powerful species, and even the course of mankind known to us
teaches a diminution of the vital force, Whereas the increase in life-time proves nothing.
i 230 The law of friction, on the other hand, strengthened the intelligence, but very little in this period, since the necessity
could not have been great.
Thus we enter the porch of civilization, where we find the true natural peoples: hunting, cattle-raising, Driving
tribes. Since we can not determine in any way whether the course of development of prehistoric mankind has always
taken place in groups, or in decay, in families which reunited only later, it remains at the discretion of every one to
think of the process want. We proceed best from families into which the groups disintegrated, and which feed on tree-
bred and slaughtered animals; For man is essentially unsociable, and only the utmost noth or its contrast, the boredom,
can make him sociable. It is, therefore, much more probable that the powerful primal man, when he could rely on arms
and his small, but superior, intelligence, the animal, followed his independence, and singled out for a continuous
training in the group.
If we were to look at such a huntsman only according to his idea, he was a simple will to live, that is, his natural
egoism did not encompass any will, which had been diverted in different directions, no will-qualities. He only wanted
to be there according to his certain simple character and to maintain himself in life. The cause of this is to be found in
the simple way of life and in the limited spirit of the savage. To the intellect lay only to find the few objects which
satisfied hunger, thirst, and sex. If the need was lifted, man sank into laziness and laziness.
To the simple will, which is not to be thought of as wild and unruly, corresponded to the small number of its states.
Apart from the usual state of dull indifference and that of instinctive fear, he was capable only of passionate hatred and
passionate love. He hated everything that was obstinately in his way, and sought to destroy it;
i 231 On the other hand, he embraced everything that his individuality could expand with love and sought to preserve it.
He lived with a woman who might have accompanied him on his expeditions, perhaps working only in the hut, and
taking care of the fire as well as the children. The character of the family was raw and still quite animal. The woman
was the man's beast-of-burden, and when the children were great, they moved on and founded their own family.
Opposed to the nature powers, the huntsman was scarcely different from the animal. He did not think further about
the elementary powers. However, here and there his dependence on nature and his impotence may have entered his
consciousness, and, as a lightning, illuminate the night of his carelessness.
Out of this monotonous way of life, people were thrown out of food. They had in the meantime grown again in such
a way that the hunting grounds of the individual had suffered a serious diminution and did not offer enough game. The
evil could not be lifted by a simple move, for the places of the earth favorable to the hunts were all inhabited, and the
love of his hunting ground, which held him there, stepped into the inclination of each.
Then those who were nearer to each other gathered together temporarily, in order not only to push back the
intruders, but also to destroy them. If the danger was averted, they disappeared again. Meanwhile, the character of the
family also changed. In the first place, the sons were no longer able to procure an abode; secondly, it was in the father's
interest to use the power of the sons to strengthen themselves by the same. The family band was tightened up, and now
real hunters emerged, whose limbs penetrated the consciousness that they belonged together, which was not possible
before. Since the same conditions prevailed, all the families were gradually to be united into huntsmen, who no longer
came out of the war with each other. From then on he belonged to their occupation, and in the constant friction which
he produced, he again raised man's spiritual power to a higher level.
i 232 The war, as well as the now common peaceful occupation, demanded a strong upper leadership, which stood above the
power of the family leaders. The strongest or most cunning was chosen as leader in the war and the arbitrator in peace.
Now the immense following difference between law and injustice also entered the consciousness of man, which binds
and tightens the will of the individual as the enmity of the whole nature. Now certain acts (theft and murder) were
forbidden within the cooperative, which were permitted outside them, and an iron compulsion for the will ensued,
while the spirit of every one arose, no longer under the main line of the demon, but with the Prudence and reflection.
In this way, however, Noth threw men into the legal co-operative, the first crude form of the state, but their
organization was a work of reason and based on a contract, in view of all circumstances. On the one hand, the family
members of the family recognized that the cooperative could not be dissolved, but on the other hand that they could
only exist on certain bases, and agreed that these foundations should henceforth be unshakable. Whatever may be said,
the laws against murder and theft are the product of an original treaty which had to be concluded. State constitutions,
social conditions, and other laws may have been established in a one-sided manner, but these two laws, on which the
most perfect and the most imperfect state must be founded. They came into appearance only by means of a convention,
with logical force, and if they were removed today, all of them would again conclude the same original treaty. There
was by no means a far-reaching glance, no profound wisdom necessary to establish these two necessary legal barriers.
When the cohabitation, which was not to be circumvented, was given in an endangered co-operative society, they had
to be done with necessity.
Mankind made a very important advance when, by the help of chance, the benefit was recognized, which was
derived from the
i 233 Domestication of certain animals, and cattle-raising entered the appearance. From the hunts' tribes, shepherd tribes
branched off, which could cover all the areas which had been unused since then, as a result of which the development
of individuals and the spread of mankind increased.
The new way of life brought about great changes. At first a gradual transformation of the character took place. Not
that the will had already been divided into individual qualities: to this the conditions were still too simple, the
intelligence too weak; But the whole will experienced a moderation, as the place of the exciting hunting and of the
most destructive destruction had been a peaceful, monotonous occupation.
At the same time, man became aware of his relation to the visible world, and the first nature religion emerged. On
the one hand, the causal connection of the sun with the seasons, with the fertile pasture, was recognized; On the other
hand, the precious herds, on whose preservation life depended, were often exposed to wild beasts or to devastating
elemental administrations. In contemplating these relations, one came to the ideas of good and evil powers, friendly to
the man, or hostile, and to the conviction that by worship and sacrifice the one was to be reconciled, and the others to
be preserved in a benevolent disposition.
According as the nomads, spreading ever further, came in regions of milder or rugged climates, this simple natural
religion received a friendlier or gloomy color. Where the blessing sun prevailed, the evil principle was very much in the
background, while the good was approached with reverence and confidence. On the other hand, where men were in
constant struggle with nature, where wild beasts, in large numbers, were destroying the herds, and forest fires, glowing
deserts, drove men and beasts into destruction, the frightened man lost sight of the good principle: all his poetry And
costumes was directed only to soothe and graciously to condemn the cruel, wrathful deity, embittered with the
imagination, by sacrificing the beloved, which he had.
The form in which the nomads moved was patriarchal
i 234 Cooperative. The head of the tribe was prince, judge, and priest, and a reflection of this threefold violence fell upon
every father of the family, whereby the character of the family became much more serious and firmer than among the
In these simple forms and ways of life, mankind may have been moving for thousands of years. The law of habit
dominated all, and its product, the custom, laid itself ever more firmly around the will. The germs of will-qualities may
have already formed in individuals, but they could not develop, since all conditions were still lacking. Life was too
monotonous. All were free; Everyone could become a father of a family, that is to say, violence, and the supreme
power was essentially limited. In short, there was a lack of great contrasts, which intersect the mind and stir up the will.
On the other hand, the mind worked quietly on the higher level gained; He became more contemplative, more
objective, in the regions of a mild, even climate, and could thus sink into the nature of things more easily. On this
course he had to go to many small but important inventions and discoveries, until he finally recognized the usefulness
of the stalks, and gradually began to grow the grasses concerned.
Now a solid ground had been gained on which civilization could settle and begin its triumph; Only now could their
supreme law, the law of suffering, manifest itself in the ever-increasing friction, improve the will, and enlighten the
The next consequence of agriculture was a great development of individuals. The number of people had to be
greatly increased because, on the one hand, this land could now feed ten times more people than before, and on the
other hand fewer people were destroyed in the war.
In the course of time, however, overpopulation arose, a great evil, which could only be remedied by massive
emigration. It may be assumed that in the Asian regions
i 235 North of the Hindu and Himalayan mountains, the first transition from the nomadic life into agriculture took place and
the complication first appeared. From the strong, tenacious, and brave people of the Aryan, great parts separated,
which, equipped with domestic animals, plow and grain, made their way to the west, and found a new home on various
points of Europe. Finally, the whole tribe decided, probably in recognition of the fact that the land he inhabited was not
suitable for agriculture, and that the only way to secure a permanent and secure existence was by an industrious
treatment of the soil, perhaps also heavily impelled by Mongolian nomads Residences. They moved southward, and
while a part turned to the present Persia, another of the valleys of the Indus took possession. Here the Indians remained
so long, till overpopulation began; Then they undertook a great campaign against half-savage hunter and nomad
peoples, who inhabited the northern half of the peninsula, and brought it to a successful end. They did not, however,
merge with the vanquished, but erected a caste-state, one of the most important and necessary forms for the beginning
of civilization, in which we shall note various new laws.
It is clear that the ancient Indians had already left the patriarchal organization in the Indus Valley, when they had
been chiefly devoted to farming, and had become a settled nation, and had to give themselves another. Above all, the
work had changed. It was more difficult and laborious, and limited the individual more than the maintenance and
cultivation of cattle. In addition, the nomadic life has a very special charm. It is well known that Tatar, tamed by the
Russians, is indifferent to the employment of his fathers, and that even the German steppes are nomadic with body and
soul, and gladly turn away from plowing and gardening. No wonder! The only one who was allowed to take a look at
the steppe once was the irresistible power of magic. As she lay in the ornament of Spring: gently waving, surging,
lonely, still, endless! How well the man feels that flies over her on a fiery horse! How free, how free! - You will
i 236 Will not fail if dissatisfaction and rebellion are accepted in a large part of the people, which must be countered with
decisiveness and energy.
Farming also required a division of labor. Forests had to be cleansed, wild beasts were combated, equipment had
been built, houses were built, roads and canals were laid, and the field was regularly ordered and cattle were bred.
Also, the adjacent semi-wilds had to be kept from the conquered territory. The population grew steadily. The villages
became larger, and new settlements arose, which soon became villages and kept in close contact with the mother-
village. After all, the property conditions had also changed considerably, since the movable property had been the
property of the land, which became the source of frequent disputes. These had to be decided according to fixed norms,
which were to be established, and then demanded men who had an exact knowledge of the law.
All this commanded the establishment of a tighter force than that of the family leaders, chiefs, and leaders, and led
into the despotic kingdoms with army, officials, traders, etc. In the further development, the divorce of the priesthood
took place from the kingdom Who had occupied their whole time, and the simple natural religion had become a
religion with regular worship.
It is, therefore, to be assumed that the Indians, before they advanced as far as the mouths of the Ganges, were
already a people divided into states, but had no casings because there were no slaves. The strict caste-state came into
being only when a half-armed, unrestrained, and numerous people of the vanquished were taken into the frame of
society, and slavery had been established, and then only gradually.
The fact that a fusion did not take place is easy to explain. To the semi-savages of rude manners, ugly form, and
dark color, the proud, beautiful Aryan had to feel as a being of a higher kind, and to have a disgust with him before a
sexual intercourse with him. Then it would seem to be dishonorable to deal with those whom the most probable
i 237 And the lowest works, and which, in consequence of their obstinacy and obstinacy, had to be pressed into the dust with
an iron fist. Thus, in addition to the natural abhorrence, disdain, and both made a fusion impossible.
If we look at the foundation of the caste-state, we are first shown the law of the formation of the part, one of the
most important laws of civilization. We could have already seen that parts of tribes emigrated, and by a better soil
structure, a more favorable climate, and a more noble occupation, changed and reached a higher stage. In the civilized
state, however, it shows much more clearly, and shows all its might.
It was only by the fact that a part of the people had taken away every concern for the daily bread at the beginning of
civilization. For only "idle hands give active heads." In the struggle for existence, Noth can make an invention, but art
and science can flourish only in the air of carelessness and produce ripe, juicy fruits.
Then we are faced with the law of the unfolding of the simple will. I am now making this law too, for the contrasts
in the caste state reached their climax; For it is clear that, even in the first period of a sedentary tribe, divided into
states, there were motives in abundance which had to extract the will from its simplicity.
In the individuals came pride, ambition, fame, vanity, covetousness, enjoyment, envy, obstinacy, folly, wickedness,
malice, cruelty, etc. But also the germs of noble willpower, such as mercy, valor, temperance, justice, benevolence,
benevolence, fidelity, Attachment, & c.
At the same time the states of the will had to be more varied. Fear, grief, joy, hope, despair, compassion, loss of
pain, repentance, conscience, aesthetic delight, etc. took turns alternately of the heart and made it more visual and
It is self-evident that (and still is) carried out
i 238 Under the influence of the motifs grasped by the mind, the transformation of the character is only gradual. A slight
change, like everything that takes hold of the will, passes into the blood as it were, enters into the power of procreation,
transcends into the new individual according to the law of heredity of properties as a germ, and develops according to
the law of habit.
We also have to remember the law of binding the new individuality. The simple natural religion could no longer
suffice for the researching, objective spirit of the priests. They deepened into the context of nature, and the short,
painful life, between birth and death, became their main problem. Nasci, laborare, mori. Could they praise it? They
had to condemn it and brand it as an aberration, a defeat. The knowledge that life is worthless is the flower of all
wisdom. The worthlessness of life is the simplest truth, but at the same time that which is most difficult to recognize,
because it appears in innumerable veils. We lie as it were upon her; How should we find them?
The Brahmins, however, had to find them because they were completely removed from the struggle for existence,
could lead a pure contemplative life, and be able to use all the strength of their minds to solve the world treason. They
also took the first position in the State: no one could be happier than they (happily employed in the popular sense of the
word), and therefore the truth of the shadows which does not cast down the judgment of the lower ones, That fortune is
gilded in the heights, and can not penetrate the valleys, but that it is really so in the world, but not everywhere. As they
dived into their inner being, they explored the world and their empty hands directed the world.
But the knowledge, grasped by the will, that life was worthless, indeed essentially unhappy, had to produce the
longing for liberation from existence, and the direction in which it was to be achieved gave the absolutely necessary
limitation of natural egoism by the fundamental laws of the state , "Limit the instincts released by the state, limit
natural selfishness entirely, and you will be liberated," reason had to close, and she concluded correctly.
i 239 The pantheism of the Brahmans, into which the Indian nature religion had been transformed, served merely to support
the pessimism: it was only the version for the precious gem. The disintegration of unity into multiplicity was conceived
as a failure, and it is taught, as is clear from a Vedah, that three parts of the fallen primal being had already been raised
out of the world, and that only a part of the world was represented. On these redeemed parts the wisdom of the
Brahmins transmitted what every brethren of humanity so deeply desired and was not to be found in the world: peace,
peace, and salvation, and taught that only through the killing of individual will man could be united with the primordial
being , Otherwise the immortal ray, which is contaminated in every human being, from the primal being, so long, by
means of the wandering of the soul, must remain in the agony of existence until purified and ripe for salvation.
This gave the caste state a holy consecration. It was not a human work, but a divine arrangement with the imprint of
the greatest possible justice, which had to reconcile all with its fate; For through the higher castes there flowed a stream
of beings who had earned the higher position, and it was given to the power of every low-born to be taken into this
stream after death.
According to the whole doctrine, the Brahmins now forced themselves into the strictest ceremonial, which stifled
every emotion of their will. They went completely under the law, leaving nothing to their own discretion so that they
would be completely secured against excesses. For every hour of the day special actions, such as ablutions, prayers,
meditations, sacrifices, were prescribed, and no one was left to fill even one minute. They went even further, and added
to very heavy fasting the greatest possible self-tendencies, which aimed to untangle man completely from the world,
and to render the will and the spirit completely indifferent to all.
In a similar way, they regulated life in the other case, and were singing inseparable bonds around each individual.
To the fear of the most severe punishments in this life, the |
i 240 Others after terrible agony after death, and under the influence of these powerful motifs the most tenacious and wild
will had to succumb to life.
What therefore took place in the despotic caste-states of the ancient Indians was the removal of man from the
animal kingdom, and the binding of the simple character which had separated in the will of the will by political and
religious compulsion. The same took place in all other despotic states of the Orient with necessity. It was a question of
instigating people, in whom the demon alone ruled, who were still completely sunk into a dreamlike natural life, still
full of wildness and laziness, to restrain, and to drive with the whip and sword on the way of civilization To whom
alone salvation is to be found.
The history of Babylon, Assyria, and Persia shows two new laws of civilization: the law of rot, and the law of the
merging by conquest.
It is essential to civilization, that it begins according to the law of education of the part, in small circles and these
then expanded. Civilization is not opposed to the movement of indigenous peoples; because both types of movement
have a direction. The former is only an accelerated movement. The movement of a natural people is that of a ball on an
almost horizontal surface, the movement of a Culturvolks other hand, to compare the fall of the ball into the chasm.
Figuratively spoken, now civilization has to draw all people into their circle the endeavor; it has all of humanity in
mind and is not even the smallest cooperative in the hidden corners of the earth.
Among the laws which provide that it shall proceed in this case, including the two mentioned. Each Culturstaat
seeks to get in his individuality and strengthen the same as much as possible. Thus, the imaginary States were initially
against them made by other states separating nomadic hordes and hunting peoples who disturbed their limits incursions
into their territory, robbed and murdered, turn and try to make them harmless. They subdued them and added them as
slaves in their community one. Once countries had moved together in this way |
i 241 sought to weaken each other, or as soon as it allowed his power and his interest is labor-time required, is the same all

In the former case, in the lower classes of the state found by conquest, a fusion of wild peoples with those which
were already sealed under laws, instead, whereby also at times different peoples Race (Aryan, Semites etc.) were
mixed; in the latter case the members of the higher classes were pushed down to the lower classes. Through these
confusions and mergers, the character of many underwent a transformation.
The movement, which takes place according to the law of the conquest is a strong from the interior of the state to
the outside, that, however, which is the law of putrefaction basis, is a strong from the outside into the interior of the
state. but the result of both is the same, namely fusion of peoples, transformation of individuals, or even in general
terms, expansion of Civilizations circle.
In the imaginary kingdoms took time undisciplined individuals of the higher classes. The highly trained
individuality slipped gradually all the rings on what had set custom, law, and religious obligation to her, and her,
directed only to sensual pleasure for happiness she gave to a state of relaxation and softness. Now found strong
mountain peoples or nomads who were either out of state or were tied with a thin thread to him, no resistance. They
broke, attracted by the accumulated treasures of culture, in the limp ruled communities and rushed either the marshy in
the common people down, or merged with them through sexual mixing.
The circle of civilization expanded further, and still expands, according to the laws of colonization and the spiritual
fertilization. Among the ancient Oriental peoples, it was especially the Phoenicians, who spread through trading
culture. Overpopulation, dispute in the noble families and other causes brought about the building of colonies in distant
i 242 areas which continue to be formed independent states and remained closely linked to the mother country.

Then the Phoenicians went from one nation to threads and mediated thereby not only the exchange of excess
products, so that the wealth of states significantly increased, but also brought anywhere in the intellectual life of fresh
movement by igniting sparks from the found of preferred peoples truths threw those peoples who did not have the
strength to become self-oscillate at a higher level of knowledge. In this regard, the merchants of antiquity are to be
compared to those insects, which are determined in the economy of nature to fertilize female with hanging on their
wings remained dove male flowers.
I said above that the main law of civilization is suffering, which the will weakened and the spirit may be
strengthened. It represents the people continuirlich around and makes him more susceptible to the disease. At the same
time it can continually flow through the Spirit powerful motives to him which give him no rest and increase his
suffering. In this, offered by the spirit generated from the Spirit motifs well designed in the Orient, we need to take a
quick look now.
Every nation that entered the Culturstaat, could not stop at his natural religion: there she had to deepen speculative;
because the intelligence grows with necessity in the state and its fruits must therefore be other than in the non-
Who can keep his eye free of confusion and is not blinded by the multiplicity of phenomena, will find nothing else
in every natural religion and in every purified religion than the more or less clear expression of the dependence feeling
which feels every person the universe over. Not the philosophical knowledge of the dynamic relationship in the world
is in religion, but about reconciliation of the individual with the inferred from the phenomena of nature omnipotent will
of a deity.
i 243 In Asian nature religions which shattered the omnipotence of the world and personified the splitter, the trembling

individual reconciling the angry gods by external sacrifices. In the refined religions other hand, it offered the deity by
limiting his inner being. The outer sacrifice which was maintained, was only an indication of the actually completed
inner limitation.
It is extremely significant that such a restriction of the inner man, which, as mentioned, until the complete
separation of the individual from the world went with the Indians, could even be required and has been almost
demanded everywhere. What could you, as I said, knowing of the Godhead? Only their will as revealed in nature. He
was clear enough, namely almighty and merciful soon, soon devastating. But how to grasp its purpose? Why not stay at
the outer victims and went so far beyond? I have already given up the answer. The spirit of individuals had developed
in such a way that human life be judged in itself and not because of the standpoint of Urtheilenden by favorable
conditions, had the necessary height,could be judged correct. Now the intention of the deity was interpreted as meaning
that the individual should bring her his whole being victimized.
After all, there is an ever-admirable fact of history that only such a great and deep religion, like the Indian
pantheism, could build on the correct judgment about human life. You can not be explained otherwise than that,
exceptionally, the demon powerful people in the knowledge starred and sent up hunches from the depth of his feeling
on the occasion of given by the spirit proper subject (contempt of life), which took the mind in terms.
Oh, I saw floating above the world's like a dove that seeks a nest for breeding, and the first soul glowing with rose in the
solidification had received the idea of redemption.
For the main truth of Indian pantheism is located between a start and end points uniform Ent | winding gear,
i 244 not only of humanity but of the universe. Could not find him except the Spirit? Impossible! What could you know about
this movement at the time of the Indians? They only had the survey of their own history, which a beginning, still
showed neither an end. They looked into nature, they saw the sun and the stars rise and set regularly follow regularly
on the day, the night and the night the day, finally tend organic life to graves and rise again from graves. All this was a
circle, not spiral, and the core of the Indian pantheism but that the world is out of a simple primary being that lives in it,
lost in it, cleans and finally return the world annihilated, in the pure primordial becomes.
The Indian sage had only a solid base: people. They felt the contrast of its purity with the meanness of the savage
and the contrast of their hearts with peace of unrest and agony of life hungry. This gave them a development with a
beginning and end, but the development of the world they could only by a brilliant flight on the wings of the demon,
reach divination.
Meanwhile, this truth of the uniform movement of the world, which was not to prove and therefore had to be
believed, was also heavily bought with a simple unit in the world. Here lies the weakness of the Indian pantheism. With
a simple unit in the world is the over and over again intrusive fact of inner and outer experience, the real individuality
incompatible. The religious pantheism and after him the philosophical (Vedanta) resolved the contradiction by force, at
the expense of truth. They denied the reality of the individual and the reality of the world, or more precisely, the Indian
Pantheism is pure empirical idealism.
This had to be. From the uniform process of development could not be left: it was based on the redemption. He
related a simple unit in the world, because otherwise a uniform movement of the universe would not have to explain,
and the simple unity of the world asked themselves imperiously reducing the whole real world to a world of illusion, a
mirage | fancy
i 245 (veil of Maya); because when a unit acts in the world, no individual may be real; it is only todtes tool, not thinking

Against the Sankhya doctrine, which denied the unity and advocated the reality of the individual rose. the
Budhaismus: From it the main religion in Asia developed.
The core of the Budhaismus is the teaching of Karma: everything else is fantastic Ausputz, which is to rely on the
statements of the successor to the great man. This all praise sublime, albeit one-sided teaching I will come closer in
metaphysics and in the Appendix, to which I refer. Here I must be brief.
Also Budha went from the worthlessness of existence as pantheism, but he stopped at the individual whose course
of development was the main thing to him. He put all reality to the individual, Karma, and made this all-powerful. , His
fate ie its course of development: it creates, just under its specific character (under the direction of the sum of evil and
the sum of good, flowed from the character in earlier biographies deeds better). None other than the individual lying
power has the slightest influence on his fate.
The process of development itself the individual being determined Budha as a movement from an incomprehensible
primordial being in non-being.
Hence it appears clear that even Budha's atheism had to be believed as the uniform movement of the universe and
the hidden simple unity in it which taught pantheism. In addition, the full autonomy of the individual was hard bought
with the denial of the actually existing in the world, totally independent from the individual rule of chance. Everything
we call chance, is indeed the individual, bewerkstelligte from his karma out scenery. So Budha denied at the expense of
truth, the reality of the effectiveness of all other things in the world, that is almost the reality of everything else, and
there was only one reality remains: which in its skin feeling and sensing in self-consciousness self.
The Budhaismus is therefore, like the Indian pantheism Crasser absolute idealism.
i 246 This had to be. Budha presented with right to the reality of the individual, the fact of inner and outer experience. But he

had to make the individual completely autonomously, ie denying a uniform process of development in the world,
because he would otherwise have been led to a unit in the world, which taught pantheism of necessity: an assumption
against which he, like any clear empirical head bristled. However, the high-handedness of the I demanded necessarily
reducing the rest of the world, the non-ego, a world of illusion and deceit; because if only the ego is real in the world,
the non-ego may be only an illusion: it's decoration, Coulisse, scenery, phantasmagoria in the hands of the only real,
autocratic individual.
The Budhaismus bears as pantheism, the poison of contradiction with the experience in itself. That denies the reality
of all things, other than that of the individual, and also the dynamic context of the world and a uniform movement of
the Collectiv unit; This denies the reality of all things and knows only a simple unit in the world with a single motion.
The Budhaismus however, is the human heart much closer than pantheism because the unknowable unit can take
root in our mind never while us nothing is more real than our knowledge and our feeling, just our ego, the Budha rose
to the throne of the world.
In addition, taught by Budha individual movement from the primordial being by the being (resistant becoming,
rebirth) in the non-existence is unmistakable properly while in the movement, which teaches the Indian pantheism, the
incomprehensible blunder of the original being must take into purchasing: a heavy load.
Both teachings make the enemies love their confessors possible; because the world is only appearance of a simple
unit and flows each individual fact from this unit directly, so the one who insults me, haunts me and torments, just my
enemy, entirely innocent of all, I added is indeed evil. Not he gives me pain, but God does it directly. I wanted to hate
the enemy, I would hate the whip, not my tormentors, which would be absurd.
i 247 And Everything hits me, my work, so has me very well, do not be offended my enemy, but I have even insulted me by

him. I wanted to be angry with him, I would just act stupid like I was beating my foot because he slipped and took me
to the case.
By Budha taught the equality and brotherhood of all people exoteric, breaking the caste system, he was also political
of social reformer; However, this movement came not in India. The Budhaismus was gradually suppressed all over the
large peninsula and had the islands and to other countries (behind India, China, etc.) escape. In India proper it remained
in the box means and pantheism.
In Persian Zend religion the evil forces of nature religion into a single evil spirit and melted the good to a single
good spirit are. All the individual from the outside limited: darkness, drought, earthquakes, harmful animals, storms etc
went out of Ahriman, everything against what promoted the effectiveness of the individual to the outside of Ormuzd.
but inside it was just the opposite. The more man limited his natural egoism, the more powerful manifested itself in him
the pure light of God, but the more he followed his natural impulses, the deeper he sank into the nets of evil. This could
only be taught based on the knowledge that life on earth was void. The Zend religion has a movement of the whole
universe, namely the union of Ahriman 's with Ormuzd and the establishment of the kingdom of light by the gradual
destruction of all evil on earth. -
These three excellent ancient religions had to be on the development of its adherents in ancient times from the
biggest influence. They set up the looks of the people in his heart and caused him due to each intrusive certainty that an
incomprehensible omnipotence determine the destiny, to ignite on the frescoed from fantasy benefit.
Brahmanism threatened the recalcitrant with the transmigration of souls, the Budhaismus with rebirth, the Zend |
i 248 with the misfortune that flashes through man's chest as he lies in the embrace of Ahriman; however, the former attracted

the waverers with the reunification with God, the second with the total liberation of the existence and the Zend religion
with peace in the bosom of the light of God.
the Budhaismus particularly powerful has taken the souls and made the wild, defiant, strrigen characters gentle and
mild. Spence Hardy, by all the inhabitants of Ceylon speaking, says:
The carelessness and indifference of the people among whom the system is professed are the most powerful Means of its
conservation. It is almost impossible to move them, even to wrath.
( Eastern Monachism 430.)
(The carelessness and indifference of the people, which is committed to teaching Budha's, are the most powerful means for
the preservation of doctrine. It is almost impossible to attract these people, they can not be put into a rage itself.)

The Semitic peoples of Asia, with the exception of the Jews, so Babylonians, Assyrians, Phoenicians, not have the
strength to deepen their natural religion to ethics. They remained at the outer victims are, which, however, had to affect
individuals by extremely painful, but did not work consistently on the character. The mothers who put their children in
the red-hot arms of Moloch, and the young women who, could be dishonor to the festivals of Mylitta brought the
Godhead most dear, what they had to the victim; then, must to the deep pain of the mother who had burned their child
not be doubted, and Herodotus says explicitly that the disgraced Virgin no longer surrendered, one you might not have
as much. But what bought the individual with that horrific sacrificeswas well-being in this life. The religions are not
distracted the will of this life and did not give him a fixed target at the end of the track. In addition, the cruel victims
were bad motives, and it so happened that the people gradually lost all support and forth between boundless sensual
pleasure and boundless contrition and herschwankte and agonized.
The ancient Jews, however came to a purer religion |
i 249 which is all the more remarkable when Christianity entsprote from it. She was rigid monotheism. God, the unknowable
otherworldly beings, the Creator of heaven and earth, holding the creature in his almighty hand. His verkndigter of
enthusiastic prophets will demanded unconditional obedience, devotion to the law, strict justice, constant fear of God.
The Godly was rewarded in this world, the violator terribly punished in this world. But these half independence of the
individual to Jehovah against was only an illusion. The correct relation of God to the individual was the same as in
pantheism of the Indians. The Fall of Man, the Zendlehre borrowed, won only in Christianity, as original sin, prestige
and importance. The man was nothing but a toy in the hand of Jehovah;for if God did not look directly at him, so he
had theEssentia from which the deeds flow created: it was his work alone.
The Jews were also precisely because of their monotheism, no movement of the universe.
One generation passeth away, and another generation cometh; but the earth abideth for ever.
The universe has no goal.
The ingenious objective recognition then bethtigte still among the ancient Oriental peoples, including the
Egyptians belong, in the field of science and art.
Mathematics, mechanics and astronomy were compassionate care with the Indians, Chaldeans and Egyptians, and
although the results obtained were poor in itself, but they gave other nations, notably the Greeks, spur end stimulation.
The judgment, this important and magnificent power of the human mind which, produced on the basis of the
research drive, which practically so extraordinarily effective and theoretically so deep ethical religions of the Orient,
also revealed itself very clearly as a sense of beauty and created, in conjunction with the reproductive instinct, very
significant works of art. But, as the powerful imagination in science significantly limited the judgment, |
i 250 so she lay down and, like a nightmare, the sense of beauty, and beauty could rarely pure and noble unfold.

In architecture, the formal-Nice the room was, especially in Egypt, a serious and dignified expression. The temples,
palaces, tombs, etc. were colossal, but symmetrically arranged masses that form the eye and had to tune the mind
sublime. By contrast, were the works of sculpture, what art was all in the service of religion, fantastic, excessive and
rather calculated to meet the people with fear and throw in the dust but to stand. In the blissful state of simple aesthetic
contemplation they could convict him in any way.
A very high degree of perfection climbed the poetry. The religious hymns, especially the magnificent Vedahymnen
had to tune the worshipers solemnly seize powerful and give a purer pursuit in them, while the war songs and epic
poems inflamed to bold deeds, courage in supporting the souls.
In general, the tightness of the individual is reflected in the Oriental art by the omnipotence of nature: the individual
still could not get a word because it had not yet recognized its power. This rush from the outside looked sparking the
speculative, depressing the forming spirit, and we can say that already floated high in oriental antiquity the genius of
philosophy above the clouds, while the genius of art with the tips of its wings nor the earth grazed.
We now turn to the ancient Greeks, which generated fertilized by oriental art and science, a very peculiar culture.
The same brought great transformations in simultaneous and subsequent States produced and still acts as a powerful
ferment in the life of civilized nations.
I have already pointed out above the great influence exercise which climate and soil on the religious beliefs of a
people and thus on his character. As long as man only contrite and trembling of the Godhead, the embodied fate to
approach dares him the consciousness of his That force will not rise and his consciousness of other things a cloudy |
i 251 and be defective. If they have the superior force of nature known mostly gracious voted as him, he will see her entering

the eye, trust her and thereby gain to themselves and courageously and soothes occur.
So mainly based the entire political and intellectual life of the Greeks on the influence of the beautiful country that
they inhabited. Such a rich soil, so mild, sunny climate could people do not make slaves but had to favor the
maintenance of a serene nature religion and place the individual in a dignified relation to divinity. This but the
character of the Greeks was gradually harmonious; the natural indestructible individuality did not, so they do not
gerathe out of control and fall into regression, be fully bound by laws, but was allowed to leave a margin in which they
trained themselves to noble personality.
The first consequence of this free personality that the Greek nation never came to political unity. They broke up into
a number of independent urban and rural communities, which were initially only in a loose Bundesverhltni and later
the supremacy of the most powerful state subordinated themselves. Only the common religion and the National
resistant strains linked to an ideal whole.
This state fragmentation in a small ground, under the protection of a kind of international law, favored significantly
the development of all investments of the rich talented people; because according to the law of nations rivalry, which
clearly meets us here for the first time, every state has sought to project over the other by force, and therefore had to
bring all forces its citizens to develop and Bethtigung.
was the further consequence of the free personality of the Greeks, that the constitution of the state has been so long
subjected to alterations, until all the people came to actually rule. In all Greek states ruled Initially kings who sacrificed
as chief judge, the laws did manage the gods on behalf of the people and had the lead in the war. Their power was
limited by a council whose members were drawn from the nobility. To you the people, which was coming no influence
on the direction of public affairs was. |
i 252 However, this situation changed gradually by internal upheavals, after which also were taking us for the first time meet

ends laws of merger by the revolution.

First, the nobility put the monarchy contrary, rushed there and erected in its place the aristocratic Republic. but then
it was the common people, which struggled for political freedom. His efforts, however, were fruitless so long until
disputes among aristocrats broke even and the lower footwall of the people made thing to theirs in order to take
revenge. In this way, the bond between rulers and ruled loosened more and more until it finally tore completely and
reached the people in possession of the autocratic power.
This inner Verschmelzungsproce was extremely important for the refinement of the people. Every now had his
highest good with the public weal coincide, and next to a glowing patriotism which enabled the small people to the
highest deeds, was a general education, beneficial for the individual and for the totality.
But as the distinct personality of the Greeks was the cause of the elevation of the people to rule and the demolition
of barriers between the stands, it was also the cause that after the Persian Wars, the individual came off more and more
of the whole. Each overestimated himself, thought best to know everything and to understand and sought to shine. The
personality has become overripe individuality in which restless man, as in a fever dream, back and herwlzt. Soon the
life force flares up high, she soon falls, the extinction close, back, a sure sign that the will to live has exceeded the
height of his existence and the beginning of the end has approached. The individual is doomed to destruction! The
sunny way of fine, soft feeling,mobile Greeks seem incalculably far from the muddy abzuliegen the Asian Schlemmer,
and in fact they are quite different; because on the one smoky vitality in lust and sense tumble, on the other man loses
the quiet and safety comes into ever greater sway - but both methods have a goal: the absolute death.
i 253 The result of this drop of the individual from the totality was the disintegration of the latter. The friction between the

parties grew, until the putrefaction was so common that the law of fusion could reappear by conquest. This is reached
in old age Greek people was subject to strong, hardy Macedonians. - In the life of mankind always act the same laws,
but the circle of civilization is always bigger.
The motives which produced the Greek genius for all humanity, let us now devote a brief consideration.
The natural religion of the Greeks, a cheerful polytheism was not recessed speculative, but artistically transfigured.
While the old Pelasgians had, before its merger with the Greeks, made a start under Egyptian influence, religion
educate (Eleusinian Mysteries), what was a favorable ground in the closed caste of priests, but stopped the movement
than the old caste system below and the priesthood passed to the kings. The only speculative thought which emerged
and was dogmatic, was the concept of fate. It did not melt the gods together to a deity, which determined the Loose of
mortals, but sat on the gods and men the iron fate as a fact. They had gained an excellent unit, which was certainly not
recognized by their nature,but to which all occurrences in human life could be traced back casually. One must pay
tribute to the austerity of the Greeks here the greatest admiration. They had recognized quite correctly that they were
purely of something abstract and their all formative, artistic spirit stepped modestly, but with love them so close
gerckten Olympian gathering. (The Furies are personified moral anxiety, the Fates only picturing the human life
course.) But this fear of the mysterious power clouded the judgment of the Greeks over the same. the fate of not one
introduced himself as one in any way resulting movement of the world, but as rigid about their walt forming fatality, it
was absolutely impossible to fathom.
i 254 Now, as the religion of nature, first, able in this way, no development, was second, untouchable because they constituted

one of the foundations of the state, while on the other hand, the progressive intelligentsia had the necessity to penetrate
the relation of man to nature as a whole, so built next religion philosophy.
It can not be our task to subdue the many Greek philosophical systems a consideration. There must be enough for us
to take some of them briefly in the eye.
Heraclitus, which I am convinced the most important philosopher of antiquity is, cast a very clear view in the
context of nature. He was careful not to hit the truth in the face and to blur the real individuals in favor of a dreamed-
unit, and taught that all was conceived in a river of becoming, have a perpetual motion. This, however, that he saw
arising life again where death had occurred, he was tempted to detect the movement of the whole as an aimless. He
construirte with the members of Being Not To Be and Not-Its an endless chain or rather a ceaseless cycle. By canceling
a determination, a determination is again set, and the way up (dissolution of individuality) immediately becomes the
way down (forming a new individuality).
Heraclitus, however was not mistaken as to the value of life, and so he taught also, that there could be no greater
happiness for the people, when fiery add this endless becoming, the General, and no greater pain as in the special in
their own self-existence, to withdraw, to buck against the abolition of a particular way of being, "to fatten like cattle
and to assess our true welfare of the stomach and the saddle Office healing, the most contemptible to us."
So what he demanded was that the individual can put into the movement of the whole through total dedication to the
general, but endless process, that is the natural egoism in the purified rebuke and moral act.
His teaching is a high and pure; but it suffers from the endless becoming.
As Heraclitus, Plato taught an endless cycle. He seized |
i 255 as a composition of images of, behind the world in eternal rest, painless and happy living ideas to the world. The human

soul comes from this pure world of ideas, but can not return in the long run in them. The soul leaves the body, in
connection with which it can only lead an impure life, so she goes, she did not succumb to the sensuality, but the
virtues of wisdom, courage, temperance and justice exercised in a state of quiet bliss one, otherwise, they must migrate
so long in other bodies, until it has won their original purity again, and thereby the imaginary state can partake. In this
state, but the mind can not stay, they must, after a certain time (after a thousand years De Rep . X.) again choose an
earthly Loos. Then the cycle begins again.
The mere acceptance of a divine pure soul, which is chained to a reprehensible sensuous faculty of desire, the
condemnation of human life was.
Apart from the circuit, as Heraclitus and Plato have thrown through their teachings motives in the world which had
to bring in some hearts longing for a purer state and horror of a life of injustice and lawlessness. thus they refined the
mind and stimulated at the same time the thirst for knowledge of which is a valuable asset as it withdraws man from the
common pace of this despicable world.
Aristotle I mention only because he was the first turning to the individual in nature and thus laid the foundation of
the natural sciences, without which the philosophy would never come out of the mine, and to have a pure knowledge
can continue form.
I also Herodotus, the father of history, to mention; because the story is so necessary for philosophy as science. The
latter extend the knowledge of the dynamic relationship in the world, but can only be unsteady on one end of
becoming, what does matter All show. The survey, however on the past life of mankind leads to the main circuits;
because the story confirms what remains subjective experience and must therefore always doubted (namely the
individual from the clearly recognized |
i 256 fate resulting truth that everything has a specific goal) by the fate of humanity in a way that no one can doubt it: a large

If it was therefore only granted the Greek genius in the field of science to bear separate from the philosophy of
religion, science and history, which, as had to be handed over to the coming generations to care for infants, it has
however, on the realm of art reaches the highest.
As the nature of the country was the cause of it, that the individuality of the Greeks was trained as a free personality,
it was they who developed the indispensable for art sense of beauty and ripened rapidly to completion. It formed the
eye: the splendor of the sea, the splendor of the sky, the phenomena of clear air, the shape of the coasts and islands, the
lines of the mountains, the rich vegetation, the luminous beauty of human figures that grace of her movements; It was
the ear of the euphony of the language. The reason of beauty in things was scattered lavishly about the glorious land.
Where the eye might look, everywhere there had objectively irish harmonious movements. What magic lay in the
movement of individuals in wrestling, fencing,and in the movement of masses on festive elevators! What great
difference was the life of the people against the Orientals. Here strict solemnity and anxious reticence, yes, if you will,
produced by constriction stiffness, rigid ceremonial, deep seriousness - where moderate mobility of, swelling zest for
life by the hand of the Graces, simple dignity, alternating with anmuthsvoller serenity.
Then, when the souls of the immortal visual artists and poets of creation engine was awake; as the songs of Homer
to bold deeds enthusiastic and the dramas of Sophocles showed the power of fate and the interior of the human spirit
has become an objective; as a gentle Ionian music accompanied the sweeping anthems Pindar; as well the marble
temple shining and the gods themselves in transfigured |
i 257 descended human bodies to take up residence under the delighted people, - there was indeed only proven that lived in

each, as had so compacted only in individuals, which filled all. As in one night the buds were cracked and the flowers
of the formal-Fine had unfolded in everlasting splendor and glory.
had henceforth the Greeks, and the whole of humanity, in addition to the conceptual law a pictorial through it. While
the former enters with chains and swords on the individual and throws himself against the forced defiantly revolting
individuality to the ground and gags, is approaching the latter with a friendly face, the wild animal caresses in us and
binds us, our unspeakable comfort benutzend, with unbreakable flower wreaths. It raises the aesthetic dimension about
us and thus makes us feel disgust for violence and brutality that were previously indifferent, if not amused.
The art in this way weakens the will directly; indirectly but by how I showed in the aesthetics that they same,
instructs the science in people awakened after the brief intoxication of pure joy, longing for peace and blessed him
behufs lasting satisfaction. She pushes him over to the moral field. Here now he binds himself through knowledge,
without force of law.
It also lets the people through the dramatic poetry a look at yourself and at the inexorable fate toss and tells him
about the unfortunate beings on which acts in all that is and fights.
When Alexander the Great Greece had subdued, he appeared as a victorious conqueror in the East and carried
Hellenic culture in the realms of despotic constitution: to Egypt, Persia and India. There was a great fusion of
Orientalism and Hellenism; the rigid formality, the crushing ceremonial was broken, and a pure breath of fresh air
flowed into the closed gloomy countries. By contrast, oriental wisdom flowed abundantly than before in the West, and
fertilized the spirits.
i 258 In addition to this intellectual Befruchtungsproce physical Verschmelzungsproce walked. Both met the specific

intentions of the young hero. He married a daughter of the Persian king and let in Susa unite in wedlock 10,000
Macedonians with Persian women.
Although the great empire founded by him fell apart after his death, but remained in the various parts of the
Hellenic culture, as the strongest and noblest of all, predominant and modeled the people around gradually. The great
mass of the people had decided won. The Greek was a mild Lord, and humanity became the strict custom, in which
also the oriental master had to bend. The pressure of the iron hand subsided, and the raw, wild individuality wore down
by the law could be to aspiring personality; at least she had gained the requisite to greater mobility, the ability to be
allocated from the mass.
Similarly, as in Greece also prevented in Italy's benevolent nature, that the religion of immigrant peoples Aryan
stock caught an all-buying and crippling power was. It was the outdoors as there, win the personality and thereby create
states of great vitality and with civilisatorischem professions.
The struggle of the lower multitude about rights, which corresponded to the duties, a struggle that is taking place
according to the law of the merger by circulation in the interior, was stubborn to the Romans as the Greeks, because
those had a more rugged and tougher character than this. Piecewise the plebeians had to gain the share in the
government of the state and it took almost five centuries until they finally all offices were accessible. When the
constitutional disputes were over who had the most beneficial effects on both sides, because the intelligence has been
sharpened, the flowering of the Roman state, the age of true civic virtue began.
Now together the good of the individual coincided with the good of the whole, and this line had to give great inner
peace and extraordinary bravery the citizens. Obedience |
i 259 against the laws rose to the warmest patriotism; Each had only one ambition: the power of the community to strong and
maintain the state at its height. In this way, according to the law of nations had rivalry, Rome into the path of conquest,
it was not likely to leave with necessity, as was until it comes to world domination; because every new appreciation for
the kingdom brought the state with new elements into contact, whose power he could not tolerate the presence from
self-preservation. And so gradually emerged the great Roman Empire, which almost Smmtliche civilized states of
antiquity united in itself. In the vast state the most diverse peoples with diverse customs and religious beliefs and
diverse Culturzustand surged confused.Now reappeared the laws of intellectual fertilization and the merger in the
foreground and partly generated new characters, partly abrasion and transformation of the old, under the influence of
little by little formative general culture.
This and the growing up heaping riches then caused the greatest Fulniproce from which the story reported. The
customs of the old Republicans: Breeding, Simplicity, moderation and Resilience disappeared more and more, and
laziness, self-indulgence and self-indulgence took their place. From then on there was no subordination of the
individual to the whole.
The life in large
Joint elements want to
Not mutually more with the power of love
embrace to constantly renewed unity.
They flee, and individually now entering Each
Cold reset itself.
Everyone thought only of himself and his lowest advantage and was not satisfied with his share in the sum of goods
as produced in a beehive, the devotion of the individual to the totality. The increased intelligence had also the safe
movement of people destroyed, because the more whole movement splits, ie the greater sensibility and irritability, the
fluctuating is the will. The safest movement of the flat head.
i 260 There was nothing more holy: neither the will of the deity that was ridiculed, nor the country, the protection of which
was left to the mercenaries, was still sacred. Everybody believed to be able to pick up the venerable contracts for his
person. there was only one goal yet, which could bring a few Romans to the inner collection and her heart to
incandescence: the rule. Most taken soon so soon that would soon this, soon that and snatched after all. They had lost
all seriousness and arrived on the slope that leads to destruction. The friction reached its peak and wore down their iron
hands in the greatest passion is austobenden people. The bloodiest civil wars broke out; the same was followed by total
exhaustion of the people, which led to the establishment of despotic empire.
Those who are absorbed in the putrefaction and Absterbungsproce Asian Militrdespotieen, Greece, and Rome's
and only has the movement at the bottom of the eye that wins the captive knowledge that the course of mankind is not
the appearance of a so-called moral world order, but the bare movement is from the life in the absolute death, which,
everywhere and always, alone arises quite naturally from the efficient causes. In physics, we could come to no other
result than one the that emerge from the struggle for existence always highly organized beings, that the organized life to
renew again and again, and it was an end to the movement not to be discovered. We were in the valley. In politics,
however, we are on a clear peak and see an end.However, we see not yet clear that end in the period of the downfall of
the Roman republic. Still, the morning fog the day of mankind have not completely cleared and the golden sign of
salvation Aller flashes here and there from the veil that hides it; because not all of humanity was in the form of the
Babylonian, Assyrian and Persian state, not even in the Greek and Roman state. Not even Smmtliche peoples of these
empires have died. It was as if only the tips of branches of the great tree which withered. but |because not all of
humanity was in the form of the Babylonian, Assyrian and Persian state, not even in the Greek and Roman state. Not
even Smmtliche peoples of these empires have died. It was as if only the tips of branches of the great tree which
withered. but |because not all of humanity was in the form of the Babylonian, Assyrian and Persian state, not even in
the Greek and Roman state. Not even Smmtliche peoples of these empires have died. It was as if only the tips of
branches of the great tree which withered. but |
i 261 we see clearly in the operations, the important truth: that the civilization kills. Each people entering the civilization, that

merges with a faster movement, falls and is shattered in depth. None can get in his masculine force Each must be
decrepit, degenerate and live it.
It does not matter how his consecrated the absolute death individuals fall into destruction; whether according to the
law of putrefaction: ratty, wallowing in the mud and mire raffinirter lust; or according to the law of individualism:
because they give disgust throwing away all the delicious fruits no more satisfying, is consuming in weariness and
boredom, back and herschwankend because they have lost the firm will and clear objectives,
Not choked and lifeless;
Not despair, not given.
or morality: in the ether of bliss verhauchend their lives. Civilization seizes and kills them. Such as bleached bones of
the way through the desert, so refer to the monuments crumbled Culturreiche, the death of millions announcing the path
of civilization.
But salvation found all Shattered and they deserve it. For what sensible would have the courage to say: salvation is
only the One to part which it has acquired through philanthropy or chastity? All that rushes down the fate in the night
of utter destruction, the liberation of themselves have dearly purchased by suffering alone. Until the last penny they
have thus paid the ausbedungene ransom that they ever lived: for life is spoiled by thousands of centuries they had
when hungry will to live, now in this, now in that shape, restless forward, always the whip. feeling in the neck, pushed,
kicked, mangled; because they lacked the liberating principle: the thinking reason. When they finally came into
possession of the precious good,there grew even more the friction and distress with the growing intelligence. And
getting smaller was the blazing will heat until they sank into a restless flickering will-o'-the extinguished the slightest
breath of wind. The hearts were quiet, |
i 262 they were redeemed. Pure genuine happiness had found them on their long track for a short time the most, then that is

when they gave themselves completely to the state and their patriotism everything congregation tied them down threw
to the bottom of her soul. Her whole life was the rest of blind urge and, in the consciousness of the mind, forced,
hardship and heartache.
In these Auslsungs- and Absterbungsproce that ran in the historical form of the Empire fell, like oil into the fire,
first the good news of the kingdom of God.
What Christ taught?
The ancient Greeks and Romans knew no higher virtue than justice. Moreover, their efforts went on in the state.
They clung to life in this world. When they thought of the immortality of their souls and the kingdom of the shadows,
his eyes were cloudy. What was the most beautiful life in the underworld against the bustle in the light of the sun?
But Christ taught charity and love of enemy and demanded the unconditional rejection of the people of life: hatred
of one's life. He therefore called for the lifting of the innermost being of man, which is insatiable will to live, he had
nothing more in man-free; he bound and tied to the natural egoism from all, or, in other words, he demanded slow
But as man, precisely because he is hungry will to live, praising life as the highest good, then Christ had to give the
impulse after earthly life is a counter-motive, which had the power to withdraw from the world, and this massive
counter motive was the kingdom of God, eternal life full of peace and bliss. The effectiveness of this counter-subject
was raised by the threat of hell; but hell came into the background: she had only the determination to terrify the
allerrohesten minds to furrow the heart so that the hope of a pure light lives for ever and ever could take root.
There can be no traffic Teres thought of as the assertion that Christ does not require the full and complete separation
of the individual from the world. The Gospels make about his |
i 263 demand pay no doubt. First I will give indirect evidence of the hand of the preached virtues.

You have heard that it was said, Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself, and hate your enemy.
But I tell you: Love your enemies, does good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and
persecute you.
(Matt. 5, 43-44.)
Can the love his enemy, in which the will to live is even more powerful?
The word does not grasp everyone but whom it is given.
For there are some eunuchs, which were so born from their mother's womb, and are blended Many who made eunuchs by
men, and there are eunuchs who have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven's sake. He that is able to grasp it.
(Matt. 19, 11-12.)
The can exercise the virtue of virginity, which also captures only a single thin filaments of the world?
Direct evidence appears from the following locations:
So even every man among you, not absaget all that he has can not be my disciple.
(Luc. 14, 33.)
Want to be perfect, go, sell what you have,, and give it to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven; and come, follow
(Matt. 19, 21.)
It is easier for a hawser to go through a needle's eye, than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God.
( Ib . 19, 24.)
In these places, the separation of man is first of all outward possession, ties him up so much of the world requires.
The severity of the claim gave the disciples of Christ the most naive and most eloquent expression as they perfect, with
respect to the latter statement, asked in horror:
Yes, who can be saved?
But Christ demands much, much more.
And someone else said, Lord, I will follow you, but |
i 264 permit before me that I make a farewell to those who are at my house.
Jesus said unto him, No man having put his hand to the plow and looking back, is fit for the kingdom of God.
(Luc. 9, 61-62.)
If any man comes to me, and hate not his father, mother, wife, children, brothers, sisters, even his own life, he can not be my
( Ib . 14, 26)
Whoever loves his life will lose it, and whoever hates his life in this world, it will keep it for eternal life.
(Joh. 12, 24-25.)
Here, then, Christ asks further: first, the rupture of all sweet heart ties; then from now all alone and completely free
and single people standing there hatred against himself, against his own life.
Who wants to be a true Christian, must not and can finish with life no Compromise. Either - or: tertium non datur . -
The reward for the full resignation was the kingdom of heaven, that is, the heart peace.
Take my yoke upon you and learn of me; for I am meek and lowly in heart; and ye shall find rest unto your souls.
(Matthew, 11, 29)
The kingdom of heaven is peace of mind and absolutely nothing beyond the world Lying, such as a city of peace, a
new Jerusalem.
For behold, the kingdom of God is within you.
(Luc. 17, 21.)
The true followers of Christ passes through death into paradise, that is, in absolute nothingness: it is free of itself, is
completely redeemed.
From this it is also that hell is nothing but heartache, Daseinspein. The world child goes only apparent death out of
hell: it had gone already again completely under their control.
These things have I spoken unto you, that ye might have peace in me. In the world you have tribulation.
(Joh. 16, 33.)
i 265 The relation of the individual to nature, of man to God, can not profound, and are the true as shown in Christianity. It
occurs only veiled, and deduct this veil is the task of philosophy.
As we have seen, the gods emerged only in that individual Thtigkeiten non abzuleugnenden force of nature were
personified. The unity, God, was created by the merger of the gods. but still was the fate resulting from the movement
of all individuals in the world resulting unified movement, either recorded partially or completely, and the personified
accordingly. This configuration of an abstract ratio was in the direction of the mind in which the imagination of the
judgment predominated.
And always the deity was given all the violence: the individual recognized in total dependence and therefore
considered himself nothing.
In pantheism the Indians this relation of the individual to unit comes completely naked to light. But even in the
monotheism of the Jews, it is unmistakable. Fate is a much more ruthless, terrible power, and the Jews had absolutely
right that they imagined God as an angry, zealous spirit they feared.
This proportion now changed Christ with a firm hand.
Following on from the fall, he taught the original sin. Man is born sinful.
From the heart of man proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, fornication, murders, thefts, covetousness, wickedness, deceit,
lasciviousness, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, foolishness.
(Marc. 7, 21-22.)
Accordingly, his individual fate initially designed from himself out, and all the evil that strikes him, all the distress
and pain, falls solely of Adam's sin, in which all people have sinned, too.
In this way, Christ took from God all the cruelty and ruthlessness and made him a God of love and mercy, a faithful
father of the person to whom you trust, without fear, can approach.
i 266 And this pure God now directs the people so that they are redeemed all.

For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world; but that the world might be saved through him.
(Jn. 3, 17)
And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, I will draw them all to me.
(John, 12, 32.)
This redemption Aller will take place throughout the course of the world, we are touching the same, and that
gradually, by God will gradually bring mercy to the hearts of all individuals. This direct intervention of God in the
hardened by original sin mind is Providence.
Are not two sparrows sold for a penny? Still the same shall not fall to the ground without your Father.
But the very hairs of the head are all numbered.
(Matt. 10, 29-30.)
Providential grace effect is a cut, as if the flower.
There no one can come to me unless that draws him to the Father who sent me.
(Joh. 6, 44.)
we stay here for a moment. What happened? Was that fate itself, the world movement, suddenly become gentle and
peaceful? Trat henceforth in the world no more evil on: no epidemics, no diseases, no earthquakes, no floods, no wars?
the people had all become peaceful? the fight was stopped in society? No! all this remained. Continues to be the
world's course carried the terrible character. But the position of the individual to God had totally changed. The course
of the world was no longer the emanation of a single power; He now arose from factors, and these factors from which
he produced himself, had been strictly separated. On one side stood the sinful creature who is to blame for their
misfortune alone, is by his own will,and on the other side stood the merciful God the Father who guides everything for
the best.
The individual fate was henceforth the product of original sin and of Providence (of grace): the individual
concerned to |
i 267 half independent and half it was directed by God. A large, beautiful truth.

So is Christianity between Brahmanism and Budhaismus in the right middle, and all three are based on the correct
judgment about the value of life.
But not only Christ taught the movement of the individual from the earthly life in paradise, but also a unified
movement of the universe from being into non-being.
And it will be preaching the gospel of the kingdom in the world, a witness over the nations; and then the end will come.
(Matt. 24, 14.)
Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words shall not pass away. But of that day and hour no one knows not even the
angels in heaven, nor the Son, but the Father.
(Marc. 13, 32.)
Here, too, Christianity united the two-sided truths of pantheism and Budhaismus: it links the real movement of the
individual (individual fate), which recognized Budha alone, with the real movement throughout the world
(Weltallschicksal), which was considered alone pantheism.
Thus Christ had the deepest look that is at all possible, thrown into the dynamic context of the universe, and this
puts him high above the exhibit pantheist of India and Budha.
That he knew Brahmanism and Budhaismus one hand, and the elapsed history of mankind on the other hand, rinse,
no doubt may be subject. After all, this important knowledge is not enough out to explain the origin of the greatest and
best religion. One must take the mighty demon of the Savior for help, who supported his mind in the form of hunches.
To determine the individual fate of the people all the requisite evidence lay in the pure, wonderful personality of Christ,
but not for the determination of Weltallsschicksals, the course of which it finds nevertheless unhesitatingly when he
confesses his ignorance in regard to the time of the end, open ,
But of that day and hour no one knows - - neither the Son, but the Father.
i 268 Who apodictic certainty he speaks against it from that factor of fate, which helps independent of the people who make the
individual fate!
I speak that which I have seen with my Father.
(John, 8, 38.)
and then the wonderful place:
but I know him. And so I would say I do not know him, I would be a liar, just as you are. But I know him, and keep his
saying. (Joh. 8, 55.)
hereby Compare the judgment of the pantheistic poet about the unknowable, hidden unity in the world:
Who can call him?
And who confess:
I believe him?
who feel
And under squirm
To say: I do not believe him?
The All-Enfolder,
The All,
Summarizes and he does not get
You, me, himself?
Who unprejudiced examines the doctrine of Christ, is only immanent Material: peace of heart and heartache;
Individual wills and dynamic context of the world; Single movement and Weltallsbewegung. - Kingdom of Heaven and
Hell; Soul, Satan and God; Original sin, providence and of grace; Father, Son and Holy Spirit; - this all is only
dogmatic cover for recognizable truths.
But these truths were the time of Christ not recognizable, and therefore they had to be believed and occur in such
cases that were in effect. So was the question of John:
Who is he that overcomes the world, but he that believes that Jesus is the Son of God?
full authorization.
The new doctrine seemed enormous. The beautiful, poignant words of the Savior:
i 269 I have come that I have set a fire on the earth; I wish that it were already kindled!
But I must be baptized before with a baptism, and how am I straitened until it be accomplished.
Suppose ye that I am come to give peace on earth? I say no, but rather division.
(Luc. 12, 49-51.)
came true. "Every great idea, as soon as it enters into the phenomenon affects tyrannical," says Goethe. therefore their
truth has the extraordinary power because it goes immediately to the conscience. Man henceforth know a greater good;
It clutching his heart and how he may also shake, it does not let go of him. And so was the teaching of Christ, once
thrown as a new subject in the world, not to destroy. First took the lower, the despised, the outcast. "All men are
brothers, are children of a loving Father in Heaven and everyone is called to participate in God's glory part." For the
first time the equality of all was taught before God in the Occident, solemnly declared for the first time that before God
no partiality person applies,and for the first time, the religion tended to each individual down, took it lovingly in her
arms and comforted it. She turned his gaze from the rapidly developing life in this world of eternal life and sat clearly
and definitely set the price at which it was to acquire, "Love your neighbor as yourself; But will you certainly get the
imperishable crown of life, so never touch a woman. "The longing for the kingdom of heaven had chest of becoming
larger in chains languishing than no chance existed that by internal upheavals personal , civil and political freedom of
all would ever be a truth. But why should they be the truth at all? How soon the short life is over and then freedom is
indeed saved forever!took it lovingly in her arms and comforted it. She turned his gaze from the rapidly developing life
in this world of eternal life and sat clearly and definitely set the price at which it was to acquire, "Love your neighbor
as yourself; But will you certainly get the imperishable crown of life, so never touch a woman. "The longing for the
kingdom of heaven had chest of becoming larger in chains languishing than no chance existed that by internal
upheavals personal , civil and political freedom of all would ever be a truth. But why should they be the truth at all?
How soon the short life is over and then freedom is indeed saved forever!took it lovingly in her arms and comforted it.
She turned his gaze from the rapidly developing life in this world of eternal life and sat clearly and definitely set the
price at which it was to acquire, "Love your neighbor as yourself; But will you certainly get the imperishable crown of
life, so never touch a woman. "The longing for the kingdom of heaven had chest of becoming larger in chains
languishing than no chance existed that by internal upheavals personal , civil and political freedom of all would ever be
a truth. But why should they be the truth at all? How soon the short life is over and then freedom is indeed saved
forever!She turned his gaze from the rapidly developing life in this world of eternal life and sat clearly and definitely
set the price at which it was to acquire, "Love your neighbor as yourself; But will you certainly get the imperishable
crown of life, so never touch a woman. "The longing for the kingdom of heaven had chest of becoming larger in chains
languishing than no chance existed that by internal upheavals personal , civil and political freedom of all would ever be
a truth. But why should they be the truth at all? How soon the short life is over and then freedom is indeed saved
forever!She turned his gaze from the rapidly developing life in this world of eternal life and sat clearly and definitely
set the price at which it was to acquire, "Love your neighbor as yourself; But will you certainly get the imperishable
crown of life, so never touch a woman. "The longing for the kingdom of heaven had chest of becoming larger in chains
languishing than no chance existed that by internal upheavals personal , civil and political freedom of all would ever be
a truth. But why should they be the truth at all? How soon the short life is over and then freedom is indeed saved
forever!But will you certainly get the imperishable crown of life, so never touch a woman. "The longing for the
kingdom of heaven had chest of becoming larger in chains languishing than no chance existed that by internal
upheavals personal , civil and political freedom of all would ever be a truth. But why should they be the truth at all?
How soon the short life is over and then freedom is indeed saved forever!But will you certainly get the imperishable
crown of life, so never touch a woman. "The longing for the kingdom of heaven had chest of becoming larger in chains
languishing than no chance existed that by internal upheavals personal , civil and political freedom of all would ever be
a truth. But why should they be the truth at all? How soon the short life is over and then freedom is indeed saved
forever!But why should they be the truth at all? How soon the short life is over and then freedom is indeed saved
forever!But why should they be the truth at all? How soon the short life is over and then freedom is indeed saved
The new doctrine then took especially the women. The character of the woman is by constant oppression for
millennia, even in part, by pampering in civilization, a much milder than that of the man. Woman is preferably
merciful. The religion of love now had to speak about the prdisponirte mind the greatest violence in their circle a |
i 270 women exercise. They were the main propagators of Christianity. Their example, their way of life was contagious. And
how would the new generation show the nobility of their souls. Just think of Macrina and Emmelia, grandmother and
mother of Basil, at Nonna, mother of Gregory Nazianzen to Anthusa, the mother of Chrysostom, to Monica, mother of
Augustine and the shout of the Hellenists Libanius: What Women but which the Christians!
Finally, they took the educated who felt a terrible emptiness in themselves and must have been unspeakably
miserable. They threw themselves to sink not quite in the mud, and because the spirit requires food, like the body, the
most crass superstition in his arms, let her imagination free rein and snatched by phantoms in great fear and trepidation.
Christianity gave them a firm goal and thus a certain direction. It sat in the place of endless developments of Heraclitus
and the endless walks of Plato, in the consideration of the people feeleth like a stricken from the burning thirst hikers in
the desert, one conclusion: the heartening quietude in God's kingdom. The ignorant, der Rohe, can be like a dead leaf
from the autumn winds,drive ever forward and his pain rarely brings to consciousness. But who of necessity is snatched
and recognized the restlessness significantly associated with life and has felt painfully in which awakens and becomes
more intense longing for peace, after dismissal from the flat, disgusting and bustle of the world. but the philosophy of
Greece could not quench the thirst. She flung the languishing, the consolation was looking at her again and again in the
process of the whole, which it was able to set a target. Christianity however, gave the weary traveler a rest point of
bliss. Who does not like taking as the incomprehensible dogmas in the purchase?in the wakes and the longing for
peace, to be relieved from the flat, disgusting and bustle of the world is becoming more violent. but the philosophy of
Greece could not quench the thirst. She flung the languishing, the consolation was looking at her again and again in the
process of the whole, which it was able to set a target. Christianity however, gave the weary traveler a rest point of
bliss. Who does not like taking as the incomprehensible dogmas in the purchase?in the wakes and the longing for
peace, to be relieved from the flat, disgusting and bustle of the world is becoming more violent. but the philosophy of
Greece could not quench the thirst. She flung the languishing, the consolation was looking at her again and again in the
process of the whole, which it was able to set a target. Christianity however, gave the weary traveler a rest point of
bliss. Who does not like taking as the incomprehensible dogmas in the purchase?Christianity however, gave the weary
traveler a rest point of bliss. Who does not like taking as the incomprehensible dogmas in the purchase?Christianity
however, gave the weary traveler a rest point of bliss. Who does not like taking as the incomprehensible dogmas in the
At all taken but it proved itself as a great power that can make people really happy. In the best time of Greece and
Rome's only a moral inflammation of the will of the knowledge was possible, namely patriotism. Who had recognized
the goods and come to appreciate that the state offered him, who had to inflame, and dedication |
i 271 to the state gave him great satisfaction. Another, higher motive than the welfare of the state, which could have taken the

will did not exist. But now internalized the belief in the blessed eternal life the minds, glowed and purged them, let
them accomplish works of pure philanthropy and made them already blessed in this life.
The Absterbungsproce the Romans then accelerated the re-Platonism. He is due to Brahmanical wisdom. He taught
entirely Indian, a great unit, the efflux is the world, but contaminated by matter. So that the soul of man deliver from
their sensual admixtures, but not the exercise of the four Platonic virtues, but the sensuality must be ertdtet through
asceticism enough. So a purified soul must now not again, as in Plato, back into the world, but sinks into the pure part
of the divinity and lost in unconscious potentiality. The New-Platonism, which has a certain resemblance to the
Christian doctrine, is the completion of the philosophy of antiquity and held against Plato and Heraclitus systems, an
immense progress.The law of mental insemination is never ever more significant and momentous emerged, as in the
first centuries after Christ.
The New-Platonism seized those educated, which questioned the philosophy of religion, and accelerated her death.
He later worked on the Church Fathers and in the dogmatic development of the doctrine of Christ. The truth is very
simple. They can be summed up in these few words: "For to live chaste and you will complete happiness on earth and
after death redemption" But how hard she remembers the victory.! How often she had already change the shape! as
masked they had to occur in order to ever gain a foothold in the world.
New Platonism and Christianity used the look of its adherents from the earth, which is why I said above that it not
only did not stop the decline of the Roman Empire, but it |
i 272 induce subjected. "My kingdom is not of this world," Christ had said. The Christians of the first centuries took to heart

the saying well. They settled slaughtered by the thousands rather before they gave themselves to the state. Everyone
was only concerned about his soul and that of his co-religionists. Earthly things might make as they wanted - which
could lose the Christian? But most life: and particularly the death was his profit; since the end of the short earthly life
was the beginning of eternal blessed life. This way of thinking was all penetrated so that one generally celebrated the
anniversary of the death of the martyr as his birthday.
was also raised when Christianity became the state religion, the Christians did not change their attitude. The bishops
used only their influence to abolish the bloody gladiator fights to let almshouses and hospitals everywhere arise and to
be able to convert more easily to those living on the borders of the empire barbarians.
So taken place at last the fate of the Roman Empire, and the greatest rot followed the greatest merger of telling the
As early as the second century BC. Chr. Parts had the living to the north of the Roman Empire vigorous peoples
Germanic tribe, the Cimbri and Teutons, trying to destroy the kingdom. But the time had not yet come when fresh, wild
blood, healthy, fragrant air of the steppe in the living, should regenerate the ailing Romans. The imaginary troops were
defeated by Marius and the most part destroyed. But 500 years later, the current could no longer insulate. Vandals,
Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Lombards, Burgundians, Suevi, Alans, Franks, Saxons, etc. broke from all sides in the state,
which had previously been divided into Eastern and Western Roman Empire. The horrors of the Great Migration defy
description. Where the wild tribes came, they destroyed the works of art,for they had no understanding, let the cities go
up in flames, murdered the greater part of the population, making the country a desolation. The fate showed unveiled
its destination and confirmed the Christian doctrine, the louder and more insistent the departure from the horrific battle
i 273 for existence and the separation of the individual from the world demanded.

Gradually, however, the raw troops sat firmly and mingled with the leftover civilized of the Western Roman Empire.
It sprung up everywhere new peculiar characters and strong mixed peoples who were more independent states. Only
those Germans who partly remained in Germany, were partly thrown back there, got to full strength into full original
force. Christianity was gradually succumbed in all new States, the dominant religion, and under its influence the crude
behavior, softened the hearts and were tamed.
In the abandoned residences of the Germans the Slaves which have been partly, peaceful drawn into contact with the
adjacent Germans and mixing peoples, partly subjugated by the same in the engaged civilization.
A short time after the offense caused by powerful nations from the north mixing had retired somewhat clarified and
new kingdoms, invaded from the south semi-wild people into the circle of civilization. The Arab Muhammed had met
on trading journeys Christianity and the Jewish religion, and it formed a worldview that inflamed him. The fate enters
her out very much and is properly marked: but only from the periphery, where it appears as a relentless, unstoppable,
running with necessity world movement. It hovers over the world, as with the Greeks, and helps no individual in the
world, from its very nature, make it by every being has in Allah's drive to run, what to do;while the correct view of the
fate of which is that it is from the movements of all individuals, the Sonnenstubchens both, as man, resultant of
movement throughout the world, and that there were out of the world alone, and here by the engagement of all the
necessaries actions of all individuals arises.
It urged the prophets to communicate the salvation found his people and at the same time in the higher forms of life |
i 274 of civilization, which he had learned to appreciate to introduce. He founded a new religion, Mohammedanism, with the

alluring paradise inspired the imaginative nomads of Arabia and gave them motives that drove them into the distance,
to the dying peoples of Asia Minor's, Egypt's, Persia's and North India's. As the Germanic peoples they conquered, in
hot fanaticism, all countries in which they entered until the new Romanesque Germanic kingdoms in Spain and France
came and found a dam on them. However, they established themselves in southern Spain. Here, and everywhere else,
they mixed in part with the old inhabitants, partly let them fertilize of the found high culture. So gradually developed a
very peculiar, so-called Moorish culture, which exerted great influence on the peoples of the West. The Moors
cultivated the sciences, especially mathematics, astronomy, philosophy, pharmacology, brought forth outstanding works
of poetry and formed from a delicate style that revealed the Formal Beautiful of space for a new direction to the
The law of mental insemination is quite evident in the simple Christian doctrine. It has its roots in the Jewish
religion, which is a purified under Egyptian and Persian influence natural religion, and in the Indian religions (probably
through Egyptian mediation).
In her training alongside that law entered the mental friction. For the first time, a religion was left up in the West;
she was not a firm foundation of the state, but hovering over it entirely free and turned to the individuals without
worldly help, now this, now another poignant. Now the professors with childlike sense would have kept to the simple
truth of salvation, which is to be misunderstood in any way, they would sects can not arise. But the brooding spirit sank
with delight into the secrets of God, the double nature of Christ, the relation of the Holy Spirit of God and Christ, etc in
the nature of sin and grace, and of course, the opinions had to go far apart here because the Holy writings |
i 275 are ambiguous in this regard. To this end, joined the efforts of the scholars (the superficial "Good guy" as they

contemptuously called the gloomy Heraclitus) to merge all the good elements of the philosophical knowledge of that
time with the revelation of God through Christ. So one-sided teachings were made for; a unified Christianity no longer
existed and the various schools of thought faced each other harshly.
The danger for Christianity was great. They aroused men who aufboten All to summon them. She championed the
single faith with skill, and their efforts finally succeeded, as the doctrine became the state religion and therefore was
necessary to make them an integral, inalienable fundamental for the community on councils to fine ethical scent of
Christianity in the fixed containers include dogmas. The heretics were persecuted, and even though the sects were not
eradicate completely, so they lost all but influence on the fate of mankind.
Later, however, resulted Rank disputes between the Bishop of Rome and the Patriarch of Constantinople Opel,
mainly exacerbated by the various interpretation of the Trinity to a split in the church in a Roman Catholic and a Greek
Catholic branch.
In order to successfully complete the fight with the Greek Church, which was protected by the Byzantine emperor
powerful, the Roman Church revived the Roman Empire again, and held first Charlemagne to the imperial dignity. The
emperor should be the representative of God on earth, a supreme arbiter in earthly things, and make this world a
reflection of God's kingdom. "Glory to God in the highest and peace on earth." The church paid homage to this view,
however, only as long as she felt weak. When she saw subjected to the Christian faith by the victories of their devoted
princes and the self-sacrificing action god avid wandering teacher, the greater part of the European countries, they
made the Pope the sole representative of God on earth.The Pope was wearing only his power to the emperor and only
as long as this concerned the instructions according to. Now came the long strife |
i 276 between papacy and empire, between secular and spiritual power, which is not yet settled today.

We have to look briefly now the states of the Middle Ages in the political, economic and spiritual sphere. -
Western Christendom was divided into a large number of independent states which recognized the emperor in
principle as the supreme Lord. In him was apparent, in fact, but in the Pope embodies an unwritten law, so that wars of
extermination against Christians were impossible and a lively political life could take hold according to the law of
nations rivalry.
The shape of the States was the feudal state. The king was regarded as the owner of all the conquered country. He
gave part of it to the high nobility, the high clergy and cities from, that he enfeoffed them with it, and received in return
military service and certain taxes. The mortgaged gave in turn part of the fief of their men and to the farmers, who were
at the service owe them for it.
For this general Lehnsverbande separated in time from the highest nobility, the church princes and the free cities.
They used their power to make their fiefs to free property, and on the other hand to strengthen the
Abhngigkeitsverhltni down. Most farmers have been pushed down to serfs and fell into distress and misery.
In this way the power of the king was paralyzed. He could almost only still serve the good of the state, when it
coincided with the private interests of men.
The feudal state was thus the breeding ground of the most excessive fragmentation. The Law of Education of the
part, which is called here the best law of particularism, came mightily in him. Each separated himself from his notes
and formed his personality from one side. There was an abundance of genuine defiant characters that have been
preserved from putrefaction because wealth was not available and the high in such a state of affairs friction forces
constantly received in voltage and protected them from sagging. Square, perverse, iron people who broke prefer tasks
than their personal sense! But they WUR | the
i 277 is not forgotten by the civilization! She let appear the same on its side and separate themselves to prepare yourself and

others great pain. Then came the Hochfluth which she tore into the stream of becoming, they schmelzte and let shoot
new Crystallen of softer nature.
If we now enter the economic territory of the Middle Ages, we have first to look at the work in ancient times.
The economic character of the old world is slavery. The ruling classes of the priests and nobles, those in possession
of the secret science, this sword in hand, leaving the lower classes work for them and became rich. While the people
starved because it was just so much allotted him sparingly as was necessary to continue a laborious life, the rulers
reveled in abundance. The wirthschaftliche focus in agriculture, which employs most of the slaves. The rest was used
to necessary items, such as clothes, weapons, implements etc to customize. The surplus of such products replaced the
ancient country, by means of merchants, opposed the luxury products of other countries.
Similarly, the wirth-Community relations in the Middle Ages designed. Slavery had been abolished by Christianity,
but their place was serfdom and bondage. The freer farmers had to do the Lord Natural services and etc. cede part of
their crops, their livestock at him.
The trades when they were not in the service of feudal lords, could the prevailing spirit of the age not escape and
were divided according to strictly closed guilds. For each location, the trades and for each trade were determined the
number of masters; also was precisely established in what way was the one Master, what number of journeymen he
keep what he was allowed production went.
In the intellectual sphere, the church prevailed. Your comment on the vigorous mixing peoples and pure Germans
was a |
i 278 other than the Christian doctrine of the Roman people. This had to lead fractions of a dying nation down to guide those

individuals Smmtliche uphill and dampen its vitality and mitigate.

Their effectiveness was initially extremely beneficial. It was the teaching of their exalted founder never unfaithful in
the main, but, like him, she turned directly to the individual whose meaning she did not lose sight of. All they preached
the saving truth, each was the way to her always free, each gave what she had any, each accompanied them from the
cradle to the grave. In the rude people wore the dichotomy between the natural selfishness and the clear commands of
God, gave them a more rigorous conscience and with it the moral anxiety, fear and terror: the best Bndigungsmittel for
wild blood. but on the ground wore down they threw handfuls the truth that life is worthless, and the seeds of hope,
love and faith in eternal bliss.
She turned to look at an imperishable good and was on the right track on which the creature can make peace with
their Creator. She forbade, supported by genuine Christian spirit, their priests marriage and as genuine Christian spirit,
they favored the establishment of monasteries that were a necessity and received in purity long. The being who put it in
the monasteries was, is and will always be present. The large community, the invisible Order of Renunciants grows
Since the church had to fear nothing as yet of science, it has gained in those times the merit of having rescued by the
literature of antiquity as much as she could. She buried the treasures in the monasteries where they were written, and
thereby preserve the people. With the monasteries she combined schools where, though protected only as a small
flame, science, better times could await. The priests were convinced of the truth of religion and its invincible strength.
This made them tolerant. They sat the efforts of the Church Fathers to maintain Hellenic science, continued. Later ver |
i 279 the church, and the view that what was not in the Bible is wrong and dangerous, gained the upper hand.

However, they favored the art by any means. The result was the so very important, very peculiar Christian art,
which, as it turned a significant training element, in addition to religion. The animated by genuine faith artists exhibited
the effects of divine grace in man is, and the minds of their works inflamed. The art led her deeper into the religious
one, approaching them to the embodied in Christ liberating principle and gave them inner peace through faith.
Similarly impacted the emerging everywhere magnificent Dome. The tall, sky aspiring vaults voted the soul
sublime, and she could be single all pressure bearing on the wings of an increasing number of the forming church
music, before the throne of God. The heart humbled, and the knowledge that all earthly joy, happiness, compared with
the pure life in the kingdom of Christ, nothing was struck igniting one in the same.
The church worked through the dramatic Passion Play, which penetrated with concussive power in the audience and
urged him seriously and with success that he was a stranger on this earth.
At the greatest and clearest strength of the Church in the Crusades from which we draw the important
Civilisationsgesetz of mental contagion revealed. High and low, hundreds of thousands to hundreds of thousands, took
the cross and went into the distance, to certain death in order to free the grave of the Redeemer. An electric current
passed through the whole of Christendom and enabled to brave all the difficulties the people to endure all hardships.
The Crusades are a very remarkable phenomenon. Those who are absorbed in it, which is, as put up his pledge in his
hands, that the whole humanity will redeem one day in a similar mood. It took the people not sensuous, but an ideal
subject and raised them about themselves. The spirit,prevailed in the first three centuries of the church, was revived and
brought that one, threw life with lust, like a heavy burden. -
In no period of history the bondage in all areas has been greater than in the Middle Ages. All life moved |
i 280 in rigid pressing forms. People went constricted from head to foot. The Spirit was bound, the will and the work were tied.

The apparently open, the clergy and knights, were slaves, like the others, because she tied the mutual restriction and
overall mental bondage.
This bondage in all directions has great resemblance which also only the natural rawness and wildness broken with
the Oriental in the old States to despotism, "the animal man had to be made from nothing to something." The will was
prepared in the new rich to be able to follow a great spiritual impetus, so that humanity had to make a big step ahead in
the registry.
In this solid organization of the peoples in the Middle Ages in the political, economic and spiritual sphere, the
invention of gunpowder first broke a large breach and led the transformation of the feudal state in the
Landesfrstenthum, later in the absolute state.
The power of the large and small men was broken and the nobility forced to join the since more and more coming
into receiving standing armies and in the administration of the prince. In the legal status of the privileged classes,
however, nothing has changed. Law were the nobility and clergy, the two ruling classes, but individuals had lost its
independence and gravitirte how the planets to the Sun, after the state supreme head. The movement culminated in an
absolute state in which the prince identificirte with the state ( l'tat c'est moi ). The Prince, the whole state summed up
by him alone depended the weal and woe of subjects off and the needle as the clergy, was only tool (in his hand to
execute his ideas, plans, ideas and whims tel est mon plaisir ). The shape of the absolute State was the same as that of
the despotic in antiquity; but the big difference between the two is that the latter is necessary for the beginnings of
civilization, who was appointed the former, however, which until very possible limit of particular training came in part |
i 281 withdraw stream of becoming. It was revealed here the law of Nivellirung.

The solid forms in the economic areas were the great discoveries and inventions: blown up, the invention of the
compass, the discovery of the sea route to the East Indies and America. It has been totally redesigned the production of
goods. Like the waves of the sea for as long wash out a rock to the summit can not hold and falls down, then pushed
powerfully and incessantly of the newly formed World Trade against the guild constitution. Now awakened in the new
countries needs had: clothes, implements, etc., and meets the needs of the ever-increasing in European countries
population. The requirements for the guilds were getting bigger; but how they should be able to meet them,if the
number of masters remained determined and no one was allowed production went a greater quantity of objects of the
same, was established as law? Since the band had to loosen. It stood beside the ongoing workshops of the guild masters
who worked for the local demand, the factories that were always loose linked to the guilds, and there was the historical
form of industry.
Your next consequence was that the law of the unfolding of individuality could lead to new power phenomena
again. The marriage was extremely limited in the Middle Ages. The journeyman almost never came to marriage, and to
the marriage, hampered by the difficult diet, witnessed only a few children. But the civilization wants all people to deal
put as much as possible in new individuals, so that the will is weakened directly and indirectly: directly through the
fragmentation, indirectly, by the greater friction. The beneficial consequences of the struggle for existence only then
pour out abundant over the combatants when they are pressed together in the tightest spaces and take of toes.
Anyway here attention to the impact made which produced the introduction of the potato in Europe. The People's
number |
i 282 rose rapidly; they quadrupled in Ireland, for example through the new foods. Which increase the friction!

Another consequence of the industry, which manifested itself in the political areas - the most important - was the
strengthening of the Third Estate, the burgher. Trade and industry had led the flower of cities from the earliest Middle
Ages and its citizens empowered to make the nobility of the environment and then also by the nobility in their midst
independent. But now the power of citizens grew with each day because they were daily richer, so that the nobility even
condescended to contact the armies of the established trade Compagnieen and serve the middle class to have a share in
the moveable property of hardworking and skilful businessman, as if by magic, brought forth.
In the intellectual sphere there was still unlimited the church. Science has staked her the room in which they had to
move, and they wore clear traces of iron pressure. What stunted flower was scholasticism!
At this domination but long ago shook before the Reformation sects and brought the first jumps on the large, steel-
hard historical form. The reason for this was the Fulniproce which had occurred in the uppermost layers of the
priesthood. While the lower clergy was in very tenuous situation, reveled princes of the Church, and especially the
waste of magnificence and immorality of most popes had no bounds. They used the church to achieve personal and
family purposes and profaned shamelessly Christ teaching. First spoke out against this degeneracy Peter Waldo, who
founded the congregation of the Waldensian. They renounced the pope and chose their pastor. In the bloody
Albigensian wars they were indeed almost completely destroyed,But the first impulse was given and had to create new
movements. A new good motive was given again and lit in detail. There were Wycliffe, Huss, Savonarola. The latter
two were rendered harmless by the Church and the tracks |
i 283 extinguished their effectiveness; but the fire was no longer dampen it glowed, apparently trampled to continue and

suggested at last as a light tan up when Luther published his theses against Rome in Wittenberg (31 October 1517).
Favored by the political position of the princes of Germany to the other, he hewed the form of the papacy, liberated
a large part Of those which the rigid walls had long since made the swelling life a misery, and sat next to the broken
form of another which the spirits afforded a wide margin.
The Reformation brought about two major transformations. Once she had the spiritual life of a healthy soil,
replacing the science of religion; they internalized the mind, by fanning the faith to new glow and looked back to a
higher better life than the earthly.
A spring labor went through the civilized world. Shortly before the Turks had destroyed the Byzantine Empire and
many learned Greeks had fled to the West, where they aroused the enthusiasm for ancient culture. There was a new
conception of the spirits; you delved into the works of the ancients, and grafted the noble Greek rice to the strong
Germanic tribe: classical antiquity married the gemthstiefen Middle Ages. Sun joined the new religion a new art and a
new independent science, which took on the many universities founded a sheltered, fertile soil.
The spiritual movement grew with every day, accelerated by the invented art of printing. The philosophy took a
completely different direction. Had since been martyred useless only in metaphysical musings, we now began to study
how the mind to all these wonderful words had come. It was the only right way. They doubted everything, left the
"boundless Ocean" and stood on the safe ground of experience and nature. the British were particularly worked in this
direction and are here Baco, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Hobbes to name.
In the field of pure science the great men brought: Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo and Newton produced the well-
known large revolutions.
i 284 It also created a new art. The Renaissance ushered in the art of building fresh surging life, and everywhere, especially in

Italy, created the most magnificent churches and palaces. - The sculpture drove a magnificent Nachblthe under the
influence of again came to the light of day ancient masterpieces, and the painting reached for the first time the clear
height of perfection (Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Titian, Correggio).
Like the painting, also the realistic poetry swung to the highest level (Shakespeare), and powerful, as never before,
the music came into existence: from now on a true great power of the mind (Bach, Handel, Haydn, Gluck, Mozart,
Under the influence of the large sum of these new designs, the spiritual life in the middle class designed always free
and deeper, and the life of the demon always noble. The development of the mind weakens the will directly, because
the mind can strengthen itself only at the expense of the will (change in movement factors). but it weakens him even
more indirectly through increased suffering (increasing the sensibility and irritability: passion) and born in the
frequently recurring state of pure contemplation longing for peace.
Also, the process of development of humanity revealed itself more clearly. Excellent heads saw all movements
pursuing an ideal destination: the rule of law and a more perfect international law, and stood, aufglhend moral
enthusiasm in the movement, this accelerating.
Protestantism against the Catholic Church collected and made enormous efforts to overcome the schism (creation of
the Jesuit order, religious wars). But she did not succeed, although the opponents were divided into himself (Reformed,
Lutheran, etc.). The bloodiest, most destructive fights only had the consequence that was eradicated in some countries,
such as France, Austria, Hungary, the new doctrine.
The friction in the intellectual sphere was a great, and the movement in the States was always fresh and lively. All
the fruits of the new age were the middle class in her lap, |
i 285 the all belonged, which protruded through wealth, heart and mind training. And this third stand was as good as political
rights in the State, as the nobility and clergy held together firmly, to secure their privileges. This state of affairs was
untenable. First, the middle class won in the Netherlands and England greater freedom and a decisive influence on the
management of the state. Then the movement seized the citizens of France. The ablest and most brilliant men like
Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Helvetius, attacked the status quo in all areas on relentlessly. The Third Estate did his
job to the cause of all mankind; the seed of Christianity: "All men are brothers" had developed powerful, and all life in
the state urged with compelling force after a Points:full legal recognition of the third estate.
Now the time had come when the law of the merger within, by Einreiung the political class distinctions, was
brought into action again, and the storm strengthened by the free air that blew from the gloriously built American state
over the sea broke with suddenly going on. He swept all the burdens of the feudal state: serfdom, Natural service, in
kind, church tithes, guilds, branch restriction etc continued. all were stripped these bonds by the people of the
unforgettable 4 August 1789 and explains the human rights. Later, the church property and the wealth of all those
nobles who wanted to be the new order of things do not add, fed and a free peasantry were justified. At his side stood
the free working class.
The achievements of the great revolution could not remain enclosed in France; because civilization has all of
humanity in mind, and purer than ever had revealed this, especially in the French Revolution. The exciting cause of the
spread was the expedition of many princes, who feared the consequences of the revolution and tried to suffocate. The
real propagators of the new facilities was Napoleon. He wore |
i 286 the sacred fire on the tip of his sword through a sea of blood in most countries of Europe. Once again, the people

circulating through each other, but this time hovered in a lighter form of the genius of humanity above the immense
The general Umrttelung aimed, however, at first only the loosening of the soil and sowing. The seed was at peace,
and gradually the people of all civilized states have taken the shackles of the feudal state.
While these transformations spread in the political and economic areas, took a German man, Kant, the greatest
revolution in the intellectual sphere. His immortal deed, the writing of the Critique of Pure Reason (completed on
March 29, 1781), was larger and more consequential than the fact of Luther. He referred to the inquiring mind once and
for all on the ground of experience; he quit in fact, for all of understanding the struggle of people with phantoms in,
above or behind the world, and smashed the remnants of all nature religions that generated fear.
Only by Kant the revolution was complete. In the economic field was the freedom of labor, the political to the
personal, civil and political freedom of all, built on intellectual independence from all superstition and faith. For those
of understanding, the last form of a church had been destroyed and built the foundation of the temple of the true pure
science, once all humanity will enter the.
The French Revolution and the Napoleon'schen wars, with their wailing on one, their achievements on the other
hand, are among the historical events where temporarily the basic movement of the human species, are demonstrating
life in the absolute death, where the genius of humanity as it were his face, unveiled with the serious mysterious eyes
and pronounce the promise comforting:
i 287 by a red sea of blood and war, we wade towards the promised land and our desert is long.
(Jean Paul).
After the massive action a reaction necessarily entered, which used the state of exhaustion in which all were to
curtail the freedoms gained. Completely destroyed they could not be; because the bourgeoisie was too powerful. Also it
offered even the hand for returning the concessions to a level that was in their interest. She had only temporarily their
cause of humanity; Now, in peace, they carried out the divorce and closed the common people completely by the
government from.
the constitutional monarchy was in most countries, following the example of England, established whereby the
power was distributed in the state under middle class, the nobility and clergy and the princes. The second chamber,
which should represent the people represented only a small portion of the same, namely the rich middle class, because
a strict Census was introduced, which made the armen Mann political rights again.
In the economic field, however, the worker and his power was free, but the yield of the work was a limited, and
therefore the workers again became de facto unfree. In place of the Lord in some form, for which one, against collateral
in the necessities of life, work, the Capital had entered, the coldest and most terrible of all tyrants. The legally declared
free serfs, serfs and journeymen were actually penniless and had, in spite of their freedom again enter into the relation
of slaves to the Lord, so as not to starve. they did not get more. Every excess, the work of the worker on this job also
sheds flows normally into the bag less detail, the immense riches, as the ancient slaveholder, heap. Only is the new
relation of maladministration,that the modern slave, is left to the entrepreneur without mercy to his fate in commercial
crises and pushed into the pangs of hunger and misery, while the ancient slave owners had to get his slave, in times of
famine and misery by crop failure, as before. The punishment which the employers just in |
i 288 such crises for their heartlessness and, taken as a whole, is also narrow-mindedness to part, and the fact that the workers

in good times temporarily achieve a higher wage the terrible basic relationship does not change from.
In this state, the large Civilisationsgesetz of social misery shows. "Heart" is made better through trouble. The social
misery wears down the will, more and more, glows him out, melts it, making it softer and forming more slowly and
prepares it to be sensitive to those motives which will provide an enlightened science him.
Furthermore, the social misery affects awakening and exacerbating the mental powers: it increases the spiritual
strength. They look only to the countrymen and to the inhabitants of large cities. The difference in the body is because
the body is nothing more than justifies the previous by the subjective forms thing in itself, in the idea. The proletarian
shows up as a weak individual with a comparatively large brain that appearance is the embodied action of the main law
of politics. The proletarian is a product of the ever growing friction in the state that prepares only for salvation, then
redeemed. While the indulgence weakens the higher classes, weakens the lower the misery and all individuals are
thereby capable of quite where to seek their fortune otherwise than in this life and his empty, inflated,poor stimuli.
That the greater intelligence many proletarians makes criminals by their lively spirit would in the will, glows
through neglected education and lack of education, for motives that he usually did not see or loathe, is only the law of
friction. The necessary aberration brought on the other hand, people love and to lift the lower ones to a higher level of
knowledge the effort. Complaints of increasing depravation can only Phantast; the Noble will help. For one must seek
the reason of the disease not only; it is open to light and requires only strong hands to make it harmless.
The law of social misery and the law of Luxury (under which one can make a major movement of the upper
classes), are the expression of the damage around the |
i 289 Company, its unreasonable Productions- and lifestyle. One can also both from a particular point of view, call the law of

nervousness. The search for other large Civilisationsgesetzen constant increasing sensitivity is stimulated artificially by
this law, or in other words, a movement of the factors is set to a more intense action, and the entire movement of the
individual is another thereby, a much more intensive and faster. Subheadings cover the under the laws of the infection
and habit of the necessity for all become toxic stimulants such as alcohol, tobacco, opium, spices, tea, coffee etc
weaken the vitality in general, by directly increasing the sensitivity and indirectly irritability ,The consumirten in the
United States of North America in 1870 spirituous beverages for example represent a value of 1,487,000,000 dollars. It
was calculated that the liquid mass of a channel 80 Engl. would fill miles in length, 4 feet deep, and 14 feet wide!
In the intellectual sphere, unfolded after the revolution, above all the natural sciences. It finally went without
preconditions and impartially to nature, she asked sincerely and avoided anxious to tie the physics at a metaphysics.
Kant's moral theology, in which an otherworldly power experienced the highest conceivable purification, was soon laid
on its side and materialism took its place, which is a quite untenable philosophical system. Its main affliction I have
already illuminated in physics; here I have to lead the other, that although he knows changes in the world, but no
history of the world. He can therefore bring no ethics.
By contrast materialism is a very important and beneficial historical form in the spiritual field. He is to compare an
acid that destroys all the rubble of thousands of years, all the remains zersprungener forms, all superstition, makes the
heart of man, although unhappy, but purifies the mind for it. He is what was Johannes der Tufer for Christ, the
forerunner of the true philosophy of the the brilliant successor of Kant, Schopenhauer, laid the foundation has. Because
it can do no other task for philosophy be established than that the |
i 290 to build the core of Christianity on reason, or as expressed spruce:

What is the highest and final task of philosophy than to explore the Christian doctrine right, or correct them also?
but this has first tried with success Schopenhauer.
Science then reached deeper and deeper into the practical life and designed it to. What changes have the two
important inventions: the steam engine and the telegraph electrische, produced in the world! The movement of
humanity has gone through the same in a tenfold faster pace, the struggle for life ten times more intense, the lives of
individuals become ten times more restless than ever since.
The states in the economic areas increased the gap between the three upper classes and the new fourth estate every
day, until the latter, the class consciousness awoke. The workers demanded electoral reform in France, because the
chamber is not the appropriate expression of popular will. The king's refusal aroused the storm, and on 24 February
1848, the Revolution broke out. Was appointed a worker in the Provisional Government, made the state to improve the
situation of the lower working class compulsory and proclaimed direct and universal suffrage, thus, got a hold on the
state will any respectable citizen who was older than 21 years.
However, the Republic was destroyed, both in the division of socialistic parties as to the intrigues of the
bourgeoisie, which had recognized that the reforms threatened their power. But the people had seen in a hellen Osten,
and has since lived in him the certainty that the sun burst forth and shine is a nivellirte society, which is the whole of
Goethe says very true:
The world is not so surprising to the goal than we think and want. Always the retardirenden demons are there, the |
i 291 everywhere in between and face everywhere, so that there is indeed a whole forward, but very slowly.
How to stand star still, indeed, seem to be declining, including the sunken into the individual spirit seems to stand
still humanity soon, soon falling. But the philosopher sees everywhere only resultant of movement, namely a steady
forward movement of humanity.
We now have to throw caution and circumspection, a look into the future of humanity, as we the direction of on the
purely political, economic (social- pursue ruling political) and purely spiritual areas of present trends.
In Europe are the purely political phenomena at the time under three major laws: under the nationality laws, the
laws of humanism and the law of separation of the state from the church, that is, the destruction of the church.
are the former laws in accordance with all the small states, which originate either from the Middle Ages and have
received artificial separation itself, or were created by the wars Napoleon'schen whim, drawn into the general stream of
becoming half pulled, half of itself driven into him. Search the nations with a common language, customs and culture,
with irresistible force, national unity, so that they for political existence is not subject to the terrible struggle of nations
and be raped. This quest is also pushing against the walls of large states, which include people of different nationalities
in it.
The second law is manifested in very different phenomena. First inside the civilized states: every man, whatever is
his position and is considered the most valuable, important and unantastbarste beings in the world.
Mais qu'est-ce donc que l'association humaine, si l'un de ses membres peut disparatre, comme une feuille emporte par le
Is somewhere a person afflicted in a manner that the very incomplete and extremely unclear worded un | written
i 292 contradicts Codex of humanity, so trembles all mankind formed and yells loudly. So it must be, if the redemption is to
take place. The more loses his life in value in the eyes of the individual, the higher its importance must rise in the eyes
of the community. In ancient times it was just the opposite: because the individual knew nothing more precious than his
life that did not appreciate the totality higher than that of a tree leaf or a rat. In this law, the emancipation of the Jews is
mainly due, which was a world-historical event of the greatest importance. The Jews contact their extraordinarily
developed through the long press anywhere in spirit and make the movement where they come from, intense.
The law then is reflected in the effectiveness of States to the outside. Everywhere, where the leaders of major
nations will come, called the personal freedom of the individual. It should be in the world any more without personal
freedom; slavery to stop all the earth.
In addition, all civilized States looking gradually from the state of nature in which they stand to each other to get
out. Already, several light Conflikte between states by referee arbitrated been (Alabama question, etc.), and several
powerful clubs ensure that will be gone in the direction indicated ever onwards. In this way is an international legal
code; and the movement is not by currents on social- distracted the political field, it will, there can be no doubt
eventually bring about the "United States of Europe."
The most effective means of humanity, the good press. It covers all damage relentlessly and calls constantly, the
secondment of evil.
The struggle between the state and the church is now broken out in a manner which makes a healthy peace
impossible: he can be compared to a duel in which one must remain. That the state will prevail, is in the process of
development of mankind. In winning the state in the intellectual sphere now blossomed absolute philosophy will
eventually take the place of religion. -
i 293 In Asia, the ancient laws of the merger by conquest and the spiritual fertilization will lead the operations. The matter is to

gradually win all the peoples of the great part of the world entirely for European civilization.
Russia and England are called to prepare the work. The former moves constantly present in the vast steppes and
tames the last remnants of the troubled force which is so often broken devastating in the Culturreiche in the Middle
England is limited for the time being in India. It raises about the great empire, headed by a narrow-minded, but still
beneficial policy, a network of railways, roads, canals and telegraph and spread European culture everywhere.
What will be the situation when the Asian possessions of England and Russia are adjacent to each other is to
determine in any way and the way indifferent. China will be then already emerged from his seclusion and powerful
interfere with the course of events, which will also be under the influence of all the great nations of the world.
It is very likely that will arise as to the time of the migration, but without the terrible atrocities, enters a fusion and
new realms of vigorous mixing peoples; for a complete death of the remains of the old Oriental civilized one may deem
impossible. -
In America, the youthful mixed people that inhabited the United States, expands on and on. The law of the merger
has been and is still ongoing in the Union, the largest application. Who can trace the intersections etc caused by the
sexual mixing of French, Germans, Englishmen, Irishmen, Italians, etc., and also by the whites with blacks, Chinese,
Indians? How will qualities are as bound awakened, strengthened and weakened, and every generation has a
significantly different.
The Americans of the Union will flood and by the time all over North America may also spread through the south.
A growing number of the half-savage aborigines die in America and Australia. You do not have the force of contact
i 294 of the higher culture to bear, and the civilization it plunges cold in death. -

The one country that is drawing the most difficult in the sphere of culture and will last to enter the same, is Africa.
In the meantime, it is surrounded by a belt of colonies that will gradually widen more and more until the whole country
is developed. Perhaps the Republic of Liberia is destined to become the main base of civilization in Africa at a later
date. It would be strange if among the educated blacks of the Union not aufstnden apostles to compile their poor
brothers in a more humane way of life.
Also, Egypt appears to be appointed to redesign the interior of the part of the world.
Furthermore, the noble Africa travelers are to be mentioned, which are eager to explore the mysterious lands of the
interior. Your efforts it may succeed in time to throw such motives in the old world that flows of emigrants in the
central Africa spill and colonize it. Finally, we must mention the Christian missionaries who are in Africa quite out of
place. As much as you have to blame their effectiveness in India, where they want to put the Christian religion in the
place coequal ethical systems, so are their aspirations recognize in the raw negro tribes. -
Is now the circle of civilization is not closed, it is clear to see from the now efficient causes that he will close one
day. That it expands more and more, which cause daily proliferating railways and shipping lines. Emigration is in the
course and is growing. Soon lure shimmering gold and diamond fields, sometimes the freer forms of life. The laws of
the merger and the unfolding of individuality are facing and accelerate their pace of movement.
In the economic (social- political) areas, the so-called social question confronts us alone. It is based on the law of
the merger by internal upheaval basis that once the issue is resolved, no more appearance in the life of |
i 295 will guide humanity: because then the beginning of the end is at hand.

The social question is nothing more than a question of education, if it has an entirely different like appearance and
on the surface; for in it is merely a matter of bringing all people to that Erkenntnihhe on which life can be judged
properly alone. But as the way to this height is locked by purely political and economic obstacles, there is the social
question in the present is not as a pure question of education, but for the time being as a political, then as an economic
It must therefore, in the next periods of the future, the obstacles in the way of humanity first of all be taken away.
The obstacle to purely political field is the exclusion of the landless people Classen from the government of the
state. It is eliminated by the provision of universal and direct voting right.
The requirement of this option has already been granted in several states, and all others will follow over time the
examples: they can not be left behind.
The requirement could be met by the conservative elements in the state, first, because, owing to the existing division
of state power, the will of the people is not absolute, decisions therefore does not always have to be carried out;
Second, just because of the ignorance of the masses makes the right provisionally to a blunt weapon. The danger that
now the people would overthrow all state institutions by law immediately so was not present. One satisfied on the other
side the people completely, because in fact no higher purely political right may be required, and could quietly leave the
rest of the course of events. Each legislative assembly, which is based on the direct universal suffrage, is the adequate
expression of the popular will, for it is evenwhen their majority is disposed towards the people hostile because voters
fear, lack of insight and so betrayed and testify that they have a clouded mind.
A better electoral law can therefore not given to the people |
i 296 become. But its use may be more extensive. we adhere to Germany, only the elections be brought to the Diet of the law.

but it should Smmtliche elections take place afterwards: the elections for the provincial assemblies, the provincial and
district assemblies, for community leaders, for trial by jury, etc. Such expansion but depends on the formation of the
Here we face the economic obstacle through which is already very clearly recognized the true nature of the social
question. The common man should be able to manage his political offices.
For this purpose he must gain time. He must have time to form. Here lies the source point of the whole question.
The worker has now in fact not the time to train themselves. He must, because it is not the whole product of his labor
falls by the ruling Capital takes the lion's share of it, work long hours in order to live at all, so long that he, evening
returning, has no power to cultivate his mind. The task of the worker is: to achieve a shorter working at auskmmlicher
existence. In this way, but not only increases the price of the products it produces, but also the price of all commodities,
as in the economic chain, a member from the other dependent, and must therefore, of necessity wage increase, while
shortening of working hoursdemand; because the wage increase is absorbed by the general rise in prices, and it remains
to him only the shortened working hours is the only profit.
On this knowledge all strikes our time based. One must not be misled by the fact that the extra time as the right to
vote granted, is not used by most correct. The recognized advantage is gradually pushing each to collect, as now, many
whose names (as read in the catacombs Naples's is) God alone knows to use the extra time properly. (The beautiful and
at the same time raised inscription: vote solvimus nos quorum nomina Deus scit .)
i 297 Suppose now on, the workers had all alone without solving their task any help, so the result of everything would be that

young and old gewnnen a clear insight into their interests and so gradually there came a strong to send minority in the
legislature that would have to make two demands over and over again:
1) free school;
2) Regulatory reconciliation between capital and labor.
By the time gained the individual can not obtain now a comprehensive intellectual culture. Only now and then he
can einheimsen a grain. The main thing is and remains that he is sparked by his interest is going to examine the social
conditions, Other educates about sticking to the totality and so by worthy representatives receives determining
influence on the state's will. These representatives now have the obligation first to touch the evil at its roots and to
demand, according to the free school, that is gratuitous science education for everyone. There is no greater prejudice
than the assumption that someone is not a good farmer, artisan, soldier could be etc who speaks English and French, or
read Homer in the original.
But that this demand, if granted, be feasible, parents must be put in their acquisition so that they not only do without
the work of the children, but also able to earn up to complete training the maintenance of the same, that is, the wage
conditions must be modified by cross ,
Lassalle, this, in theoretical and practical, great talent, but without a trace of genius, has proposed to allow the
giving of government credit Arbeiterassociationen by trade, which could occur with the Capital in competition. The
existing capital remains untouched, and let only the competition with the same permitted by the fact that the workers
could put through the credit in the possession of the necessaries essential working tools.
So it is undeniable that the agent would help, so be sure that the state does not hand it (as above: "the world is not so
fast to the goal than we think and wish") is sufficient. |
i 298 What could we ask other by the state, which is in any case obliged to grant equitable claims of its taxpayers?

The merging of the small workshops in large factories is a consequence of the great capital. It is in the course of our
time, which is amplified by the small capital (the crisis of 1873 and its aftermath have this train only temporarily
weakened) that the factories are transformed into joint-stock companies. It is now to demand first by the state, but that
he favors this transformation of the factories, the condition stellend that the worker will taken part in the profits of the
business. Furthermore, you can request from the state that it compels independent manufacturers, also to take part, the
workers in the profits. (Several manufacturers, in the proper knowledge of their Vortheils, have already done so.) The
Actien Capital will earn interest at the customary rate of interest and also paid the wages of workers according to
merit.The net profit would then divide into equal halves under capital and workers; the distribution among the workers
was to be done on the basis of their wages.
One could then gradually after certain periods, the return of capital increasingly lower; increasingly favorable notice
also Vertheilungsmodus of net profit gradually for the workers; yes, completely in the hands bring by gradual
amortization of the Actien with a specific part of the net profit, the factory of all parties interested in the business.
would Ingleichen banks and trading companies and agriculture similar to organize, always according to the law of
education of the part, proceeding, because at one stroke the social conditions can not be altered.
That the present Bewirthschaftungsmethode the soil is untenable, to give all of understanding of all parties. Just
think of the excellent Riehl, who wants to have conservirt the forms of the Middle Ages, but remodeled. He says:
It has raised the question, how long would probably remain the country wirth-scientific conditions such that a state of the
small landowners, the situation described by us peasants, be possible? Because the imperfect, weary and heavy little Extensive
the Bewirthschaftungsmethode - - - must surely at the huge advances in Agriculturchemie, the ratio | tional
i 299 farming and in which to still superficial exploitation of the soil soon in any proper proportions more standing growth of the
population, sooner or later, give way to a quasi original producer, worked in it Large farming, which then dry the small farming
community in the same way would place as the industrial factory system has already laid the small commercial stand the most
part dry. That this eventuality should occur again, we certainly do not doubt.
If this were achieved, the joint-stock companies of a working branch in conjunction with each other could occur for
specific purposes; it could group their cooperative bank, their insurance company for the diverse cases (illness,
disability, death, loss of all kinds, etc.) have, etc.
Furthermore, could Smmtliche retail shops of a city, a city partly, along similar lines are organized, in short, the
current traffic would remain the same as a whole and only extremely simplified. but the main thing would be that a
thatschliche reconciliation between Capital and Labor occur and the formation of life Aller would greatly ennoble.
Another good result of this simplification would be a change in tax laws; because the state would now have a clear
insight into the income of all, and as he taxed the companies, he would have taxed the individual.
In this way the social question in a peaceful, slow development course of things could be solved if the workers
pursued their goals persistently and without excesses. But this is to assume? To the social conditions that bear the
stamp of the capital, the workers shake furiously and eager to have shaken as the semi-captive Germanic peoples on the
borders of the Roman Empire. The impatience lies down, like a veil over the clear eye of the spirit, and unfettered lust
surging for a richer enjoyment of life.
Stands the workers thus alone, would with certainty |
i 300 to predict that a peaceful solution of the social question is not possible. This but we have now alone in mind, and we

therefore make those elements identify which are, as a counterweight to the impatience of the lower classes and can
affect such social movement that their gear remains a constant.
These elements provide the higher classes.
We have recognized the movement of humanity, civilization, compared with the fall of a ball into the abyss, and
who is attentive followed the above, is that the struggle and strife, in the progression of humanity is becoming more
intense. The initial disintegration of unity in the multiplicity were all following movements tendency and so the
contradictions increased continuirlich in all fields. Consider only superficially intellectual field of the present. While
only believed in the first Middle Ages and an attempt by a courageous, free individuals was made extremely rare to
attack the status quo, is now available wherever you look, one opinion against. In no field of intellectual area there is
peace. In the religious field, one finds thousands of sects;of philosophy thousand different flags; natural science
thousand hypotheses on aesthetic thousand systems; the political parties thousand; on mercantile thousand opinions; in
the economic thousand theories.
Each party now purely political field examines the social question to their advantage to exploit and joins forces with
the workers soon to this and now to that sought by their purpose. This makes the social movement is first brought into a
rapid river.
Then ambition, desire for fame and lust for power have led always important men from the upper classes to abandon
their rotten lives and to make the cause of the people of theirs. The material is extremely brittle: fingers bleed, and
often exhausted arms fall down - but does not roll there the luck holding up a laurel wreath, or the signs of power?
But the immanent philosophy for their hopes mainly on the realization of the reasonable employer and the |
i 301 good and just from the upper classes. The unsustainability of the social condition forces itself upon every thinking and

unprejudiced. It is even recognized strata of society in the "highest" and I lead to evidence the words of the unfortunate
Maximilian of Habsburg to:
To which I still can not get used to is to see how the rich aussaugende factory owner produces in bulk, which satisfies the
immoderate luxury of the rich and their magnificence tickles, while the workers, enslaved by his gold, pale shadows are real
people, the, in utter stupefaction soul, sacrificing her body his money sack, to staunch the needs of the stomach, in machine-
moderate strokes.
(Out of my life.)
From the solution of the social question the salvation of humanity depends on: this is a truth on which a noble heart
must ignite. The social movement is the movement of humanity, is a part of the destiny of humanity, forcing the wills
and recalcitrant with equal force in its unalterable gear. Herein lies the invitation for anyone who is not completely
banned in the narrow, barren circle of natural egoism, with their wealth and to offer with all his might to fate as a tool
to set in motion and for the greatest happiness on this to gain ground: the peace of mind that springs from the conscious
agreement of the individual will with the progress of the community, which, taking the place of the holy will of God
course of development of mankind.Verily, he who feels this happiness only temporary in itself that must to glow in
moral enthusiasm which the clear head must ignite the beating heart that irresistible breaks out the flames of
philanthropy from him because
the fruit of the Spirit is love.
(Galatians 5: 22)
Sursum Corda! You Arise and stand down from the luminous height, from where you saw the promised land of
eternal rest with drunken eyes; you had to where you realize that life is much more unfortunate; where the binding had
to fall from your eyes; - transgress down into the dark valley, through which the turbid stream of the disinherited
circulated and submit your tender, but |
i 302 loyal, pure, brave hands callused your brothers. "They're raw." So they give motives which they refine. "Your manners
come from." So they changed. "They think have life value. Do you think the rich happier because they eat better, drink
because they give parties and make noise. You mean, the heart beat quietly under silk as under the rough coat "So let
them down. but not with speeches, but by deeds. Let them learn, taste even whether to do neither wealth, honor, glory,
yet comfortable life happy. Tear down the barriers that separate the deluded by the alleged happiness; then the
disappointed attracts your chest and opens them to the treasure of your wisdom; because now there is nothing else more
on this wide, wide world, what they still covet and want could,as redemption of themselves. -
If this happens when the good and just regulate the social movement, then, and only then the march of civilization,
the necessary, specific, unstoppable, not mountains of corpses and rivers of blood can take place.
we look back from here, we see that the Nationalittsprincip, the battle between the state and the church and the
social movement will bring about significant changes, which can smmtlich take a bloodless course.
Is it likely, however, that the conditions einreten this? Is it likely that smashed through Congress and arbitration
courts, states and nations are united, which want to be connected? Is it likely that the struggle between the state and the
church by law is settled alone? Is the supreme power in every state on the side of the pure idea of the state? Finally, is it
likely that the capitalists will have a day like August 4, 1789 was one of the feudal lords?
No! all this is not likely. , However, is probably that the upheavals will all be violent. Humanity can throw into
existence only in violent throes, under thunder and lightning, in a fully air Fulnigeruchs and blood haze, the shape
and the law of a new era. |
i 303 is how the story, "teaches the self-consciousness of mankind" But the upheavals will take place more quickly and be

accompanied by less atrocities. make sure the good and just, or, in other words, has become a great power of humanity.
It is the task of philosophical politics, the destruction of mankind to design under wide point of view, in general
terms, because they can alone. But it would be presumptuous to try to determine the individual events.
In this direction, it may, if it wishes to do their dignity no entry, give only general indications and, countless acting
causes of anosognosia looking denote groupings as probable.
First, it is clear that none of the upheavals in question in the near future will take place entirely pure. In the struggle
between the state and the church are efforts that are rooted in Nationalittsprincip, intervene, and at the same time the
banner of social democracy will be deployed.
In the foreground, however, is the struggle between the state and the Church, between reason and ignorance, science
with faith, philosophy and religion, the light with the darkness, and he will give the signature of the next period of
Therefore, we have to take him for the time being in the eye.
Which European nations will face each other in this struggle, nobody can predict. By contrast, it is certain that
Germany represented the state thoughts, France will be on the side of the church.
Who will win is questionable; But as well as the war may turn out - humanity will make a very big step forward.
This we have to be justified.
Performs France a pure revenge war under the banner of Rome, supported by all who, among the shards
zersprungener historical categories, perform a light-shy, dogged, vindictive, pathetic and bornirtes life, can be predicted
with certainty, that it, it stands alone or there were powerful allies, finally, must be subject; for how could it |
i 304 can triumph over a power that, because it is under the given conditions, in the movement of humanity, their strength

thousandfold by the moral enthusiasm, are in which glow their hosts? How it will roar in Germany when the ignition
watchword is displayed: Last and final settlement with Rome, with Pfaffenlug and Pfaff deceit? Would there be a single
understanding Social Democrat who will not ergriffe the sword and say: Only Rome, then my business !? Oh, what
would that one day!
however, writes France the solution of the social question on its flag, also supported by Rome and all the scheming
romantics who are caught up in the illusion that they can, after the victory, which lay the ghosts which they evoked - so
it is not certain but very likely that Germany will not be successful; for then is France in the movement of humanity,
while Germany will not be a tightly held power.
In the latter, as in the first case but Rome is doomed; because a France that has prevailed among social-democratic
banner must throw the fragile molded on the ground that it shatters into fragments that can never be glued together.
The great, vast historical form of the Roman Catholic Church is ready for the absolute death. That they should go
drives himself and is not driven in that it has pressed with his own hands the mark of destruction on her forehead,
which makes her case so deeply tragic and poignant. She has what one might also say very beneficial worked for
humanity. She has increased as a political power, the battle, a great merit, and especially acted successfully to the will
part. The mind not clouded: she let him only darkened, but the heart, the defiant, wild and rebellious, broke them with
their iron hands and dashing weapons.-
We consider both cases to the attention, we shall find that the former is the more likely; for how could France may
go into battle among social-democratic flag against Germany? The ratios of torn country in the present give no reason.
i 305
As now may also precipitate the inevitable, lying in the development of things new war with France, it is certain that
not only the power of the church destroyed, but also the social question their solution will be brought very close.
France wins, it must resolve the issue. however, victorious Germany, two cases are possible.
Either it is the social movement powerfully developed from the fully self-torn France: it arises in him a fire that will
take all civilized nations, or Germany would like to thank generous those whose sons have identified the greater part of
his victorious army by the heaviest shackles of the Capitals of them stripping. Germany should only be called to solve
intellectual problems? Is it impotent in the economic areas and can it here subsidence others only getting? Why should
the people that Luther, Kant and Schopenhauer, Copernicus, Kepler, and Humboldt, Lessing, Schiller and Goethe was
born, not to have beaten to the glory wreath Rome for the second time and this time smashed, can not also add the
others who to have solved social question? -
Here is also the place cosmopolitanism and modern patriotism to illuminate and detect the healthy combination of
the two. The former is to hold in our time, only in principle, that it should not lose sight of the fact that brothers and all
people are called to be redeemed. But now it rule nor the laws of formation of the part and the peoples rivalry. The
basic movement is not, as a uniform, come to the surface, but lies down here or in various movements apart. These
have to be combined to give the image of those, that is, those must be produced from the various efforts of individual
nations. the will of the individual, the whole of humanity it keeping in mind is, therefore, to ignite in the mission of his
country.In every nation the belief in such a mission there, but they will soon be higher, sometimes a deeper; because the
next necessity decides, and the present is right. So the mission of a people, which still lacks the unit, initially to achieve
unity and its citizens |
i 306 like for further occur with confidence that a favorable situirtes sister nation now reached the higher goal and then

fertilization is inevitable.
It applies to the period of history in which we live, the word: From cosmopolitanism is any one-sacrificing patriot.
I can not repeat often enough, and each of insight that tracks the threads which rich and out of the darkness of
antiquity to the present day showing the direction of its course in the future clearly will agree: that the social movement
in the movement of humanity lies, and that they now fully draw up halbfriedlich, or, as the French revolution, under the
most appalling atrocities and the moaning of, is forced from the tree of life in the night of death repelled unstoppable.
As the Marius managed to destroy the Cimbri and Teutons, so it was possible the middle class to fight back and the
workers in 1848 to suppress other Socialist surveys, which are now taking place in several countries. But can at least 4 /
5 of the people in the long run through today's Productions way be excluded from the treasures of science? Certainly
not; any more than the plebeians of Rome were to hold for the duration of the employments away, any more than the
middle class itself could be excluded in the long run by the government of the state.
Civilization kills I said above. Naturally, it weakens the higher strata of society more than the bottom because the
individual that can live more quickly. It is under the influence of many motives which inspire many desires, and these
consume the life force.
Karger lack is the best ground for the human plant, says the conservative statesman.
Greenhouse heat must have people plant, says the philosopher immanent.
The oldest Urgeschlechter the high nobility are towards the end of the Middle Ages almost all extinct. As the individual |
i 307 people from here go when he has accomplished his mission, as well as the gender and families will take effect from when the measure
of their work is full. The proudest House, the numerous offspring still seem to promise many centuries of time, often goes out
The Corruption and corruption in the upper classes of society today is great. The Attentive found in them all
Fulnierscheinungen again, which I have shown the dying Roman people.
Everywhere now where putrefaction occurs in society, the law of the merger revealed; as has the civilization, as I
expressed it figuratively, the desire to expand their circle, and it creates as it were the putrefaction so wild primitive
people, lured to give up their slow movement and interchange with the rapid civilization.
but where are the wild primitive peoples that could penetrate the States now?
It's true: the vitality of the Latin nations is smaller than that of the Germanic, and the power of these weakened than
that of the Slavic peoples. But a mass migration can not take place; for all these nations are as good as in France
already in a closed circle of civilization, and in each of these countries, in Russia, the rot is present.
The regeneration can therefore only take place from the bottom up, according to the law of the merger in the
interior, whose consequences will this time be different from those were in Greece and Rome. First, no personally
unfree exist more, the walls between the stands are already half destroyed. The law will therefore seek the Nivellirung
the whole society.
When the midday sun of civilization has already singed the plains, then, is the culturarmen mountains and highlands of the
breath of an unbroken, natural fresh national spirit as forest air again neubelebend drag on them.
But not only the farmers but also the workers who hectic, but also unbroken, are irresistible |
i 308 driven by the genius of humanity, tear down the artificial dams, and it will be available in every state a single nivellirte
It is clear that the social question is not available, a solution of the same would be not to strive for, would be if all
people way (or even good Christians); but just because people want to see all manner because they can only be used as
such redemption, the social question exists and must be solved.
Now we occupy the highest position.
It is to say the greatest folly that the social condition of any radical improvement are capable. But equally foolish it
is to say that a Radical change in the same would create a paradise life.
Work must always be, but the organization of work must be such that each all the pleasures that can offer the world,
are accessible.
In Wohlleben no luck and no satisfaction lies; hence it is not a misfortune to have to give up the good life. But it is a
great misfortune to put a fortune in the good life and not being able to know that no luck in that.
And this evil that nagging and the heart by twitching, is the driving force in the lives of common people groups that
whips to the path of salvation. the poor it aflame with longing for the houses, the gardens, the goods, the riding horses,
the Carossen, the champagne, the diamonds and daughters of the rich.
Now give them all these trinkets, and they will fall like the clouds. Then they will complain: we have believed to be
so happy, and it has nothing much changed in us.
Tired of all the pleasures that can offer the world must first be any man, before mankind can be ripe for salvation,
and since their salvation is their destiny, so people need to be fed, and saturation only leads the dissolved sociale
question brought.
i 309 Thus, the success of the social movement from the Justice (humanity), from the purely political rivalry between the

nations, from the rottenness in the state itself and from the general fate of humanity can be derived. The modern social
movement is a necessary move, and how it has performed with necessity, they will also come to the goal of necessity:
the ideal state.
In has gone before we have generally sought to determine the changes that will occur in the political and economic
areas; now we want to follow the development of purely spiritual life in the future.
We take the art first.
Art can award only a limited education. In architecture, the formal-Nice of the room, by Oriental, Greek, Roman,
Moorish and Gothic art, almost, if not quite exhausted. Only the combination of the forms and the shift of proportions
provide a small margin.
The beauty of the human form has been formed by Greek sculptors and great Italian painters and unsurpassable
completed. The human race takes a day of beauty from, and it can therefore never another better Ideal are situated. But
insofar as the innermost part of the human being lit in the phenomenon can not go beyond the Christian sculpture and
painting. Only the realistic visual art leaves room for highlighting great historical moments and the presentation of
great men.
In music one must cheap, by Bach, Handel, Gluck, Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven, add a development only within
narrow limits.
Only poetry remains a lofty goal. She has in addition to the optimistic Faust, who, active and creating, found
apparent satisfaction in life in:
The past, poor, empty moment
The poor man wants to hold on to it!
i 310 to provide the pessimistic, who fought his real peace of mind. The brilliant master will find this. -
The natural sciences still have a wide field in front of him; but they must and will come to a Abschlusse. Nature can
be explored, for it is purely immanent and nothing Transscendentes what had always been his name, picks, coexistirend
with her, in her.
Religion is, to the extent grows as the science will find fewer and fewer adherents. The combination of rationalism
and religion (German Catholicism, Old Catholicism, new Protestantism, Reform Judaism etc.) accelerated their
downfall and leads to disbelief as materialism.
In contrast, the pure knowledge does not destroy the faith, but is its metamorphosis; because pure philosophy is
purified by reason, basically but only confirmed the religion of love. Pure knowledge is therefore not the opposite of
faith. Previously, you had to, because of immature knowledge, believe in the redemption of humanity; now we know
that humanity is redeemed.
It is also the movement of humanity on purpose to the main action of thought on the will determine the motion by
the superstition (fear) to faith (blessed internalization) through this to unbelief (bleak desolation) and unbelief finally to
pure knowledge (moral love).
Philosophy itself finally will also find a conclusion. Your final member will be the absolute philosophy.
Once the absolute philosophy is found, then the right time for the judgment day has come
Riehl calls from jokeful. We highlight the bold word in truth.
So all tendirt also in the intellectual sphere after completion, after the completion, by pure work.
But in the following periods are different from the past that art and science are getting deeper into the people until
all of humanity is permeated with them. The understanding of the works of the brilliant artist will always be developed.
This is the esthetic | tables
i 311 joy frequently occur in the life of every person and his character are becoming increasingly measure. Science will be also

common, and educating the masses to the fact.

In this way, the ideal state will finally enter into the phenomenon.
What is the ideal state?
He will be the historical form which includes all mankind. However, we will determine unspecified this form,
because it is quite a minor matter: the main thing is the citizens of the ideal state.
He will be what individuals have been since the beginning of history: a perfectly free man. He is completely
outgrown the disciplinarian of historical laws and forms and is free from all political, economic and spiritual bondage,
above the law. Fragments are all external forms: man is completely emancipated.
All drivers have gradually disappeared from the life of humanity: power, property, fame, marriage; all emotional ties
have been gradually torn: man is dull.
His mind now judged properly life and his will is sparked by this judgment. Now the heart only fulfills the longing:
to be spread out forever from the great book of life. And the will achieve its goal: the absolute death.
In the ideal state of humanity is the "great sacrifices" as the Indians say, bring die ie. The manner in which it will be
put, no one can determine. It may be due to a general moral decision, which will be executed immediately, or the
execution of which are left to nature. but it can also be accomplished in other ways. In any case, the law of mental
contagion that is so powerful on the occurrence of Christianity in the Crusades (and more recently in the pilgrimages in
France and in the Betseuche in America) revealed that last processes in the human | standardize
i 312 are derived. It will be like at the time of Dante, where the people marched through the streets of Florence with the cry:

Morte alla nostra vita! Evviva la nostra morte!

(Death to our lives Long live our death!) - - -
One could also raise the question of when the great sacrifice will be brought.
If we look only to the demonic power of the sex drive and the great love of life, showing almost all people, one is
tempted to set the date for the redemption of humanity into the farthest, most distant future.
however, one considers the strength of the currents in all areas of the state; the haste and impatience that makes
tremble each breast demonic; the longing for peace on the basis of the soul; It is also contemplated that unbreakable
threads are woven to all nations already that multiply daily, so that no more people can have a slow, concluded
Culturgang; that savages, driven into the vortex of civilization, come in a sapping the brand its strength excitement as it
will be sick with fever; finally one considers the tremendous power of mental contagion - that one gives civilization no
longer run as a platonic year that you v 5000th can be. Start Chr. But then, considering that thereafter mankind would
drag on still more than 3000 years is dropped even this provision,and it seems to be the biggest, the one may assume a
period of only a few centuries.
If we look back, we find confirmed that the civilization is the movement of all humanity and the movement of life in
the absolute death. It takes place in a single form, the state, which takes various configurations, and after a single law,
the law of suffering, the consequence is the weakening of the will and the growth of the mind (transformation of the
movement factors). The law sets itself apart in different laws, which I put together |
i 313 wants. The scheme is imposed, however, by no means exhaustive.

Law of the unfolding of individuality;

,, ,, intellectual friction;
,, ,, habit;
,, ,, forming of the part;
,, the Particularism;
,, of the Development of simple will;
,, ,, binding of will qualities;
,, ,, inheritance of properties;
,, ,, putrefaction;
,, the individuality;
,, of the Merger by conquest;
,, ,, merger by revolution;
,, ,, colonization (migration);
,, ,, intellectual fertilization;
,, ,, peoples rivalry;
,, the social misery;
,, ,, luxury;
,, of the Nervousness;
,, ,, Nivellirung;
,, ,, intellectual infection;
Nationality Act;
Law of humanism;
,, of the intellectual emancipation.
The historical forms are as follows:
Economy Political Spiritual
hunting family
Livestock Patriarchate Naturreligion
Agriculture, commerce, trade, slavery KastenstaatDespotische monarchy Greek State Roman Republic Roman Imperial
Purified natural religion Oriental Art Greek Art Science History Philosophy Jurisprudence

i 314
Bondage, serfdom absolute feudal state OOE ueo Christian Church ,, Art Scholastic philosophy Evangelical Church
Renaissance music Critical Philosophy
Capital - World Trade industry Constitutionelle monarchy LO Modern

Productive associations- General organization of labor United States Ideally State sound philosophy Absolute philosophy.

Humanity is initially a term; in reality it corresponds to a totality of individuals who are alone real and, by means of
procreation, get in existence. The movement of the individual from the life gives to his death, in connection with its
movement from life to life, the movement of the life in the relative's death, which, however, since weakened in these
continous transitions will and strengthened the intelligence , at the bottom of the spiral motion of life in the absolute
Mankind must have the same movement as they nothing's more than the sum total of the individuals. Any definition
of their movement, which does not contain the absolute death as a destination point, is too short, because it covers not
Smmtliche operations. If the true movement is not clearly visible, the immanent philosophy would have the absolute
death, as the target point, postulate.
All individual biographies: the short life of children by adults who destroyed death before they could testify, and the
long lifetime of such people, which overlook the children of their children's children, must, like all resumes |
i 315 of groups of people (from Indian tribes, South Sea Islanders) can be classified in the erected movement of humanity

casual. If this is not practicable in a single case, the definition is wrong.

The movement of humanity from being in the non-existence now covers all, all the special moves. The thinker who
has realized it is not read a page of history more surprised, nor will he complain. He will not ask what the inhabitants of
Sodom and Gomorrah's debt that they had to go down? what are culpable for 30,000 people who destroyed the
earthquake Riobomba in a few minutes? what the 40,000 people who found the Flame in the destruction of Sidon's?
nor will he complain about the millions of people who have joined the migration of peoples, the Crusades and all the
wars in the night of death. All mankind is doomed to destruction.
The movement itself of our species resultirt (if we disregard the other influences of nature) from the aspirations of
all people, as I said at the beginning of the policy. It arises from the movements of the good and the bad, the wise and
fool the fans and Cold, Bold and the fearful, and therefore carry no moral character. It produces in its course good and
bad, wise and foolish, moral and enthusiasts and Wicked, as heroes and villains, Erzschelme and saints, and produced
in turn from the movements of these. But at its end are just tired, exhausted, dead tired and lame wing.
And then the quiet night of absolute death to all cuts. How are they all, shake blessed at the moment of transition:
they are redeemed, redeemed forever!

i 317

I thank gods,
That you can exterminate me without children
Have decided. - And let me guess
The sun not too dear and not the stars,
Come, follow me down into the dark realm.
As shown in Fig.
Come childless and without guilt with!
i 319

The immanent philosophy, which in the past has only drawn from two sources: nature in the widest sense and self-
consciousness, does not enter into its final division, metaphysics, in order to "be able to race with reason" In
metaphysics, it simply stands at the highest immanent point of view. Since then it has occupied the highest observation
spot for every discipline, from which it was able to oversee the entire area covered; But if she wanted to look beyond
the boundaries, her higher mountains took the distant view. But now it stands on the highest peak: it stands above all
disciplines, ie, it looks over the whole world and comprehends everything in one aspect.
The righteousness of research, therefore, will not leave us in metaphysics either.
Because the immanent philosophy in the individual doctrines always took a correct, but one-sided standpoint, many
a result had to be one-sided. We therefore have to make the conclusion, not only in the metaphysics of the pyramid, but
also to give half the results of the addition and to smooth out angular protuberances. Or, more precisely, from the
highest immanent point of view, we have to look at the entire immanent territory, from its origin to the present, and to
judge its future coldly.
We have stayed in the analysis, the developmental series of things (at the hand of time) a parte ante pursuing a
simple premundane unit found in front of which completely slackened our faculty of knowledge. We determined them,
according to the individual faculties of knowledge, negative as inactive: unbroken, indifferent,
i 320 Undisturbed, motionless, timeless. Then, in physics, we presented ourselves again to this unity, hoping to see them in
the mirror of the now found principles, will and spirit, but again our efforts were completely unsuccessful. Nothing
could be seen in our mirror. We therefore had to determine it only negatively here: as a simple unity in peace and
freedom, which was neither will nor spirit, nor an interplay of will and spirit.
On the other hand, we obtained three extraordinarily important positive results. We realized that this simple unity,
God, splintered into a world, completely disappeared and perished; Further, that the world born of God, because of its
origin from a simple unity, is in a thoroughly dynamic context, and in connection with the fact that the movement
which is continually produced by the action of all individuals is destiny; And finally that the pre-worldly unity existed.
The existence was the thin thread which bridged the abyss between immanent and transcendent territory, and we
have to adhere to them at first.
The simple unity existed: we can not in any way predicate it. What kind of existence, this being, was, is completely
veiled to us. If we wish to determine it more closely, we must again take our refuge to negation, and testify that it has
no resemblance to any being known to us, for all being that we know is moved being is a becoming while the simple
Unity was motionless, in absolute calm. Their being was in harmony.
Our positive knowledge that the simple unity existed remains entirely unaffected; For the negation does not affect
existence itself but only the kind of existence which we can not grasp.
From this positive knowledge that the simple unity existed, now is implicit in another very important that the simple
unity must also have a certain nature, because every Existentia sets a Essentia and it is absolutely inconceivable that a
primeval unit have existed , But in itself was essentially nothing, that is, nothing.
i 321 But from the nature, Essentia God, we can us how not to make his Existentia the slightest idea. Everything that we
perceive and recognize in the world as the essence of singles is inseparable from movement, and God rested. If we
wish to determine its essence, this can only be done negatively, and we must say that the essence of God was an
incomprehensible supernatural being.
Even our positive knowledge that simple unity had a definite being remains unaffected by this negation.
So far everything is clear. But it also seems as if human wisdom has come to an end here, and the disintegration of
unity into multiplicity is unfathomable.
But we are not quite helpless. We have the disintegration of unity into the multiplicity, the transition of the
transcendental region into the immanent, the death of God and the birth of the world. We stand before a deed, the first
and only act of simple unity. The immanent region was followed by the immanent, something which had not been
before: did not the possibility exist here of investigating the deed itself without becoming fantastic, and in miserable
dreams? We want to be very careful.
However, we are faced with a process which we can not conceive otherwise, for as a deed; We are also quite
justified in naming it, for we are still entirely in the immanent domain, which is nothing other than this very act.
If, however, we ask for the factors which led this action, we leave the immanent domain, and are forbidden to enter
the "unbounded ocean" of the transcendent, which is forbidden to us, because all our powers of knowledge diminish.
In the immanent sphere, in the world, the factors (in themselves) of any act are always known to us: we always
have, on the one hand, an individual will of a very definite character, and on the other hand a sufficient motive. If we
were to use this irrefutable fact in the present question, then
i 322 We simply designate the world as a deed which has sprung from a divine will and a divine intelligence, that is, we
would be in complete contradiction with the results of immanent philosophy; For we have found that simple unity was
neither will, nor spirit, nor an interdependence of will and spirit; or, in words of Kant, we would do immanent
principles to constitutive to the most arbitrary and sophistischeste manner in transscendentem areas which toto genere
from the immanent is different.
But here, too, we suddenly find a way out, which we can enter without any hesitation.
As we have said, we stand before an act of simple unity. If we wished to call this act a motivated act of will, like all
the deeds known to us in the world, we would be unfaithful to our vocation, betray the truth, and be simple dreamers;
For we can not attribute to God either will or spirit. The immanent principles, will and spirit, can not, in any case, be
transferred to the primordial being; we must not make them constitutive principles for the derivation of the deed.
On the other hand, we may make the same rules for "mere judgment," ie we may attempt to explain the origin of the
world by conceiving it as if it were a motivated act of will.
The difference immediately jumps into the eyes.
In the latter case, we judge only problematically, according to analogy with the deeds in this world, without giving
up any apodictic judgment, in great arrogance, over the nature of God. In the former case, on the other hand, it is
readily asserted that the essence of God, like that of man, was an inseparable combination of will and spirit. Whether
you say this, or is expressed veiled and God's potentia -Willen, dormant, unthtigen will, the Spirit of God potentia -
Geist, called dormant, unthtigen mind - whatever one proposes the results of honest research in the face: for if the will
The movement is set, and the mind is a departed will with a |
i 323 Special movement. A dormant will is a contradiction in terms and carries the stigma of the logical contradiction.
We do not, therefore, enter into a forbidden way when we conceive of the act of God as if it were a motivated act of
will, and therefore, as a temporary measure of the essence of God, merely to judge the deed, the will and the spirit.
That we must give him will and spirit, and not will alone, is clear, for God was in absolute solitude, and nothing
existed beside him. From the outside, therefore, he could not be motivated, but only by himself. In his self-
consciousness only his being and his existence were reflected, nothing else.
From this it follows with logical constraint that the freedom of God (the liberum arbitrium indifferentiae) could
submit only a single choice: namely, to either remain as it was, or not to be. He was, of course, free to be different, but
in all directions of this otherness freedom must remain latent, because we can not imagine a more perfect and better
being than that of a simple unity.
It was therefore God only one fact possible, namely a free act, because he was under no compulsion, because he
also failed well, how could perform, namely to enter into absolute nothingness, into the nihil negativum, ie to fully
Annihilate, cease to exist.
But if this was his only possible deed, and we are faced with a completely different act, the world whose being is a
constant development, the question arises: why does not God, if he wanted to be non-being, crush immediately
Nothing? You must give God Almighty, for His power was limited by nothing; Consequently, if he did not want to be,
he must at once have been destroyed. Instead, a world of multiplicity arose, a world of struggle. This is an obvious
contradiction. How do you want to solve it?
To this we must first reply: It is, on the other hand, logically certain that simple unity is but a single act
i 324 Was possible: to destroy itself completely; On the other hand, the world proves that this act did not happen. But this
contradiction can only be an apparent one. Both acts, the logically possible and the real, must be united on their
ground. But how?
It is clear that they are only to be united if it can be shown that by any hindrance the immediate destruction of God
was impossible.
So we have the hindrance to look for.
In the above question, it was said, "You must grant omnipotence to God, for His power was limited by nothing." But
this proposition is false in its universality. God existed alone, in absolute solitude, and it is therefore true that he was
not confined by anything external to him; His power was, therefore, an omnipotence in the sense that nothing but what
lay beyond it limited it. But it was not an omnipotence of its own power, or, in other words, its power was not to be
destroyed by itself, the simple unity could not cease to exist by itself.
God had the freedom to be as he liked, but he was not free from his particular being. God had the omnipotence, his
will, to be somehow; But he did not have the power not to be.
The simple unity had the power to be in any way different from what it was, but it did not have the power of
suddenly not being at all. In the former case it remained in the being, in the latter case it should not be, but it was itself
in the way; For if we can not fathom the nature of God, we know that it was a definite being, and this particular
supernaturity, resting in a certain union, could not be by itself, as a simple unity. This was the obstacle.
The theologians of all times have unquestionably given God the predicate of omnipotence, that is, they have given
him the power to be able to carry out whatever he wants. No one, however, thought of the possibility that God might
want to become self-nothing. No one has ever considered this possibility. If, however, they are seriously considered, it
is seen that in this one
i 325 The case of God's omnipotence, limited by itself, that she was not opposed to omnipotence.
The one act of God, the disintegration into multiplicity, presents itself as the execution of the logical deed, of the
decision not to be, or in other words, the world is the means for the purpose of not being, and the world is that Only
possible means for the purpose. God recognized that he could only enter into a real world of multiplicity, only through
the immanent realm, the world, from harmony into non-existence.
If, indeed, it were not clear that the essence of God was the obstacle for him to flow immediately into nothingness,
the ignorance of the obstacle could not in any way disturb us. We should then simply postulate an unrecognizable
obstacle in transcendental territory; For, in a purely immanent sphere, it will become completely convincing for all that
the universe actually moves from being to non-being. -
The questions which might be raised here, namely, why God did not want to be non-existent before, and why he had
preferred non-existence to all, are without significance; For, as to the former, "a former" is a concept of time, which in
eternity is without all or any sense, and the latter answers the facts of the world sufficiently. It must well have deserved
the non-existence before the agreement, otherwise God would not have chosen it in its perfect wisdom. And all the
more so when we consider the agony of the higher ideas we know, the animals nearest to us, and the human beings,
with what agony the non-existence alone can be bought.
We have, for the time being, deliberately consigned the will and the spirit to the nature of God, and have conceived
the act of God, as if it were a motivated act of will, in order to obtain a regulative principle for the mere appraisal of the
deed. We have also attained this goal in this way, and speculative reason may be satisfied.
i 326 However, we must not abandon our peculiar standpoint between immanent and transcendent territory (we depend on
the thin thread of existence above the bottomless abyss, which separates both regions) in order to re-enter the solid
world, the secure ground of experience We once more loudly declared that the nature of God was neither a union of
will and spirit, like that of man, nor an interplay of will and spirit. The true origin of the world will therefore never be
able to fathom a human mind. The only thing we can do, and may, whatever authority we may have done, is to open up
to us the divine act according to analogy with the deeds of the world, but always remember the fact, and never lose
sight of it
We see through a mirror in a dark word
(1 Cor. 13)
And, according to our preamble, an act which, as a unitary act of a simple unity, can never be grasped by the human
However, the result of the piecemeal composition satisfies. Let us not forget that we might also be satisfied if we
were not allowed to reflect the divine deed darkly; For the transcendent territory and its simple unity have disappeared
without a trace in our world, in which there are only individual wills, and besides or behind which nothing exists, just
as before the world only the simple unity existed. And this world is so rich, it answers so plainly, so clearly and clearly,
that the thoughtful thinker turns away lightly from the "endless ocean," joyfully devoting all his spiritual power to the
divine act, the book of nature Is always open before him.
Before we proceed, let us summarize the results:
1) God wanted to be non-existent;
2) His being was the obstacle to the immediate entry into non-existence;
3) The being had to fall into a world of multiplicity
i 327 Whose individuality all have the striving for non-existence;
4) In this endeavor they prevent each other, they struggle with each other, and thereby weaken their strength;
5) The whole being of God entered into the world in a changed form, as a certain force;
6) The whole world, the universe, has a goal, non-existence, and attains it by continually weakening its strength;
7) Each individual, by weakening his power, is brought to his point of development, to the point where his striving
for destruction can be fulfilled.
Of these results, those which relate to the immanent region must now be subjected to a test.
In the inorganic kingdom we have gases, liquids, and solid bodies.
The gas has only one striving: to disperse on all sides. If this effort could be exercised unhindered, it would not be
destroyed, but weakened and weakened. It would approach ever more to destruction, but it never reach, or: the gas has
the striving for destruction, but it can not attain it.
In this sense, we must also think of the state of the world in its first periods. The individuals, as a fiery urn in the
fastest rotation, extended their sphere of force, which we can not determine, in the subjective sense, spatially, in the
absolute nothing, struggling incessantly with each other until the fatigue of individuals grew so great Could no longer
be obtained in the gaseous state and became dropable liquid. The physicists say: they lost a part of their warmth in the
cold space: what a meager explanation! They were so weakened by their aspirations themselves and by the struggle
that, if a knowing subject had been present, they could objectify their striving, their essence, only as a liquid. -
The fluid has only one aspiration: it wants, horizontally
i 328 Diverging on all sides, according to an ideal point, which lies outside it. But the striving for an ideal point is an entirely
open striving for non-existence, is clear; For any liquid which could reach the goal of their striving would be destroyed
at once.
In the periods of the world where gaseous individuals changed into liquid, the formation of the world body began.
All the fluids had only the pursuit of any definite center, but they could not reach it. If we consider our solar system
alone, a single immense gas ball was enveloped on all sides in a fire- Liquid sea (similar to a soap bubble). Every gas
in the interior had the striving to break through the sea and to separate it on all sides; The sea, on the other hand, had
the pursuit of the center of the gas-sphere. This resulted in an exceedingly great tension, a great pressure and counter-
pressure, without any other result, than a gradual weakening of the individual forces, until finally a solid shell formed
around the whole. -
Every solid body has only one striving: after an ideal point outside it. On this earth, this point is the unstable center
point. If any solid body could reach unimpeded to the center of the earth, it would be completely and forever dead, at
the moment when it is concerned.
The next periods of the world, which followed those in which fixed shells were formed around the bodies of the
world, were filled with great transformations. Since the whole world, from the beginning, was in a revolving
movement, the bodies, which were probably very dense, detached themselves, and circled, as rings, around the central
part, until they were transformed into planets during further transformation The central body, in accordance with Kant-
Laplace's hypothesis, continued to condense itself in continuous further cooling and coalescence (weakening of the
The primordial state of the world presents itself to our thinking: as a fainting longing of the individuals after
absolute death, which was only partially fulfilled in the ever-increasing weakening of the determined force.
i 329 In the world of the time, as in every gaseous world, the transcendent obstacle which God found in his essence, when he
did not want to be, or the retarded moment, is reflected from every gas, the reflex of the transcendental doom, that God
did not want to be, but could not immediately find fulfillment.
In the succeeding periods, we find individual individuals who would probably have had the full and complete
satisfaction of their longing if they had been able to reach their goal unhindered.
The present universe, however, is not conceivable at all; for, as a finite sphere, immeasurably large for our mind,
with a liquid or extraordinarily light solid shell, within which every inorganic individual is inhibited, to reach the goal
of his striving, or with In other words, the universe is maintained by a powerful tension, which continually weakened
the determined strength.
In the entire inorganic kingdom of the universe there is nothing else but an individual will with a certain striving
(movement). It is blind, that is, its goal lies in its striving, is contained in the movement by itself. His essence is pure
impulse, pure will, always following the impulse which he received in the decay of unity into multiplicity.
When we say, therefore: the gas will stand apart in indefinitum, the liquids and solids want for a lying besides them
ideal point, we are expressing only that a knowing subject, the direction of the pursuit tracing to a particular targets
comes. Regardless of a knowing subject, each inorganic body has only a certain movement, is pure genuine impulse, is
merely blind will.
And now I ask: how must the will of the chemical idea now be reflected in the mind of man? As a will to live? In no
way! After all, he is pure will to death.
This is a very important result. In the non-organic realm, life is not intended, but destruction; |
i 330 Death is wanted. We have to do with a will only at all because something is to be obtained which is not yet, because
there is a retarding moment which makes the immediate attainment impossible. Life is not wanted, but is only a
manifestation of the will to death, in the primordial state of the world, and in every gaseous present: the appearance of
the retarded moment in the individual, and in every fluid and solid body: appearance of an externally impeded striving ,
Therefore, even in the inorganic kingdom, the life of the individual is not a means to an end; The necessity of it. Life in
the inorganic kingdom is always only appearance, is the gradual movement of chemical ideas to death.
As long as there are gaseous ideas in the world, (and they are still superior to all the others), the forces existing in
the world are not ripe for death. All the fluids and solids are ripe for death, but the universe is a solid whole, a
collective unity with a single goal: non-existence, and therefore the fluids and solids can not be the fulfillment of their
striving When all the gases are weakened to such an extent that they become solid or liquid; or, in other words, the
universe can not become nothing but the whole of the energy contained in it is ripe for death.
From here on, with the intention of the whole, the life of the fluids and solid bodies, that is, their externally inhibited
striving, appears as a means, as a means for the purpose of the whole.
In physics, therefore, we have taken too low a standpoint against the chemical ideas, and have attained only half a
result. We have correctly recognized the inhibited striving of all ideas as life, but, as we stood still, or rather, without
metaphysics, we were mistaken in the explanation of the will. The chemical idea wants death, but it can only reach it
through the struggle, and therefore it lives: it is in its innermost core will to death.
i 331

We enter the organic realm. From physics we have to remember that it is nothing more than a form for the
weakening of the forces in the universe. Now we call it better: the most perfect form for killing the force. This is
sufficient for us at this point. We will also find a place where we can re-enter into the organization and understand its
full meaning.
The plant grows, testifies (in some way) and dies (after some lifetime). If we look at every particular thing, the great
fact of real death, which could never appear in the inorganic kingdom, is at first bright. Could the plant die if she did
not want to die in the deepest core of her being? It merely follows its foundation, which drew its entire striving out of
the longing of God for non-existence.
But the death of the plant is but a relative death; its striving finds only partial fulfillment. She begot, and by her
generation she liveth.
Since the procreation, the preservation in life, is occasioned externally and depends on other ideas, but springs from
the innermost idea of the plant itself, the life of the plant is quite different from that of the chemical idea. While in this
life life is only an inhibition of the will to death, caused and conditioned from the inside or outside, life is directly
wanted in the plant. The plant, therefore, shows us the will to live beside will to death, or, better, because it wants
absolute death but can not have it, it wants life directly as a means to absolute death, and the resultant is the relative
This all is the manifestation of its impulse, which is not guided by knowledge, that is, in the knowing subject its
impulse is reflected in the manner indicated. The plant is pure will, pure impulse, following the impulse which the
simple chemical ideas which constituted it, in the disintegration of unity, were given to multiplicity.
In physics, we defined the plant as a will
i 332 Live with a certain movement (growth). This declaration is subject to correction. The plant is the will to death, like the
chemical idea, and the will to live, and the resultant of these endeavors is the relative death to which it is also a part.
The animal is first a plant, and all that we have said of it also applies to it. As a plant, it is the will to death and the
will to live, and the result of these efforts is relative death. It wants life as a means to absolute death.
The animal is, however, a combination of will and spirit (at a certain stage). The will has partly divided itself, and
each part has a peculiar split movement. This modifies its plant life.
The spirit of the animal perceives an object and instinctively feels the danger that threatens him. The animal has
instinctive death-fear in certain objects.
We are faced with a remarkably remarkable phenomenon. The animal wants destruction in the deepest interior of his
being, and yet he fears death by his spirit; For this is a condition, because the dangerous object must be perceived in
some way. If it is not perceived, the animal remains calm and does not fear death. How is the strange phenomenon to
be explained?
We have seen in physics that the individual is confined: it is not completely independent. It has only half a power
perfection. It affects all ideas directly and indirectly, but it also experiences the effects of all other ideas. It is the link of
a collective unit which is in the most dynamic connection, and therefore does not lead a completely independent, but a
cosmic life.
Thus we have already found above, in the inorganic kingdom, that individual individualities are ripe for death, and
would be extinguished if their path were given free rein. But they must live as a means for the purpose of the whole.
The same is the case with animals. The animal is a means for the purpose of the whole, just as the whole organic
realm only
i 333 A means for the purpose of the inorganic. And indeed, its nature corresponds to the definite purpose which it is to
We can now put this purpose into nothing more than a more effective mortification of the power, which can only be
achieved by fear of death (more intense will to live), and which in turn is a means for the purpose of the whole, the
absolute death.
Thus, while in the plant there is the will to live beside the will to death, the will of life stands before the will to
death in the animal, and completely conceals it: the means have entered the purpose. Sun wants on the surface of the
animal just life, is reiner Wille to life and fear death, which it wants in the depths of his being alone. Because, I ask
again, the animal could die if it did not want to die?
Man is first animal, and what we said of this, which is also true of him. As the animal is in him the will to live for
the will to death, and life becomes demonic wanted and death demonic feared.
In humans, but further cleavage of the will, and thereby a further cleavage of the movement has taken place. To
reason that connects the manifold of perception, thinking came, the reflectirende reason that reflection. This makes his
animal life is essentially modified specifically for two very different directions.
First, the fear of death on the one hand and the love is increased to life on the other.
The fear of death is increased: the animal does not know the death and fear him instinctively when it perceives a
dangerous object. Humans on the other hand knows death and knows what he has to represent. Then he sees the past
and looks to the future. In this way he looks extraordinarily more, I would say infinitely more dangers than the animal.
The love of life is enhanced: the animal follows in the main his instincts, which are limited to hunger, thirst, and all
Schlafbedrfni to estrus Related. It lives in |
i 334 a narrow circle. However, occurs to that man by his reason, life in forms contrary, as wealth, women, honor, power, etc

fame which his will to live, to stir up lust for life. The reason reflektirende duplicated his instincts, increases it and
meditate on the means of satisfying them by: it makes the satisfaction of artificially raffinirtem enjoyment.
In this way, the death of all your soul and is hated at the mere word, the heart of the most excruciating cramping up,
and the fear of death is the fear of death and despair when people stare death in the eye; however, life is loved with
In humans, thus the will to death, the instinct of his innermost being, no longer the will to live is simply hidden, as
in the animal, but it disappears completely in the depths where it is just, from time to time when deep desire expresses
peace. The will lose its purpose completely out of mind and eyes and just clings to the agent.
In the second direction but the animal life by reason, modified in a different way. Increases radiant and radiant with
the spirit of the thinker from the depth of the heart, the pure purpose of existence up, while the center disappears. Well
quite refreshing image meets his eyes and inflamed his will powerfully longing flares up after death, and without
hesitation takes the will, moral enthusiasm, the better means to recognize purpose virginity. Such a person is the only
idea in the world, which can reach the absolute death by want him too.
To summarize, then everything in the world is the will to death, which in the organic realm, more or less veiled,
appears as a will to live. Life is made of pure plant engines, by instinct and finally demonic and consciously willed,
because the goal of the whole, and thus the goal of any individuality is achieved faster this way.
In the beginning the world was life phenomenon of the will |
i 335 to death, the pursuit of individuals to non-existence, which has been slowed by a retardirendes moment in them.

In designed, consistently obtained in intensive Tension universe can life with intention to chemical ideas simply call
inhibited pursuit of non-existence and say that it represented itself as a means to an end of the whole.
The organisms on the other hand want from his own life, wrap their will to death in will to live, that they want out
of itself the means that initially they will lead and through them the whole absolute death.
so we still eventually, on the surface, found a difference between the inorganic and organic kingdom, which is very
But at the bottom sees the inherent philosopher in the whole universe only the deepest longing for absolute
destruction, and it is to him that he clearly hear the call, which permeates all spheres of heaven: salvation! Salvation!
Death our lives! and the comforting answer: you will find all the destruction and be redeemed.
We have the advisability of nature, which can deny no reasonable in physics, for the first movement, the
disintegration of the unit returned to the multiplicity, of which the first movement all subsequent sequels just were and
are. This was enough perfectly. but now we make the advisability directly to the decision to contact the non-existence
of the Uebersein the antediluvian unit on.
The simple unit was denied the immediate attainment of the goal, but not the achievement at all. It was a process (a
process of development, a gradual weakening) necessary and the whole course of this process was virtualiter in decay.
Thus everything in the world has a goal or better for the human mind there is the nature so is as if it is moving
towards a single targets. But basically everything is, only the first blind impulses in which what we need to keep as
means and ends apart, inseparably united |
i 336 was. Everything in the world is not pulled in front or directed from above but driven out of himself.

In this way, all meshes, every thing depends on the other; force all individualities and be forced and the resultant of
movement from all individual movements is the same as if a single unit have a uniform movement.
Teleology is a merely regulative principle for the judging of the world gangs (the world is thought, as a will sprung
by the highest wisdom directed), but loses, even as such, only then everything Offensive, it empirical always for all
clear had heads when the world is attributed to a simple premundane unit which no longer exists. Since then, it had
been found only a choice between two ways in which the two no satisfaction. Either you had to deny the usefulness, ie
the experience to beat in the face in order to obtain a spukfreies purely immanent area; or you had to give the honor of
the truth, that the usefulness recognize, but also a unit take in, above or behind the world.
The inherent philosophy has solved with its Radical section of immanent and transscendentes area, the problem in
an entirely satisfactory manner. The world is the uniform Act a simple unit that is no more, and therefore is in an
insoluble dynamic context from which a unified movement arises.
We have now, to sink to the safe hands of the results obtained again in the organic life.
Naturalists lead the organic life in a spontaneous generation back, and the currently prevailing view is that a
aequivoca no longer taking place in nature.
As we will remember from physics, there is no gap for the immanent philosophy between inorganic bodies and
organisms. What distinguishes them from each other is their movement. If you wanted to take a gap, it would neither
be, nor should cause to greater astonishment than that between a gas and a liquid.
i 337 the movement of the organism's growth, that is, preservation and formation of a certain type, by continuous assimilation

and elimination of chemical forces constituiren the type.

Every organism is a completed idea how copper is. Like this, so he also simple chemical forces is bound, or better,
picks it up in a simple undifferentiated unity.
However, while the chemical can have no other desire than that from the nature of the connected, their underlying
forces Flowing, certain uniform, the organism enters those chemical ideas opposite of which parts form its type, with
an overwhelming assimilation and forces them in his type, this preserving and ausbildend, single and withdraw from
him. This is the essence of growth and, more broadly, of reproduction.
The basis of each organism is thus a type, a specific chemical compound which has a specific, untraceable in the
inorganic realm movement.
But any organic type is a member of a series of development and, as such, significantly different from the first
member of the series.
As has now emerged the first organism?
That it is caused by simple chemical compound ideas, or from existing compounds of such, is clear. But these ideas
or connections had to be in a certain state, and this state could be on earth only once in the course of development of
the general cosmic life. He has performed with necessity, and necessity was soon the first organism, ie in a new way
moving chemical compound there, just as the formation of the liquid and then the celebrations for the first time only in
the necessaries course of development of the universe could ,
Therefore, could aequivoca occur on our planet only once, because the further progress of the cosmic life no day
was more where the chemical ideas have had a condition which is necessary to allow them to meet in an organism.
This origin and the fact that the organic life |
i 338 can ignite only of themselves, provide any organism to the level limited independence, taking the simple chemical ideas,

and give it, so to speak, the dignity which have them, though he is only through them in existence can get.
In what quantity the first organisms appeared, does not matter. The organization, the new form, was present. She
had occurred with necessity, of necessity, she received in the existence of necessity it formed from the further course of
development of All's, and of necessity they will break one day and disappear when it has finished its work.
It is evident from our previous studies that the whole realm of organisms is a better form for the mortification of
thtigen in space force sum. Every organism follows his instincts, but by he does it, he is a serving member of the
whole. It is a form that leads their individual life and follows her instincts, but standing in the dynamic context of all
other individualities, taking in chemical ideas, she pulls into the vortex of their individual movement and then ejects no
more than the same, but weakened although the weakening of the observation escaped and only at the end of large
periods of development of the linking perception is revealed.
Here it would appear as if the man who virginity glow fully grasped moral enthusiasm to attain the absolute death,
the full and complete deliverance from existence, lies in a regrettable delusion; also that he, in the whole or partial
denial of the will to life (affirmation of the will to death) standing, against nature, against the universe and its
movement from the handle being in non-being. But we can take comfort: it just seems like I'm going to show now.
The the will to live effectively negating harvesting in death, the full and complete destruction of the type. He breaks
his form, and no power in the universe can reconstitute: it's forever, painted in its peculiarity and the associated pain
and Daseinspein, from the book of life. and |
i 339 more he can not ask more he also not required. By abstaining from sexual enjoyment he has freed himself from

reincarnation, before back shudders his will, as the Raw before death. His type is redeemed: that's his sweet reward.
In contrast, finds one who has effectively affirmed what his will to live, no redemption in death. But his type also
goes by and dissolves into its elements; but in reality he has already taken up his new arduous hike, on a path whose
length is indefinite.
The elements now make up the type composed remain, persist in his death. You lose the typical character, the
special procedure, engage in the general cosmic life anew a form chemical compounds or enter into other organisms
whose lives they talk. That they continue to exist, but can not disturb the wise; firstly because they can never meet his
individual type; he knows it on the safe path of redemption.
Let us turn to the second objection. In the denial of the will to live standing to act against nature, by suppressing the
sex drive.
Then is in general first to respond to that in a universe that is in firm dynamic context and is quite dominated by the
necessity, absolutely nothing can be done, which would be against nature. The Holy came with a very specific
character and a certain spirit into life, and both were trained in the stream of the world. So came the moment of
necessity where his will ignite on the knowledge and had in the negation inside. Where is this whole individual course
of development even the slightest tick what you could hang the foolish objection? Far from acting against nature, the
Holy is indeed in the middle of the movement of the universe, and if its type is omitted in his death, the universe, this
has even, on purpose to the purpose of the whole,must happen.
Then we have to point out that he who suppressed the sex drive, fighting a battle, making the |
i 340 power sum in the universe is weakened effectively than by the most devotion to life. As Montaigne well remarked, it is

easier to wear a cuirass through life than to be chaste:

( Pucellage The trouve plus Ayse de porter une cuirasse toute sa vie, qu'un, et est le voeu de la virginit le plus noble de tous
les voeux comme le plus estang Aspre .)
( Sur of Vers de Virgile .)
and the Indians say it is easier to tear a tiger prey from the jaws than to have the sex drive unsatisfied. but if this is the
case, it is, in this respect, the Holy in the service of nature: he sacrifices her loyalty, thereby accelerating its course
most effectively.
During the life of drunken force for
Feed his passion makes,
(Hebbel, Judith.)
is the rider that his horses consume
( Ib ).
the Chaste uses the strength to control himself.
The fight, which the child of the world with the world leads and then continues on in his descendants, ceaselessly
and Actions from outside reagirend, the laid humbly and proud at the same time, courageous like no other, the child of
light into his own chest and fights it off, bleeding from a thousand wounds. As the child of the world cries out in great
It is so beautiful to die only through life itself! to swell the stream that the vein will be hosting it shatters! to mix the highest
pleasure and the thrill of destruction in each other!
( Ib ).
the way selects the horror of annihilation only by considering absolute nothingness, and waives the lust; | Because after
the night of the day the pure Aethergewlbe whose shine a little cloud (the concern by the sex drive) comes after the
storm sweet heart peace after the stormy sky
i 341 rare and increasingly rare clouds, and then the absolute death: salvation from life, freedom from yourself!

The wise Hero, the purest and most glorious manifestation in the world, creates in this, the true and genuine
happiness, and as he does so, he promotes, like no other, the movement of the universe from being into non-being.
Because first he knows that its shape is broken in death, and "this secure treasure in the breast-supporting," fully
satisfied and nothing more searching for itself in the world, he dedicates his life to the life of humanity. In this way,
however, and by the victorious ending struggle in his breast, he also, when he once received from the kingdom of
heaven his heart peace in the destruction, gloriously accomplished the work he had to perform as an undertaking for the
We recognized that the organic kingdom was the most perfect form for the mortification of it by circling chemical
ideas, and noted that it one day, break with the same necessity with which it was created and disappear will. This event
and then the destruction of the universe, the full and complete destruction of thtigen in the world force sum, we have
to put into the eye now.
We closed the physics of benefits arising from their conclusion:
The world is indestructible. The motion of the inorganic realm is an endless chain of links and childbirth; that of the organic
kingdom progressive endless development from lower to higher forms of life; but the power contained in the world weakens
continuous with this movement.
At the same time, we maintained the right to re-examine this result in metaphysics. We have already done indirectly
above and have to explain so that the result of physics was a much more one-sided. The whole universe, continuirlich
moves his strength weakening, out of being in the non-existence, and the developmental series, which we have had to
have a beginning in analysis, are also a |
i 342 have end: they are not endless, but will lead to the pure absolute nothingness, into the nihil negativum .

If we have not ventured into politics, where we followed the course of development of mankind, the safest part of
our experience, to determine in detail its course from the presence of the ideal targets in the future, but designated made
a few excellent forms through that he must go, we are now where we are to the further course of the world, of which
we are given as an experience only a very small portion construct, preceded with the greatest caution and logic based
only on the true thing.
Although we know very few events in the universe and our knowledge, on purpose to all of nature, is fragmentary
and only piecemeal, yet we have the unshakable certainty that everything in the world has happened to necessity, is
happening and will happen. Each event, whether known to us or unknown, entered with necessity and had necessary
consequences. but everything happened and happens to speak figuratively, of a single goal, for the sake of non-being.
After this can give us our ignorance of the revolutions that have taken place on Smtliche stars, cause no pain. arose
whether on all or most or even to do any organic life at all, or whether it is already extinguished again, is indifferent.
We know the target of the world, and know that the means to achieve it, have been elected with the highest wisdom.
We therefore believe the time being from the universe entirely and turn our gaze solely on our planet.
It is humanity which gives us here the first stopping point. I have shown in the policy that they, standing under the
great laws of suffering that makes the will of individuals becoming weaker, her spirit mind getting brighter and more
comprehensive, must of necessity in the ideal state and then into non-existence. It is no different: it is inexorable,
immutable destiny of mankind, and probably her when she falls into the arms of death.
It is a matter of indifference, as I have noticed in politics, whether mankind say the "great sacrifices" as the Indians,
or |
i 343 "the manifestation of the sons of God, according to which all creatures to longs anxious," as Paul says, brings in moral

enthusiasm, or impotence, or in a wild, fanatical flare last vitality. Who can predict? Enough, the sacrifice will be
brought because there has to be brought because there is a passage point for the necessary development of the world.
But if it is taken, nothing will happen less than what is called in the theater a bang. Neither the sun nor the moon nor
any star will disappear, but nature is quietly continue its course, but under the influence of the change that has brought
death to mankind, and that was not there before.
Again, we are cautious and not rush with reason. Lichtenberg once said that a pea, thrown into the North Sea,
increasing the level of the sea at the coast Japanesischen, although the level of change is perceived by any human eye.
Similarly, there is certain logic that a pistol shot, fired on earth, will make its effect on Sirius, even at the extreme limits
of the vast universe asserted; because this universe is consistently in most enormous tension and is not a limp,
lppisches, pathetic so-called infinite. So we will probably take care not a hypothesis in which we see step by step the
consequences of the Great Sacrifice; because what we probably would bring to other ways than a fantasy, from the
values of a fairy tale,tells his comrades in sparkling star night the Bedouin? We are content with simply konstatiren that
the disposal of mankind will have effects on the world stage, which lie in the one and only direction of space.
However, we can pose as virtually certain that nature will bring out any new human-like beings from the remaining
animals; because what they intended with his humanity, that is the sum of individual beings who are therefore the
highest conceivable beings in the whole universe, because they can pick up their very core - (on other planets can
gleichwerthige, but no higher beings exist) - which finds |
i 344 in mankind's entire fulfillment. It will remain which would bring a new humanity to the end of work.

We can also say that the death of humanity will result in death of the whole organic life on our planet result.
Probably even before the entry of humanity in the ideal state, certainly in this, the same life of most animals (and
plants) hold in their hand, and they will not forget their "under-age brothers," including its loyal domestic animals, if
they redeemed himself. It will be the higher organisms. The lower but are identified by the induced change on the
planet, losing the conditions of their existence and go out.
we now look back on the whole world, so we first incorporate the effect on them, which has the extinction of all
organic life on earth to them, in all its parts exert, without presuming us to provide the "how". Then we stick to the fact
that we owe astronomers that Smmtliche world body, gradually narrowing by the resistance of the ether, their orbits
and finally all plunge into the real central sun are.
The growths, which are resulting from this partial world fires are not allowed to deal with. We introduce ourselves
immediately to the one link in the evolutionary sequence showing us only solid or liquid body. All gases have
disappeared from the universe, ie the tenacious force total has weakened such that only solid and liquid body
constituiren the universe. It is best to assume that all that still exists, only liquid.
The redemption of these fluids now is absolutely nothing in the way. Each has free rein: each imaginary part of it
goes through the ideal point and its desire is fulfilled, ie it is destroyed in its essence.
And then?
Then God is actually converted from the Uebersein, by becoming, in the non-existence; he has found through the
world-process, which he prevented by its very nature, could not immediately reach: the non-existence.
i 345 was only the transcendent area went down, - now also passed the immanent (in our minds); and we look, according to our

belief, shocked or deeply satisfied, in absolute nothingness, the absolute void, into the nihil negativum .
It is finished!
Herewith we added every half results of physics and can go ahead.
The aesthetics is apparent from the highest intrinsic point of view, just as we detected by lower. This is not
surprising: for the reason of beauty in the things in itself has indeed its magnificent ground of explanation solely in the
simple unit or its first harmonic motion. In the realm of beauty waiting for nothing more: there should not only get
something else! It is quite the adorable glory of primeval existence of God, yes, it is the adorable gloss even the calmed
quite contained nature of God, the simple unit (with intent to the contemplative subject) and the Objektivirung the
continuations of the wonderful, harmonious first movement died as God and the world was born.
By contrast, the ethics on several very auxiliaryneedy results. Metaphysically supplements, but they present
themselves as solutions to the most serious philosophical problems. It lets the truth dropped her last veil and shows us
the real coexistence of freedom and necessity, the full autonomy of the individual and the pure essence of fate, from
whose knowledge of a consolation, a confidence, a confidence flows as even Christianity and the Budhaismus can not
offer their adherents; because the truth which recognizes the man who met him in a very different way than what he
must believe.
In ethics we took the will to live one against the rugged position. We condemned it and expressed his brow the
brand of madness. We shuddered with the struggle for life back, questioning the denial |
i 346 the will to live in full contrast to the assertion of the will.

By did so, we do not urtheilten rash and hasty, but only on one side because we lacked the right overview.
but now is the whole area immanent in the mild light of knowledge before us, which we have searchingly into the
middle of the gap between transscendentem and immanent areas, won for us. And here we must declare that the denial
of the will to live is not the affirmation contrary.
The true relation of one to the other will result from the following.
We have seen that one great law dominating nature from the beginning, dominated and will rule pending its
destruction: the law of weakening the force. Nature is old. Anyone from a ternelle (!) Jeunesse speaks of "eternal"
youth nature (at least one would like but, logically correct to say expressing "endless"!), Judges like the blind man of
colors and is at the lowest level of knowledge.
Under the rule of this great law is everything in the world, and therefore also humans. He is, at bottom will to death
because his type constituent and him through the inlet and outlet, sustaining chemical ideas like death. But since they
can achieve it only by weakening and there is no more effective means to this end, as the will of life, the middle occurs
demonically before the purpose of life before death, and it turns out the man as a pure will to live.
By now surrenders itself solely and life alone, always hungry and eagerness full of life, he acts in the interests of
nature and at the same time in his own; because it weakens the power sum of the universe, yet his type, his
individuality, a particular idea has half-handedness. He is on the path of salvation: there can be no doubt; but it is a long
path whose end is not visible.
The one, however, who himself had to turn away from life with the same necessity with which the crude man
clutching life with a thousand arms, the through cold, clear knowledge of |
i 347 purpose, before the means of death came before the life - is also in the interest of nature and in his own; but it weakens

effective both the force sum of All's, and his type who enjoys in life the bliss of the heart peace and finds the absolute
annihilation in death, according to which everything in nature yearns. He goes far away from the great highway of
salvation, on the short path of redemption: in front of him in golden light up, he sees them and he will achieve them.
So those achieved by the affirmation of the will to live, on a dark, sultry ways where the crowd is terrible,
everything pushes and is pushed, the same goal that this, by the denial of the will, on a bright, only at the beginning
thorny and steep, then flat and beautiful paths where no crowds, no shouting, no whining is obtained. But only that
reached the goal after a indeterminate time, always unsatisfied, anxious, Kummer and painfully while it lays at the end
of his individual career, the hand on the target and is free from worry, grief and agony on the way there and in deepest
peace of mind, living in the most unshakable serenity.
That drags painfully on, always inhibited forward to, and shall not advance being able; this bear as it were angel
hosts up, and because he can not take his eyes off the clear height and is lost completely in the view, he is at the goal,
he did not know how. At first it seemed so far, now it has already been reached!
So it want both the same, and get both what they want; the difference lies only in the way of their movement. The
denial of the will to live is faster movement than that of affirmation. It is the same proportion as between civilization
and natural state that we identified in the policy. In civilization, mankind is moving more rapidly than in its natural
state: in both forms but it has the same goal.
One could also say that the key goes from major to minor over, and the pace of the life course changes from adagio
and andante in vivace and prestissimo .
i 348 Whoever denies life, only the means disdain of Him, which it affirms; and that is because he has a better way than this to

the common purpose found.

And with this, the position of the wise men of his fellow man is given. He will not complain, even arrogant, in the
conceit of his better knowledge, smile. He sees how they struggle away with tools that will take them weeks to come to
terms. Since he offers them another one that requires a bit more effort, but results in a few minutes to the goal. Harden
them against it, let him try to convince them. it is not possible, he shall let them go. You at least know the truth now,
and it works silently continue in them, for
Magna est vis veritatis et praevalebit!
So the time will come when even them the scales will fall from your eyes.
He will Ingleichen not roll his eyes when he looks funny people who enjoy themselves in great jubilation. He will
think Pauvre humanit! but then: Always! Dancing, jumping, freed and let yourselves free! The fatigue and depression
will set already; and then the end will come for you.
It is as bright as the sun's light. The optimism should be contrast of pessimism? How poor and wrong! The whole
life of the universe, before the appearance of a wise contemplative reason, should a meaningless game that tossing and
turning have been a fever? How great! Must when it comes up, a 5-6 pound brain to sit in judgment on a course of
development of the world in an unspeakably long period and reject him? That would be pure madness!
Who is an optimist? Optimist is of necessity He whose will is not yet ripe for death. His thoughts and maxims (his
world) are the flowers of his urge and hunger for life. He is given a better knowledge from the outside, but do not
bordered roots in his mind, or possession they are the same, but throws it from here only so-called cold flashes into the
heart |
i 349 because it is stubborn and hard - what to do? So always! His hour will come, because one goal all people, everything in
nature has.
And who is a pessimist? It must be? Those ready for death. It can take as little love life, like that of life can turn
away. He will if he does not realize that he would live on in his children, making the generation loses their cruel
character as Humboldt shocked shy away from a few minutes of pleasure to purchase with the anguish that must endure
a strange thing to possibly 80 years and will hold a right for a crime, the children create.
So let the weapons fall and no more fights; because your struggle has caused a misunderstanding: you want both the
We then prcisiren nor the position of the immanent philosophy of the suicides and the criminals against.
How easy the stone falls from the hand to the grave of the suicide, how hard, however, was the struggle of the poor
people, who has as good a bed. First he threw from a distance an anxious glance at the death and turned in horror from;
then he treated him trembling widely; but every day they were closer and closer and finally he wrapped his weary arms
around the neck of death and looked into his eyes and there was peace, sweet peace.
Who is no longer able to bear the burden of life, let him throw it off. Those who can not stand in the carnival hall of
the world, or, as Jean Paul says, in large operating rooms in the world, the kick, from the "always open" door, out into
the quiet night.
Well, the immanent philosophy applies to their ethics and to the Disillusioned and seeks to withdraw them with
friendly words of persuasion, prompting to ignite the global response and speeding through pure work for others these
to help them -; But though this motive is not effective if it is insufficient for that character, then she pulls silently back
and bends the course of the world, the death of this be | agreed
i 350 has necessary individual and it must therefore extinguish with necessity; because take the most insignificant creatures

from the world, and the world will be running another, as if it had been.
The inherent philosophy must not condemn; they can not. Does not prompt you to commit suicide; but the truth
alone serving, she had to destroy opposing motives of terrible violence. For what does the poet?
Who would bear fardels
To grunt and sweat under a weary life,
But did the dread of something after death -
The undiscover'd country, from Whose bourn
No traveler returns - puzzles the will
And makes us rather bear Those ills we have
Than fly to others we know did not of?
(Who wore loads
And moans 'and sweat under a weary life'?
But that the dread of something after death -
The Undiscovered Country, of dess' district
No wanderer returns - wanders the will,
That we the evils that we have, dear
Bear than to flee unknown.)
This undiscovered country whose mysteries believed so many a opened the hand again, which had been the dagger
tightly - this country has with its horrors must completely destroy the immanent philosophy. There was once a
transscendentes area - it is no longer. The life Tired, which begs the question: To be or not to be? to the reasons for and
against just out of this world draw (but from around the world: he should consider his gloomy brothers, whom he can
help, not by customizing shoes for her and cabbage planted for them, but by them gain a better position to help) - the
other side of the world is not a place of peace, nor a place of torment, but only nothingness. Whoever enters it, neither
rest nor movement, he is stateless as in sleep,only with the major difference that also what in sleep |
i 351 is stateless, no longer exists: the will is completely destroyed.

This may be a new counter-motif and a new motive: this truth can the One drift back into the affirmation of the will,
pull the other powerful in death. but the truth must never be denied. And if ever since the idea of an individual
existence after death, in a hell or a kingdom of heaven, many held by death, the immanent philosophy on the other hand
will lead many to their deaths - this shall henceforth be the way that should be before, because each motif that occurs in
the world, appears and acts of necessity.
In the state of the criminal is outlawed and this rightly; because the state is entered with necessity in the life of
humanity form in which the great law of weakening the force reveals itself as a law of suffering, and in which alone
man can be redeemed quickly. The movement of the universe sanctify him and his fundamental laws. It forces people
to legal actions, and who violated the basic laws aimed between himself and his fellow citizens on barriers that persist
until death. "He stole," "he has murdered": these are invisible chains with which the criminal is buried.
But in the state there is a free beautiful point where the criminal embrace faithful arms and faithful hands to lie
down on the stigma of his forehead and hide it: it is the standpoint of pure religion.
When Christ the adulteress should condemn, he called for the accuser to stone them if they felt pure, and when he
hung between two murderers on the cross, he promised a kingdom of heaven, the place where according to his promise
only the good should dwell.
The inherent philosophy maintains to this position in metaphysics.
If one overlooks the criminal from necessity, and only those sums in the eye, which, pushed by her daemon, despite
all the motives violated the law, we must confess that |
i 352 they have acted with the same necessity with a good will does works of justice and charity.

The criminal, as the Holy helps make only a necessary course of the world, which is not moral in itself. Both serve
the whole. This is the first thing that calls for clemency.
Then the criminals by the violence of his will, the unhappiness of his desire, not only divorced from the peace that
surpasses all understanding, but he is in agony, which are larger than the torments of hell, or the consequences of the
legal stigmatization. "Of Fools punishment is his folly."
And the immanent philosopher should encounter the wild, unhappy heart of it? How would he despise, if he did it!
He puts it to his chest and has only words of comfort and love for it.
We turn to the fate.
It is, as we know, the continuirlich from the continuirlichen effectiveness of all individuals of the universe is
generating movement throughout the world. It is a power against which the individual does not arise because they are
located next to that of all other individuals including the effectiveness of any particular individual. So we are faced
with the fate of the highest positions of view. It is the general, the Weltalls- fate.
From the standpoint of a particular person, however the view changes. There is individual fate (individual CV) and
appears as a product of two factors gleichwerthigen: the particular individual (demon and spirit) and chance (sum of the
effectiveness of all individuals). Or, as we found in physics: the individual has only a half-handedness, because it
forces and is forced by the coincidence of a counter kicking him foreign, totally independent of his power.
The limited, half the independence of the individual is a fact which can not be knocked over. Even at the highest
point of view, which we are taking now, we see the individual just as in physics. In the |
i 353 world is researching where and how you will, you will always individual, namely semi find independent will.

But it follows also that all doctrines which this middle position of the individual between the two poles: full-
handedness and total dependence move, but especially those that place the individual into one of the pole points
designated are false.
We'll see you out again before the pantheism and the exoteric Budhaismus in this way.
Pantheism as the individual is nothing, a poor puppet, a mere tool in the hands of a secret in the world simple unit.
From this it is that no act of an individual is his deed, but a divine, knitted in him That, and that it also does not have a
shadow of responsibility for his actions.
Pantheism is a great lesson in the truth reveals itself in half. There is a power which is not controlled by the
individual, in whose hands it is; but this power, the chance is limited by the individual himself, is half power.
The great teaching of Karma Budha's according to that theory, unfortunately, in the West as well as not yet known
(it usually sticks to the nonsense that spawns lush oriental imagination, overlooking the precious core), however, the
individual is everything. The individual fate is exclusively the work of the individual. Karma alone controls destiny
(karma alone determines the fate).
What a person does and what happens to him, be it good or bad luck, everything flows from its very nature, from its
merit and demerit ( merit and demerit ).
After Budha's teaching the essence of man created what we call chance, out of himself. I go on the road and hits me
a ball that was intended for someone else, my omnipotent being has led the bullet in my heart. Close in front of me all
the way out, so that I, despairing, must in death, and was not a foreign power, but I have so moved even the scenes and
found that I can not stay in life. Throws me a disease for years |
i 354 on a bed of pain, so I have everything that the disease had to bring, made effective through my full individual self glory

in this particular way. I'm rich, considered a master of millions, so I have all turned from me alone so that I could take
this particular position. In short, everything, even what we ascribe rightly a foreign power, the coincidence is my
exclusive work is emanation of my all-powerful being who only under the compulsion of its specific nature, that is all
good and bad deeds in previous resumes, stands. And what does the individual in his present life forms, together with
the remains of the unspent and unrewarded deeds from earlier forms of existence, the specific nature of a new resume
that what we would call chance,again puts together out of himself, grouped and makes effective.
The teaching of Karma is a great, profound lesson as pantheism, and in it, as in this, the truth revealed in half. The
individual has a real power that is not dominated by chance; but this power is limited by the coincidence is half power.
The Budhaismus exerts on the thinking man a disproportionately larger magic move, the pantheism, although it no
more and no less than this offended the experience and falsifies the truth; because while a hidden in the world all-
powerful unit always leave our hearts cold and will always remain unknown to him, the Budhaismus is solely on the
individuality, the real real, the only certainty for us, we immediately given and intimate acquaintances.
Then it is often downright maddening when you see in any major incident, such externals is grouped as suddenly
close the scenes or open when the time has come for the interior. At such moments, being a follower of splendid,
brilliant king's son and cries, yes, he is right, the individual makes his destiny alone. -
I repeat, however: half the autonomy is a fact on continuous performance areas that can not be knocked over.
Nevertheless, they can be supplemented, fully self-Herr | friendliness
i 355 of the individual, if one moves the past transcendental area to the real immanent.

Everything that is, was the simple premundane unit. Everything that is, thus, spoke figuratively, not to be the resolve
of God, taken part, has taken the decision in it to pass into non-existence. The retardirende moment, the nature of God,
made the immediate execution of the decision impossible. The world had to occur, the process in which the
retardirende torque is gradually canceled. This process, the general Weltallsschicksal certain divine wisdom, (we
always talk figuratively), and in it certain Anything, his individual resume.
Now Budha is right: Everything hits me all the blows and blessings of chance are my work: I have wanted. But not
in the world do I run it first with omnipotent, unknowable force brought about, but of the world in simple unity, I have
determined that they should meet me.
Now has only pantheism rights: the world's fate is a uniform movement around the world to one goal; but not a
simple unit in the world executes them by placing them in apparent acts individuals, soon after this, soon after that
direction, but a simple unity before the world determined the whole process, and in the world lead him only real
individuals out.
Now Plato is right, the ( De Rep . X) every man, before entering into life, its fate can even choose, but he did not
choose it immediately before birth, but of the world at all, on transscendentem areas, as that was not imminent, he has
to be himself Loos determined. -
Finally, now the freedom combined with the necessity. The world is the free act of an antediluvian unit; but in it
there is only the necessity, otherwise the goal may never be reached. Everything meshes with necessity, everything
conspires to a single goals.
And every action of the individual (not just the people |
i 356 but all the ideas in the world) is both free and necessary: free, because it was decided before the world in a free unit,

necessary because the decision in the world realized, is to act.

It must be a real principle from which so effortless, casual and clear the solution of the greatest philosophical
problems it follows that made the most brilliant men ever to fall hopelessly after they had exhausted their thinking
power to the same. As Kant believed the co-existence of freedom and necessity to have detected by distinguishing an
intelligible from an empirical character, he could not help but notice:
The resolution presented here of the difficulties but it will be said, but much hardship in itself and is scarcely susceptible of
a bright display. Alone is because every other one has attempted or may attempt, lighter and more comprehensible?
All had to be wrong because they knew not to create pure immanent and not a pure transscendentes area. The
pantheist had to be wrong because they attributed the actually existing unified world movement to a unit in the world;
Budha had to be wrong because he concluded from the actually existing in the individual sense of full responsibility for
all his actions falsely to the full-handedness of the individual in the world; Kant had to be wrong because he wanted to
embrace a purely immanent areas of freedom and necessity with one hand.
however, we placed the simple unity of the pantheist to a past transscendentes area and declared the unified world
movement from the fact that antediluvian simple unit; We combined half the autonomy of the individual and the totally
independent of him power of chance in the world to go over to transcendentem areas in the single decision of God in
the non-existence, and run in the unified choice of means the decision. Finally, we combined freedom and Necessarily |
i 357 is not in the world where there is no room for freedom, but in the middle of the gulf that separated the transcendent area

restored with our reason, vanished from the immanent.

The sunken transcendent area we have not surreptitiously us with sophistry. That it was, and is not that we have
demonstrated with logical rigor in the analysis.
And now it was considering the consolation of the unshakable confidence, the blessed trust that must flow from the
metaphysically justified full autonomy of the individual. Anything that touches man: distress, misery, grief, worry,
illness, shame, contempt, despair, in short, everything tartness of life, not done him an unfathomable Providence,
intending his best to inscrutable way, but he suffers All this because he, all chosen as the best means to an end even
before the world. All calamities that hit him, he has chosen, because it can be redeemed only by them. Its essence
(demon and spirit) and the random lead him through pain and pleasure, through joy and sorrow, through good and bad
fortune, through life and death, faithful to the redemption that he wants.
Now the enemies love him is possible, as the pantheist, Budhaisten and Christians; because the person disappears
before their deed which was only able to take the hand of chance in the appearance because the sufferer she wanted
from the world.
So metaphysics my ethics gives the last and highest consecration.
It has man's natural tendency to personify the fate and absolute nothingness that stares at him from every grave,
mystical recognized as a place of eternal peace, as a city of peace, nirvana : as a new Jerusalem.
And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes, and death shall be no more, neither sorrow, nor crying, nor pain will be
more; because the first has passed.
(Jn. 21 Rev.., 4.)
There is no denying that the idea of a personal |
i 358 loving God the Father of the human heart, "the defiant and despondent thing," deeper grabs as the abstract fate, and that

the idea of a heavenly kingdom where bedrfnilose, glorified individuals blessed rest in eternal contemplation, brings
powerful longing as the absolute Nothing. The inherent philosophy is full of kindness, too. The main thing is that the
man has overcome the world through the knowledge. Whether he realized the fate can be as it is, or whether he again
gives him the traits of a true father; whether he can stand as absolute nothingness the recognized destination in the
world, or whether it converts to a lichtdurchflutheten Garden of Eternal Peace -: this is completely secondary. Those
who want to stop the innocent, safe game of fantasy?
A madness that makes me happy,
Is a truth worth that pushes me to the ground.
but the wise man looks firmly and joyfully the absolute nothing in the eye.

i 359

of the
Teachings of Kant and Schopenhauer.
Whole, half, and quarter errors are very difficult and
Laboriously to arrange, to sift, and the truth of it
Wherever it belongs.
i 361

The attentive reader, familiar with the history of philosophy, will have found that the doctrine which I
have affirmed contains both important truths discovered by Kant and Schopenhauer unchanged, as well as
results which are due to brilliant ideas of these great men, while I am nowhere Neither on Kant nor on
Schopenhauer. I did it because I wanted to make my work like a cast: pure and simple; And this endeavor
also deprived me of supporting and decorating my own thoughts with citations from the works of other
philosophers, which led me to consider the fact that my own thoughts, which do not have the strength to
assert themselves independently, or not fiercely enough Are, to ignite, not to deserve to live: they may perish,
the sooner the better.
However, by avoiding my predecessors in my system, I quietly undertook the obligation, after the conclusion, to
give an account of what I owe to myself, what others owe, and I am rid of this obligation in the following pages.
The sacred fire of science, upon which the salvation of the human race depends, is passed from hand to hand. It
never extinguishes. It can only be getting bigger, its flame becoming more and more pure and smokeless. It follows,
however, that there can be no thoroughly original philosophical work. Someone has a predecessor, everyone stands on
any pre-scientific work.
But, instead of confessing this openly, some seek to conceal the relation, clothe great truths discovered by others in
new robes, and give them a different name
i 362 Indeed, some go so far as to ignore splendid achievements of the intellect, or even to suppress them with pathetic
sophisms, only to enjoy the sad glory of having produced a seemingly sparkling-branded system.
But he who diminishes the men whose wisdom lives and works in him resembles the miserable one who is beset
with the breast of his mother who has fed him.
I therefore confess that I am on the shoulders of Kant and Schopenhauer, and that my philosophy is merely a
continuation of the one and the other; For even if Schopenhauer had subjected the principal works of Kant to a careful
and very meritorious critique, and had destroyed very essential errors in them, he had not entirely cleansed them of
mistakes, and, moreover, had violently suppressed a truth found by Kant. He absolutely approves transcendental
aesthetics, while it contains the poison of a great contradiction; On the other hand, he carries out an extermination
struggle against transcendental analysis, which is unjustified, in the main, and can only be explained by the fact that
Schopenhauer, irritated by the glorification of reason on the part of his contemporaries, exaggerated intellect and
intuitive knowledge, and therefore no longer prejudice Was, when he judged analytic, which is no less than
transcendental aesthetics a testimony to Kant's marvelous prudence and astonishing power of thought.
My present task is to first investigate Kant's transcendental aesthetics and analysis, and to expose the threads to
which I attached, then to subject Schopenhauer's whole genius system to thorough criticism. I turn to this business in
the hope that I will succeed in rendering the achievements of the two greatest German thinkers so freed from all
contradictions and ancillary matters that even stupid eyes can recognize their invaluable value. At the same time, under
the charm of the revealed contradictions, I will once again develop the principal ideas of my philosophy and put them
into a new light.

Analytics of Knowledge.
i 363

If you miss the first buttonhole,
Does not come to the edge with the button.
i 365

Kant's separation of space and time from the world has been the greatest deed in the field of critical philosophy and
will never be surpassed by any other. He displaced the enigmatic beings, true monsters, who threw themselves into the
way of every attempt to fathom the essence of the world out of the world into our head, and made them into forms of
our sensuality, principles of knowledge, of all experience Before, on conditions of possibility of experience. He has laid
down the justification of this method in his immortal transcendental aesthetics, and although there will always be
"savages" who reject the transcendental idealism of Kant and make time and space again into the forms of the thing, yet
the great achievement does not threaten any Serious danger: it belongs to the few truths which have passed into the
possession of human knowledge.
But Kant did not do more than to separate the monsters from the things themselves and to lay them within us, the
knowing subjects. Although he did not take it without criticism, and simply ascribed to the subject, as I would clearly
show, he had occasionally occupied himself with the way in which they could have come to their tormenting infinity,
which can not be measured by the imagination , He did not take any decency to lay them, as they were, in our
sensuality, as forms. The transcendental aesthetics leave no doubt. She decides:
One can never make an idea that no space is whether one can equal quite well think that no objects are found in * [1].
i 366 Space is a pure intuition. One can imagine only a single room, and when one speaks of many rooms, one understands only parts of
one and the same only space. Moreover, these parts can not precede the a few all-encompassing space, as it were, in its
constituent parts (from which its composition is possible), but only in it. It is essentially unified, the manifold in it, and
therefore also the general concept of spaces at all, is based solely on limitations.
The space is presented as an infinite given quantity.
Kk. 64th
In regard to the phenomena, the time itself can not be annulled, whether the phenomena can be taken away from time.
Time is a pure form of sensuous intuition. Different times are only parts of the same time.
The infinity of time means nothing but the fact that all the definite greatness of time is possible only through the limitations
of a certain time at the bottom. Therefore, the original time of presentation must be given as unrestricted.
Kk. 70th
Space and time lie, therefore, as two pure intuitions, before all experience, in us, space as a greatness whose three
dimensions are lost in the infinite, time as a line coming from the infinite and going on infinitely.
All the objects of a possible experience must be determined by these two pure a priori perceptions and are
determined by them as well as of space as of time,
Because all ideas, whether or not they are external objects, belong in themselves to the inner state, as determinations of the
mind, but this inner state belongs, under the formal condition of inner intuition, consequently to time the time a condition a
priori from all phenomenon in general, namely the immediate condition of the inner (our souls) and precisely thereby indirectly
also of external phenomena. A priori if I can say that all outer appearances are in space and after the Ver | ratios
i 367 the space determined a priori, I can from the principle of the internal sense in general say, all phenomena in general, di all objects of
the senses are in time and stand necessarily in relations of time.
Kk. 72nd
In all these passages I shall return later, and show that they are based on a great contradiction, which Kant was
aware of, but whom he veiled vehemently. For as sure as it is that time and space do not inhere things in themselves, as
surely it is that space and time as they were characterizes above Kant, can not be an a priori forms and in fact are not.
It will be a good thing to put it right here, which Kant understands, on the basis of imagined pure intuitions, by
empirical intuition. It is only the impressions of the senses, which lead to limitations of space, that is, to the outline of
external objects, which furnish views. He is, therefore, firmly opposed to it; "That, in addition to the space, yet another
subjective and based on something personal appearance notion that a priori could objectively say could give" (Kk. 67),
and prevents thus before the experiment, Locke's secondary properties of things, such as color, Smoothness, roughness,
taste, smell, coldness, warmth, etc., likewise to a common ground, a third form of sensibility. Without the above
essential limitation one would be tempted to suppose that Kant, by intuition, understood only that part of the sum of our
ideas, which is based on the faculty of the face. But it is more and less: more, because the gospel also gives intuitions;
Less because impressions of the facial sense, such as colors, mere sensations, not intuitions, give. Odors, feelings of
taste and sounds are completely excluded from it. He says (Kk. [I. Aufl.] 68.):
The well-being of a wine does not belong to the objective determinations of wine, consequently to an object even as a
phenomenon, but to the particular nature of the sense in the subject which enjoys it. The colors are |
i 368 Not the formations of the bodies to which they apprehend, but only modifications of the sense of the face, which is somewhat
affected by the light.
He wants to say: A certain book, for example, has the same extension for all men; Everyone defines his limits
precisely in the same way. But it can be gray for the one, gray for the other, rough for the one, the other rough, etc.
Such ideas
Does not correspond to the idea of space, that they belong merely to the subjective nature of the sense-type.
This distinction is very strange. I'll come back to that.
The results of transcendental aesthetics are mainly two:
1) that we do not recognize things by themselves according to what they are, but only according to how they appear
to us, after passing through the a priori forms of our sensibility, space and time;
2) that these phenomena and space itself are only seemingly outside us, but in reality, in our head. Or in words of
Since the senses never reveal themselves to us in any way, but only their phenomena, but these are mere representations of
sensibility, so also all bodies, together with the space in which they are situated, As mere ideas are held in us, and exist nowhere
else than in our thoughts.
(Prolegomena, 204.)
The excellent Locke, strictly adhering to the experience, came to the conclusion that the so-called primary
characteristics: extent, impenetrability, form, movement, rest, and number are essential to things, independently of the
subject are;
i 369 Solidity, extention, figure, motion and rest, would be really in the world, as They are, Whether there were any sensible being to
perceive them, or not.
(On human understanding. L. II.)
Kant went on decisively. The fact that he made space and time pure intuitions a priori, he could deny the things the
primary characteristics.
We can speak only of the standpoint of a man of space, of extended beings.
(Kk. 66.)
All the properties of things fall away with expansion; things then shrink into a single thing in itself, the rows of x to
be a x and that one x is zero, a mathematical point, of course without movement.
Kant shrank from this consistency, but his protests against it could not be made out of the world. What was the
reason why he declared it to be the greatest inconsistency when we did not grant any thing to ourselves? (Prog., 276),
which helped to tirelessly insinuate that transcendental idealism did not meet with the existence and essence of things,
But only the manner in which they appear to the subject: he had destroyed the appearing, the cause of the phenomenon,
at least for human thought. Kant can not speak of a better boundary between the ideal and the real than Locke's, a
divine divination of the world, valid for all time, into ideals and realities; For divorce does not take place where
everything is drawn to one side. We have only to do with Kant in Kant; , the real is as I said, not x, but zero.
I turn to transcendental logic.
As we have seen above, sensibility, a capacity (receptivity) of our mind, gives us views, by means of its two forms,
space and time. These views are supplemented by the subjective sensations of one or more senses, especially of the
senses of the face (colors), and are thoroughly completed in themselves.
i 370 The intuition does not need the functions of thought in any way.
(Kk. 122).
But they are not a whole, but partial representations, which distinction is very important and to be held, since it is
the only key which opens the transcendental logic, this profound work, to the understanding.
Since every phenomenon contains a manifold, and therefore different perceptions in the mind are dispersed and individually
encountered, a conjunction of them is necessary, which they can not have in the sense of themselves.
(Kk. I. ed., 653.)
It was thought that the senses did not give us impressions alone, but even put them together, and brought about images of
the objects by means of which, beyond the receptivity of the impressions, a certain additional function, namely, a synthesis of
the same, is required.
(Ib. 654.)
In order that from the manifold unity of intuition, (as in the idea of space, for example), the passage of the manifoldness,
and then the concurrence of this, is necessary, which action I call the synthesis of apprehension.
(Ib. 640.)
The compound (conjunctio) a manifold can never come to us through the senses.
(Kk. 127.)
The same- The manifold and the coherent must therefore be connected by a cognitive force to the whole of an
object, if we are not merely isolated, alien, separate parts, which are unfit to knowledge. In order to reproduce the
matter quite clearly in a picture, I say: the impressions which the senses present to us are, according to Kant, like
barrel-doves; If these impressions become a finished object, they need a connection, like the barrel-pots of maturity, to
form barrels. Now the faculty, whose function is this conjunction, synthesis, is, according to Kant, the imagination.
Synthesis at all is the mere effect of the induction,
i 371 A blind, though indispensable, function of the soul without which we would have no knowledge at all; But we are seldom conscious
of it.
(Kk. 109.)
There is no doubt that this synthesis of the manifold of intuitions is an a priori function in us, as the ability of the
hand to grasp has to precede the grasping of an object. Whether it is a function of the imagination, as Kant maintains,
or some other faculty of knowledge, I have occasionally set aside. If she had studied Kant at the head of transcendental
logic, and introduced the understanding with her twelve categories, the treatise of the great thinker would have been
less misunderstood and twisted, and it would not be right now, almost a hundred years after her first appearance To
restore their true meaning, especially to Schopenhauer.
The conjunction of the manifold of intuition by the imagination would, however, be only a futile play, that is, the
connected manifold would immediately disintegrate into its individual parts, and the knowledge of an object would be
almost impossible if I were not conscious of the synthesis. The imagination can not accompany its synthesis with this
necessarily necessary consciousness, since it is a blind function of the soul, and a new faculty of knowledge must
therefore arise which is concatenated with the sensuousness by imagination. It is the mind.
The empirical consciousness, which accompanies various representations, is in itself scattered and without reference to the
identity of the subject. This relationship does not occur by the fact that I accompany every idea with consciousness, but that I
place one with the other, and that I am conscious of its synthesis.
(Kk. 130.)
Without consciousness that what we think is the same thing as we had a moment before, all reproduction in the series of
ideas would be in vain. For it would be
i 372 A new conception in the present state which did not belong to the actus, by which it was gradually to be produced, and the manifold
of them would never form a whole, because it lacked the unity which can only give it consciousness.
(Kk., 642, 1st ed.)
To bring the synthesis of the imagination into concepts is a function which belongs to the understanding, and by which, in
the first place, it gives us the knowledge in the real sense.
(Kk. 109.)
Kant has explained the understanding in many ways: as a faculty of thinking, a faculty of concepts, judgments,
rules, etc., and also as a faculty of knowledge, which, on our present standpoint, is the most suitable designation; For
he defines the findings as follows:
Insights exist in the particular relation of given representations to an object. Object, however, is that in the concept of which
the manifold of a given intuition is united.
(Kk. 132.)
These definitions are to be noted, since Schopenhauer, in regard to the object, has totally misunderstood Kant.
By the fact that we are connected with consciousness, which the senses and the imagination are not capable of
doing, all representations are our representations. This: "I think" accompanies all our ideas, binds to each individual a
thread, which threads then converge in a single point. This center of consciousness is self-consciousness, which Kant is
the pure, the original apperception, even the original- Synthetic unity of apperception. If this union of all
representations does not take place in a self-consciousness,
I would have such a multitude of different selfs as I have ideas of which I am conscious.
(Kk. 130.)
The understanding, therefore, first of all, consciously accompanies the synthesis of the imagination, whereby the
partial representations are united to whole objects, and then brought
i 373 The manifold of given representations under the unity of apperception, which principle is the supreme knowledge in all human
(Kk. 131.)
It is best to recapitulate the former with Kant's words:
There are three original sources (abilities or faculties of the soul) which contain the conditions of the possibility of all
experience and can not be derived from any other faculties of the mind, namely,
Sense, imagination and apperception.
This is based on:
1) the synopsis of the manifold a priori by the sense;
2) The synthesis of this manifold through the imagination; Finally
3) The unity of this synthesis by original apperception.
(Kk. I. ed. 125.)
And now let us pass over to the categories or pure understanding.
The explanation of the understanding, as a faculty of concepts, is present to us. The categories are now originally in
the understanding generated terms, a priori concepts that prior to all experience, as seeds are in our minds, on the one
hand the conditions of possibility of knowledge and experience (such as time and space, the conditions of the
possibility of intuition) , But on the other hand only meaning and content are preserved by the substance which
sensibility presents to them.
Kant has set up twelve pure concepts of the mind:
1. Second Third 4th
Of the quantity. Of quality. the reality. Of modality.
unit reality Inheritance & subsistence Possibility - impossibility
multiplicity negation Causation & dependence Existence
totality limitation community Necessity - contingency.
i 374 Which he drew from the table of all possible judgments. This is so composed:
Quantity of judgments. Quality. Relation. Modality.
General affirmative categorical problematic
Special negative hypothetical assertorical
Single infinity disjunctive Apodictic.
He justified his case by saying:
This function, which gives unity to the various ideas in one judgment, is also given to the mere synthesis of different ideas
in a unit of intuition, which, in general terms, is called the pure concept of the understanding.
(Pp. 110).
We have seen above that the understanding constantly accompanies the synthesis of the imagination with
consciousness, and places the partial representations connected with objects in relation to the original apperception. In
so far as he exercises this activity, he is called the force of judgment. This gives to the pure understanding of the
understanding the necessary content from the impressions of sensibility, by directing the synthesis of the imagination
and subsuming the connected into the categories.
It will be good to take a look back from here, as short as the distance traveled.
We have at first a "turmoil of phenomena," a few partial representations which the sensuality, with the help of its
form, of space, presents to us. Under the guidance of the understanding, here called the force of judgment, the
imagination enters into action, the function of which is the union of the manifold. Without definite rules, however, the
imagination would combine what you are about to see: homogeneous, coherent, almost unequal. Judgment power has
these rules in the categories, and in this way, in the first place, whole ideas arise, which stand under certain categories.
But the business of judicial power is not yet ended. The objects brought under certain categories would be
"A rhapsody of connected perceptions,
If they could not be interlinked. The basic force
i 375 Does this; It connects the objects to one another and subsumes these links again under certain categories (the relation).
Now all our views, guided by the sensibility to the understanding, have passed through, arranged, connected, and
brought into relation; they are all placed under conception, and there remains only one step to the understanding;
Highest point in our entire faculty of knowledge, apperception, self-consciousness.
We have, as it were, tied threads to our ideas, which are connected to objects, and direct them directly into self-
consciousness. Through the now inserted categories, this direct running of the threads has been interrupted. They are
now first united in the categories and brought into relations with each other, and then linked in self-consciousness. And
now we have an intimate connexion of all phenomena; in a combination of general and necessary laws we have in a
word the knowledge and experience, a whole of compared and connected representations: the unity of self-
consciousness is opposed to nature, which through and through the work of our Reason.
Before we go on, I draw attention to the fact that, as we have just said, there is a different synthesis, the
understanding, besides the synthesis of the imagination. Kant calls them intellectual synthesis,
which would have thought as to the manifold of an intuition at all in the mere category and mind connection (synthesis
intellectualis) is called.
(Kk. 141).
The synthesis of the imagination is
As figuratively distinguished from the intellectual synthesis, without any imagination, merely by reason.
(Kk. 142.)
I also put forward one of the many definitions of the categories which, as we stand, are very intelligible, namely,
The pure synthesis, generally presented, gives the pure concept of the understanding of the understanding.
(Kk. 109.)
i 376 And now let's take a brief look at the application of categories to appearances. Here we have to deal first with the
schematism of the pure concepts of the understanding. Schopenhauer mentions the treatise on it: "Whimsical and very
dark, because no man has ever been wise," and leaves them, however, the most diverse interpretations. Kant says:
Pure concepts of the understanding are quite dissimilar in comparison with empirical (indeed sensible) intuitions, and can
never be found in any intuition.
(Kk. 157.)
Since, in all the subsumptions of an object, a concept of the former must be the same with the latter,
A third, which, on the one hand, is in the same category with the category, with the appearance in similarity, and makes possible
the application of the former to the last.
(Chk 158)
Kant this third-party intermediaries called transcendental schema and finds what he is looking for, in time, so that
each scheme of a conception of the understanding is a time determining a priori according to rules.
A transcendental determination of time is so far away with the category of the same kind as she is general and is based on a
rule a priori. But it is, on the other hand, the same with the phenomenon, as time is contained in every empirical idea of the
(Chk 158)
The schemata now go, according to the order of the categories, to the time series, the time content, the order of time,
and finally to the time concept.
I can find nothing else in the "whimsical" piece, except that the synthesis of a manifold of an intuition would not be
possible without succession, that is, without time, which has modified something, has its full correctness, as I shall
show. But what great darkness and uncertainty Kant had to lay down on this simple relation, because his categories are
concepts which precede all experience. Of course an empirical term has similarity with the reprsentirten he objects as
this is only their reflected image, but an a priori concept |
i 377 Is, of course, quite unequal with empirical views, and a link is provided which, of course, can not satisfy anyone.
Let us, however, assume with Kant that it satisfies, and now proceed to the application of the categories.
The rules of the objective use of the categories are the principles of the pure understanding, which in
1) Axioms of intuition,
2) Anticipations of perception,
3) Analogies of experience,
4) Postulates of the empirical mind.
Kant divides the principles into mathematical and dynamic, and calculates the former among the 1 and 2, the latter
the ones mentioned under 3 and 4, after having made the same section through the categories before. His thought is
All compound (conjunctio) is either composition (compositio) or link (nexus). The former is the synthesis of the manifold,
which is not necessarily part of one another, etc., etc., and the like is the synthesis of the like in all that can be mathematically
considered. ... The second compound is the synthesis of the diverse, provided that it necessarily belongs to one another, the
accident of at any substance, or the effect on the cause, for example - is presented thus connected as dissimilar but a priori,
which compound, Because it is arbitrary, I therefore call it dynamic because it relates to the connection of the existence of the
(Kk., 174).
In the application of the pure concepts of the understanding to possible experience, the use of their synthesis is either
mathematical or dynamic; For it is concerned, in part, only with intuition, and partly with the existence of a phenomenon at all.
But the a priori conditions of the views are absolutely necessary in respect of a possible experience, that of the existence of the
objects of a possible empirical intuition in itself just happened. Therefore, the principles of mathematical |
i 378 Use absolutely necessary, ie apodictically loud, but the dynamic use while also the character of a necessity a priori, but only on the
condition of empirical thinking in an experience, consequently lead only indirectly and indirectly with them, hence not that
immediate evidence (Although not without prejudice to their certainty, which is generally based on experience) which is
peculiar to them.
(Kk. 173.)
The principle of axioms of intuition is now:
All views are extensive.
We are here again confronted with the partial representations, of which we have proceeded in the beginning of my
analysis of transcendental analysis. It is the composition of the similar partial intuitions and the consciousness of the
synthetic unity of this homogeneous (manifold).
Now the consciousness of the homogeneous manifold in intuition at all, provided that is first possible to the idea of an
object, the term size (quantify). Thus even the perception of an object, as a phenomenon, is possible only through the same
synthetic unity of the manifold of the given sensible intuition, whereby the unity of the composition of the manifold
homogenous is conceived in the concept of a magnitude; ie the phenomena are all magnitudes ,
The principle of the anticipations of perception is:
In all phenomena, the real, which is an object of sensation, is intense, ie, a degree.
As we have seen in transcendental aesthetics, Kant makes the most severe distinction between intuitions and mere
sensations. Those are limitations of all experience lies in us pure intuitions (space and time), so that we, without ever
having seen an object, a priori can say with full certainty that he had a shape and stand necessarily in proportion to the
time , On the other hand, mere sensations, such as color, temperature, odor, etc., lack a similar transcendental ground;
Because |
i 379 I can not determine the effectiveness of an object before all experience. Moreover, as experience daily teaches, the one
warmly calls what the other calls cold, the latter finds it hard to find what the former finds easy, and now taste and
color. The gots et des couleurs il ne faut jamais disputer.
Thus all these mere sensations are wandering homelessly in transcendental aesthetics, so to speak, as a bastard,
begotten in the unclean matrimony of sensuality, because Kant could not find any form of our sensibility which it
would have protected under its own protection, like the infinite space of all conceivable spaces Infinite time all
imaginable times.
But these sentiments, however diverse as they may be in different subjects, are inseparable from the phenomena,
and can not be denied. They are the chief object, since the efficacy which causes it is fulfilled, as such, only a part of
space and time; For it is clear that an object is not further extended than it acts. In the Transcendental Aesthetic Kant
still allowed clearing the mere sensations cavalirement, but no longer in the Transcendental Analytic, where there is a
continuous connection of phenomena, taking into account all its peculiarities, acted to then under the various pure
conceptions of the understanding, according to rules To subsume. Kant unites them among the categories of quality,
and names the rule according to which this happens, the anticipation of perception.
Now one would think that after all the least anticipiren (a priori recognize and determine) leave, which can be
perceived only in an empirical way, and that the axioms of intuition alone could rightly called anticipations of
perception. Or in words of Kant's:
There is something about the phenomena, which is never a priori is detected and which therefore also constitutes the actual
difference of the empirical from the knowledge a priori, namely the sensation (as matter of perception), it follows that this it
really is, what do Can not be anticipated. On the other hand, we should be able to call the pure determinations in space and
time, both in form, in size, in anticipations of phenomena,
i 380 imagine a priori what may always be given a posteriori in experience.
But Kant is not embarrassed. Since he can not remove the difficulty with reasons, he skips it. He says:
The apprehension, merely means of sensation, met for a moment (if I do not prefer namely the succession of many
sensations into account). So when something in the phenomenon, whose apprehension is not a successive synthesis, which
departs from parts to the whole idea of it has no extensive magnitude; the lack of sensation in the same moment would imagine
it as empty, consequently = 0th Now what corresponded in empirical intuition of sensation is (reality phaenomenon realitas );
which corresponds to the same deficiency, negation = 0th Now, however, each of sensation reduction is capable, so as to
decrease and may disappear gradually. Therefore, between reality in appearance and negation a continuirlicher context of many
possible intermediate sensations, their difference from one another is always smaller than the difference between the existing
and the Zero or the utter negation. That is the real in appearance has always size.
(Kk. 180.)
Now I call that size that is apprehendirt as a unit and in which the multiplicity can be presented only by the approach to
negation = 0, the intensive quantity.
(Kk. 180.)
Kant thus requires that I, generating at each empirical sensation of the negation thereof, Zero, go out and first of all
in gradually increasing. In this way, a continuation in time and a synthesis of the different moments to the whole
sensation takes place, which now has only one intensive magnitude, that is only now I am aware that they have a
certain degree.
This is however only an empirical process; he does not explain how an anticipation was possible. Now here is the
The quality of the sensation is always merely empirical and |
i 381 can a priori be not introduced (eg color, taste, etc.). But the real, which corresponded to the sensations at all, in contrast with the
negation = 0, is just something that incorporates the concept of a being and is nothing but the synthesis in an empirical
consciousness in general ..... all sensations are therefore , though as such, only a posteriori given, but the property of the same,
that they have a degree, can a priori be recognized.
(Kk. 185.)
The philosopher of kicks in,
And proves to you, it must be so. '
We stop here for a moment and we orient irish us.
We have, in conformity with the axioms of intuition and anticipations of perception, extensive and intensive
quantities, ie whole, complete objects that we assist with awareness that we think as such. The part views are linked
and the world is spread out before us. We see houses, trees, fields, people, animals, etc. But here is to note two things.
First, these objects are pure creations of the mind. He alone has the data of sensibility connected and the objects created
are his work. The synthesis is only in the mind, by the mind, for the mind and nothing in what appears to combine
forces in a certain way the mind.
We can think of nothing but the objects connected without having it connected before itself and all events is the connection
the only one not given through objects, but can be done only by the subjects themselves.
(Kk. 128.)
The analysis uses the synthesis always ahead; For where the mind has nothing connected before because he can resolve
anything, because it is only through him as connected to the imagination has to be given.
(Kk. 128.)
Second, are these objects insulated, isolated, strangers to each other over. Is to experience in the real sense arise,
these objects must be linked with each other. This |
i 382 accomplish the categories of relation, according to rules which Kant calls the analogies of experience.

The principle of the analogies of experience in general:

Experience is possible only by the imagination a necessary link between the perceptions. -
The principle of first analogy is:
In all change of experiences substance is permanent, and the quantum thereof is further reduced in nature neither increased.
I shall not dwell on this principle now that I'm going to discuss it at a later occasion. I only mention that it makes the
substance to a common substrate of all phenomena in which they are thus linked smmtlich. All changes, all rise and
fall not the substance, but only its the accidents, strikes di consequently their ways of being, to exist their particular
species. The corollaries of this principle are the known, that the substance is neither created nor can pass, or as the
ancients said: Gigni de nihilo nihil, in nihilum nil posse reverti . -
The principle of the second analogy is:
All changes done according to the law of the connection of cause and effect.
Did we see regulate by the understanding in the first analogy the existence of objects, we now have to consider the
law according to which the mind assigns its changes. I can here be brief, as I shall analyze all causality conditions in
the critique of Schopenhauer's philosophy. I will limit myself therefore to the simple reproduction of the Kantian proof
of the a priori nature of the concept of causality.
I perceive that phenomena follow one another, that is, that is a state of things at a time, was the opposite of the previous
state. So I link actually two perceptions in time. Now link is not a work of mere sense and respect, but here the product of a
synthetic assets of the imagination, which determines inner sense in respect of the time ratio. but these can imaginary two states
in two ways to connect, so that |
i 383 one or the other precedes in time; because time can not be perceived in themselves and as empirically in relation to them, which
previously go and what follow are determined on objects. I am therefore only aware that my imagination before the other set
one after, not that the object of a state before the other before going, or in other words, it remains by the mere perception of the
objective relation of consecutive appearances indefinite. So that they are now recognized as a particular, the relation between
the two states must be designed so that is determined to be necessary that the same before, which subsequently, and not vice
versa must be set. The term, however, who leads the necessity of synthetic unity with him,can only be a pure mind term that
does not lie in perception, and that is the concept of the relation of cause and effect here, of which the former is the latter in
time, as the result, and not as something more than a memory could precede determined.
(Kk. 196, 197.)
Therefore lies in the phenomena themselves not necessity for the mind, to put one before the other as a cause of an
effect, but the mind brings only the two phenomena in the Causalittsverhltni and finally determines which precedes
by two of the other in time, di which is the cause of the other. -
The principle of the third analogy is:
All substances, insofar as they can be perceived as the same time in space, are in continuous interaction.
This principle is aimed at expansion of causality to the whole of phenomena in such a way that every phenomenon
has a direct and indirect effect on all other of the universe, and all phenomena in turn act directly or indirectly to any
individual, always the same.
In this sense, the community or interaction has fully justified, and if the term interaction in any other related
language than in German, this only proves that the Germans think the deepest. Schopenhauer's |
i 384 position in this category compared to will be touched by me at the appropriate places. Kant had the links of phenomena to

a universe in mind, where no one can lead a thoroughly independent life, is clear to any unprejudiced. That which
recognizes the category of community best expresses the poetic exclamation of admiration:
How Everything is woven into the whole!
One in the others works and lives!
The categories of modality wear Nothing helps to complete the experience.
The categories of modality have that they express something special in itself, the term to which they are attached as
predicates not increase as a determination of the object in the least, but only the relation to the faculty of cognition.
(Kk. 217.)
Therefore I run only the sake of completeness, the postulates of empirical thought in its wording.
1) which agrees with the formal conditions of experience (the perception and the concepts of), is possible.
2) What is related to the material conditions of experience (sensation) is real.
3) its relationship with the real according to the general conditions of the experience is determined, is necessary
By now back turn to the analogies of experience, the question raises us first: what they teach us? They teach us that,
as the connection of the partial ideas is a work of the mind to objects, and the linking of these objects is achieved with
each of the understanding. The three dynamic conditions: the inherence, the consistency and composition, have by and
for the human mind only one meaning.
i 385 The consequences resulting therefrom pulls Kant coolly and calmly.

All appearances are in a continuous link of necessary laws and therefore in a transcendental affinity, from which the
empirical is the mere consequence.
(Kk. I. Ed. 649.)
The order and regularity in the phenomena that we call nature, we bring into it himself, and they would not be able to find it,
we would not have, the nature of our Gemths, originally put into it or not.
( Ib . 657.)
So exaggerated, so widersinnisch it is also to say that the mind is itself the source of the laws of nature, so right and the
object, namely the experience is appropriate nevertheless such a claim.
( Ib . 658.)
The understanding does not derive its laws from nature but prescribes them to this.
( Proleg . 240.)
And so we are, at the end of the Transcendental Analytic, nor dejected because, as at the close of the Transcendental
Aesthetic. This afforded the understanding the concepts of a part Appea