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1. A CHI wiggler ubitron amplifier experiment: Wiggler characterization

SciTech Connect

Taccetti, J.M.; Jackson, R.H.; Freund, H.P.

1995-12-31

A 35 GHz CHI (Coaxial Hybrid Iron) wiggler ubitron amplifier experiment is under construction at the
Naval Research Laboratory. The CHI wiggler configuration has the potential of generating high
wiggler magnetic fields at short periods with excellent beam focusing and transport properties. This
makes it a desirable configuration for the generation of high power coherent radiation in relatively
compact systems. The CHI wiggler consists of alternating rings of magnetic and non-magnetic
materials concentric with a central rod of similar alternating design but shifted along the axis by half a
period. Once inserted in a solenoidal magnetic field, the CHI structure deforms the axial field to create
a radial field oscillating with the same periodicity as the rings. An annular electron beam is propagated
through the coaxial gap where the oscillating radial field imparts an azimuthal wiggle motion. The
principal goals of the experiment are to investigate the performance tradeoffs involved in the CHI
configuration for high frequency amplifiers operating at low voltages with small wiggler periods. The
nominal design parameters are a center frequency of 35 GHz, wiggler period of 0.75 cm, and beam
voltage of approximately 150 kV. Calculations have shown an intrinsic (untapered) efficiency of
{approximately} 7% when operating at 6.3 kG axial field (wiggler field, B{sub w}
{approximately}1270 G). The calculated gain was 36 dB, saturating at a distance of 46 cm. These
parameters yield an instantaneous amplifier bandwidth of {approximately} 25%. There appears to be
room for further improvement in efficiency, a matter which will be scrutinized more closely in the
final design. A prototype CHI wiggler is presently being fabricated for use in conjunction with an
existing 30 kG superconducting solenoid. The performance properties of the prototype will be
characterized and compared with linear and non-linear calculations.

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2. A high-average power tapered FEL amplifier at submillimeter frequencies using sheet electron beams
and short-period wigglers

SciTech Connect

Bidwell, S.W.; Radack, D.J.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Booske, J.H.; Carmel, Y.; Destler, W.W.; Granatstein,
V.L.; Levush, B.; Latham, P.E.; Zhang, Z.X.

1990-01-01

A high-average-power FEL amplifier operating at submillimeter frequencies is under development at


the University of Maryland. Program goals are to produce a CW, {approximately}1 MW, FEL
amplifier source at frequencies between 280 GHz and 560 GHz. To this end, a high-gain, high-
efficiency, tapered FEL amplifier using a sheet electron beam and a short-period (superconducting)
wiggler has been chosen. Development of this amplifier is progressing in three stages: (1) beam
propagation through a long length ({approximately}1 m) of short period ({lambda}{sub {omega}} = 1
cm) wiggler, (2) demonstration of a proof-of-principle amplifier experiment at 98 GHz, and (3)
designs of a superconducting tapered FEL amplifier meeting the ultimate design goal specifications.
17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

3. Generation of XUV light by resonant frequency tripling in a two-wiggler FEL amplifier

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bonifacio, R.; Desalvosouza, L.; Pierini, P.; Scharlemann, E. T.

FEL operation at short wavelength is limited by electron beam quality, by the availability of mirrors
for oscillators, and by the availability of input sources for FEL amplifiers. It is possible to use and FEL
amplifier as a resonant frequency tripling device, generating light and strong bunching at the 3rd
harmonic of a conventional input source in an initial section of wiggler, then using a second section of
wiggler resonant at the tripled frequency to amplify the short wavelength light. Neither mirrors nor a
short-wavelength input source are required, and some relaxation of electron beam quality appears to be
possible. We illustrate the scheme with a one-dimensional model and then with NUTMEG simulations
of an 80 nm FEL amplifier initiated by a 240 nm input signal, in which an efficiency of conversion of
electron beam power to 80 nm light of nearly 10(exp -4) was obtained.

4. Generation of XUV light by resonant frequency tripling in a two-wiggler FEL amplifier

SciTech Connect

Bonifacio, R.; de Salvo Souza, L.; Pierini, P. . Dipt. di Fisica Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare,
Milan ); Scharlemann, E.T. )

1989-01-01

FEL operation at short wavelength is limited by electron beam quality, by the availability of mirrors
for oscillators, and by the availability of input sources for FEL amplifiers. It is possible to use and FEL
amplifier as a resonant frequency tripling device, generating light and strong bunching at the 3rd
harmonic of a conventional input source in an initial section of wiggler, then using a second section of
wiggler resonant at the tripled frequency to amplify the short wavelength light. Neither mirrors nor a
short-wavelength input source are required, and some relaxation of electron beam quality appears to be
possible. We illustrate the scheme with a one-dimensional model and then with NUTMEG simulations
of an 80 nm FEL amplifier initiated by a 240 nm input signal, in which an efficiency of conversion of
electron beam power to 80 nm light of nearly 10{sup -4} was obtained. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

5. Generation of XUV light by resonant frequency tripling in a two-wiggler FEL amplifier

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

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Bonifacio, R.; De Salvo Souza, L.; Pierini, P.; Scharlemann, E. T.

1990-10-01

FEL operation at short wavelengths is limited by electron-beam quality, by the availability of mirrors
for oscillators and by the availability of input sources for FEL amplifiers. It is possible to use an FEL
amplifier as a resonant-frequency tripling device, generating light and strong bunching at the third
harmonic of a conventional input source in an initial wiggler section, then using a second wiggler
section resonant at the tripled frequency to amplify the short-wavelength light. Neither mirrors nor a
short-wavelength input source are required, and some relaxation of the electron-beam quality appears
to be possible. We illustrate the scheme with a one-dimensional model and then with NUTMEG
simulations of an 80 nm FEL amplifier initiated by a 240 nm input signal, in which an efficiency of the
electron-beam power conversion to 80 nm light of nearly 10-4 was obtained.

6. Efficiency enhancement in seeded and self-amplified spontaneous emission free-electron lasers by


means of a tapered wiggler

SciTech Connect

Freund, H. P.; Miner, W. H. Jr.

2009-06-01

The enhancement of the efficiency in free-electron lasers (FELs) through the use of a tapered wiggler
is well known. The physics of the tapered wiggler interaction has been studied in theory and
simulation, and large efficiency enhancements have been observed in the laboratory in oscillators and
seeded amplifiers. In this paper, we study the differences in the tapered wiggler interaction between
seeded amplifiers and in FELs that start up from noise and grow to saturation in a single pass through
the wiggler. This configuration is commonly referred to as self-amplified spontaneous emission
(SASE). In comparison with seeded amplifiers, SASE FELs exhibit shot-to-shot fluctuations due to
random phase noise in the electron bunches, and our purpose in this paper is to determine the effect of
this phase noise on the tapered wiggler interaction. To this end, we study the interaction numerically
using the MEDUSA simulation code for seeded and SASE FELs operating in the infrared regime. The
results of the simulations indicate that the overall efficiencies of the seeded and SASE FELs are
comparable for a uniform wiggler but that the output spectrum for the SASE FEL is much broader than
for the seeded case. For a tapered wiggler, the efficiency enhancement in the SASE FEL is less than
that found in the seeded example due to the broader excited spectrum that detunes the tapered wiggler
interaction.

7. Wigglers: the newest profession

SciTech Connect

Spencer, J.E.

1981-01-01

Wiggler systems have been used in storage rings within the last year to increase the intensity of
synchrotron radiation available for experiments as well as to increase the reaction rates in high energy
physics experiments. Multiperiod wigglers or undulators have also been used recently to make quasi-
monochromatic photon beams as well as amplify existing photon beams such as in the free electron
laser. If one defines a wiggler to be any system of transverse, periodic electromagnetic fields, then
recent results on photon production via charged particle channeling in crystals also fall within this
sphere. Of course, any periodic modulation of a charge or magnetic moment (e.g., by a laser) could
produce coherent radiation or, conversely, passage through a periodic aperture (e.g., a metal bellows).
This discussion is limited to a typical, active, macroscopic device and how it provides some unique
advantages which are practical to achieve in storage rings. As implied, the subject divides into two
basic parts - one related to the radiation from the wiggler and the other related to machine physics
applications, e.g., tailoring the phase space of the particle beam, modifying its damping rates or
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possibly optimizing a ring for production of radiation. Neither area is exhausted nor hopefully the
reader, since our goal is only to present enough information to allow one to make reasonable estimates
of some important effects.

8. {open_quotes}Optical guiding{close_quotes} limits on extraction efficiencies of single-pass, tapered


wiggler amplifiers

SciTech Connect

Fawley, W.M.

1995-12-31

Single-pass, tapered wiggler amplifiers have an attractive feature of being able, in theory at least, of
extracting a large portion of the electron beam energy into light. In circumstances where an optical
FEL`s wiggler length is significantly longer than the Rayleigh length Z{sub R} corresponding to the
electron beam radius, diffraction losses must be controlled via the phenomenon of
{open_quotes}optical guiding{close_quotes}. Since the strength of the guiding depends upon the
effective refractive index {eta}{sub r} exceeding one, and since ({eta}{sub r}-1) is inversely
proportional to the optical electric field, there is a natural {open_quotes}limiting{close_quotes}
mechanism to the on-axis field strength and thus the rate at which energy may be extracted from the
electron beam. In particular, the extraction efficiency for a prebunched beam asymptotically grows
linearly with z rather than quadratically. We present analytical and numerical simulation results
concerning this behavior and discuss its applicability to various FEL designs including
oscillator/amplifier-radiator configurations.

9. Design and application of coaxial wigglers in free-electron lasers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jackson, Robert H.; Blank, Monica; Freund, Henry P.; Pershing, Dean E.; Taccetti, J. M.

1995-09-01

The Naval Research Laboratory is investigating innovative magnetic wigglers to reduce beam energy
requirements for millimeter wave FELs and to enhance the gain and efficiency. Recent work has
focused on coaxial designs. The advantages of this are twofold. First, annular configurations are
advantageous for propagating high current beams. The annular geometry permits use of the central
structure to enhance the wiggler field, hence, allowing shorter wiggler periods. One such wiggler is
referred to as the Coaxial Hybrid Iron (CHI) wiggler, and employs a solenoid enclosing periodic arrays
of ferromagnetic and nonferromagnetic material arranged as an outer ring and an inner rod. A second
wiggler uses both outer and inner bifilar helical current windings. Both wiggler designs result in
substantial enhancements in the wiggler field experienced by the electron beam as compared with the
fields in the absence of the central structure. A prototype CHI wiggler is discussed along with a 35
GHz amplifier experiment which is under construction. Preliminary performance calculations for a two
helix wiggler system are discussed. This will include both orbit theory and a fully 3D nonlinear
simulation of the interaction.

10. Efficiency enhancement in free-electron laser amplifier with one dimensional helical wiggler and ion-
channel guiding

SciTech Connect

Jafari Bahman, F.; Maraghechi, B.

2012-01-15

A method for efficiency enhancement in free-electron laser is studied which uses both tapered wiggler
magnetic field and ion-channel density. Derivation of a set of nonlinear and coupled differential

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equations leads to the self-consistent description of the evolution of both an ensemble of electrons and
the electromagnetic radiation. Numerical solution of these equations reveals considerable
enhancements of the interaction efficiency. In order to obtain a better insight into physical basis of the
problem, a modified pendulum equation for the interaction is derived and a small signal theory of the
efficiency enhancement is developed.

11. Non-wiggler-averaged theory of short wavelength free-electron lasers

SciTech Connect

Freund, H.P.

1995-12-31

A three-dimensional nonlinear analysis of the interaction in short wavelength free-electron lasers is


presented using a non-wiggler-averaged formulation for the electron trajectories. The analysis and
simulation code is based upon a slow-time-scale amplifier model in which it is assumed that the
interaction is with a single frequency wave, and Maxwell`s equations are averaged over a wave period.
This eliminates the fast time scale from the analysis. Note that although Maxwell`s equations are
averaged over the wave period, no average is imposed on the Lorentz force equations. The
electromagnetic field is represented as a superposition of Gaussian optical modes. The wiggler model
used is that of a three-dimensional planar wiggler which dictates the choice of a Gauss-Hermite mode
decomposition. These fields are substituted into Maxwell`s equations and, after averaging over the
wave period and integration over the transverse coordinates, yields nonlinear differential equations for
the evolution of the amplitude and phase of each mode. These equations are integrated simultaneously
with the three-dimensional Lorentz force equations for an ensemble of electrons. Advantages which
are derived from the non-wiggler-averaged orbit treatment are: the adiabatic injection of the beam into
the wiggler can be modeled; effects due to the transverse wiggler inhomogeniety such as betatron
oscillations and synchrotron-betatron coupling are implicitly included in the treatment; wiggler
imperfections can be included in the analysis by the relatively simple expedient of allowing the
wiggler amplitude to vary with axial position; and harmonic interactions are implicitly included. The
first two advantages relate to the self-consistent treatment of emittance growth due to the injection
process and the transverse wiggler inhomogenieties. It should be noted that MEDUSA is also capable
of analyzing the effect of the measured imperfections of a specific wiggler magnet to be used in an
experiment.

12. Operational Amplifier Experiments for the Chemistry Laboratory.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Braun, Robert D.

1996-01-01

Provides details of experiments that deal with the use of operational amplifiers and are part of a course
in instrumental analysis. These experiments are performed after the completion of a set of electricity
and electronics experiments. (DDR)

13. Enhanced IFEL performance using a novel wiggler

SciTech Connect

Parsa, Z.; Marshall, T.C.

1997-05-01

In the conventional inverse free electron laser (IFEL), electron acceleration is done via the interaction
of an intense laser beam and a wiggler with a sinusoidal field variation. The authors have studied the
effect on IFEL performance using a wiggler that creates a nearly square-wave periodic field pattern. A

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novel numerical technique is described which models this wiggler. They find stable orbits and an
improvement in IFEL acceleration gradient, resulting in a gain in energy by as much as a factor of two
(equivalent to four times the laser power), when compared with the conventional IFEL with a
sinusoidal field wiggler. In an experiment, the magnetic field can be synthesized by running a
conventional ferromagnetic wiggler into saturation.

14. High Bandwidth Differential Amplifier for Shock Experiments

SciTech Connect

Ross, P. W., Tran, V., Chau, R.

2012-04-30

We developed a high bandwidth differential amplifier for gas gun shock experiments/applications. The
circuit has a bandwidth > 1 GHz, and is capable of measuring signals of 1.5 V with a common mode
rejection of 250 V. Conductivity measurements of gas gun targets are measured by flowing high
currents through the targets. The voltage is measured across the target using a technique similar to a
four-point probe. Because of the design of the current source and load, the target voltage is
approximately 250 V relative to ground. Since the expected voltage change in the target is < 1 V, the
differential amplifier must have a large common mode rejection. High pass filters suppress internal
ringing of operational amplifiers. Results of bench tests are shown.

15. Brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

2016-01-01

According to the literature, while calculating the brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers,
one needs to account for the so-called 'depth-of-field' effects. In fact, the particle beam cross-section
varies along the wiggler. It is usually stated that the effective photon source size increases accordingly,
while the brightness is reduced. Here we claim that this is a misconception originating from an
analysis of the wiggler source based on geometrical arguments, regarded as almost self-evident.
According to electrodynamics, depth-of-field effects do not exist: we demonstrate this statement both
theoretically and numerically, using a well-known first-principle computer code. This fact shows that
under the usually accepted approximations, the description of the wiggler brightness turns out to be
inconsistent even qualitatively. Therefore, there is a need for a well-defined procedure for computing
the brightness from a wiggler source. We accomplish this task based on the use of a Wigner function
formalism. We exemplify this formalism in simple limiting cases. We consider the problem of the
calculation of the wiggler source size by means of numerical simulations alone, which play the same
role of an experiment. We report a significant numerical disagreement between exact calculations and
approximations currently used in the literature.

16. Tunability enhanced electromagnetic wiggler

DOEpatents

Schlueter, Ross D.; Deis, Gary A.

1992-01-01

The invention discloses a wiggler used in synchrotron radiation sources and free electron lasers, where
each pole is surrounded by at least two electromagnetic coils. The electromagnetic coils are energized
with different amounts of current to provide a wide tunable range of the on-axis magnetic flux density,
while preventing magnetic saturation of the poles.

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17. Tunability enhanced electromagnetic wiggler

DOEpatents

Schlueter, R.D.; Deis, G.A.

1992-03-24

The invention discloses a wiggler used in synchrotron radiation sources and free electron lasers, where
each pole is surrounded by at least two electromagnetic coils. The electromagnetic coils are energized
with different amounts of current to provide a wide tunable range of the on-axis magnetic flux density,
while preventing magnetic saturation of the poles. 14 figs.

18. CARM and harmonic gyro-amplifier experiments at 17 GHz

SciTech Connect

Menninger, W.L.; Danly, B.G.; Alberti, S.; Chen, C.; Rullier, J.L.; Temkin, R.J.; Giguet, E. |

1993-11-01

Cyclotron resonance maser amplifiers are possible sources for applications such as electron cyclotron
resonance heating of fusion plasmas and driving high-gradient rf linear accelerators. For accelerator
drivers, amplifiers or phase locked-oscillators are required. A 17 GHz cyclotron autoresonance maser
(CARM) amplifier experiment and a 17 GHz third harmonic gyro-amplifier experiment are presently
underway at the MIT Plasma Fusion Center. Using the SRL/MIT SNOMAD II introduction accelerator
to provide a 380 kV, 180 A, 30 ns flat top electron beam, the gyro-amplifier experiment has produced
5 MW of rf power with over 50 dB of gain at 17 GHz. The gyro-amplifier operates in the TE{sub 31}
mode using a third harmonic interaction. Because of its high power output, the gyro-amplifier will be
used as the rf source for a photocathode rf electron gun experiment also taking place at MIT.
Preliminary gyro-amplifier results are presented, including measurement of rf power, gain versus
interaction length, and the far-field pattern. A CARM experiment designed to operate in the TE{sub
11} mode is also discussed.

19. Fast excitation variable period wiggler

SciTech Connect

van Steenbergen, A.; Gallardo, J.; Romano, T.; Woodle, M.

1991-01-01

The design of an easily stackable, variable period length, fast excitation driven wiggler, making use of
geometrically alternating substacks of Vanadium Permandur ferromagnetic laminations, interspaced
with conductive, non magnetic, laminations which act as eddy current induced field reflectors,'' is
discussed and experimental results obtained with short wiggler models are presented.

20. Fast excitation variable period wiggler

SciTech Connect

van Steenbergen, A.; Gallardo, J.; Romano, T.; Woodle, M.

1991-12-31

The design of an easily stackable, variable period length, fast excitation driven wiggler, making use of
geometrically alternating substacks of Vanadium Permandur ferromagnetic laminations, interspaced
with conductive, non magnetic, laminations which act as eddy current induced ``field reflectors,`` is
discussed and experimental results obtained with short wiggler models are presented.

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21. Coaxial hybrid iron (CHI) wiggler

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jackson, Robert H.; Freund, Henry P.; Pershing, Dean E.; Taccetti, J. M.

1993-11-01

A magnetic wiggler design has been developed for applications in free-electron lasers which is
scalable to small periods with high field amplitude, high beam current acceptance, and excellent
transverse focusing and beam propagation properties. The Coaxial Hybrid Iron (CHI) wiggler design
consists of a coaxial arrangement of alternating ferromagnetic and non- ferromagnetic rings with the
central portion of the coax shifted by one half period. The entire arrangement is immersed in a
solenoidal field which results in a cylindrically symmetric periodic field. A key advantage of this
wiggler configuration is its capacity to handle very high beam currents with excellent focusing and
transport properties. FEL configuration using the CHI wiggler design have the potential for high
power, high frequency coherent generation in relatively compact systems. Analytic and simulated
characteristics of the CHI wiggler are presented.

22. Magnetic performance of a variable period, fast excitation, wiggler

SciTech Connect

Gallardo, J.; Romano, T.; van Steenbergen, A.

1993-11-01

With the objective of carrying out an Inverse Free Electron Laser (IFEL) electron accelerator
experiment, an iron dominated (Vanadium Permandur) fast excitation, laminated (variable period
length) planar wiggler, making use of copper field reflectors, has been constructed and has been
measured in several period length tapering configurations. This report presents an analysis and
experimental results of this wiggler, typically of which the parameters are {gamma}(w) = 3.7 cm,
B(max) = 1.8{Tau}.

23. Multi-order lasing with a modified wiggler

SciTech Connect

Asakawa, M.; Fujita, M.; Chen, J.

1995-12-31

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A novel wiggler for multi-order harmonic lasing has been developed at ILT/ILE. This wiggler, called
modified wiggler, produces a composite magnetic field that is expanded as a sum of harmonics of a
fundamental field component: B(z) = B{sub 1} sin(k{sub 1}z) + B{sub 3} sin(3k{sub 1}z) + B{sub
5} sin(5k{sub 1}z) +{hor_ellipsis}, where k{sub 1} is the wavenumber of the fundamental field
component and B{sub n} is the magnetic flux of nth order field component. Analytical work predicted
the improvement of the gain on FEL harmonics with the modified wiggler. This effect on the gain is
remarkable for the higher order harmonics, so that fifth or higher order harmonic lasing will be
possible. We constructed a modified wiggler by arranging high-permeability shims inside the gap of a
conventional wiggler of 20 mm period. This modified wiggler has a ratio of the third-harmonic flux to
the fundamental, B{sub 3}/B{sub 1}, of 10 %, which is enough to increase the gain on the FEL
harmonics. The harmonic lasing experiment is now under way using a 9 MeV S-band photo-injector at
ILT/ILE. Then the wavelength is 15 {mu}m at third-harmonic and 10 {mu}m at fifth-harmonic. The
gain on the third-harmonic is calculated to be 27%, which is 1.5 times greater than that of non-
modified wiggler. The fifth-harmonic lasing is seeded by a CO{sub 2} laser. We will discuss about the
gain enhancement as a function of modification ratio.

24. Wiggler A characteristics and specifications

SciTech Connect

Lai, B.; Khounsary, A.; Gluskin, E.

1993-02-01

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) Wiggler A is a 2.4-m long device with an 8.5-cm period. It
satisfies the requirement of achieving a peak field of 1.0 Tesla in the initial phase of operation. This
will result in a critical energy of E{sub c}=32.6 key, and the device will provide radiation in a regime
harder than that from the APS bending magnet. With B{sub peak}=1.0 T and {lambda}{sub u}=8.5
cm, the deflection parameter K is about 7.9. This puts the device well in the wiggler regime because
the first harmonic radiation from such a device wig be at 0.17 keV, far below the critical energy. The
fan of radiation from a wiggler is about 2K/{lambda}1.16 mrad in the horizontal direction, and on the
order of 1/{lambda}0.073 mrad in the vertical direction. As such, a K of 7.9 represents a good balance
between providing a continuous and smooth spectrum without overly spreading the radiation fan in the
horizontal direction. As for the source size, the excursion of the positron beam caused by the wiggler
field is given by +(K/{lambda})({lambda}{sub u}/2{pi}) = {plus_minus}7.8 {mu}m, which is
negligible compared to the positron beam size in the horizontal direction. Thus, the positron beam
completely defines the source size for Wiggler A. Wiggler A has the additional capability of varying
the magnetic gap. This gives considerable flexibility to the users in changing its critical energy to
lower values. For operation at large gap values, the device can also provide undulator radiation below
4 keV from the first harmonic.

25. Wiggler A characteristics and specifications

SciTech Connect

Lai, B.; Khounsary, A.; Gluskin, E.

1993-02-01

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) Wiggler A is a 2.4-m long device with an 8.5-cm period. It
satisfies the requirement of achieving a peak field of 1.0 Tesla in the initial phase of operation. This
will result in a critical energy of E[sub c]=32.6 key, and the device will provide radiation in a regime
harder than that from the APS bending magnet. With B[sub peak]=1.0 T and [lambda][sub u]=8.5 cm,
the deflection parameter K is about 7.9. This puts the device well in the wiggler regime because the
first harmonic radiation from such a device wig be at 0.17 keV, far below the critical energy. The fan
of radiation from a wiggler is about 2K/[lambda]1.16 mrad in the horizontal direction, and on the order
of 1/[lambda]0.073 mrad in the vertical direction. As such, a K of 7.9 represents a good balance
between providing a continuous and smooth spectrum without overly spreading the radiation fan in the
horizontal direction. As for the source size, the excursion of the positron beam caused by the wiggler
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field is given by +(K/[lambda])([lambda][sub u]/2[pi]) = [plus minus]7.8 [mu]m, which is negligible


compared to the positron beam size in the horizontal direction. Thus, the positron beam completely
defines the source size for Wiggler A. Wiggler A has the additional capability of varying the magnetic
gap. This gives considerable flexibility to the users in changing its critical energy to lower values. For
operation at large gap values, the device can also provide undulator radiation below 4 keV from the
first harmonic.

26. Experiments on folded waveguide gyro-TWT amplifier

SciTech Connect

Choi, J.J.; Park, G.S.; Ganguly, A.K.; Armstrong, C.M.; Calise, F.; Lobas, D.

1995-12-31

Experiments on a folded waveguide gyro-TWT amplifier are underway to demonstrate high power (>
50kW), broadband (BW > 15%), Ka-band radiation amplification. The interaction circuit is a periodic,
H-plane bend, transverse folded waveguide employed with a high power axis-encircling electron
beam. The electron beam with a large transverse momentum is produced by an advanced triple-pole-
piece center-post electron gun designed by Litton for NRL millimeter wave gyro-amplifier
experiments. For a proof-of-principle experiment, a low gain 12 period circuit is built and tested. A
mode coalescing of the first stop-band predicted by an equivalent circuit model and a 3-D
electromagnetic code is verified from experimental measurements. Measurement show a return loss of
> {minus}15 dB over the frequency bandwidth of > 20%. Experimental data are presented and
compared with slow-time scale non-linear code simulations.

27. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments with dc SQUID amplifiers

SciTech Connect

Heaney, M.B. . Dept. of Physics Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

1990-11-01

The development and fabrication of dc SQUIDs (Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices)


with Nb/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Nb Josephson junctions is described. A theory of the dc SQUID as a
radio-frequency amplifier is presented, with an optimization strategy that accounts for the loading and
noise contributions of the postamplifier and maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio of the total system.
The high sensitivity of the dc SQUID is extended to high field NMR. A dc SQUID is used as a tuned
radio-frequency amplifier to detect pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance at 32 MHz from a metal film in
a 3.5 Tesla static field. A total system noise temperature of 11 K has been achieved, at a bath
temperature of 4.2 K. The minimum number of nuclear Bohr magnetons observable from a free
precession signal after a single pulse is about 2 {times} 10{sup 17} in a bandwidth of 25 kHz. In a
separate experiment, a dc SQUID is used as a rf amplifier in a NQR experiment to observe a new
resonance response mechanism. The net electric polarization of a NaClO{sub 3} crystal due to the
precessing electric quadrupole moments of the Cl nuclei is detected at 30 MHz. The sensitivity of
NMR and NQR spectrometers using dc SQUID amplifiers is compared to the sensitivity of
spectrometers using conventional rf amplifiers. A SQUID-based spectrometer has a voltage sensitivity
which is comparable to the best achieved by a FET-based spectrometer, at these temperatures and
operating frequencies.

28. Effects of damping wigglers on beam dynamics in the NLC damping rings

SciTech Connect

Wolski, Andrzej; Wu, Ying

2001-06-16

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To achieve the required damping time in the main damping rings for the Next Linear Collider (NLC), a
wiggler will be required in each ring with integrated squared field strength up to 110 T{sup 2}m.
There are concerns that nonlinear components of the wiggler field will damage the dynamic aperture
of the ring, leading to poor injection efficiency. Severe effects from an insertion device have been
observed and corrected in SPEAR 2. In this paper, we describe a model that we have developed to
study the effects of the damping wiggler, compare the predictions of the model with actual experience
in the case of the SPEAR 2 wiggler, and consider the predicted effects of current damping wiggler
design on the NLC main damping rings.

29. X-ray laser `` oscillator-amplifier`` experiments

SciTech Connect

Shimkaveg, G.M.; Carter, M.R.; Young, B.K.F.; Walling, R.S.; Osterheld, A.L.; Trebes, J.E.; London,
R.A.; Ratowsky, R.P.; Stewart, R.E.; Craxton, R.S.

1993-03-19

We present results from experiments directed toward increasing the degree of transverse coherence in
x-ray laser beams. We have concentrated on the neon-like yttrium (Z=39) collisionally-pumped x-ray
laser as the test system for these studies because of its unique combination of brightness,
monochromaticity, and high-reflectivity optics availability. Attempts at improving laser performance
using proximate feedback optics failed. Modest success has been found to date in ``double foil``
experiments, involving two x-ray lasers spatially separated by 29 cm and shot sequentially in an
``oscillator-amplifier`` configuration.

30. The coaxial hybrid iron (CHI) wiggler

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jackson, Robert H.; Freund, Henry P.; Pershing, Dean E.; Taccetti, J. M.

1994-03-01

A wiggler design has been developed which is scalable to small periods with high field amplitude,
high beam current acceptance, and excellent transverse focusing and beam propagation properties. The
coaxial hybrid iron (CHI) wiggler design consists of a coaxial arrangement of alternating
ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic rings with the central portion of the coax shifted by one half
period. The entire arrangement is immersed in a solenoidal field which results in a cylindrically
symmetric periodic field. FEL configurations using this wiggler design have the potential for high
power, high frequency coherent generation in relatively compact systems. Analytic and simulated
characteristics of the CHI wiggler are discussed.

31. Short pulse free electron laser amplifier

DOEpatents

Schlitt, Leland G.; Szoke, Abraham

1985-01-01

Method and apparatus for amplification of a laser pulse in a free electron laser amplifier where the
laser pulse duration may be a small fraction of the electron beam pulse duration used for amplification.
An electron beam pulse is passed through a first wiggler magnet and a short laser pulse to be amplified
is passed through the same wiggler so that only the energy of the last fraction, f, (f<1) of the electron
beam pulse is consumed in amplifying the laser pulse. After suitable delay of the electron beam, the
process is repeated in a second wiggler magnet, a third, . . . , where substantially the same fraction f of
the remainder of the electron beam pulse is consumed in amplification of the given short laser pulse in

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each wiggler magnet region until the useful electron beam energy is substantially completely
consumed by amplification of the laser pulse.

32. Magnetic field simulation of wiggler on LUCX accelerator facility using Radia

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sutygina, Y. N.; Harisova, A. E.; Shkitov, D. A.

2016-11-01

A flat wiggler consisting of NdFeB permanent magnets was installed on a compact linear electron
accelerator LUCX (KEK) in Japan. After installing the wiggler on LUCX, the experiments on the
generation of undulator radiation (UR) in the terahertz wavelength range is planned. To perform the
detailed calculations and optimization of UR characteristics, it is necessary to know the parameters of
the magnetic field generated in the wiggler. In this paper extended simulation results of wiggler
magnetic field over the entire volume between the poles are presented. The obtained in the Radia
simulation magnetic field is compared with the field calculated by another code, which is based on the
finite element method.

33. Performance of the ALS elliptical wiggler

SciTech Connect

Wang, C.X.; Schlueter, R.; Hoyer, E.; Heimann, P.

1993-08-01

The elliptical wiggler is a circularly polarized light source capable of providing very broad spectral
coverage and high degree of circular polarization. The main features of an elliptical wiggler can be
understood through analogy to bending magnet radiation. However, some aspects, such as the end
structure`s influence on the degree of circular polarization, require more elaborate methods to
characterize. We present an algorithm based on the stationary phase method, which allows calculation
of radiation properties from an arbitrary electron trajectory; so a non-sinusoidal magnetic field`s
influence on the radiation performance can be taken into account. We show general radiation
properties of an ellilptical wiggler and discuss factors affecting radiation performance. Practice issues
encountered during the conceptual design of an ellilptical wiggler at the Advanced Light Source are
addressed.

34. Fast pulsed excitation wiggler or undulator

DOEpatents

van Steenbergen, Arie

1990-01-01

A fast pulsed excitation, electromagnetic undulator or wiggler, employing geometrically alternating


substacks of thin laminations of ferromagnetic material, together with a single turn current loop
excitation of the composite assembly, of such shape and configuration that intense, spatially
alternating, magnetic fields are generated; for use as a pulsed mode undulator or wiggler radiator, for
use in a Free Electron Laser (FEL) type radiation source or, for use in an Inverse Free Electron Laser
(IFEL) charged particle accelerator.

35. Advanced Light Source elliptical wiggler

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hoyer, E.; Akre, J.; Humphries, D.; Marks, S.; Minamihara, Y.; Pipersky, P.; Plate, D.; Schlueter, R.

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1995-02-01

A 3.5-m-long elliptical wiggler, optimized to produce elliptically polarized light in the 50 eV to 10


keV range, is currently under design and construction at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence
Berkeley Laboratory. Calculations of spectral performance show that the flux of circularly polarized
photons exceeds 1013 photons/s over the 50 eV to 10 keV operating range for current of 0.4 A and 1.5
GeV electron energy. This device features vertical and horizontal magnetic structures of 14 and 141/2
periods, respectively. The period length is 20.0 cm. The vertical structure is a hybrid permanent
magnet design with tapered pole tips that produce a peak field of 2.0 T. The horizontal structure is an
iron core electromagnetic design, shifted longitudinally 1/4 period, that is tucked between the upper
and lower vertical magnetic structure sections. A maximum peak oscillating field of 0.095 T at a
frequency up to 1 Hz will be achieved by excitation of the horizontal poles with a trapezoidal current
waveform. The vacuum chamber is an unconventional design that is removable from the magnetic
structure, after magnetic measurements, for UHV processing. The chamber is fabricated from non-
magnetic stainless steel to minimize the effects of eddy currents. Device design is presented.

36. RECENT PROGRESS ON THE DIAMOND AMPLIFIED PHOTO-CATHODE EXPERIMENT.

SciTech Connect

CHANG,X.; BEN-ZVI, I.; BURRILL, A.; GRIMES, J.; RAO, T.; SEGALOV, Z.; SMEDLEY, J.; WU,
Q.

2007-06-25

We report recent progress on the Diamond Amplified Photo-cathode (DAP). The use of a pulsed
electron gun provides detailed information about the DAP physics. The secondary electron gain has
been measured under various electric fields. We have achieved gains of a few hundred in the
transmission mode and observed evidence of emission of electrons from the surface. A model based on
recombination of electrons and holes during generation well describes the field dependence of the
gain. The emittance measurement system for the DAP has been designed, constructed and is ready for
use. The capsule design of the DAP is also being studied in parallel.

37. Pulse propagation in the tapered wiggler

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Al-Abawi, H.; McIver, J. K.; Moore, G. T.; Scully, M. O.

Theory and preliminary numerical calculations are presented for coherent optical and electron pulse
propagation in a free-electron laser with a tapered wiggler. Since only trapped electrons contribute
significantly to the laser radiation, it is possible to define generalized 'slow' space-time coordinates in
terms of which the electron pulse envelope may be considered constant. The theory is outlined first for
the helical wiggler and then is developed for an arbitrary quasiperiodic wiggler, using a more rigorous
'multiple-scaling' approach. In the latter case a modified definition of the electron phase angle is
required, and optical harmonic generation is predicted. The numerical calculations show that
substantial energy extraction is achievable, but that the optical pulse rapidly breaks up into a series of
spikes in the time domain. Surprisingly, the optical spectrum remains quite smooth in appearance.

38. Transverse Field Profile of the NLC Damping Rings Eletromagnet Wiggler (LCC-0038)

SciTech Connect

Ross, M

2004-03-19

The primary effort for damping ring wiggler studies has been to develop a credible radiation hard
electromagnet wiggler conceptual design that meets NLC main electron and positron damping ring

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physics requirements [1]. Based upon an early assessment of requirements, a hybrid magnet similar to
existing designs satisfies basic requirements. However, radiation damage is potentially a serious
problem for the Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet material, and cost remains an issue for samarium cobalt
magnets. Superconducting magnet designs have not been pursued due to their increased complexity
and our unfamiliarity with the technology. Having produced and developed an electromagnet design,
we now find that the transverse field roll-off is severe, and recognizing similar experience with
beamline 11 at SSRL we believe that the resulting beam quality will not meet the damping ring
requirements. We therefore propose, in parallel with more detailed optics studies of the wiggler field
requirements, to revisit the hybrid permanent magnet design.

39. Harmonic generation with multiple wiggler schemes

SciTech Connect

Bonifacio, R.; De Salvo, L.; Pierini, P.

1995-02-01

In this paper the authors give a simple theoretical description of the basic physics of the single pass
high gain free electron laser (FEL), describing in some detail the FEL bunching properties and the
harmonic generation technique with a multiple-wiggler scheme or a high gain optical klystron
configuration.

40. Free electron maser experiments in the low-frequency limit

SciTech Connect

Drori, R.; Jerby, E.; Shahadi, A.

1995-12-31

Table-top free-electron maser (FEM) experiments operating in the low-frequency (< 1 GHz) low-
energy ({approximately} 1 keV) limit are reported. These FEM devices employ parallel-stripline non-
dispersive waveguides (which support TEM-modes), and planar folded-foil wigglers. Thermionic
cathodes and carbon-fiber cold-cathodes are used in these experiments. Results of oscillator and
amplifier experiments are presented and compared with theory.


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41. X-band prebunched FEL amplifier

SciTech Connect

Saito, Kazuyoshi; Takayama, Ken; Ozaki, Toshiyuki

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1995-12-31

Following the successful results of the ion-channel-guiding FEL experiments, we began a new
experiment {open_quotes}prebunched FEL{close_quotes}. It is an FEL driven by prebunched beams,
whose configuration is a normal FEL system with a prebuncher like the bunching section of a klystron.
There are two purposes in this prebunched FEL system; (1) Demonstration of a compact/efficient FEL.
Attaining the saturation power level with a short wiggler length (compact wiggler) and enhancing the
power through the remaining wiggler length by wiggler tapering (high efficiency FEL). (2)
Experimental simulation of multi-stage FELs in the FEL-TBA. Examination of FEL interactions with
prebunched injection beams, especially, about the controllability of the output RF phase by changing
the RF phase of the input seed power to the wiggler. Recent experimental results show: (1) The
saturation power of 120MW has been attained at the wiggler length of 1.1m by 1.5MeV prebunched
beams with a 45%-modulated 750A current. However, enhanced power has not been observed yet by
wiggler tapering. (2) The current modulation of the injection beam (1.5MeV-500A) becoming higher
than 30%, the adjustable range of the output RF phase was limitted less than 40 degrees by the input
power of 60kW only. Detail explanations of design concept, theoretical and experimental results will
be presented at the conference.

42. Control and data acquisition systems for high field superconducting wigglers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Batrakov, A.; Ilyin, I.; Karpov, G.; Kozak, V.; Kuzin, M.; Kuper, E.; Mamkin, V.; Mezentsev, N.;
Repkov, V.; Selivanov, A.; Shkaruba, V.

2001-07-01

This paper describes the control and DAQ system of superconducting wigglers with magnetic field
range up to 10.3 T. The first version of the system controls a 7 T superconducting wiggler prepared for
installation at Bessy-II (Germany). The second one controls a 10 T wiggler which is under testing now
at the SPring-8 site (Japan). Both systems are based on VME apparatus. The set of specialized VME
modules is elaborated to arrange wiggler power supply control, full time wiggler monitoring, and
magnetic field high accuracy measurement and field stabilization. The software for the control of the
wigglers is written in C language for VxWorks operation system for a Motorola-162 VME controller.
The task initialization, stops and acquisition of the data can be done from the nearest personal
computer (FTP host for VME), or from the remote system as well.

43. An elliptical wiggler beamline for the ALS

SciTech Connect

Martynov, V.V. |; McKinney, W.R.; Padmore, H.A.

1995-10-01

A beamline for circularly polarized radiation produced by an elliptical wiggler has been designed at
the ALS covering the broad energy range from 50 eV to 2000 eV. The rigorous theory of grating
diffraction efficiency has been used to maximize transmitted flux. The nature of the elliptical wiggler
insertion device creates a challenging optical problem due to the large source size in the vertical and
horizontal directions. The requirement of high resolving power, combined with the broad tuning range
and high heat loads complicate the design. These problems have been solved by using a variable
included angle monochromator of the ``constant length`` type with high demagnification onto its
entrance slit, and cooled optics.

44. Electron dynamics with radiation and nonlinear wigglers

SciTech Connect

Jowett, J.M.
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1986-06-01

The physics of electron motion in storage rings is described by supplementing the Hamiltonian
equations of motion with fluctuating radiation reaction forces to describe the effects of synchrotron
radiation. This leads to a description of radiation damping and quantum diffusion in single-particle
phase-space by means of Fokker-Planck equations. For practical purposes, most storage rings remain
in the regime of linear damping and diffusion; this is discussed in some detail with examples,
concentrating on longitudinal phase space. However special devices such as nonlinear wigglers may
permit the new generation of very large rings to go beyond this into regimes of nonlinear damping. It
is shown how a special combined-function wiggler can be used to modify the energy distribution and
current profile of electron bunches.

45. Technology Development for Tapered-Wiggler Free-Electron Lasers

DTIC Science & Technology

1984-04-01

canting can produce equal e-beam focusing in each of the two - transverse directions. Thus the e-beam
focusing characteristics of a helical wiggler can...Both taper prescriptions require a modest frequency
chirp of less than 1.5 percent during start-up. 3.2 VARIALE -TAPER WIGGLER EMAWQEM
DEVEPHE T This...with Nonuniform Wigglers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 335 (1980). 4-8.
J.P. Blewett and R. Chasman, "Orbits and Fields in the Helical Wiggler," J

46. The MAX-Wiggler: Design, Construction And Commissioning Of A 3.5 T Superconducting Wiggler
With 47 Poles

SciTech Connect

Wallen, E.; LeBlanc, G.

2004-05-12

The increasing demand for high fluxes of x-rays to perform crystallography and material physics at
MAX-lab is met with the MAX wiggler. The MAX-Wiggler is a cold bore superconducting wiggler
with 47 3.5 T poles and a period length of 61 mm and it has been constructed in-house at MAX-lab.
The MAX-Wiggler has now been installed and commissioned on the 1.5 GeV MAX-II storage ring at
MAX-lab. This paper describes the design and performance of the MAX-Wiggler and also the studies
of the effects of the MAX-Wiggler on the stored electron beam. The MAX-Wiggler cryostat is a pool
type cryostat with a bath of liquid He where the boiled of He gas is used for cooling different parts of
the cryostat. The consumption of liquid He is about 2.5 litres per hour at nominal working conditions
with 200 mA of stored current in the MAX II storage ring. The effects of the wiggler on the stored
electron beam, of which the vertical focusing effect is the most dominating, have been neutralized by
modifying the magnetic optics of the storage ring and the MAX-Wiggler is now in routine operation at
MAX-Lab.

47. Low-noise wide-band amplifiers for stochastic beam cooling experiments

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leskovar, B.; Lo, C. C.

1982-09-01

Noise characteristics of the continuous wave broadband amplifier systems for stochastic beam cooling
experiments are presented. The noise performance, bandwidth capability and gain stability of
components used in these amplifiers are summarized and compared in the 100 MHz to 40 GHz
frequency range. This includes bipolar and field effect transistors, parametric amplifier, Schottky diode
mixer and maser. Measurements of the noise characteristics and scattering parameters of variety GaAs

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FETs as a function of ambient temperature are also given. Performance data and design information
are presented on a broadband 150-500 MHz preamplifier with noise temperature of approximately 350
K at ambient temperature of 200 K. Preamplifier stability based on scattering parameters concept is
analyzed.

48. Analysis of electron dynamics and two mechanisms in a coaxial magnetic wiggler

SciTech Connect

Xie, Jialing; Teng, Yan; Chen, Changhua; Wang, Guangqiang; Li, Shuang; Song, Zhimin; Xiao,
Renzhen; Chang, Chao

2014-12-15

The electron dynamics in a coaxial magnetic wiggler are analyzed numerically and studied in particle-
in-cell (PIC) simulation. Electrons wiggle in angular direction to coherently generate a TE{sub 01}
mode, and the results are consistent with each other. The trajectory of the electron in 3-D space and the
effects on the trajectories of the initial phases of wiggler magnetic fields are researched, which helps to
choose appropriate initial phases to control the trajectory of the electron. An oscillator of FEL with a
coaxial magnetic wiggler based on a quasi cavity is designed for efficiently generating the TE{sub 01}
mode with the high saturation power and high efficiency. The advantages of the quasi cavity structure
are analyzed and the parameter-selection rules are investigated. Based on the electron dynamics, the
process of electron bunching in the self amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) and the Seeded
mechanisms are studied. The Seeded mechanism could accelerate electron bunching greatly and
reduce the saturation time than the SASE by half.

49. Three-dimensional simulations of the generation of one Angstrom radiation by a self-amplified


spontaneous emission free-electron laser

SciTech Connect

Goldstein, J.C.; Elliott, C.J.; Schmitt, M.J.

1990-01-01

Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the generation of one Angstrom x-rays by a free-electron


laser operating in the self-amplified spontaneous emission mode have been performed. Using model
electron beam and wiggler parameters, we have investigated the length of wiggler needed to just avoid
bandwidth broadening effects associated with gain saturation, and we have also obtained requirements
for wiggler field errors to avoid significant loss of performance. 14 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

50. Amplification of a fast wave by extracting both the kinetic energy and electrostatic potential energy of
a large-orbit relativistic electron beam in a coaxial electrostatic wiggler

SciTech Connect

Zhang Shichang

2010-05-15

Nonlinear model and simulation technique of the interaction and energy transfer between a fast wave
and a large-orbit relativistic electron beam in a coaxial electrostatic wiggler are presented. Unlike the
situations in a magnetostatic-wiggler free-electron laser (MWFEL) and in an electron cyclotron maser
(ECM), the electrostatic potential of the electrons plays an important role and participates in the energy
exchange between the wave and the electron beam. Compared to MWFEL and ECM, the coaxial
electrostatic-wiggler configuration has a distinguishing peculiarity that besides the electron-beam's
kinetic energy, its electrostatic potential energy can be effectively transferred to the fast wave.
Simulation shows that wave could be amplified with ultrahigh gain by extracting both the kinetic
energy and electrostatic potential energy of the electron beam.

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51. Free Electron Lasers with Variable Parameter Wigglers

DTIC Science & Technology

1980-02-01

yields z H- - E2/C2 m2c 2 ) - (P e/c Ax )2 (P- e/c A)2 e/c A1.... .. .. ~yAJ z (2.5) For the vector
potential we shall write A - A + A (2.6) - w -S...where A refers to the vector potential of the wiggler
field and 4s to -v that of the signal (or optical) field. We assume these potentials to have the... vector
potentials a - e A/mc2 , (mc 2/e - 1706 gauss-cm - .511 x 106 Volts) 2 (z) I + a 2 (z) +a 2 (Z) , (2.10)V
8 f (kw + ks)dzl - w t and (2.11) 0 Y E

52. Raman free-electron laser with a coaxial wiggler

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Farokhi, B.; Maraghechi, B.; Willett, J. E.

2000-10-01

A one-dimensional theory of the stimulated Raman scattering mechanism for a coaxial free-electron
laser (FEL) is developed. The beam-frame FEL dispersion relation and a formula for the lab-frame
spatial growth rate are derived. A numerical study of the growth rate for the coaxial wiggler is made
and compared with that for the helical wiggler. Except for a part of the group II orbits, the growth rate
is found to be less than the helical wiggler. Relativistic effects due to the transverse oscillation of
electrons in the wiggler field prevent the FEL operation from approaching magnetoresonance. In the
absence of these relativistic mass effects, the calculations show a magnetoresonance associated with
the first spatial harmonic and a much narrower resonance at the third spatial harmonic.

53. Wiggler plane focusing in a linear free electron laser

DOEpatents

Scharlemann, Ernst T.

1988-01-01

Free electron laser apparatus that provides a magnetic centering force to turn or focus a non-axial
electron toward the longitudinal axis as desired. The focusing effect is provided by wiggler magnet
pole faces that are approximately parabolically shaped.

54. Compact FEL`s based on slow wave wigglers

SciTech Connect

Riyopoulos, S.

1995-12-31

Slow waves excited in magnetron-type cavities are attractive canditates as wigglers for compact Free
Electron Lasers. Because of group velocities much below the speed of light, slow waves offer an order
of magnitude increase in FEL gain under given circulating power in the wiggler resonator, compared
to fast wave wigglers of similar period. In addition, they offer the versatility of operation either at
modest beam energy via upshifing of the fundamental wavelength, or at low beam energy benefiting
from the submillimeter wiggler harmonics. Because the main electron undulation is in the transverse
direction for all spatial harmonics, the radiated power is increased by a factor {gamma}{sup 2}
relative to the Smith-Purcell approach that relies on axial electron undulation. Technical advantages
offered by magnetron-type wiggles are: the generation of the wiggler microwaves and the FEL
interaction take place inside the same cavity, avoiding the issue of high power coupling between

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cavities; the excitation of wiggler microwaves relies on distributed electron emission from the cavity
wall and does not require separate beam injection.

55. Nonlinear analysis of wiggler-imperfections in free-electron lasers

SciTech Connect

Freund, H.P.; Yu, L.H.

1995-12-31

We present an analysis of the effect of wiggler imperfections in FELs using a variety of techniques.
Our basic intention is to compare wiggler averaged nonlinear simulations to determine the effect of
various approximations on the estimates of gain degradation due to wiggler imperfections. The
fundamental assumption in the wiggler-averaged formulations is that the electrons are described by a
random walk model, and an analytic representation of the orbits is made. This is fundamentally
different from the approach taken for the non-wiggler-averaged formulation in which the wiggler
imperfections are specified at the outset, and the orbits are integrated using a field model that is
consistent with the Maxwell equations. It has been conjectured on the basis of prior studies using the
non-wiggler-averaged formalism that electrons follow a {open_quotes}meander line{close_quotes}
through the wiggler governed by the specific imperfections; hence, the electrons behave more as a
ball-in-groove than as a random walk. This conjecture is tested by comparison of the wiggler-averaged
and non-wiggler-averaged simulations. In addition, two different wiggler models are employed in the
non-wiggler-averaged simulation: one based upon a parabolic pole face wiggler which is not curl and
divergence free in the presence of wiggler imperfections, and a second model in which the divergence
and z-component of the curl vanish identically. This will gauge the effect of inconsistencies in the
wiggler model on the estimation of the effect of the imperfections. Preliminary results indicate that the
inconsistency introduced by the non-vanishing curl and divergence result in an overestimation of the
effect of wiggler imperfections on the orbit. The wiggler-averaged simulation is based upon the TDA
code, and the non-wiggler-averaged simulation is a variant of the ARACHNE and WIGGLIN codes
called MEDUSA developed to treat short-wavelength Gauss-Hermite modes.

56. X-ray Synchrotron Radiation in a Plasma Wiggler

SciTech Connect

Wang, Shuoquin; /UCLA /SLAC, SSRL

2005-09-27

A relativistic electron beam can radiate due to its betatron motion inside an ion channel. The ion
channel is induced by the electron bunch as it propagates through an underdense plasma. In the theory
section of this thesis the formation of the ion channel, the trajectories of beam electrons inside the ion
channel, the radiation power and the radiation spectrum of the spontaneous emission are studied. The
comparison between different plasma wiggler schemes is made. The difficulties in realizing stimulated
emission as the beam traverses the ion channel are investigated, with particular emphasis on the
bunching mechanism, which is important for the ion channel free electron laser. This thesis reports an
experiment conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to measure the betatron X-
ray radiations for the first time. They first describe the construction and characterization of the lithium
plasma source. In the experiment, the transverse oscillations of the SLAC 28.5 GeV electron beam
traversing through a 1.4 meter long lithium plasma source are clearly seen. These oscillations lead to a
quadratic density dependence of the spontaneously emitted betatron X-ray radiation. The divergence
angle of the X-ray radiation is measured. The absolute photon yield and the spectral brightness at 14.2
KeV photon energy are estimated and seen to be in reasonable agreement with theory.

57. Dual-Phase Lock-In Amplifier Based on FPGA for Low-Frequencies Experiments.

PubMed

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Macias-Bobadilla, Gonzalo; Rodrguez-Resndiz, Juvenal; Mota-Valtierra, Georgina; Soto-Zaraza,


Genaro; Mndez-Loyola, Maurino; Garduo-Aparicio, Mariano

2016-03-16

Photothermal techniques allow the detection of characteristics of material without invading it.
Researchers have developed hardware for some specific Phase and Amplitude detection (Lock-In
Function) applications, eliminating space and unnecessary electronic functions, among others. This
work shows the development of a Digital Lock-In Amplifier based on a Field Programmable Gate
Array (FPGA) for low-frequency applications. This system allows selecting and generating the
appropriated frequency depending on the kind of experiment or material studied. The results show
good frequency stability in the order of 1.0 10(-9) Hz, which is considered good linearity and
repeatability response for the most common Laboratory Amplitude and Phase Shift detection devices,
with a low error and standard deviation.

58. Dual-Phase Lock-In Amplifier Based on FPGA for Low-Frequencies Experiments

PubMed Central

Macias-Bobadilla, Gonzalo; Rodrguez-Resndiz, Juvenal; Mota-Valtierra, Georgina; Soto-Zaraza,


Genaro; Mndez-Loyola, Maurino; Garduo-Aparicio, Mariano

2016-01-01

Photothermal techniques allow the detection of characteristics of material without invading it.
Researchers have developed hardware for some specific Phase and Amplitude detection (Lock-In
Function) applications, eliminating space and unnecessary electronic functions, among others. This
work shows the development of a Digital Lock-In Amplifier based on a Field Programmable Gate
Array (FPGA) for low-frequency applications. This system allows selecting and generating the
appropriated frequency depending on the kind of experiment or material studied. The results show
good frequency stability in the order of 1.0 109 Hz, which is considered good linearity and
repeatability response for the most common Laboratory Amplitude and Phase Shift detection devices,
with a low error and standard deviation. PMID:26999138

59. Amplifiers of Developmental and Negative Experiences in Organized Activities: Dosage, Motivation,
Lead Roles, and Adult-Youth Ratios

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hansen, David M.; Larson, Reed W.

2007-01-01

This study evaluated four sets of factors hypothesized to amplify adolescents' developmental and
negative experience in organized youth activities. A representative sample of 1,822 eleventh grade
students from 19 high schools completed the computer-administered Youth Experience Survey.
Findings indicated that amount of time, motivation, holding a

60. Magnetic field adjustment structure and method for a tapered wiggler

SciTech Connect

Halbach, K.

1988-03-01

An improved wiggler having means for adjusting the magnetic field generated by electromagnet poles
spaced along the path of a charged particle beam to compensate for energy losses in the charge
particles is described which comprises; (a) windings on at least some of the electromagnet poles in the
wiggler; (b) one of the windings on each of a group of adjacent electromagnet poles connected to a
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first power supply, and another winding on the electromagnet poles having more than one winding
connected to a second power supply; and (c) means for independently adjusting one power supply to
independently vary the current in one of the windings on a group of adjacent electromagnet poles;
whereby the magnetic field strength of a group of adjacent electromagnet poles in the wiggler may be
changed in smaller increments.


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61. Preliminary design for a pierce wiggler beamstick and addendum

SciTech Connect

Pirkle, D.

1988-05-01

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing a fast tunable microwave source for operation
at 250 GHz and 10kW peak output power. This report presents the preliminary design of a Pierce gun
and solenoid magnet that will be compatible with a Pierce-wiggler electron beam formation system
(beamstick). The beamstick will be an appropriate power source for a tunable gyro-BWO at 250 GHz.
Figure 1 presents the major components of the Pierce-wiggler beamstick: the electron gun, solenoid,
beam tunnel, wiggler, and vacuum valve. Figure 2 shows an artistic conception of how the beamstick
will interface with the interaction magnet, modulator and gyro-BWO circuit at MIT. 15 figs.

62. A wiggler magnet for FEL low voltage operation

SciTech Connect

Al-Shamma`a, A.; Stuart, R.A.; Lucas, J.

1995-12-31

In low voltage FELs (ie, 200kV), operation is necessarily in the microwave frequency range for
wiggler periods of the order of cms., so that a waveguide system is mandatory. Also, because of the
relatively low velocity of the electron beam, the wiggle amplitude of the electron beam can be much
larger than is normal for highly relativistic FELs. Both these factors mean that the electron trajectory
must be carefully controlled to avoid beam collision with the waveguide walls. A wiggler system with
half poles at entrance and exit is not an acceptable solution because of the offset is gives rise to the
electron trajectory. Consequently, we have designed and constructed a wiggler magnet with
exponential entrance and exit tapers for a minimal deflection and displacement of the electron beam.
Simulations and experimental measurements showed that an on axis trajectory is easily obtainable.

63. Free-electron lasers with very slow wiggler taper

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)


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Bosley, D. L.; Kevorkian, J.

1990-09-01

A highly accurate, explicit asymptotic solution of the electron energy and phase is found for a class of
free-electron lasers with very long wavelength beams, very low electron energies, and very slow taper
of the wiggler field relative to the wiggler period. Dimensionless variables are defined and normalized,
and three small parameters which characterize the operation of the FEL are identified. Because of the
explicit nature of the solution, our results may be directly used to calculate features such as the escape
distance of the electron from the potential well and the effects of the various physical parameters. One
important advantage of the very slow wiggler taper is the increased efficiency of the energy transfer
from the electron beam to the signal field due to increased bucket width. Numerical calculations are
performed to verify all results.

64. Free-electron lasers with very slow wiggler taper

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bosley, D. L.; Kevorkian, J.

1991-04-01

A highly accurate, explicit asymptotic solution of the electron energy and phase is found for a class of
free-electron lasers (FELs) with very long wavelength beams, very low electron energies, and very
slow taper of the wiggler field relative to the wiggler period. Dimensionless variables are defined and
normalized, and three small parameters which characterize the operation of the FEL are identified.
Due to the explicit asymptotic nature of the solution, the results may be directly used to calculate
features such as the escape distance of the electron from the potential well and the effects of the
various physical parameters. One important advantage of the very slow wiggler taper is the increased
efficiency of the energy transfer from the electron beam to the signal field due to increased bucket
width. Numerical calculations are performed to verify all results.

65. Wiggler magnetic field assisted second harmonic generation in clusters

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aggarwal, Munish; Vij, Shivani; Kant, Niti

2015-06-01

Wiggler magnetic field assisted second harmonic generation in clusters has been investigated
theoretically. An intense short-pulse laser propagating through a gas embedded with atomic clusters,
converts it into hot plasma balls. For clusters with radius less than one tenth of the laser wavelength,
the nonlinear restoration force dominates, which leads to second harmonic generation. The magnetic
wiggler provides the uncompensated momentum to second harmonic photon, to make the process of
harmonic generation resonant. We explore the impact of laser intensity and cluster size on the
efficiency of second harmonic generation. Pulse slippage of second harmonic pulse out of the domain
of fundamental laser pulse has been observed on account of group velocity mismatch between the
fundamental and second harmonic pulse. Enhancement in the efficiency of the second harmonic is
seen for the optimum values of wiggler magnetic field.

66. Sideband elimination and high efficiencies in a strongly tapered FEL amplifier

SciTech Connect

Bhattacharjee, A.; Chen, J.

1995-12-31

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Recently, an analytical theory has shown that sideband instabilities can be eliminated in a strongly
tapered FEL amplifier, leading to high efficiencies. It is found that a drastic suppression of the
sideband spectrum occurs due to a continuous detuning effect which causes the real frequency of the
most unstable sideband mode to vary continuously along the wiggler axis in the presence of a strong
taper, with the consequence that no sideband can grow significantly before it is tuned away. Assuming
extremely strongly pre-bunched beams with zero thermal spread, ideal efficiencies exceeding 60%
were predicted by the theory with sideband intensities suppressed by nearly eight orders of magnitude
with respect to the intensity of the primary signal. The theoretical predictions have been tested and
verified by a one-dimensional numerical simulation. The numerical simulations permit us to go
beyond the scope of the analytical model and allow us to examine (i) if optimization of strongly
tapered wiggler configurations can allow us to achieve the desired high efficiencies within acceptable
length constraints, and (ii) whether the high ideal efficiencies predicted by theory survive in the
presence of partial pre-bunching and finite thermal spread of electron beams. By experimenting with
different tapering schemes, we have found interesting strongly tapered configurations in which the
accessible electron phase-space area remains nearly constant, with realistic assumptions on pre-
bunching and thermal spread of the electron beam. In particular, for parameters representative of the
Livermore experiments we obtain efficiencies in the rage 40-50% with thermal spreads in the range
0.5-1 % and pre-bunched electron phases in the range 2 {pi}/ 3 using a wiggler 5 meters long. The
optical quality of the radiation produced is free of parasitic sideband instabilities which do not grow
beyond noise levels.

67. Development of solenoid-induced helical wiggler with four poles per period

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ohigashi, N.; Tsunawaki, Y.; Kiyochi, M.; Nakao, N.; Fujita, M.; Imasaki, K.; Nakai, S.; Mima, K.

1999-06-01

A new type of helical wiggler consisting of two staggered-iron arrays inserted into a solenoid field has
been developed. The field measured by a test wiggler showed linear increment with the period. It was
seen that 24% of the solenoid field contributed to the induced wiggler field when the gap length and
the period of the wiggler were 16 and 24 mm, respectively. This wiggler would be useful for an FEL
with a low-energy electron beam propagating in a strong axial guiding field.

68. Gravity amplifies and microgravity decreases circumnutations in Arabidopsis thaliana stems: results
from a space experiment.

PubMed

Johnsson, A; Solheim, B G B; Iversen, T-H

2009-01-01

In a microgravity experiment onboard the International Space Station, circumnutations of Arabidopsis


thaliana were studied. Plants were cultivated on rotors under a light:dark (LD) cycle of 16 : 8 h, and it
was possible to apply controlled centrifugation pulses. Time-lapse images of inflorescence stems
(primary, primary axillary and lateral inflorescences) documented the effect of microgravity on the
circumnutations. Self-sustained circumnutations of side stems were present in microgravity but
amplitudes were mostly very small. In darkness, centrifugation at 0.8 g increased the amplitude by a
factor of five to ten. The period at 0.8 g was c. 85 min, in microgravity roughly of the same magnitude.
In white light the period decreased to c. 60 min at 0.8 g (microgravity value not measurable). Three-
dimensional data showed that under 0.8 g side stems rotated in both clockwise and counter-clockwise
directions. Circumnutation data for the main stem in light showed a doubling of the amplitude and a
longer period at 0.8 g than in microgravity (c. 80 vs 60 min). For the first time, the importance of
gravity in amplifying minute oscillatory movements in microgravity into high-amplitude
circumnutations was unequivocally demonstrated. The importance of these findings for the modelling
of gravity effects on self-sustained oscillatory movements is discussed.

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69. Wiggler plane focusing in a linear free electron laser

DOEpatents

Scharlemann, E.T.

1988-02-23

Free electron laser apparatus that provides a magnetic centering force to turn or focus a non-axial
electron toward the longitudinal axis as desired. The focusing effect is provided by wiggler magnet
pole faces that are approximately parabolically shaped. 5 figs.

70. Wiggler plane focusing in a linear free electron laser

DOEpatents

Scharlemann, E.T.

1985-11-21

This disclosure describes a free electron laser apparatus that provides a magnetic centering force to
turn or focus a non-axial electron toward the longitudinal axis as desired. The focusing effect is
provided by wiggler magnet pole faces that are approximately parabolically shaped.

71. High Extraction Free-Electron Laser Experiments.

DTIC Science & Technology

1983-03-29

intended to demonstrate that the tapered wiggler can provide significant electron kinectic energy
extraction on a single pass through the wiggler...experiment has been constructed and initial energy
extraction measurements have been made. The intent of the experiment is to demonstrate the
high...laser beams making a single simultaneous pass through the wiggler. The interaction of these
beams is monitored by comparison of the electron energy

72. Tunable microstrip SQUID amplifiers for the Gen 2 Axion Dark Matter eXperiment (ADMX)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O'Kelley, Sean; Hilton, Gene; Clarke, John

We present a series of tunable microstrip SQUID amplifiers (MSAs) for installation in ADMX. The
axion dark matter candidate is detected via Primakoff conversion to a microwave photon in a high-Q
(~100,000) tunable microwave cavity cooled with a dilution refrigerator in the presence of a 7-tesla
magnetic field. The microwave photon frequency is a function of the unknown axion mass, so both
the cavity and amplifier must be scanned over a wide frequency range. An MSA is a linear, phase-
preserving amplifier consisting of a superconducting, resonant microstrip flux-coupled to a resistively-
shunted dc SQUID biased into the voltage state. Tunability is achieved by terminating the microstrip
with low inductance GaAs varactor diodes that operate below 100 mK. By varying the bias voltage of
the varactors we vary their capacitance, allowing a reflected phase varying from nearly 0 to , thus
achieving a tunability close to a factor of 2. We demonstrate several devices operating below 100 mK,
matched to the discrete operating bands of ADMX at frequencies ranging from 560 MHz to 1 GHz,
that exhibit gains exceeding 20 dB. The associated noise temperatures, measured with a hot/cold load,
approach the standard quantum limit (h/kB) for a linear phase-preserving amplifier.

73. Calculated and measured fields in superferric wiggler magnets

SciTech Connect

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Blum, E.B.; Solomon, L.

1995-02-01

Although Klaus Halbach is widely known and appreciated as the originator of the computer program
POISSON for electromagnetic field calculation, Klaus has always believed that analytical methods can
give much more insight into the performance of a magnet than numerical simulation. Analytical
approximations readily show how the different aspects of a magnet`s design such as pole dimensions,
current, and coil configuration contribute to the performance. These methods yield accuracies of better
than 10%. Analytical methods should therefore be used when conceptualizing a magnet design.
Computer analysis can then be used for refinement. A simple model is presented for the peak on-axis
field of an electro-magnetic wiggler with iron poles and superconducting coils. The model is applied to
the radiator section of the superconducting wiggler for the BNL Harmonic Generation Free Electron
Laser. The predictions of the model are compared to the measured field and the results from
POISSON.

74. ELECTRON TRAPPING IN WIGGLER AND QUADRUPOLE MAGNETS OF CESRTA

SciTech Connect

Wang, Lanfa; Huang, Xiaobiao; Pivi, Mauro; /SLAC

2010-08-25

The Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) has been reconfigured as an ultra low emittance damping
ring for use as a test accelerator (CesrTA) for International Linear Collider (ILC) damping ring R&D
[1]. One of the primary goals of the CesrTA program is to investigate the interaction of the electron
cloud with low emittance positron beam to explore methods to suppress the electron cloud, develop
suitable advanced instrumentation required for these experimental studies and benchmark predictions
by simulation codes. This paper reports the simulation of the electron-cloud formation in the wiggler
and quadrupole magnets using the 3D code CLOUDLAND. We found that electrons can be trapped
with long lifetime in a quadrupole magnet due to the mirror field trapping mechanism and
photoelectrons produced in the wiggler zero field zone have long lifetime due to their complicated
trajectory.

75. Beam Line VI REC-steel hybrid wiggler for SSRL

SciTech Connect

Hoyer, E.; Chan, T.; Chin, J.W.G.; Halbach, K.; Kim, K.J.; Winick, H.; Yang, J.

1983-03-01

A wiggler magnet with 27 periods, each 7 cm long which reaches 1.21 T at a 1.2 cm gap and 1.64 T at
0.8 cm gap has been designed and is in fabrication. Installation in SPEAR is scheduled for mid 1983.
This new wiggler will be the radiation source for a new high intensity synchrotron radiation beam line
at SSRL. The magnet utilizes rare-earth cobalt (REC) material and steel in a hybrid configuration to
achieve simultaneously a high magnetic field with a short period. The magnet is external to a thin
walled variable gap stainless steel vacuum chamber which is opened to provide beam aperture of 1.8
cm gap at injection and then closed to a smaller aperture (< 1.0 cm). Five independent drive systems
are provided to adjust the magnet and chamber gaps and alignment. Magnetic design, construction
details and magnetic measurements are presented.

76. Advanced optimization of permanent magnet wigglers using a genetic algorithm

SciTech Connect

Hajima, Ryoichi

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1995-12-31

In permanent magnet wigglers, magnetic imperfection of each magnet piece causes field error. This
field error can be reduced or compensated by sorting magnet pieces in proper order. We showed a
genetic algorithm has good property for this sorting scheme. In this paper, this optimization scheme is
applied to the case of permanent magnets which have errors in the direction of field. The result shows
the genetic algorithm is superior to other algorithms.

77. The analysis of Raman scattering in a free-electron laser with a rectangular hybrid wiggler

SciTech Connect

Kordbacheh, A. Shahsavand, M.

2015-10-15

A one dimensional theory of the stimulated Raman backscattering process in a free electron laser with
rectangular hybrid wiggler (RHW) is analyzed. The dispersion relation in the rest frame of the electron
beam and also a formula for the lab-frame spatial growth rate are derived. A numerical computation of
the growth rate for RHW is conducted and a comparison with that for coaxial hybrid wiggler is made
away from the resonance. The growth rate is found larger for the rectangular wiggler than for the
coaxial wiggler. A much narrower magnetoresonance associated with the third spatial harmonic is also
obtained compared to the first one.

78. Traveling-wave tube amplifier characteristics study for stochastic beam-cooling experiments

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leskovar, B.; Lo, C. C.

1982-03-01

The characteristics of continuous wave wideband traveling wave tube amplifiers was experimentally
investigated over a frequency range of 1.5 to 4.5 GHz. Measurements of characteristics important for
stochastic beam cooling systems that are generally not available from manufacturers' data sheets are
presented. The amplifiers measured include models 1177 H01 and 1277 H01 having output power
capabilities of 10 to 20 W, respectively, at frequencies of 2 to 4 GHz. The power transfer
characteristics, the phase-shift characteristics as functions of frequency and the input power level, the
voltage standing wave ratio, noise drive transfer characteristics, harmonics and intermodulation
products content were accurately measured and are discussed. Measurement procedures and
description of measuring systems, which include measuring system error corrections, are given in
detail. Also several approaches are discussed for the reduction of harmonics and intermodulation
products.

79. Tunable microstrip SQUID amplifiers for the Gen 2 Axion Dark Matter eXperiment (ADMX)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O'Kelley, Sean; Hilton, Gene; Clarke, John; ADMX Collaboration

2016-03-01

We present a series of tunable microstrip SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device)


amplifiers (MSAs) for installation in ADMX. The axion dark matter candidate is detected via
Primakoff conversion to a microwave photon in a high-Q (~100,000) tunable microwave cavity cooled
with a dilution refrigerator in a 7-tesla magnetic field. The microwave photon frequency is a function
of the unknown axion mass, so both the cavity and amplifier must be scanned over a wide frequency
range. An MSA is a linear, phase-preserving amplifier consisting of a square washer loop, fabricated
from a thin Nb film, incorporating two Josephson tunnel junctions with resistive shunts to prevent

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hysteresis. The input is coupled via a microstrip made from a square Nb coil deposited over the washer
with an intervening insulating layer. Tunability is achieved by terminating the microstrip with GaAs
varactors that operate below 100 mK. By varying the varactor capacitance with a bias voltage, the
resonant frequency is varied by up to a factor of 2. We demonstrate several devices operating below
100 mK, matched to the discrete operating bands of ADMX at frequencies ranging from 560 MHz to 1
GHz. The MSAs exhibit gains exceeding 20 dB and the associated noise temperatures, measured with
a hot/cold load, approach the standard quantum limit (h/kB) . Supported by DOE Grants DE - FG02 -
97ER41029, DE - FG02 - 96ER40956, DE - AC52 - 07NA27344, DE - AC03 - 76SF00098, and the
Livermore LDRD program.

80. Information overload or search-amplified risk? Set size and order effects on decisions from experience.

PubMed

Hills, Thomas T; Noguchi, Takao; Gibbert, Michael

2013-10-01

How do changes in choice-set size influence information search and subsequent decisions? Moreover,
does information overload influence information processing with larger choice sets? We investigated
these questions by letting people freely explore sets of gambles before choosing one of them, with the
choice sets either increasing or decreasing in number for each participant (from two to 32 gambles).
Set size influenced information search, with participants taking more samples overall, but sampling a
smaller proportion of gambles and taking fewer samples per gamble, when set sizes were larger. The
order of choice sets also influenced search, with participants sampling from more gambles and taking
more samples overall if they started with smaller as opposed to larger choice sets. Inconsistent with
information overload, information processing appeared consistent across set sizes and choice order
conditions, reliably favoring gambles with higher sample means. Despite the lack of evidence for
information overload, changes in information search did lead to systematic changes in choice: People
who started with smaller choice sets were more likely to choose gambles with the highest expected
values, but only for small set sizes. For large set sizes, the increase in total samples increased the
likelihood of encountering rare events at the same time that the reduction in samples per gamble
amplified the effect of these rare events when they occurred-what we call search-amplified risk. This
led to riskier choices for individuals whose choices most closely followed the sample mean.


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81. Experimental characteristics of a high-gain free-electron laser amplifier operating at 8-mm and 2-mm
wavelengths

SciTech Connect

Throop, A.L.; Orzechowski, T.J.; Anderson, B.R.; Chambers, F.W.; Clark, J.C.; Fawley, W.M.; Jong,
R.A.; Halbach, K.; Hopkins, D.B.; Sessler, A.M.

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1987-06-08

The Electron Laser Facility (ELF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses a
high-current induction linac (3.5 MeV, 1000 A), in conjunction with a pulsed electromagnetic wiggler
(4.0 M, 4000 G), to operate a free electron laser (FEL) that produces intense radiation in the
microwave regime (2 to 8 mm). ELF is a high-gain, single-pass amplifier, using a commercial
microwave source as an oscillator input (200 W-50 kW). Previous experiments at 35 GHz produced
exponential gains of 40 dB/m, peak powers exceeding 1 GW, and beam-to-rf conversion efficiencies of
34%. Recent experiments at 140 GHz have demonstrated exponential gains of 22 dB/m, peak powers
exceeding 50 MW, and total gains of 65 dB. In this paper, we describe the experimental results at these
two frequencies and compare then with the predictions of simulation codes.

82. Second crystal cooling on cryogenically cooled undulator and wiggler double crystal monochromators.

SciTech Connect

Knapp, G. S.

1998-08-03

Simple methods for the cooling of the second crystals of cryogenically cooled undulator and wiggler
double crystal monochromators are described. Copper braids between the first and second crystals are
used to cool the second crystals of the double crystal monochromators. The method has proved
successful for an undulator monochromator and we describe a design for a wiggler monochromator.

83. Experimental results of a sheet-beam, high power, FEL amplifier with application to magnetic fusion
research

SciTech Connect

Cheng, S.; Destler, W.W.; Granatstein, V.L.

1995-12-31

The experimental study of sheet-beam FELs as candidate millimeter-wave sources for heating
magnetic fusion plasmas has achieved a major milestone. In a proof-of-principle, pulsed experiment,
saturated FEL amplifier operation was achieved with 250 kW of output power at 86 GHz. Input
microwave power was 1 kW, beam voltage was 450 kV and beam current was 17 A. The planar
wiggler had a peak value of 3.8 kG, a period of 0.96 cm and was 71 cm long. The linear gain of 30 dB,
saturated gain of 24 dB and saturated efficiency of 3% all are in good agreement with theoretical
prediction. Follow-on work would include development of a thermionic sheet-beam electron-gun
compatible with CW FEL operation, adding a section of tapered wiggler to increase the output power
to levels in excess of 1 megawatt, and increasing the FEL frequency.

84. PULSE AMPLIFIER

DOEpatents

Johnstone, C.W.

1958-06-17

The improvement of pulse amplifiers used with scintillation detectors is described. The pulse amplifier
circuit has the advantage of reducing the harmful effects of overloading cause by large signal inputs. In
general the pulse amplifier circuit comprises two amplifier tubes with the input pulses applied to one
amplifier grid and coupled to the second amplifier tube through a common cathode load. The output of
the second amplifier is coupled from the plate circuit to a cathode follower tube grid and a diode tube
in connected from grid to cathode of the cathode follower tube. Degenerative feedback is provided in
the second amplifier by coupling a signal from the cathode follower cathode to the second amplifier

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grid. The circuit proqides moderate gain stability, and overload protection for subsequent pulse
circuits.

85. Modeling Of Induction-Linac Based Free-Electron Laser Amplifiers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jong, Raynard A.; Fawley, William M.; Scharlemann, Ernst T.

1989-05-01

We describe the modeling of an induction-linac based free-electron laser (IFEL) amplifier for
producing multi-megawatt levels of microwave power. We have used the Lawrence Livermore
National Laboratory (LLNL) free-electron laser simulation code, FRED, and the simulation code for
sideband calculations, GINGER for this study. For IFEL amplifiers in the frequency range of interest
(200 to 600 GHz), we have devised a wiggler design strategy which incorporates a tapering algorithm
that is suitable for free-electron laser (FEL) systems with moderate space-charge effects and that
minimizes spontaneous noise growth at frequencies below the fundamental, while enhancing the
growth of the signal at the fundamental. In addition, engineering design considerations of the
waveguide wall loading and electron beam fill factor in the waveguide set limits on the waveguide
dimensions, the wiggler magnet gap spacing, the wiggler period, and the minimum magnetic field
strength in the tapered region of the wiggler. As an example, we shall describe an FEL amplifier
designed to produce an average power of about 10 MW at a frequency of 280 GHz to be used for
electron cyclotron resonance heating of tokamak fusion devices.

86. Modeling of induction-linac based free-electron laser amplifiers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jong, R. A.; Fawley, W. M.; Scharlemann, E. T.

1988-12-01

We describe the modeling of an induction-linac based free-electron laser (IFEL) amplifier for
producing multimegawatt levels of microwave power. We have used the Lawrence Livermore National
Laboratory (LLNL) free-electron laser simulation code, FRED, and the simulation code for sideband
calculations, GINGER for this study. For IFEL amplifiers in the frequency range of interest (200 to
600 GHz), we have devised a wiggler design strategy which incorporates a tapering algorithm that is
suitable for Free-Electron Laser (FEL) systems with moderate space-charge effects and that minimizes
spontaneous noise growth at frequencies below the fundamental, while enhancing the growth of the
signal at the fundamental. In addition, engineering design considerations of the waveguide wall
loading and electron beam fill factor in the waveguide set limits on the waveguide dimensions, the
wiggler magnet gap spacing, the wiggler period, and the minimum magnetic field strength in the
tapered region of the wiggler. As an example, we shall describe an FEL amplifier designed to produce
an average power of about 10 MW at a frequency of 280 GHz to be used for electron cyclotron
resonance heating of tokamak fusion devices.

87. Wireless Josephson amplifier

SciTech Connect

Narla, A.; Sliwa, K. M.; Hatridge, M.; Shankar, S.; Frunzio, L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Devoret, M. H.

2014-06-09

Josephson junction parametric amplifiers are playing a crucial role in the readout chain in
superconducting quantum information experiments. However, their integration with current 3D cavity
implementations poses the problem of transitioning between waveguide, coax cables, and planar
circuits. Moreover, Josephson amplifiers require auxiliary microwave components, like directional

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couplers and/or hybrids, that are sources of spurious losses and impedance mismatches that limit
measurement efficiency and amplifier tunability. We have developed a wireless architecture for these
parametric amplifiers that eliminates superfluous microwave components and interconnects. This
greatly simplifies their assembly and integration into experiments. We present an experimental
realization of such a device operating in the 911GHz band with about 100MHz of amplitude gain-
bandwidth product, on par with devices mounted in conventional sample holders. The simpler
impedance environment presented to the amplifier also results in increased amplifier tunability.

88. Conceptual design of an 8 Tesla superconducting wiggler for a dedicated digital subtraction
angiography source

SciTech Connect

Blum, E.B.

1993-09-01

One of the most important techniques used to diagnose heart disease is coronary angiography.
Coronary angiography is only used when it is absolutely essential because of the risk of fatalities and
other serious complications arising from the insertion of the catheter. The technique also exposes the
patients to large amounts of x-rays. Research, begun at SSRL and continued on the X17 beam line at
NSLS, demonstrated the feasibility of imaging human coronary arteries following venous injection of
the contrast agent. The technique, caged digital subtraction angiography (DSA), uses two
monochromatic beams of x-rays, one slightly above and one slightly below the iodine K absorption
edge (33.169 KeV) to collect simultaneous images. When the two images are subtracted, the contrast
agent, contained primarily in the blood vessels, is revealed and the background that is common to both
images is suppressed. The images must be collected during a single heartbeat to avoid blurring from
motion of the blood vessels. Conventional x-ray sources are too weak to provide the intense flux that is
required in the narrow energy bandwidth of the beams. Only the most powerful synchrotron radiation
beams from wiggler magnet sources can provide the intensity required in the short exposure time.
Although DSA experiments have shown promise, they have been conducted at large, research
synchrotron radiation facilities. A small, dedicated source will be needed before DSA can be used as a
standard medical procedure. Such x-ray sources as laser backscattering, Cherenkov radiation,
parametric x-radiation, and channeling radiation have been suggested for hospital based DSA sources
but none of them appear to produce enough flux to be useful. Barring the discovery of a new source of
intense x-rays, only synchrotron radiation seems to meet the requirements for DSA. This report briefly
describes the preliminary design of a high field, superconducting wiggler magnet that can be used as a
DSA source.

89. A high-power compact regenerative amplifier FEL

SciTech Connect

Nguyen, D.C.; Sheffield, R.L.; Fortgang, C.M.; Kinross-Wright, J.M.; Ebrahim, N.A.; Goldstein, J.C.

1997-08-01

The Regenerative Amplifier FEL (RAFEL) is a new FEL approach aimed at achieving the highest
optical power from a compact rf-linac FEL. The key idea is to feed back a small fraction (< 10%) of
the optical power into a high-gain ({approximately}10{sup 5} in single pass) wiggler to enable the
FEL to reach saturation in a few passes. This paper summarizes the design of a high-power compact
regenerative amplifier FEL and describes the first experimental demonstration of the RAFEL concept.

90. Method to improve the noise figure and saturation power in multi-contact semiconductor optical
amplifiers: simulation and experiment.

PubMed

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Carney, Kevin; Lennox, Robert; Maldonado-Basilio, Ramon; Philippe, Severine; Surre, Frederic;
Bradley, Louise; Landais, Pascal

2013-03-25

The consequences of tailoring the longitudinal carrier density along the active layer of a multi-contact
bulk semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) are investigated using a rate equation model. It is shown
that both the noise figure and output power saturation can be optimized for a fixed total injected bias
current. The simulation results are validated by comparison with experiment using a multi-contact
SOA. The inter-contact resistance is increased using a focused ion beam in order to optimize the
carrier density control. A chip noise figure of 3.8 dB and a saturation output power of 9 dBm are
measured experimentally for a total bias current of 150 mA.

91. Studies of the LBL CMOS integrated amplifier/discriminator for randomly timed inputs from fixed
target experiments

SciTech Connect

Russ, J.S.; Yarema, R.J.; Zimmerman, T.

1988-12-01

A group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has reported an elegant CMOS VLSI circuit for amplifying,
discriminating, and encoding the signals from highly-segmented charge output devices, e.g., silicon
strip detectors or pad readout structures in gaseous detectors. The design exploits switched capacitor
circuits and the well-known time structure of data acquisition in colliding beam accelerators to cancel
leakage effects and switching noise. For random inputs, these methods are not directly applicable.
However, the high speed of the reset switches makes possible a mode of operation for fixed target
experiments that uses fast resets to erase unwanted data from random triggers. Data acquisition in this
mode has been performed. Details of operation and measurements of noise and rate capability will be
presented. 8 refs., 6 figs.

92. Measurement of photon statistics of wiggler radiation from an electron storage ring

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tanabe, Toshiya; Teich, Malvin C.; Marshall, T. C.; Galayda, John

1991-07-01

The number of visible photons emitted by an electron bunch moving through a wiggler in the
Brookhaven Synchrotron Light Source storage ring was repetitively measured using an analog photon
counting technique, and the photon counting distribution, which is the probability of finding n photons
versus n, was obtained. The photoelectron-counting distribution of detected spontaneous light from the
wiggler obeys a negative-binomial distribution consistent with a multi-electron, multimode description
of the light generation process. In the absence of the wiggler, the bending-magnet light emerging from
the pyrex exit port obeys the Neyman type-A distribution.

93. CSEM-Steel hybrid wiggler/undulator magnetic field studies

SciTech Connect

Halbach, K.; Hoyer, E.; Marks, S.; Plate, D.; Shuman, D.

1985-06-01

Current design of permanent magnet wiggler/undulators use either pure charge sheet equivalent
material (CSEM) or the CSEM-Steel hybrid configuration. Hybrid configurations offer higher field
strength at small gaps, field distributions dominated by the pole surfaces and pole tuning. Nominal
performance of the hybrid is generally predicted using a 2-D magnetic design code neglecting
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transverse geometry. Magnetic measurements are presented showing transverse configuration


influence on performance, from a combination of models using CSEMs, REC (H/sub c/ = 9.2 KOe)
and NdFe (H/sub c/ = 10.7 kOe), different pole widths and end configurations. Results show peak field
improvement using NdFe in place of REC in identical models, gap peak field decrease with pole width
decrease (all results less than computed 2-D fields), transverse gap field distributions, and importance
of CSEM material overhanging the poles in the transverse direction for highest gap fields. 3 refs., 6
figs.

94. CSEM-steel hybrid wiggler/undulator magnetic field studies

SciTech Connect

Halbach, K.; Hoyer, E.; Marks, S.; Plate, D.; Shuman, D.

1985-05-01

Current design of permanent magnet wiggler/undulators use either pure charge sheet equivalent
material (CSEM) or the CSEM-Steel hybrid configuration. Hybrid configurations offer higher field
strength at small gaps, field distributions dominated by the pole surfaces and pole tuning. Nominal
performance of the hybrid is generally predicted using a 2-D magnetic design code neglecting
transverse geometry. Magnetic measurements are presented showing transverse configuration
influence on performance, from a combination of models using CSEMs, REC (H/sub c/ = 9.2 kOe) and
NdFe (H/sub c/ = 10.7 kOe), different pole widths and end configurations. Results show peak field
improvement using NdFe in place of REC in identical models, gap peak field decrease with pole width
decrease (all results less than computed 2-D fields), transverse gap field distributions, and importance
of CSEM material overhanging the poles in the transverse direction for highest gap fields.

95. Absorber for wakefield interference management at the entrance of the wiggler of a free electron laser

DOEpatents

Marchlik, Matthew; Biallas, George Herman

2017-03-07

A method for managing the broad band microwave and TeraHertz (THz) radiation in a free electron
laser (FEL) having a wiggler producing power in the electromagnetic spectrum. The method includes
placement of broadband microwave and TeraHertz (THz) radiation absorbers on the upstream end of
the wiggler. The absorbers dampen the bounced back, broad band microwave and THz radiation
returning from the surfaces outside the nose of the cookie-cutter and thus preventing broadening of the
electron beam pulse's narrow longitudinal energy distribution. Broadening diminishes the ultimate
laser power from the wiggler. The broadband microwave and THz radiation absorbers are placed on
either side of the slot in the cookie-cutter that shapes the wake field wave of the electron pulse to the
slot shape of the wiggler chamber aperture. The broad band microwave and THz radiation absorber is
preferably a non-porous pyrolytic grade of graphite with small grain size.

96. Design of a far-infrared CHI wiggler free-electron laser

SciTech Connect

Jackson, R.H.; Blank, M.; Freund, H.P.

1995-12-31

The preliminary design of a far-infrared free-electron laser with a Coaxial Hybrid Iron (CHI) wiggler
is presented. The CHI wiggler consists of a central rod and outer ring of alternating ferrite and
dielectric spacers. A periodic wiggler field is produced when the CHI structure is immersed in an axial
magnetic field. The design under investigation makes use of 1A, 1MV annular electron beam
interacting with the TE{sub 01} coaxial waveguide mode at approximately 1 THz ({lambda} = 300

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{mu}m). The nominal wiggler period is 0.5 cm and the inner and outer waveguide radii are 0.4 and 0.8
cm, respectively. An axial guide field of 5-10 kG is used. The device performance is modeled with
slow-time-scale nonlinear code. Self fields and axial velocity spread are included in the model.
Theoretical results will be presented.

97. An ultimate storage ring lattice with vertical emittance generated by damping wigglers

SciTech Connect

Huang, Xiaobiao

2015-01-06

We discuss the approach of generating round beams for ultimate storage rings using vertical damping
wigglers (with horizontal magnetic field). The vertical damping wigglers provide damping and excite
vertical emittance. This eliminates the need to generate large linear coupling that is impractical with
traditional off-axis injection. We use a PEP-X compatible lattice to demonstrate the approach. This
lattice uses separate quadrupole and sextupole magnets with realistic gradient strengths. Intrabeam
scattering effects are calculated. As a result, the horizontal and vertical emittances are 22.3 pm and
10.3 pm, respectively, for a 200 mA, 4.5 GeV beam, with a vertical damping wiggler of a total length
of 90 m, a peak field of 1.5 T and a wiggler period of 100 mm.

98. LOGARITHMIC AMPLIFIER

DOEpatents

De Shong, J.A. Jr.

1957-12-31

A logarithmic current amplifier circuit having a high sensitivity and fast response is described. The
inventor discovered the time constant of the input circuit of a system utilizing a feedback amplifier,
ionization chamber, and a diode, is inversely proportional to the input current, and that the amplifier
becomes unstable in amplifying signals in the upper frequency range when the amplifier's forward gain
time constant equals the input circuit time constant. The described device incorporates impedance
networks having low frequency response characteristic at various points in the circuit to change the
forward gain of the amplifler at a rate of 0.7 of the gain magnitude for every two times increased in
frequency. As a result of this improvement, the time constant of the input circuit is greatly reduced at
high frequencies, and the amplifier response is increased.

99. A possible approach to reduce the emittance of HLS- II storage ring using a Robinson wiggler

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Li, Jing-Yi; Liu, Gong-Fa; Xu, Wei; Li, Wei-Min; Li, Yong-Jun

2013-10-01

In this paper, we present some preliminary studies on using a Robinson wiggler to reduce the
horizontal beam emittance in the Hefei Light Source II (HLS- II) storage ring. A proof-of-principle
lattice demonstrates that it is possible to reduce its emittance by 50% with a 2-meter long wiggler. This
encouraging result suggests a feasible option to significantly improve the machine performance at a
relatively low cost.

100. Development of a Single-Pass Amplifier for an Optical Stochastic Cooling Proof-of-Principle


Experiment at Fermilab's IOTA Facility

SciTech Connect

Andorf, M. B.; Lebedev, V. A.; Piot, P.


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2015-06-01

Optical stochastic cooling (OSC) is a method of beam cooling which is expected to provide cooling
rates orders of magnitude larger than ordinary stochastic cooling. Light from an undulator (the pickup)
is amplified and fed back onto the particle beam via another undulator (the kicker). Fermilab is
currently exploring a possible proof-of-principle experiment of the OSC at the integrable-optics test
accelerator (IOTA) ring. To implement effective OSC a good correction of phase distortions in the
entire band of the optical amplifier is required. In this contribution we present progress in experimental
characterization of phase distortions associated to a Titanium Sapphire crystal laser-gain medium (a
possible candidate gain medium for the OSC experiment to be performed at IOTA). We also discuss a
possible option for a mid-IR amplifier


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101. Superconducting 72-pole Indirect Cooling 3Tesla Wiggler for CLIC Damping Ring and ANKA Image
Beamline

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bragin, A.; Gusev, Ye.; Khrushchev, S.; Mezentsev, N.; Shkaruba, V.; Syrovatin, V.; Tarasenko, O.;
Tsukanov, V.; Volkov, A.; K. Zolotarev; Zorin, A.

One of the directions of BINP activity is the creation of multipole superconducting wigglers with the
magnetic field levels from 2 T to 7.5 T which are installed on many SR sources. Special efforts were
made by BINP to develop the cryogenic system with zero liquid helium consumption. The next
significant step became the design and creation of superconducting full size prototype of damping
wiggler for CLIC project where supposed the installation of 104 wigglers. For operation of CLIC
damping wiggler it is required the magnetic field of 3 T and the period about 50 mm with a beam
vertical aperture of 13 mm. Design features of the wiggler which was proposed and created by BINP is
the application of the indirect cooling method. In this case Nb-Ti magnet with the length of 1.9 m and
the weight of 700 kg is located in a vacuum and is cooled by four Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers. To
maintain the temperature about 4.2 K on the magnet it is used the tubes with circulating liquid helium
as the heat conducting elements. To increase the efficiency of pre-cooling down of the magnet it is
used nitrogen-based heat pipes of siphon type. The features of the magnetic and cryogenic systems of
CLIC damping wiggler full size prototype and test results are presented in this article.

102. Vacuum chamber with distributed titanium sublimation pumping for the G-line wiggler at Cornell
High Energy Synchrotron Source

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Li, Y.; He, Y.; Mistry, N. B.

2003-07-01

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This article describes a 3-m-long vacuum chamber for the new wiggler magnet at the Cornell Electron
Storage Ring (CESR) for the synchrotron light beam line of the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron
Source (CHESS). Copper was chosen as the main chamber material for its good electric and thermal
conductivities. Proper mechanical design and welding procedure were implemented to meet very tight
tolerances to ensure adequate vertical aperture for the stored beams in CESR while allowing the
required small wiggler gap. Distributed titanium sublimation pumping is incorporated along the 3 m
length of the chamber to provide sufficient pumping speed and capacity for CESR and CHESS
operations. The chamber pumping performance was evaluated prior to installation. Linear distributed
pumping speeds at the beam line of ~720 l/s/m for N2 and CO and ~4000 l/s/m for H2 were measured.
The measured pumping capacities for N2, CO and H2 are ~1.0, ~2.0 and ~77 Torr l, respectively, for
each titanium sublimation cycle. Measurements also showed that CO molecules adsorb on the N2 and
H2 saturated titanium films with virtually the same initial sticking coefficient as on a fresh titanium
film. Analyses indicated very different CO adsorption mechanisms between the N2 and H2 saturated
titanium films. While the replacement of surface H2 by CO was observed, little desorption of nitrogen
was measured. Operational experience showed excellent vacuum pumping performance over two years
after the chamber installation.

103. Operational Amplifiers.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Foxcroft, G. E.

1986-01-01

Addresses the introduction of low cost equipment into high school and college physical science
classes. Examines the properties of an "ideal" operational amplifier and discusses how it might be used
under saturated and non-saturated conditions. Notes the action of a "real" operational amplifier. (TW)

104. Amplifier Distortion

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Keeports, David

2006-12-01

By definition, a high fidelity amplifier's instantaneous output voltage is directly proportional to its
instantaneous input voltage. While high fidelity is generally valued in the amplification of recorded
music, nonlinearity, also known as distortion, is desirable in the amplification of some musical
instruments. In particular, guitar amplifiers exploit nonlinearity to increase both the harmonic content
and sustain of a guitar's sound. I will discuss how both modifications in sound result from saturation of
triode tubes and transistors. Additionally, I will describe the difference in the symmetry of saturation
curves for transistors and tubes and the reason why tube guitar amplifiers are generally considered to
be superior to solid-state amplifiers. Finally, I will discuss attempts to use solid-state electronics to
replicate the sound of tube amplifiers.

105. Construction and Performance of a Superconducting Multipole Wiggler

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hwang, C. S.; Wang, B.; Chen, J. Y.; Chang, C. H.; Chen, H. H.; Fan, T. C.; Lin, F. Y.; Huang, M. H.;
Chang, C. C.; Hsu, S. N.; Hsiung, G. Y.; Hsu, K. T.; Chen, J.; Chien, Y. C.; Chen, J. R.; Chen, C. T.

2004-05-01

A 3.2 Tesla superconducting multipole wiggler was designed and fabricated as an X-ray source. The
magnet assembly, which consists of 32 pairs of racetrack NbTi superconducting coils with a periodic
length of 60 mm, provides 28 effective poles. A 1.4056 m long elliptical cold-bore stainless steel beam

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duct with taper flanges and a wall thickness of 1 mm, was developed and constructed to fit the ultra-
high vacuum condition for electron beam. The magnetic field strength was measured in liquid helium
using a cryogenic Hall probe, revealing a field behavior very close to behavior consistent with the
designed values. A Hall generator and the stretch wire methods are used to determine the transfer
function of the peak field, the first and second integrated field distributions, and the good field region
of the magnet. The quench protection of the magnet, the control algorithm for automatic filling of
liquid helium, and the boil off rate of liquid helium and liquid nitrogen will also be discussed.

106. Superconducting wiggler with semi-cold beam duct at Taiwan light source

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hwang, C.-S.; Chang, C.-H.; Chen, H.-H.; Lin, F.-Y.; Fan, T.-C.; Huang, M.-H.; Jan, J.-C.; Hsu, K.-T.;
Chen, J.; Hsu, S.-N.; Hsiung, G.-Y.; Chang, H.-P.; Kuo, C.-C.; Chien, Y.-C.; Hsiao, F.-Z.; Chen, J.-R.;
Chen, C.-T.

2006-01-01

A 3.2 T superconducting wiggler with a periodic length of 6 cm and 32 poles was designed and
fabricated as an X-ray source. The beam duct of this magnet is a semi-cold, ultra-high vacuum
chamber that consists of an aluminum and stainless steel taper. The number of poles in this magnet
design is even, to minimize the integral strengths of the multipole components. Two measurement
systemsinvolving room-temperature and cryogenic Hall probeswere set up to measure the field of
the superconducting wiggler. A cryogenic plant that supplied liquid helium and nitrogen to the
superconducting wiggler has already been established. The performance of magnet construction is
good and the commissioning of the superconducting wiggler in the storage ring has been successful.
No trim coil compensation on the magnet is required to adjust the electron beam orbit. Furthermore,
the electron beams exhibit no loss and remain highly stable after the superconducting wiggler has been
quenched.

107. Effect of Wiggler insertions on the single-particle dynamics of the NLC main damping rings

SciTech Connect

Venturini, Marco

2003-07-30

As they are expected to occupy a large portion of the lattice, wiggler insert ions will introduce
significant linear and nonlinear perturbations to the single-particle dynamics in the NLC Main
Damping Rings (MDR). The nonlinearities are of particular concern as a sufficiently large Dynamic
Aperture (DA) is required for high injection efficiency. The main content of this report is a study of the
wigglers impact on the DA of the NLC-MDR latest lattice design. The particle dynamics is modeled
by transfer maps calculated by integration through the wiggler fields. For field representation we
employed a 3D multipole expansion derived from the field data that were obtained with the aid of a
magnet design code. Additional contents of this paper include an investigation of a simplified model of
wiggler consisting of a sequence of standard magnet elements (where thin octupoles are used to
represent the dominant nonlinearities) and the suggestion of a possible correction scheme to
compensate the wiggler nonlinearities.

108. An 8 cm period electromagnetic wiggler magnet with coils made from sheet copper

SciTech Connect

George Biallas; Stephen Benson; Tommy Hiatt; George Neil; Michael Snyder

2005-05-01

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An electromagnetic wiggler, now lasing at the Jefferson Lab FEL, has 29 eight cm periods with K
variable from 0.5 to 1.1 and gap of 2.6 cm. The wiggler was made inexpensively in 11 weeks by an
industrial machine shop. The conduction cooled coil design uses copper sheet material cut to forms
using water jet cutting. The conductor is cut to serpentine shapes and the cooling plates are cut to
ladder shape. The sheets are assembled in stacks insulated with polymer film, also cut with water jet.
The coil design extends the serpentine conductor design of the Duke OK4 to more and smaller
conductors. The wiggler features graded fields in the two poles at each end and trim coils on these
poles to eliminate field errors caused by saturation. An added critical feature is mirror plates at the
ends with integral trim coils to eliminate three dimensional end field effects and align the entrance and
exit orbit with the axis of the wiggler. Details of construction, measurement methods and excellent
wiggler performance are presented.

109. LOGARITHMIC AMPLIFIER

DOEpatents

Wade, E.J.; Stone, R.S.

1959-03-10

Electronic,amplifier circuits, especially a logai-ithmic amplifier characterizxed by its greatly improved


strability are discussed. According to the in ention, means are provided to feed bach the output
valtagee to a diode in the amplifier input circuit, the diode being utilized to produce the logarithmic
characteristics. The diode is tics, The diode isition therewith and having its filament operated from thc
same source s the filament of the logarithmic diode. A bias current of relatively large value compareii
with the signal current is continuously passed through the compiting dioie to render the diode
insensitivy to variations in the signal current. by this odes kdu to variaelled, so that the stability of the
amlifier will be unimpaired.

110. Higher harmonic emission by a relativistic electron beam in a longitudinal magnetic wiggler

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Davidson, Ronald C.; McMullin, Wayne A.

1982-10-01

The classical limit of the Einstein-coefficient method is used in the low-gain regime to calculate the
stimulated emission from a tenuous relativistic electron beam propagating in the combined solenoidal
and longitudinal wiggler fields (B0+B k0z)e^z produced near the axis of a multiple-mirror
(undulator) field configuration. Emission is found to occur at all harmonics of the wiggler wave
number k0 with Doppler upshifted output frequency given by =(lk0Vb+cb)
(1+Vbc)2b(1+2bV2c2), where l>=1. The emission is compared to the low-gain cyclotron maser
with B=0 and to the low-gain free-electron laser (operating at higher harmonics) utilizing a transverse
linearly polarized wiggler field.

111. Stimulated emission from a relativistic electron beam in a variable-parameter longitudinal magnetic
wiggler

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

McMullin, W. A.; Davidson, R. C.; Johnston, G. L.

1983-08-01

The single-particle equations of motion are used to study the stimulated emission from a tenuous
relativistic electron beam propagating in the combined solenoidal and variable-parameter longitudinal
wiggler magnetic fields produced near the axis of a multiple-mirror (undulator) field configuration.
The specific case of constant field amplitude and variable wiggler periodicity is studied. It is found
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that the efficiency of radiation generation can be increased by orders of magnitude relative to the case
where the wiggler periodicity is constant. This is due to the fact that the phase velocity of the
ponderomotive potential in which the electrons are trapped is decreasing, allowing the electrons to
exchange energy with the radiation field.

112. The effects of wiggler taper rate and signal field gain rate in free-electron lasers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Li, Y. P.; Kevorkian, J.

1988-04-01

A dimensionless formulation of the motion of electrons in free-electron lasers (FEL) with tapered
wigglers is derived that takes into account the cumulative effects of tapering and signal field gain. The
mathematical problem involves three small parameters: epsilon, measuring the slowness of spatial
variations of the wiggler field; mu, the ratio of signal wavelength to wiggler period, and kappa, the
square of the ratio of the plasma frequency to signal frequency. Two limits governing the relation
between mu and epsilon and three limits governing the relation between kappa and epsilon are
identified. The mathematical problems which result consist of the solution of strictly nonlinear
oscillators with slowly varying parameters and small perturbation terms. Techniques from the
asymptotic theory of nonlinear oscillations are used to derive results pertinent for FEL problems.

113. Electron Cloud in the Wigglers of the Positron Damping Ring of the International Linear Collider

SciTech Connect

Wang, L.; /SLAC

2007-07-06

The ILC positron damping ring comprises hundreds of meters of wiggler sections, where many more
photons than in the arcs are emitted, and with the smallest beampipe aperture of the ring. A significant
electron-cloud density can therefore be accumulated via photo-emission and via beam-induced
multipacting. In field-free regions the electron-cloud build up may be suppressed by adding weak
solenoid fields, but the electron cloud remaining in the wigglers as well as in the arc dipole magnets
can still drive single-bunch and multi-bunch beam instabilities. This paper studies the electron-cloud
formation in an ILC wiggler section for various scenarios, as well as its character, and possible
mitigation schemes.

114. Orbit compensation for the time-varying elliptically polarized wiggler with switching frequency at 100
hz

SciTech Connect

Singh, O.; Krinsky, S.

1997-07-01

In October 1996, the elliptically polarized wiggler, installed in the X13 straight section of the NSLS X-
ray ring, was commissioned at an operating frequency of 100 hz. This wiggler generates circularly
polarized photons in the energy range of 0.1 to 10 keV with AC modulation of polarization helicity.
The vertical magnetic field is produced by a hybrid permanent magnet structure, and the horizontal
magnetic field is generated by an electromagnet capable of switching at frequencies up to 100 hz.
Here, the authors discuss the compensation of the residual vertical and horizontal orbit motion utilizing
a time-domain algorithm employing a function generator to drive trim coils at the wiggler ends, and
the wideband high precision orbit measurement system of the X-ray ring. The residual orbit motion
has been reduced to a level below 1 micron, and the device has been run in regular operations with no
negative effect on other users.

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115. Making an Inexpensive Electromagnetic Wiggler Using Sheet Materials for the Coils

SciTech Connect

George Herman Biallas; Stephen Vincent Benson; Thomas Hiatt; George Neil; Michael Snyder

2004-08-01

An inexpensive electromagnetic wiggler, made with twenty-eight, 8 cm periods with a K of 1 and gap
of 2.6 cm was made within 11 weeks after receipt of order by an industrial machine shop. The coil
design used sheet and plate materials cut to shapes using water jet cutting and was assembled in a
simple stack design. The coil design extends the serpentine conductor design of the Duke OK4 to more
and smaller conductors. The coils are conduction cooled with imbedded cooling plates. The wiggler
features graded end pole fields, trim coil compensation for end field errors, and mirror plates on the
ends to avoid three dimensional end field effects. Details of the methods used in construction and the
wiggler performance are presented.

116. An Undulator-Wiggler Beamline for Spectromicroscopy at SRC

SciTech Connect

Reininger, R.; De Stasio, G.; Bissen, M.; Severson, M.

2004-05-12

A high-flux medium-energy-resolution beamline based on an existing insertion device is being


constructed at SRC. The insertion device will be operated as an undulator up to {approx}400 eV and
as a wiggler at higher energies. The beamline will be dedicated mainly to X-ray PhotoElectron
Emission spectroMicroscopy (X-PEEM) and will cover the energy range 75-2000 eV. The most
relevant requirement for high-resolution and high-sensitivity X-PEEM is a high flux density on the
sample surface. This will allow spatial resolutions on the order of a few nanometers, and a minimum
detection limit on the order of 10 parts per million, using the already existing Spectromicroscope for
PHotoelectron Imaging of Nanostructures with X-rays (SPHINX). To maximize the flux at the sample
position, the beamline does not include an entrance slit and has only three optical elements on the
beam path: an ellipsoidal mirror, a variable-line-spacing plane grating, and a re-focusing ellipsoidal
mirror. The first ellipsoidal mirror provides the converging light to one of the three gratings needed to
cover the beamline energy range. The position of the fixed exit slit is at the focus of the ellipsoidal
mirror when the grating is tuned to zero order. The second ellipsoidal mirror demagnifies the beam at
the exit slit plane by a factor of two. More than 1012 photons/s are expected at the sample position
between 100 and 1200 eV onto a spot having a FWHM of 25 {mu}m vertical and 70 {mu}m
horizontal at a resolving power of {approx}1000.

117. Bidirectional amplifier

DOEpatents

Wright, James T.

1986-01-01

A bilateral circuit is operable for transmitting signals in two directions without generation of ringing
due to feedback caused by the insertion of the circuit. The circuit may include gain for each of the
signals to provide a bidirectional amplifier. The signals are passed through two separate paths, with a
unidirectional amplifier in each path. A controlled sampling device is provided in each path for
sampling the two signals. Any feedback loop between the two signals is disrupted by providing a
phase displacement between the control signals for the two sampling devices.

118. Bidirectional amplifier

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DOEpatents

Wright, J.T.

1984-02-02

A bilateral circuit is operable for transmitting signals in two directions without generation of ringing
due to feedback caused by the insertion of the circuit. The circuit may include gain for each of the
signals to provide a bidirectional amplifier. The signals are passed through two separate paths, with a
unidirectional amplifier in each path. A controlled sampling device is provided in each path for
sampling the two signals. Any feedback loop between the two signals is disrupted by providing a
phase displacement between the control signals for the two sampling devices.

119. High-gradient acceleration of electrons in a plasma loaded wiggler

SciTech Connect

Maroli, C.; Petrillo, V.

1995-12-31

The interaction of an electron beam with a transverse electromagnetic field and an electrostatic wave
in a plasma loaded wiggler is described by means of system of self-consistent nonlinear equations. We
demonstrate that the system is able to sustain resonantly high-amplitude electrostatic waves with phase
velocity c, which gives rise to high gradient acceleration of the electron beam. Both gradient and
saturation value of the average gamma factor of the beam increase considerably with increasing
magnetic field of the wiggler and plasma density.

120. Design and system integration of the superconducting wiggler magnets for the Compact Linear
Collider damping rings

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Schoerling, Daniel; Antoniou, Fanouria; Bernhard, Axel; Bragin, Alexey; Karppinen, Mikko;
Maccaferri, Remo; Mezentsev, Nikolay; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Peiffer, Peter; Rossmanith, Robert;
Rumolo, Giovanni; Russenschuck, Stephan; Vobly, Pavel; Zolotarev, Konstantin

2012-04-01

To achieve high luminosity at the collision point of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC), the
normalized horizontal and vertical emittances of the electron and positron beams must be reduced to
500 and 4 nm before the beams enter the 1.5 TeV linear accelerators. An effective way to accomplish
ultralow emittances with only small effects on the electron polarization is using damping rings
operating at 2.86 GeV equipped with superconducting wiggler magnets. This paper describes a
technical design concept for the CLIC damping wigglers.


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121. Wigglers and single-particle dynamics in the NLC damping rings

SciTech Connect

Venturini, Marco; Wolski, Andrzej; Dragt, Alex

2003-05-06

Wiggler insertions are expected to occupy a significant portion of the lattice of the Next Linear
Collider (NLC) Main Damping Rings (MDR) and have a noticeable impact on the single-particle beam
dynamics. Starting from a realistic 3D representation of the magnetic fields we calculate the transfer
maps for the wigglers, accounting for linear and nonlinear effects, and we study the beam dynamics
with particular attention paid to the Dynamic Aperture(DA). A DA reduction is observed but appears
to remain within acceptable limits.

122. Amplified Policymaking

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prince, Katherine; Woempner, Carolyn

2010-01-01

This brief examines the policy implications of two drivers of change presented in the "2020 Forecast:
Creating the Future of Learning"-- Pattern Recognition and Amplified Organization. These drivers
point toward a series of cultural shifts and illuminate how we are developing new ways of organizing,
constructing, and managing knowledge.

123. THz wiggler applied for measurements of electron bunch longitudinal structure in FEL

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Syresin, E.; Kostromin, S.; Krasilnikov, M.; Makarov, R.; Morozov, N.; Petrov, D.

2015-01-01

The infrared undulator manufactured at JINR and installed at FLASH in 2007 is used for longitudinal
bunch shape measurements in the range of several tenths of a micrometer. The presented
electromagnetic wiggler is intended for generating a narrow-band THz radiation to measure the
longitudinal electron bunch structure in FELs with an electron energy of several tens of MeV. This is a
planar electromagnetic device with six regular periods, each 30 cm long. The K parameter is varied in
the range 0.5-7.12 corresponding to the range B = 0.025-0.356 T of the peak field on the axis. The
wiggler is simulated for 19.8 MeV/ c corresponding to the possible FEL option at PITZ. The
wavelength range is 126 m - 5.1 mm for this electron beam momentum. The 3D Opera simulations of
the THz wiggler are discussed. A new PITZ photocathode laser system is proposed for the optimized
performance of the high-brightness electron beam. The main goal is a production of 3D ellipsoidal
electron bunches with homogeneous charge density. The electromagnetic wiggler is supposed to be
used for measuring the longitudinal shape of these electron bunches.

124. High-efficiency EB drifting electron laser with electrostatic wiggler

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riyopoulos, Spilios

1997-10-01

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High power operation of an EB drifting electron laser (DEL) with electrostatic (ES) wiggler offers
the same advantages with the previously introduced magnetostatic wiggler (MS) version, namely,
much higher efficiency than the free electron laser (FEL) <=1/2Nw limit, due to unrestricted particle
excursions. A parameter scaling allows unified treatment of oblique radiation emission, space charge
effects and sensitivity to beam thermal spreads, for both the ES and MS cases. Emission at an angle
relative to the drifting beam occurs naturally in an ES wiggler, while tilting the resonator axis is
proposed to compensate for the off-axis walk of the emitting electrons for finite radiation spot size. No
efficiency loss occurs at small tilt angles. It is also shown that DEL's exhibit much higher tolerance to
low beam quality than FEL's. Finally, the DEL operation at low radiation power, with finite trapped
particle excursions, is analyzed. It is shown that the efficiency there can still exceed that of a
comparable FEL, particularly at low wiggler strengths.

125. Low-frequency wiggler modes in the free-electron laser with a dusty magnetoplasma medium

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jafari, S.

2015-07-01

An advanced incremental scheme for generating tunable coherent radiation in a free-electron laser has
been presented: the basic concept is the use of a relativistic electron beam propagating through a
magnetized dusty plasma channel where dust helicon, dust Alfven and coupled dust cyclotron-Alfven
waves can play a role as a low-frequency wiggler, triggering coherent emissions. The wiggler
wavelength at the sub-mm level allows one to reach the wavelength range from a few nm down to a
few with moderately relativistic electrons of kinetic energies of a few tens/hundreds of MeV. The
laser gain and the effects of beam self-electric and self-magnetic fields on the gain have been estimated
and compared with findings of the helical magnetic and electromagnetic wigglers in vacuum. To study
the chaotic regions of the electron motion in the dusty plasma wave wiggler, a time independent
Hamiltonian has been obtained. The Poincare surface of a section map has been used numerically to
analyze the nonintegrable system where chaotic regions in phase-space emerge. This concept opens a
path toward a new generation of synchrotron sources based on compact plasma structures.

126. An in-vacuum wiggler for SOLEIL Hard X-rays spectral range

SciTech Connect

Marcouille, O.; Chapuis, L.; Brunelle, P.; Berteaud, P.; Couprie, M.-E.; Filhol, J.-M.; Herbeaux, C.;
Marlats, J.-L.; Massal, M.; Mary, A.; Tavakoli, K.; Valleau, M.; Veteran, J.

2010-06-23

The production of Hard X-rays has become a tricky problem on medium energy storage rings. It
requires Insertion Devices (IDs) with high magnetic field and a large number of periods. To cover the
20-50 keV photon energy range at SOLEIL (2.75 GeV), an in-vacuum wiggler (WSV50) has been
preferred to a superconducting ID. The wiggler is composed of 38 periods of 50 mm producing a 2.1 T
field at a minimum magnetic gap of 5.5 mm. To minimize the magnetic forces acting between magnet
arrays (8.5 tons), a compensation system composed of non magnetic springs has been mounted apart
from the magnet system to reduce the mechanical deformations. The wiggler has been assembled step
by step by means of a genetic algorithm which minimizes the magnetic errors measured with a flipping
coil. This paper presents the mechanical and magnetic design of the wiggler as well as the construction
and the magnetic measurements.

127. JLAMP: AN AMPLIFIER-BASED FEL IN THE JLAB SRF ERL DRIVER

SciTech Connect

Kevin Jordan; Stephen V. Benson; David Douglas; Pavel Evtushenko; Carlos Hernandez-Garcia;
George R. Neil
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2007-06-13

Notional designs for energy-recovering linac (ERL) -driven high average power free electron lasers
(FELs) often invoke amplifier-based architectures. To date, however, amplifier FELs have been
limited in average power output to values several orders of magnitude lower than those demonstrated
in optical-resonator based systems; this is due at least in part to the limited electron beam powers
available from their driver accelerators. In order to directly contrast the performance available from
amplifiers to that provided by high-power cavity-based resonators, we have developed a scheme to test
an amplifier FEL in the JLab SRF ERL driver. We describe an accelerator system design that can
seamlessly and non-invasively integrate a 10 m wiggler into the existing system and which provides, at
least in principle, performance that would support high-efficiency lasing in an amplifier configuration.
Details of the design and an accelerator performance analysis will be presented

128. [Continuous registration of micropotentials of the human heart. Initial experiences with a new high
resolution ECG amplifier system].

PubMed

Hombach, V; Kebbel, U; Hpp, H W; Winter, U J; Braun, V; Deutsch, H; Hirche, H; Hilger, H H

1982-12-24

A new ECG-amplifier system for recording cardiac microvolt potentials from the body surface is
described. The improvement in signal-to-noise ratio was achieved by using specially designed suction
electrodes, which were isolated from each other; by applying parallel signal averaging from four
electrode pairs via four low-noise amplifiers; and by conducting the registration in Faraday cage. in 14
normal subjects, 12 patients with coronary heart disease and one patient with surgically corrected
ventricular septal defect and pulmonary stenosis, pre-P-potentials (possible sinus node activity), His
bundle potentials and ventricular late potentials were recorded with differing degrees of success.
Variations of the time intervals to the preceding QRS complex were observed within the S-T segment
in six of nine patients with demonstrable ventricular late ventricular late potentials. The advantage of
such continuously recording ECG system lies in the highly accurate registration of cardiac
micropotentials, particularly with ventricular late potentials that are changing in time, whereas the
signal-averaging technique does not provide such possibilities.

129. Stability of an emittance-dominated sheet-electron beam in planar wiggler and periodic permanent
magnet structures with natural focusing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carlsten, B. E.; Earley, L. M.; Krawczyk, F. L.; Russell, S. J.; Potter, J. M.; Ferguson, P.; Humphries,
S.

2005-06-01

A sheet-beam traveling-wave amplifier has been proposed as a high-power generator of rf from 95 to


300 GHz, using a microfabricated rf slow-wave structure [Carlsten et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 33,
85 (2005), ITPSBD, 0093-3813, 10.1109/TPS.2004.841172], for emerging radar and communications
applications. The planar geometry of microfabrication technologies matches well with the nearly
planar geometry of a sheet beam, and the greater allowable beam current leads to high-peak power,
high-average power, and wide bandwidths. Simulations of nominal designs using a vane-loaded
waveguide as the slow-wave structure have indicated gains in excess of 1 dB/mm, with extraction
efficiencies greater than 20% at 95 GHz with a 120-kV, 20-A electron beam. We have identified stable
sheet-beam formation and transport as the key enabling technology for this type of device. In this
paper, we describe sheet-beam transport, for both wiggler and periodic permanent magnet (PPM)
magnetic field configurations, with natural (or single-plane) focusing. For emittance-dominated
transport, the transverse equation of motion reduces to a Mathieu equation, and to a modified Mathieu
equation for a space-charge dominated beam. The space-charge dominated beam has less beam
envelope ripple than an emittance-dominated beam, but they have similar stability thresholds (defined
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by where the beam ripple continues to grow without bound along the transport line), consistent with
the threshold predicted by the Mathieu equation. Design limits are derived for an emittance-dominated
beam based on the Mathieu stability threshold. The increased beam envelope ripple for emittance-
dominated transport may impact these design limits, for some transport requirements. The stability of
transport in a wiggler field is additionally compromised by the beams increased transverse motion.
Stable sheet-beam transport with natural focusing is shown to be achievable for a 120-kV, 20-A,
elliptical beam with a cross section of

130. Status of proof-of-principle experiment for coherent electron cooling

SciTech Connect

Pinayev I.; Belomestnykh, S.; Bengtsson, J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Elizarov, A. et al

2012-05-20

Coherent electron cooling (CEC) has a potential to significantly boost luminosity of high-energy, high-
intensity hadron colliders. To verify the concept we conduct proof-of-the-principle experiment at
RHIC. In this paper, we describe the current experimental setup to be installed into 2 o'clock RHIC
interaction regions. We present current design, status of equipment acquisition and estimates for the
expected beam parameters. We use a dogleg to merge the electron and ion beams. The ions 'imprint'
their distribution into the electron beam via a space charge density modulation. The modulation is
amplified in an FEL comprised of a 7-m long helical wiggler. The ions are co-propagating with
electron beam through the FEL. The ion's average velocity is matched to the group velocity of the
wave-packet of e-beam density modulation in the FEL. A three-pole wiggler at the exit of the FEL
tune the phase of the wave-packet so the ion with the central energy experience the maximum of the e-
beam density modulation, where electric field is zero. The time-of-flight dependence on ion's provides
for the electrical field caused by the density modulation to reduce energy spread of the ion beam. The
used electron beam is bent off the ion path and damped.

131. Two-color FEL amplifier for femtosecond-resolution pump-probe experiments with GW-scale X-ray
and optical pulses

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feldhaus, J.; Krfer, M.; Mller, T.; Pflger, J.; Saldin, E. L.; Schneidmiller, E. A.; Schreiber, S.;
Yurkov, M. V.

2004-08-01

The paper describes a scheme for pump-probe experiments that could be performed at the soft X-ray
SASE FEL at the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) at DESY and determines what additional hardware
developments will be required to bring these experiments to fruition. Pump-probe experiments
combining pulses from a XFEL and optical femtosecond laser are very attractive for sub-picosecond
time-resolved studies. Since the synchronization between the two light sources to an accuracy of 100
fs is not yet solved, it is proposed to derive both femtosecond radiation pulses from the same electron
bunch but from two insertion devices. This eliminates the need for synchronization and developing
tunable, high power femtosecond quantum laser. In the proposed scheme for pump-probe experiments,
GW-level soft X-ray pulse is naturally synchronized with his GW-level optical pulse and cancel jitter.
The concept is based on generation of the optical radiation in the master oscillator-power FEL
amplifier configuration. An attractive feature of the FEL amplifier scheme is the absence of limitation
which would prevent operation in the femtosecond regime in a wide (200- 900 nm) wavelength range.
The problem of tunable quantum seed laser can be solved with commercially available long pulse dye
laser. An important feature of the proposed scheme is that optical radiator uses the spent electron
beam. As a result, saturation mode of operation of the optical FEL does not interfere with the main
mode of the soft X-ray SASE FEL operation.

132. The DEPFET detector-amplifier structure for spectroscopic imaging in astronomy and for experiments
at free electron lasers
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NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lutz, G.; Aschauer, S.; Majewski, P.; Holl, P.; Strder, L.

2017-02-01

The DEPFET detector-amplifier structure possesses several unique properties which make it extremely
useful as readout element in semiconductor detectors and in particular as building block of
semiconductor pixel detectors. Variations of DEPFETs can be tuned to specific requirements as to be
sensitive only in predetermined time intervals, to measure signal charge with sub-electron precision,
dead-time-free readout and with signal compression. These devices have been shown to work in
simulations and in prototypes. Recently the first two fully developed detector systems have been
finished and installed in the MIXS (Mercury Image X-ray Spectrometer) instrument of the Mercury
Planetary Orbiter scheduled to be launched in 2017. A further DEPFET detector system under
development is the DSSC (Depfet Sensor with Signal Compression) that will be installed in one of the
beam-lines of XFEL. The requirements of the two projects are rather different. While the MIXS
sensors are supposed to measure precisely the energy and position of single photons down to very low
energies but at moderate rates, the DSSC has to measure the number of photons arriving in each pixel
within a time interval of 220 ns. Here the challenge is the capability of detecting single X-ray photons
in one pixel simultaneously with up to 10,000 photons in some other pixels. Device functioning has
been verified with sensors produced in a research laboratory. Now process and design have been
adapted to an industrial type production line, allowing additional improvements.

133. High heat load crystal cooling strategies for an APS wiggler beamline

SciTech Connect

Beno, M.A.; Knapp, G.S.; Engbretson, M.

1997-07-01

High energy wigglers produce extremely high total powers. For example, the insertion device for one
beamline of the Basic Energy Sciences Synchrotron Research Center (BESSRC) is an elliptical
multipole wiggler (EMPW) which can generate circularly polarized X-rays on axis and produces a
total power of {approximately}8 kW. This insertion device will be used to simultaneously provide x-
rays to three branch lines, a branch equipped with a normal double crystal monochromator feeding a
scattering and spectroscopy station, and two branches with single-bounce horizontally deflecting
monochromators for Compton scattering and High Energy Diffraction. The crystal optics for this type
of device require substantially different heat load solutions than those used for undulator beamlines.
We will discuss how the beam is split and shared among the beamline branch lines and present the
crystal cooling strategies employed for both the double-crystal monochromator and horizontally
deflecting single-bounce monochromators.

134. Computation of Transfer Maps from Surface Data with Applications to Wigglers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mitchell, Chad; Dragt, Alex

2006-04-01

Simulations indicate that the dynamic aperture of the proposed ILC Damping Rings is dictated
primarily by the nonlinear properties of their wiggler transfer maps. Wiggler transfer maps in turn
depend sensitively on fringe-field and high-multipole effects. Therefore it is important to have a
detailed and realistic model of the interior magnetic field, including knowledge of high spatial
derivatives. Modeling of these derivatives is made difficult by the presence of numerical noise. We
describe how such information can be extracted reliably from 3-dimensional field data on a grid as
provided, for example, by various 3-dimensional finite element field codes (OPERA-3d) available
from Vector Fields. The key ingredients are the use of surface data and the smoothing property of the
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inverse Laplacian operator. We describe the advantages of fitting on an elliptic cylindrical surface
surrounding the beam.

135. Particle-in-Cell Calculationsof the Electron Cloud in the ILCPositron Damping Ring Wigglers

SciTech Connect

Celata, C.M.; Furman, M.A.; Vay, J.-L.; Grote, D.P.

2007-07-01

The self-consistent code suite WARP-POSINST is being used to study electron cloud effects in the
ILC positron damping ring wiggler. WARP is a parallelized, 3D particle-in-cell code which is fully
self-consistent for all species. The POSINST models for the production of photoelectrons and
secondary electrons are used to calculate electron creation. Mesh refinement and a moving reference
frame for the calculation will be used to reduce the computer time needed by several orders of
magnitude. We present preliminary results for cloud buildup showing 3D electron effects at the nulls
of the vertical wiggler field. First results from a benchmark of WARP-POSINST vs. POSINST are also
discussed.

136. Positron Production by X Rays Emitted By Betatron Motion in a Plasma Wiggler

SciTech Connect

Johnson, D.K.; Auerbach, D.; Blumenfeld, I.; Barnes, C.D.; Clayton, C.E.; Decker, F.J.; Deng, S.;
Emma, P.; Hogan, M.J.; Huang, C.; Ischebeck, R.; Iverson, R.; Joshi, C.; Katsouleas, T.C.; Kirby, N.;
Krejcik, P.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K.A.; Mori, W.B.; Muggli, P.; O'Connell, C.L.; /UCLA /SLAC /Southern
California U.

2007-01-25

Positrons in the energy range of 3-30 MeV, produced by x rays emitted by betatron motion in a plasma
wiggler of 28.5 GeV electrons from the SLAC accelerator, have been measured. The extremely high-
strength plasma wiggler is an ion column induced by the electron beam as it propagates through and
ionizes dense lithium vapor. X rays in the range of 1-50 MeV in a forward cone angle of 0.1 mrad
collide with a 1.7 mm thick tungsten target to produce electron-positron pairs. The positron spectra are
found to be strongly influenced by the plasma density and length as well as the electron bunch length.
By characterizing the beam propagation in the ion column these influences are quantified and result in
excellent agreement between the measured and calculated positron spectra.

137. Design of a wiggler-focused, sheet beam X band klystron

SciTech Connect

Eppley, K.R.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Miller, R.H.

1987-02-01

An X band klystron using a sheet beam and wiggler focusing was simulated using the 2 + 1/2
dimensional particle in cell code MASK. Simulation of the rf cavities was by means of the port
approximation used in modelling of standard klystrons. The wigglers, which would need permanent
magnets to achieve the required field strengths, were modelled using an idealized analytic expression
with an exponential rise and a linear taper superimposed on a sinusoidal variation. Cavity locations
and tunings were varied for maximum output power. Beam voltage and current were also varied to
explore the effect on efficiency. Both an idealized laminar beam and a more realistic beam from a gun
design code were studied. For a voltage of 200 kV and current of 20 amp per linear cm efficiencies of
approximately 50% were calculated.

138. The Beam Line X NdFe-steel hybrid wiggler for SSRL

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SciTech Connect

Hoyer, E.; Halbach, K.; Humphries, D.; Marks, S.; Plate, D.; Shuman, D.; Karpenko, V.P.; Kulkarni,
S.; Tirsell, K.G.

1987-03-10

A wiggler magnet with 15 periods, each 12.85 cm long, which achieves 1.40 T at a 2.1 cm gap (2.26T
at 0.8 cm) has been designed and is now in fabrication at LBL. This wiggler will be the radiation
source of the high intensity synchrotron radiation beam line for the Beam Line X PRT facility at
SSRL. The magnet utilizes Neodymium-Iron (NdFe) material and Vanadium Permendur (steel) in the
hybrid configuration to achieve simultaneously a high magnetic field and short period. Magnetic field
adjustment is with a driven chain and ball screw drive system. The magnetic structure is external to an
s.s. vacuum chamber which has thin walls, 0.76 mm thickness, at each pole tip for higher field
operation. Magnetic design, construction details and magnetic measurements are presented.

139. Depth-of-field effects in wiggler radiation sources: Geometrical versus wave optics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Walker, Richard P.

2017-02-01

A detailed analysis is carried out of the optical properties of synchrotron radiation emitted by
multipole wigglers, concentrating on the effective source size and brightness and the so-called "depth
of field" effects, concerning which there has been some controversy in the literature. By comparing
calculations made with both geometrical optics and wave optics methods we demonstrate that the two
approaches are not at variance, and that the wave optics results tend towards those of geometrical
optics under well-defined conditions.

140. Spatial distribution of radiation from the Beam Line VIII-W 15-period wiggler

SciTech Connect

Lent, E.M.; Dickinson, W.C.

1985-05-13

We have written a computer program to calculate the spatial distribution of the radiation from insertion
devices operating in nominal wiggler mode (K = 15.6), for which the incoherent emission dominates,
and our assumption of negligible coherent emission is valid. This program has been applied to the 15-
period wiggler now being designed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for Beam Line VIII-W on
the Stanford Positron-Electron Accumulation Ring (SPEAR). An approximate spreading function has
been applied at each photon energy to account for the intrinsic photon divergence. The effects of the
finite wiggler length and the spatial and angular spread of the electron beam have been included.
Graphical plots are provided for three different electron energies, 1.8 GeV, 3.0 GeV, and 3.4 GeV, and
for a range of photon energies. Separate plots are provided for total radiation, parallel polarization
component, and perpendicular polarization component. 3 refs., 71 figs., 63 tabs.


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141. Efficiency enhancement of a two-beam free-electron laser using a nonlinearly tapered wiggler

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maryam, Zahedian; Maraghechi, B.; M. H., Rouhani

2012-03-01

A nonlinear and non-averaged model of a two-beam free-electron laser (FEL) wiggler that is tapered
nonlinearly in the absence of slippage is presented. The two beams are assumed to have different
energies, and the fundamental resonance of the higher energy beam is at the third harmonic of the
lower energy beam. By using Maxwell's equations and the full Lorentz force equation of motion for
the electron beams, coupled differential equations are derived and solved numerically by the fourth-
order RungeKutta method. The amplitude of the wiggler field is assumed to decrease nonlinearly
when the saturation of the third harmonic occurs. By simulation, the optimum starting point of the
tapering and the slopes for reducing the wiggler amplitude are found. This technique can be applied to
substantially improve the efficiency of the two-beam FEL in the XUV and X-ray regions. The effect of
tapering on the dynamical stability of the fast electron beam is also studied.

142. Conceptual Design of a Three-Pole Wiggler for the APS Upgrade

SciTech Connect

Abliz, M.; Grimmer, J.; Dejus, R.; Ramanathan, M.

2016-07-01

The current design of the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade (APS-U) project is a multi-bend achromat
(MBA) lattice, which incorporates three-pole wigglers as radiation sources for the bending magnet
beamlines. They are located in the short section between the M4 dipole and Q8 quadrupole magnets.
Due to space constraints, a hybrid permanent magnet design is necessary to provide the required
magnetic field strength. A three-pole wiggler with a flat peak field profile along the beam axis was
designed to enhance the photon flux and flatten the transverse flux density distributions. The magnetic
peak field at the center pole reached 1.08 Tesla for a magnetic gap of 26 mm. The maximum power
density, integrated over all vertical angles, is 3.1 W/mm2, which is substantially higher than that of the
existing bending magnets at the APS (0.86 W/mm2). Detailed designs of the three-pole wiggler is
presented, including calculated spectral-angular flux distributions.

143. Three-dimensional and nonlinear analysis of efficiency enhancement in the E B drifting electron
laser with a prebunched electron beam and a planar wiggler

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maraghechi, B.; Jokar, M.; Bahman, F. Jafari; Naeimabadi, A.; Naeimabadi

2013-10-01

A nonlinear simulation of the E B drifting electron laser (DEL) and the free-electron laser (FEL), in
three dimensions, is presented for a prebunched electron beam to study efficiency enhancement. For
the planar wiggler with flat pole faces, prebunching considerably shortens the saturation length, which
favors the DEL compared to the FEL. Operation of the DEL with the planar wiggler with parabolic

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pole faces was not found to be possible due to the modulation of the E B drift by the wiggler.
However, simulation results of the FEL with this type of wiggler are reported.

144. Low Cost RF Amplifier for Community TV

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ch, Syafaruddin; Sasongko, Sudi Mariyanto Al; Made Budi Suksmadana, I.; Mustiko Okta Muvianto,
Cahyo; Ariessaputra, Suthami

2016-01-01

he capability of television to deliver audio video makes this media become the most effective method
to spread information. This paper presents an experiment of RF amplifier design having low-cost
design and providing sufficient RF power particularly for community television. The RF amplifier
consists of two stages of amplifier. The first stage amplifier was used to leverage output of TV
modulator from 11dBm to enable to drive next stage amplifier. CAD simulation and fabrication were
run to reach optimum RF amplifier design circuit. The associated circuit was made by determining
stability circle, stability gain, and matching impedance. Hence, the average power of first stage RF
amplifier was 24.68dBm achieved. The second stage used RF modules which was ready match to 50
ohm for both input and output port. The experiment results show that the RF amplifier may operate at
frequency ranging from 174 to 230MHz. The average output power of the 2nd stage amplifier was
33.38 Watt with the overall gain of 20.54dB. The proposed RF amplifier is a cheap way to have a
stable RF amplifier for community TV. The total budget for the designed RF amplifier is only a 1/5
compared to local design of final TV amplifier.

145. Low cost instrumentation amplifier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sturman, J. C.

1974-01-01

Amplifier can be used for many applications requiring high input impedance and common mode
rejection, low drift, and gain accuracy on order of one percent. Performance of inexpensive amplifier
approaches that of some commercial instrumentation amplifiers in many specifications.

146. IDENTIFICATION OF CROSS-FERTILIZED CONCHOCELIS USING CLEAVED AMPLIFIED


POLYMORPHIC SEQUENCE MARKERS IN CROSS-EXPERIMENTS OF PORPHYRA
YEZOENSIS (BANGIALES, RHODOPHYTA)(1).

PubMed

Park, Eun-Jeong; Fukuda, Satoru; Endo, Hirotoshi; Kitade, Yukihiro; Saga, Naotsune

2008-04-01

As a part of the construction of a Porphyra yezoensis Ueda genetic linkage map, we conducted
intraspecific cross-experiments and subsequent screening of cross-fertilized conchocelis by cleaved
amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) analysis. The cross-experiments were carried out between
males of the wildtype (KGJ) and females of the recessive green mutant (TU-2) using two methods,
controlled and random crosses. A total of 42 and 186 wildtype-colored conchocelis colonies were
obtained from the former and latter experiments, respectively. Among those, 49 DNA samples (14%
and 23% obtained from the former and latter crosses, respectively) showed biparental CAPS patterns
in the two gene regions (EF-1 open reading frame [ORF] region and V-ATPase). This study
represents the first report in which the cross-fertilized conchocelis of P. yezoensis has been directly
confirmed by molecular marker. The combination of the simple DNA extraction and CAPS analysis

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may be applicable in genetic studies of other macroalgae that are monoecious and/or grow slowly in
laboratory culture.

147. Soft x-ray circular dichroism and scattering using a modulated elliptically polarizing wiggler and
double synchronous detection

SciTech Connect

Sutherland, J.C.; Polewski, K.; Monteleone, D.C.

1998-01-23

We have constructed an experimental station (beamline) at the National Synchrotron Light Source to
measure circular dichroism (CD) using soft x-rays (250 {le} hv {le} 900 eV) from a time modulated
elliptically polarizing wiggler. The polarization of the soft x-ray beam switches periodically between
two opposite polarizations, hence permitting the use of phase-sensitive (lock-in) detection. While the
wiggler can be modulated at frequencies up to 100 Hz, switching transients limit the actual practical
frequency to {approx}25 Hz. With analog detection, switching transients are blocked by a chopper
synchronized to the frequency and phase of the wiggler. The CD is obtained from the ratio of the
signal recovered at the frequency of polarization modulation, f, to the average beam intensity, which is
recovered by synchronous detection at frequency 2f.

148. An Influence of 7.5 T Superconducting Wiggler on Beam Parameters of Siberia-2 Storage Ring

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Korchuganov, Vladimir; Mezentsev, Nikolai; Valentinov, Alexander

2007-01-01

At present the dedicated synchrotron radiation source Siberia-2 in Kurchatov Institute operates with
electron energy 2.5 GeV and current up to 200 mA. In order to expand spectral range of SR and to
increase brightness an installation of 7.5 T 19-pole superconducting wiggler is planned at the end of
2006. Now the wiggler is under fabrication in BINP, Novosibirsk. Such high level of a magnetic field
in the wiggler will have a great influence on electron beam parameters of Siberia-2. Changes of these
parameters (betatron tunes, horizontal emittance of the electron beam, momentum compaction, energy
spread etc.) are discussed in the report. Different methods of compensation (global and local) of
betatron functions distortion are presented. Much attention is paid to dynamic aperture calculations
using analytical approximation of magnetic field behavior in transverse horizontal direction.

149. SQUARE WAVE AMPLIFIER

DOEpatents

Leavitt, M.A.; Lutz, I.C.

1958-08-01

An amplifier circuit is described for amplifying sigmals having an alternating current component
superimposed upon a direct current component, without loss of any segnnent of the alternating current
component. The general circuit arrangement includes a vibrator, two square wave amplifiers, and
recombination means. The amplifier input is connected to the vibrating element of the vibrator and is
thereby alternately applied to the input of each square wave amplifier. The detailed circuitry of the
recombination means constitutes the novelty of the annplifier and consists of a separate, dual triode
amplifier coupled to the output of each square wave amplifier with a recombination connection from
the plate of one amplifier section to a grid of one section of the other amplifier. The recombination
circuit has provisions for correcting distortion caused by overlapping of the two square wave voltages
from the square wave amplifiers.

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150. Optical design and performance of the X25 hybrid wiggler beam line at the NSLS

SciTech Connect

Berman, L.E.; Hastings, J.B.; Oversluizen, T.; Woodle, M.

1991-01-01

The X25 beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) began full-power commissioning
in 1990. It extracts radiation from a 27 pole hybrid wiggler, which produces up to 1.8 kW of total
power with a peak horizontal density of 450 W/mrad and critical energy of 4.6 keV. The design and
performance of the beam line optics are described, in particular the cooling of the first monochromator
crystal. 28 refs., 5 figs.

151. Enhanced x-rays from resonant betatron oscillations in laser wakefield with external wigglers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zhang, Z. M.; Zhang, B.; Hong, W.; Yu, M. Y.; Deng, Z. G.; Teng, J.; He, S. K.; Gu, Y. Q.

2016-11-01

Generation of ultra-short betatron x-rays by laser-accelerated electron beams is of great research


interest as it has many applications. In this paper, we propose a scheme for obtaining bright betatron x-
rays by applying external wiggler magnetic field in the laser wakefield to resonantly drive the betatron
oscillations of the accelerated electrons therein. This results in a significant enhancement of the
betatron oscillation amplitude and generation of bright x-rays with high photon energy. The scheme is
demonstrated using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation and discussed using a simple
analytical model.

152. Beam Wiggler operating in high frequency and single-pulse modes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Goltsov, A. Y.; Kolomiysky, Arkadiy N.; Kovalsky, N. G.; Kryzhko, V. V.; Manes, Kenneth R.;
Pergament, Michael I.

1999-07-01

The possibility to control an intensity distribution in the far field of a powerful laser system by rapid
motion of a focal spot is considered. Quadruple electro optic deflector on the base of LiNgO3 crystal
installed in resonance capacity with 1 cm clear aperture has been developed, constructed and tested
both in high frequency and single pulse operation modes. The main parameters of the device are as
follows: amplitude of the angular deflection +/- 4 dif. limits at 6.5 GHz operation frequency, total
angular deflection 12 dif. limits in the single ns-pulse operation mode. Results of the Beam Wiggler
dynamic testing are presented and discussed.

153. CesrTA Retarding Field Analyzer Measurements in Drifts, Dipoles, Quadrupoles and Wigglers

SciTech Connect

Calvey, J.R.; Li, Y.; Livezey, J.A.; Makita, J.; Meller, R.E.; Palmer, M.A.; Schwartz, R.M.; Strohman,
C.R.; Harkay, K.; Calatroni, S.; Rumolo, G.; Kanazawa, K.; Suetsugu, Y.; Pivi, M.; Wang, L.; /SLAC

2010-06-15

Over the course of the CesrTA program, the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) has been
instrumented with several retarding field analyzers (RFAs), which measure the local density and
energy distribution of the electron cloud. These RFAs have been installed in drifts, dipoles,
quadrupoles, and wigglers; and data have been taken in a variety of beam conditions and bunch
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configurations. This paper will provide an overview of these results, and give a preliminary evaluation
of the efficacy of cloud mitigation techniques implemented in the instrumented vacuum chambers.

154. Simulation of the effect of wiggler imperfections on harmonic generation in two-beam free-electron
lasers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zahedian, M.; Maraghechi, B.

2012-05-01

A three-dimensional simulation of a free-electron laser (FEL) with two beams is used to study the
sensitivity of the third harmonic due to wiggler imperfections. In the two-beam FEL, for a fundamental
wavelength of 107.5 nm, the power will be converted to the third harmonic at a shorter wavelength, in
this case in the extreme ultraviolet at 35.8 nm. In this arrangement, the fundamental resonance of the
higher energy beam coincides with the third harmonic of the lower energy beam, for this energy
conversion to take place. For enhanced focusing, a planar wiggler with parabolic pole face is
considered. Investigation of the effect of wiggler errors on the efficiencies of harmonic and
fundamental resonance of the two-beam and the one-beam FEL shows that the average efficiency for
the third harmonic in the two-beam FEL is decreased by 36% while the reduction of average efficiency
for the fundamental of the two-beam is 55% and for the third harmonic of the one-beam is 48%. This
shows that the third harmonic radiation in the two-beam FEL is less sensitive to wiggler imperfection
compared to its fundamental as well as the third harmonic in the one-beam FEL. The reason is that the
energy that transfers to the third harmonic of the two-beam FEL comes from both electron beams. It
was also found that, for almost all cases, standard deviation increases with an increasing level of
wiggler imperfection while, for the two-beam FEL, saturation length of the fundamental resonance
decreases and the third harmonic increases with increasing wiggler imperfection.

155. Segmented amplifier configurations for laser amplifier

DOEpatents

Hagen, Wilhelm F.

1979-01-01

An amplifier system for high power lasers, the system comprising a compact array of segments which
(1) preserves high, large signal gain with improved pumping efficiency and (2) allows the total
amplifier length to be shortened by as much as one order of magnitude. The system uses a three
dimensional array of segments, with the plane of each segment being oriented at substantially the
amplifier medium Brewster angle relative to the incident laser beam and with one or more linear arrays
of flashlamps positioned between adjacent rows of amplifier segments, with the plane of the linear
array of flashlamps being substantially parallel to the beam propagation direction.

156. Cross-differential amplifier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

2010-01-01

A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor


connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as
transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are
connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are
operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while

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limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the
amplifiers and switches.

157. Hybrid matrix amplifier

DOEpatents

Martens, J.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Plut, T.A.

1995-01-03

The present invention comprises a novel matrix amplifier. The matrix amplifier includes an active
superconducting power divider (ASPD) having N output ports; N distributed amplifiers each
operatively connected to one of the N output ports of the ASPD; and a power combiner having N input
ports each operatively connected to one of the N distributed amplifiers. The distributed amplifier can
included M stages of amplification by cascading superconducting active devices. The power combiner
can include N active elements. The resulting (N[times]M) matrix amplifier can produce signals of high
output power, large bandwidth, and low noise. 6 figures.

158. Hybrid matrix amplifier

DOEpatents

Martens, Jon S.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Plut, Thomas A.

1995-01-01

The present invention comprises a novel matrix amplifier. The matrix amplifier includes an active
superconducting power divider (ASPD) having N output ports; N distributed amplifiers each
operatively connected to one of the N output ports of the ASPD; and a power combiner having N input
ports each operatively connected to one of the N distributed amplifiers. The distributed amplifier can
included M stages of amplification by cascading superconducting active devices. The power combiner
can include N active elements. The resulting (N.times.M) matrix amplifier can produce signals of high
output power, large bandwidth, and low noise.

159. Cross-differential amplifier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

2011-01-01

A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor


connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as
transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are
connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are
operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while
limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the
amplifiers and switches.

160. Cross-differential amplifier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

2008-01-01

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A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor


connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as
transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are
connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are
operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while
limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the
amplifiers and switches.


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161. Cross-differential amplifier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

2013-01-01

A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor


connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as
transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are
connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are
operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while
limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the
amplifiers and switches.

162. Statistical properties of wiggler and bending-magnet radiation from the Brookhaven vacuum-
ultraviolet electron storage ring

SciTech Connect

Teich, M.C. ); Tanabe, T.; Marshall, T.C. ); Galayda, J. )

1990-12-31

The photoelectron counts of spontaneous light from the wiggler in the Brookhaven electron storage
ring obey the negative-binomial distribution, in accord with the predictions of a multielectron,
multimode theory. The bending-magnet light emerging from the Pyrex exit port of the storage ring
obeys the Neyman type-A distribution.

163. Measurement of Photon Statistics of Wiggler Radiation from AN Electron Storage Ring at the
National Synchrotron Light Source.

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

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Tanabe, Toshiya

1990-01-01

The photon statistics of wiggler light from the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) storage ring at the National
Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) have been measured
using an analog photon-counting technique. The linear wiggler produces fundamental wavelength light
and the third harmonic light at 532 nm for ring energies ~650 MeV and 375 MeV, respectively. The
average ring current was ~50 mA for one-electron-bunch operation. The bunch was ~480 psec long
and the wiggler light was emitted every 170.2 nsec. The number of photons emitted by an electron
bunch was repetitively measured for a given coherence volume. The photon counting distribution,
which is the probability of finding n photons versus n, was obtained. The experimental results show
that the wiggler radiation is consistent with multi-mode thermal radiation, whereas the bending magnet
light gives rise to a distribution consistent with a Neyman Type-A distribution instead of Poisson when
the light of large bandwith through a Pyrex window is collected. Near field and electron beam
emittance effects have proven to have an important influence on the transverse coherence of the
emitted radiation.

164. Statistical properties of Wiggler and bending-magnet radiation from the Brookhaven vacuum-
ultraviolet electron storage ring

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teich, Malvin C.; Tanabe, Toshiya; Marshall, Thomas C.; Galayda, John

1990-12-01

The photoelectron counts of spontaneous light from the wiggler in the Brookhaven electron storage
ring obey the negative-binomial distribution, in accord with the predictions of a multielectron,
multimode theory. The bending-magnet light emerging from the Pyrex exit port of the storage ring
obeys the Neyman type-A distribution.

165. Portable musical instrument amplifier

SciTech Connect

Christian, David E.

1990-07-24

The present invention relates to a musical instrument amplifier which is particularly useful for electric
guitars. The amplifier has a rigid body for housing both the electronic system for amplifying and
processing signals from the guitar and the system's power supply. An input plug connected to and
projecting from the body is electrically coupled to the signal amplifying and processing system. When
the plug is inserted into an output jack for an electric guitar, the body is rigidly carried by the guitar,
and the guitar is operatively connected to the electrical amplifying and signal processing system
without use of a loose interconnection cable. The amplifier is provided with an output jack, into which
headphones are plugged to receive amplified signals from the guitar. By eliminating the conventional
interconnection cable, the amplifier of the present invention can be used by musicians with increased
flexibility and greater freedom of movement.

166. Laser amplifier chain

DOEpatents

Hackel, Richard P.

1992-01-01

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A laser amplifier chain has a plurality of laser amplifiers arranged in a chain to sequentially amplify a
low-power signal beam to produce a significantly higher-power output beam. Overall efficiency of
such a chain is improved if high-gain, low efficiency amplifiers are placed on the upstream side of the
chain where only a very small fraction of the total pumped power is received by the chain and low-
gain, high-efficiency amplifiers are placed on the downstream side where a majority of pumping
energy is received by the chain.

167. Laser amplifier chain

DOEpatents

Hackel, R.P.

1992-10-20

A laser amplifier chain has a plurality of laser amplifiers arranged in a chain to sequentially amplify a
low-power signal beam to produce a significantly higher-power output beam. Overall efficiency of
such a chain is improved if high-gain, low efficiency amplifiers are placed on the upstream side of the
chain where only a very small fraction of the total pumped power is received by the chain and low-
gain, high-efficiency amplifiers are placed on the downstream side where a majority of pumping
energy is received by the chain. 6 figs.

168. Reflex ring laser amplifier system

DOEpatents

Summers, M.A.

1983-08-31

The invention is a method and apparatus for providing a reflex ring laser system for amplifying an
input laser pulse. The invention is particularly useful in laser fusion experiments where efficient
production of high-energy and high power laser pulses is required. The invention comprises a large
aperture laser amplifier in an unstable ring resonator which includes a combination spatial filter and
beam expander having a magnification greater than unity. An input pulse is injected into the resonator,
e.g., through an aperture in an input mirror. The injected pulse passes through the amplifier and spatial
filter/expander components on each pass around the ring. The unstable resonator is designed to permit
only a predetermined number of passes before the amplified pulse exits the resonator. On the first pass
through the amplifier, the beam fills only a small central region of the gain medium. On each
successive pass, the beam has been expanded to fill the next concentric non-overlapping region of the
gain medium.

169. Considerations for NSLS-II Synchrotron Radiation Protection When Operating Damping Wigglers at
Low Machine Energy

SciTech Connect

Seletskiy, S.; Podobedov, B.

2015-12-30

The NSLS-II storage ring vacuum chamber, including frontends (FE) and beamlines (BL), is protected
from possible damage from synchrotron radiation (SR) emitted from insertion devices (IDs) by a
dedicated active interlock system (AIS). The system monitors electron beam position and angle and
triggers a beam dump if the beam orbit is outside of the active interlock envelope (AIE). The AIE was
calculated under the assumptions of 3 GeV beam energy and ID gaps set to their minimum operating
values (i.e. fully closed). Recently it was proposed to perform machine studies that would ramp the
stored beam energy significantly below the nominal operational value of 3 GeV. These studies may

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potentially include the use of NSLS-II damping wigglers (DWs) for electron beam emittance reduction
and control.

170. NLC Damping Ring Lattice Design Using TME Cells and Wigglers (LCC-0037)

SciTech Connect

Emma, P

2004-03-23

The design process is described for the damping rings of the Next Linear Collider (NLC) [1]. While
the main (e{sup -}/e{sup +}) damping ring is the primary subject, some reference to the (e{sup +})
pre-damping ring is also included. An attempt is made to be systematic in the design, given the
emittance and repetition rate requirements of the collider, in conjunction with the beam quality from
the injector systems. In addition, qualitative efforts are made to minimize the cost and maximize the
dynamic aperture. The approximate interdependencies of the various lattice parameters are derived and
arguments for the parameter choices are presented. The rings are a race-track design with wiggler
insertions and Theoretical Minimum Emittance (TME) cells. Collective effects and dynamic aperture
calculations, while studied in previous designs [1], are not included here.

171. Femtosecond pulse spectral synthesis in coherently-spectrally combined multi-channel fiber chirped
pulse amplifiers.

PubMed

Chang, Wei-zung; Zhou, Tong; Siiman, Leo A; Galvanauskas, Almantas

2013-02-11

We demonstrate coherent spectral beam combining and femtosecond pulse spectral synthesis using
three parallel fiber chirped pulse amplifiers, each amplifying different ultrashort-pulse spectra. This
proof-of-concept experiment opens a path to simultaneously overcome individual-amplifier energy and
power limitations, as well as limitations on amplified pulse spectra due to the gain narrowing in a
single fiber amplifier.

172. Compact laser amplifier system

DOEpatents

Carr, R.B.

1974-02-26

A compact laser amplifier system is described in which a plurality of face-pumped annular disks,
aligned along a common axis, independently radially amplify a stimulating light pulse. Partially
reflective or lasing means, coaxially positioned at the center of each annualar disk, radially deflects a
stimulating light directed down the common axis uniformly into each disk for amplification, such that
the light is amplified by the disks in a parallel manner. Circumferential reflecting means coaxially
disposed around each disk directs amplified light emission, either toward a common point or in a
common direction. (Official Gazette)

173. Orbital stability in combined uniform axial and three-dimensional wiggler magnetic fields for free-
electron lasers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Johnston, S.

1984-01-01
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Zachary Phys. Rev. A 29 (6), 3224 (1984) recently analyzed the instability of relativistic-electron
helical trajectories in combined uniform axial and helical wiggler magnetic fields when the radial
variation of the wiggler field is taken into account. It is shown here that the type 2 instability
comprised of secular terms growing linearly in time, identified by Zachary and earlier by Diament
Phys. Rev. A 23 (5), 2537 (1981), is an artifact of simple perturbation theory. A multiple-time-scale
perturbation analysis reveals a nonsecular evolution on a slower time scale which accommodates an
arbitrary initial perturbation. It is shown that, in the absence of exponential instability, the electron
seeks a modified helical orbit more appropriate to its perturbed state and oscillates stably about it.
Thus, the perturbed motion is oscillatory but nonsecular, and hence the helical orbits are stable.

174. Dye laser amplifier

DOEpatents

Moses, Edward I.

1992-01-01

An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye lr amplifier is increased
significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output
window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant.

175. Dye laser amplifier

DOEpatents

Moses, E.I.

1992-12-01

An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye laser amplifier is increased
significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output
window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant. 3 figs.

176. DIRECT COUPLED AMPLIFIER

DOEpatents

Dandl, R.A.

1961-09-19

A transistor amplifier is designed for vyery small currents below 10/sup -8/ amperes. The filrst and
second amplifier stages use unusual selected transistors in which the current amplification increases
markedly for values of base current below 10/sup -6/ amperes.

177. DISTRIBUTED AMPLIFIER INCORPORATING FEEDBACK

DOEpatents

Bell, P.R. Jr.

1958-10-21

An improved distributed amplifier system employing feedback for stabilization is presented. In


accordance with the disclosed invention, a signal to be amplified is applled to one end of a suitable
terminated grid transmission line. At intervals along the transmission line, the signal is fed to stable,
resistance-capacitance coupled amplifiers incorporating feedback loops therein. The output current
from each amplifier is passed through an additional tube to minimize the electrostatic capacitance
between the tube elements of the last stage of the amplifier, and fed to appropriate points on an output
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transmission line, similar to the grid line, but terminated at the opposite (input) end. The output taken
from the unterminated end of the plate transmission line is proportional to the input voltage impressed
upon the grid line.

178. Versatile composite amplifier configuration

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gift, Stephan J. G.; Maundy, Brent

2015-06-01

This paper describes a versatile composite amplifier in which a current feedback amplifier (CFA)
drives an operational amplifier (OPA). In the conventional OPA-CFA composite amplifier, an OPA
drives a CFA resulting in a composite structure that combines the DC input stability of the OPA and
the high speed capability of the CFA. The proposed composite configuration combines different
features of the CFA and OPA, specifically the constant bandwidth property of the CFA and the high
power and high current output capacity of the OPA. The new circuit is easily implemented in the
standard inverting and non-inverting configurations using commercially available devices, and the
accuracy and constant bandwidth features were experimentally verified. Local feedback around the
associated CFA ensures that the proposed composite amplifier possesses a higher level of bandwidth
constancy than a single CFA.

179. Tuning Broadband Microwave Amplifiers

SciTech Connect

Alaniz, Gabriel

2003-09-05

The PEP-II/DA {Phi} NE/ALS longitudinal feedback systems are complex wide bandwidth systems
requiring analog, digital and microwave circuits. The solid-state amplifier is one of the components in
the microwave circuit that is required to suppress the coupled bunch instabilities that exist in the PEP-
II accelerator. The suppression is achieved by using an antenna as a kicker structure that provides an
electric field in order to increase or decrease the energy of particles passing through the structure. The
amplifier is made up of sixteen 30 to 35W microstrip GaAs FET modules that are combined to obtain
500W over a bandwidth of 850MHz to 1850MHz. The amplifier malfunctioned causing a reduction in
the functionality and power output of the individual GaAs FET modules. The amplifier must be
repaired. After repair, the amplifier must be tuned to optimize the gain while maintaining proper power
output. The amplifier is tuned using microstrip circuit techniques. A variety of microstrip methods are
used to obtain the proper line impedance. The result is a working amplifier that operates efficiently.

180. Universal signal conditioning amplifier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Medelius, Pedro J.; Hallberg, Carl; Cecil, Jim

1994-01-01

A state-of-the-art instrumentation amplifier capable of being used with most types of transducers has
been developed at the Kennedy Space Center. This Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier (USCA)
can eliminate costly measurement setup item and troubleshooting, improve system reliability and
provide more accurate data than conventional amplifiers. The USCA can configure itself for maximum
resolution and accuracy based on information read from a RAM chip attached to each transducer.
Excitation voltages or current are also automatically configured. The amplifier uses both analog and
digital state-of-the-art technology with analog-to-digital conversion performed in the early stages in
order to minimize errors introduced by offset and gain drifts in the analog components. A dynamic

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temperature compensation scheme has been designed to achieve and maintain 12-bit accuracy of the
amplifier from 0 to 70 C. The digital signal processing section allows the implementation of digital
filters up to 511th order. The amplifier can also perform real-time linearizations up to fourth order
while processing data at a rate of 23.438 kS/s. Both digital and analog outputs are available from the
amplifier.


7
8
9
10
11


8
9
10
11
12

181. Design and performance of a 2T permanent magnet wiggler for the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation
Laboratory

SciTech Connect

Stekly, Z.; Gardner, C.; Baker, J.; Domigan, P.; Hass, M.; McDonald, C.; Wu, C.

1996-09-01

The Beamline 9 Wiggler was designed by Intermagnetics to produce a 16 milliradian fan of high
energy x-rays into three experimental stations. The device has a 26 cm period and contains 7.5 full-
strength periods. The minimum air gap is 2.1 cm. At minimum gap, a peak field of 1.9 Tesla and a
half-period integrated field strength of {ge}16.646 T-cm were specified by the Stanford Synchrotron
Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). A combination of analytical, PANDIRA, and scale models were used to
develop a novel {open_quote}{open_quote}compact pole{close_quote}{close_quote} magnetic
design. This design achieved 2.04 T peak field while maintaining a minimum of 17.816 T-cm half-
period integrated field strength. Magnetic performance of the device was confirmed through the use of
an Intermagnetics-designed Hall Probe scanning system as well as by long and short coil
measurements. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

182. Design of the vacuum system for the elliptical multipole wiggler at the Advanced Photon Source

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Den Hartog, P.; Grimmer, J.; Klippert, T.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Xu, S.

1996-09-01

A vacuum system for the Advanced Photon Source elliptical multipole wiggler (EMW) that will
operate at a pressure of 10-9 Torr with a storage ring current of 100 mA at 7.0 GeV has been designed
and is being fabricated. The major part of the system is a stainless steel chamber with a 66.6 mm by
19.6 mm rectangular cross section. The length of the vacuum chamber is 3100 mm, and the wall
thickness is 1.2 mm. Two versions of the vacuum chamber will be produced: with and without
distributed nonevaporable getter (NEG) pumping. The version with NEG pumping will have slides on
the top and bottom walls to accommodate sintered plates available from SAES. To activate these
plates, the entire vacuum chamber will be baked from the outside up to a temperature of 350 C-450
C. Provision for the baking is included in the design of the vacuum system, its support, and in the
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EMW itself. The complexity introduced into the design by the need for external activation of the NEG
plates is eliminated in the design of the second version of the chamber. In this chamber, a sufficiently
low outgassing rate may be achieved by extensive surface cleaning and baking in a vacuum furnace
(10-6 Torr) up to a temperature of 950 C as has been achieved at the ESRF. Both versions are being
pursued in parallel.

183. Suppression of Secondary Electron Emission using Triangular Grooved Surface in the ILC Dipole and
Wiggler Magnets

SciTech Connect

Wang, L.; Bane, K.; Chen, C.; Himel, T.; Munro, M.; Pivi, M.; Raubenheimer, T.; Stupakov, G.;
/SLAC

2007-07-06

The development of an electron cloud in the vacuum chambers of high intensity positron and proton
storage rings may limit machine performance. The suppression of electrons in a magnet is a challenge
for the positron damping ring of the International Linear Collider (ILC) as well as the Large Hadron
Collider. Simulation show that grooved surfaces can significantly reduce the electron yield in a
magnet. Some of the secondary electrons emitted from the grooved surface return to the surface within
a few gyrations, resulting in a low effective secondary electron yield (SEY) of below 1.0 A triangular
surface is an effective, technologically attractive mitigation with a low SEY and a weak dependence on
the scale of the corrugations and the external magnetic field. A chamber with triangular grooved
surface is proposed for the dipole and wiggler sections of the ILC and will be tested in KEKB in 2007.
The strategy of electron cloud control in ILC and the optimization of the grooved chamber such as the
SEY, impedance as well as the manufacturing of the chamber, are also discussed.

184. Grazing incidence wide angle x-ray scattering at the wiggler beamline BW4 of HASYLAB

SciTech Connect

Perlich, J.; Rubeck, J.; Botta, S.; Gehrke, R.; Roth, S. V.; Ruderer, M. A.; Prams, S. M.; Rawolle, M.;
Zhong, Q.; Koerstgens, V.; Mueller-Buschbaum, P.

2010-10-15

We present an upgrade of the available measurement techniques at the wiggler beamline BW4 of the
Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor (HASYLAB) to grazing incidence wide angle x-ray scattering
(GIWAXS). GIWAXS refers to an x-ray diffraction method, which, based on the measurement
geometry, is perfectly suited for the investigation of the material crystallinity of surfaces and thin
films. It is shown that the overall experimental GIWAXS setup employing a movable CCD-detector
provides the capability of reliable and reproducible diffraction measurements in grazing incidence
geometry. Furthermore, the potential usage of an additional detector enables the simultaneous or
successive measurement of GIWAXS and grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS).
The new capability is illustrated by the microbeam GIWAXS measurement of a thin film of the
conjugated polymer poly(3-octylthiophene) (P3OT). The investigation reveals the semicrystalline
nature of the P3OT film by a clear identification of the wide angle scattering reflexes up to the third
order in the [100]-direction as well as the first order in the [010]-direction. The corresponding
microbeam GISAXS measurement on the present morphology complements the characterization
yielding the complete sample informa-tion from subnanometer up to micrometer length scales.

185. Amplify Interest in STS.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chiappetta, Eugene L; Mays, John D.

1992-01-01
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Presents activities in which students construct simple crystal radio sets and amplifiers out of diodes,
transistors, and integrated circuits. Provides conceptual background, materials needed, instructions,
diagrams, and classroom applications. (MDH)

186. Optoisolators simplify amplifier design

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ting, Joseph Wee

2007-09-01

Simplicity and low parts count are key virtues to this high voltage amplifier. Optoisolators replace
complex high voltage transistor biasing schemes. This amplifier employs only 2 optoisolators, 16 high
voltage mosfets transistors, 2 low voltage ones, 6 linear IC's and a score of passive components. Yet it
can amplify opamp signals to 5 kV peak-to-peak from DC to sine waves up to 20 kHz. Resistor
feedback guarantees the fidelity of the signal. It can source and sink 10 mA of output current. This
amplifier was conceived to power ion traps for biological whole cell mass measurements. It is a
versatile tool for a variety of applications.

187. Fully relayed regenerative amplifier

DOEpatents

Glass, Alexander J.

1981-01-01

A regenerative laser apparatus and method using the optical relay concept to maintain high fill factors,
to suppress diffraction effects, and to minimize phase distortions in a regenerative amplifier.

188. High stability amplifier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adams, W. A.; Reinhardt, V. S. (Inventor)

1983-01-01

An electrical RF signal amplifier for providing high temperature stability and RF isolation and
comprised of an integrated circuit voltage regulator, a single transistor, and an integrated circuit
operational amplifier mounted on a circuit board such that passive circuit elements are located on side
of the circuit board while the active circuit elements are located on the other side is described. The
active circuit elements are embedded in a common heat sink so that a common temperature reference
is provided for changes in ambient temperature. The single transistor and operational amplifier are
connected together to form a feedback amplifier powered from the voltage regulator with transistor
implementing primarily the desired signal gain while the operational amplifier implements signal
isolation. Further RF isolation is provided by the voltage regulator which inhibits cross-talk from other
like amplifiers powered from a common power supply. Input and output terminals consisting of
coaxial connectors are located on the sides of a housing in which all the circuit components and heat
sink are located.

189. Self-focusing property of a laser beam interacting with a lattice of nanoparticles in the presence of a
planar magnetostatic wiggler

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Esmaeildoost, N.; Zolghadr, S. H.; Jafari, S.

2017-03-01
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In this paper, we study the nonlinear interaction of a laser beam with a periodic lattice of nanoparticles
in the presence of a planar magnetostatic wiggler. The static magnetic field of the wiggler can couple
with the electric field of the laser wave and change the electric field intensity of the pumped wave,
leading to the formation of a nonlinear force. In consequence, the nonlinear force enhances plasmonic
oscillations of the electronic cloud of each nanoparticle causing electron density modulation, which
improves self-focusing property of the laser beam propagating through a periodic lattice of
nanoparticles. By manipulating a classical microscopic approach into plasmonic oscillations of
electronic clouds of the nanoparticles and the well-known perturbative method, a nonlinear dispersion
relation describing the evolution of the laser amplitude propagating through the nanoparticle lattice has
been obtained. The effect of the wiggler magnetic strength on the evolution of the laser transverse
profile has been discussed. It was found that by increasing the wiggler strength, the transverse profile
bandwidth shrinks and laser focusing is enhanced. In addition, further numerical results indicated that
by increasing the wiggler field strength, the cut-off frequency of the body waves increases.

190. Characterization of a Common-Source Amplifier Using Ferroelectric Transistors

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hunt, Mitchell; Sayyah, Rana; MacLeond, Todd C.; Ho, Pat D.

2010-01-01

This paper presents empirical data that was collected through experiments using a FeFET in the
established common-source amplifier circuit. The unique behavior of the FeFET lends itself to
interesting and useful operation in this widely used common-source amplifier. The paper examines the
effect of using a ferroelectric transistor for the amplifier. It also examines the effects of varying load
resistance, biasing, and input voltages on the output signal and gives several examples of the output of
the amplifier for a given input. The difference between a commonsource amplifier using a ferroelectric
transistor and that using a MOSFET is addressed.

191. Characterization of a Common-Gate Amplifier Using Ferroelectric Transistors

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hunt, Mitchell; Sayyah, Rana; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

2011-01-01

In this paper, the empirical data collected through experiments performed using a FeFET in the
common-gate amplifier circuit is presented. The FeFET common-gate amplifier was characterized by
varying all parameters in the circuit, such as load resistance, biasing of the transistor, and input
voltages. Due to the polarization of the ferroelectric layer, the particular behavior of the FeFET
common-gate amplifier presents interesting results. Furthermore, the differences between a FeFET
common-gate amplifier and a MOSFET common-gate amplifier are examined.

192. Coherent combining technology of master oscillator power amplifier fiber arrays.

PubMed

Xiao, R; Hou, J; Liu, M; Jiang, Z F

2008-02-04

Coherent beam combination of fiber laser array is an important technology of realize high-power,
high-radiance fiber laser system. In this paper, Master Oscillator-Power Amplifier scheme is used to
realize phase controlling of three ytterbium fiber amplifiers, the experiment results of both two and
three fiber amplifiers are given and compared. Far-field patterns with different fill factor are studied
experimentally. We perform optical phase-noise measurements of a commercial 1-W ytterbium fiber

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amplifier using our phase control electronics, the dominant phase noises of the 1-W fiber amplifier are
at frequencies below one kilohertz.

193. High input impedance amplifier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kleinberg, Leonard L.

1995-01-01

High input impedance amplifiers are provided which reduce the input impedance solely to a capacitive
reactance, or, in a somewhat more complex design, provide an extremely high essentially infinite,
capacitive reactance. In one embodiment, where the input impedance is reduced in essence, to solely a
capacitive reactance, an operational amplifier in a follower configuration is driven at its non-inverting
input and a resistor with a predetermined magnitude is connected between the inverting and non-
inverting inputs. A second embodiment eliminates the capacitance from the input by adding a second
stage to the first embodiment. The second stage is a second operational amplifier in a non-inverting
gain-stage configuration where the output of the first follower stage drives the non-inverting input of
the second stage and the output of the second stage is fed back to the non-inverting input of the first
stage through a capacitor of a predetermined magnitude. These amplifiers, while generally useful, are
very useful as sensor buffer amplifiers that may eliminate significant sources of error.

194. Laser amplifier and method

DOEpatents

Backus, Sterling; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.

1997-01-01

Laser amplifiers and methods for amplifying a laser beam are disclosed. A representative embodiment
of the amplifier comprises first and second curved mirrors, a gain medium, a third mirror, and a mask.
The gain medium is situated between the first and second curved mirrors at the focal point of each
curved mirror. The first curved mirror directs and focuses a laser beam to pass through the gain
medium to the second curved mirror which reflects and recollimates the laser beam. The gain medium
amplifies and shapes the laser beam as the laser beam passes therethough. The third mirror reflects the
laser beam, reflected from the second curved mirror, so that the laser beam bypasses the gain medium
and return to the first curved mirror, thereby completing a cycle of a ring traversed by the laser beam.
The mask defines at least one beam-clipping aperture through which the laser beam passes during a
cycle. The gain medium is pumped, preferably using a suitable pumping laser. The laser amplifier can
be used to increase the energy of continuous-wave or, especially, pulsed laser beams including pulses
of femtosecond duration and relatively high pulse rate.

195. Laser amplifier and method

DOEpatents

Backus, S.; Kapteyn, H.C.; Murnane, M.M.

1997-07-01

Laser amplifiers and methods for amplifying a laser beam are disclosed. A representative embodiment
of the amplifier comprises first and second curved mirrors, a gain medium, a third mirror, and a mask.
The gain medium is situated between the first and second curved mirrors at the focal point of each
curved mirror. The first curved mirror directs and focuses a laser beam to pass through the gain
medium to the second curved mirror which reflects and recollimates the laser beam. The gain medium
amplifies and shapes the laser beam as the laser beam passes therethrough. The third mirror reflects the
laser beam, reflected from the second curved mirror, so that the laser beam bypasses the gain medium

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and return to the first curved mirror, thereby completing a cycle of a ring traversed by the laser beam.
The mask defines at least one beam-clipping aperture through which the laser beam passes during a
cycle. The gain medium is pumped, preferably using a suitable pumping laser. The laser amplifier can
be used to increase the energy of continuous-wave or, especially, pulsed laser beams including pulses
of femtosecond duration and relatively high pulse rate. 7 figs.

196. Electrospun Amplified Fiber Optics

PubMed Central

2015-01-01

All-optical signal processing is the focus of much research aiming to obtain effective alternatives to
existing data transmission platforms. Amplification of light in fiber optics, such as in Erbium-doped
fiber amplifiers, is especially important for efficient signal transmission. However, the complex
fabrication methods involving high-temperature processes performed in a highly pure environment
slow the fabrication process and make amplified components expensive with respect to an ideal, high-
throughput, room temperature production. Here, we report on near-infrared polymer fiber amplifiers
working over a band of 20 nm. The fibers are cheap, spun with a process entirely carried out at room
temperature, and shown to have amplified spontaneous emission with good gain coefficients and low
levels of optical losses (a few cm1). The amplification process is favored by high fiber quality and
low self-absorption. The found performance metrics appear to be suitable for short-distance
operations, and the large variety of commercially available doping dyes might allow for effective
multiwavelength operations by electrospun amplified fiber optics. PMID:25710188

197. Electrospun amplified fiber optics.

PubMed

Morello, Giovanni; Camposeo, Andrea; Moffa, Maria; Pisignano, Dario

2015-03-11

All-optical signal processing is the focus of much research aiming to obtain effective alternatives to
existing data transmission platforms. Amplification of light in fiber optics, such as in Erbium-doped
fiber amplifiers, is especially important for efficient signal transmission. However, the complex
fabrication methods involving high-temperature processes performed in a highly pure environment
slow the fabrication process and make amplified components expensive with respect to an ideal, high-
throughput, room temperature production. Here, we report on near-infrared polymer fiber amplifiers
working over a band of 20 nm. The fibers are cheap, spun with a process entirely carried out at room
temperature, and shown to have amplified spontaneous emission with good gain coefficients and low
levels of optical losses (a few cm(-1)). The amplification process is favored by high fiber quality and
low self-absorption. The found performance metrics appear to be suitable for short-distance
operations, and the large variety of commercially available doping dyes might allow for effective
multiwavelength operations by electrospun amplified fiber optics.

198. STABILIZED FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER

DOEpatents

Fishbine, H.L.; Sewell, C. Jr.

1957-08-01

Negative feedback amplifiers, and particularly a negative feedback circuit which is economical on
amode power consumption, are described. Basically, the disclosed circuit comprises two tetrode tubes
where the output of the first tube is capacitamce coupled to the grid of the second tube, which in turn
has its plate coupled to the cathode of the first tube to form a degenerative feedback circuit. Operating
potential for screen of the second tube is supplied by connecting the cathode resistor of the first tube to
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the screen, while the screen is by-passed to the cathode of its tube for the amplified frequencies. Also,
the amplifier incorporates a circuit to stabilize the transconductance of the tubes by making the grid
potential of each tube interdependent on anode currents of both lubes by voltage divider circuitry.

199. Theory of spontaneous and stimulated radiation from electrons in a helical wiggler with a guiding
magnetic field

SciTech Connect

Zhevago, N.K.; Glebov, V.I.

1995-12-31

Neglecting the dependence of a wiggler field on the transverse coordinates and assuming the
transverse velocity of electrons to be small compared to the longitudinal velocity, we have found the
solution of the motion equations in an analytical form. From the analysis of the electron trajectories it
follows that the transverse motion may be considered as the radial oscillations with the frequency
{omega}{sub p} = {omega}{sub w} + {omega}{sub H} (where {omega}{sub w} is the wiggler
frequency and {omega}{sub H} is the relativistic cyclotron frequency chosen to be positive for the
reversed field configuration and negative for the conventional one) and the precession around the
definite center with the precession frequency {omega}{sub pr} = {omega}{sub H}. We have found
out that the longitudinal oscillations of electrons are excited with a frequency equal to {omega}{sub
p} and an amplitude depending on the wiggler parameter p and the ratio q = {omega}{sub
H}/{omega}{sub w}. Using the general approach which had been developed previously to calculate
the radiation spectrum from electrons precessing in the transverse plane, we obtained rather simple
expressions for the frequency and angular distribution of the spontaneous radiation. Particularly, the
radiation spectrum at an angle {theta} {much_lt} 1 from electrons with the Lorentz factor {gamma}
{much_gt} 1 is determined by the following frequencies {omega}{sub nn{prime}} = 2(n{omega}{sub
w} + n{prime}{omega}{sub H})/[{theta}{sup 2} + {gamma}{sup -2} (1 + p{sup 2}(1 + q{sup 2})/(1
+ q){sup 2})] where n,n{prime} are the harmonic numbers which besides positive may have zero or
negative value. In the frame of the small-signal approximation we derived the expressions for the gain
and come to conclusion that the gain coefficient G{sub 10}, corresponding to the wiggler harmonic (n
= 1, n{prime} = 0), as a function of q has two relatively broad maxima below the antiresonance point
q=1 and above it.

200. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon; Stock, Larry V.

1989-01-01

This semiannual progress report covers the period from September 1, 1988 to February 28, 1989 under
NASA grant NAG-1-441 entitled, Direct Solar-Pumped Iodine Laser Amplifier. During this period, the
research effort was concentrated on the solar pumped master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA)
system using n-C3F7I. In the experimental work, the amplification measurement was conducted to
identify the optimum conditions for amplification of the center's Vortek solar simulator pumped iodine
laser amplifier. A modeling effort was also pursued to explain the experimental results in the
theoretical work. The amplification measurement of the solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier
is the first amplification experiment on the continuously pumped amplifier. The small signal
amplification of 5 was achieved for the triple pass geometry of the 15 cm long solar simulator pumped
amplifier at the n-C3F7I pressure of 20 torr, at the flow velocity of 6 m/sec and at the pumping
intensity of 1500 solar constants. The XeCl laser pumped iodine laser oscillator, which was developed
in the previous research, was employed as the master oscillator for the amplification measurement. In
the theoretical work, the rate equations of the amplifier was established and the small signal
amplification was calculated for the solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier. The amplification
calculated from the kinetic equations with the previously measured rate coefficients reveals very large
disagreement with experimental measurement. Moreover, the optimum condition predicted by the
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kinetic equation is quite discrepant with that measured by experiment. This fact indicates the necessity
of study in the measurement of rate coefficients of the continuously pumped iodine laser system.


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201. Universal signal conditioning amplifier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Larson, William E.; Hallberg, Carl; Medelius, Pedro J.

1994-01-01

Engineers at NASA's Kennedy Space Center have designed a signal conditioning amplifier which
automatically matches itself to almost any kind of transducer. The product, called Universal Signal
Conditioning Amplifier (USCA), uses state-of-the-art technologies to deliver high accuracy
measurements. USCA's features which can be either programmable or automated include: voltage,
current, or pulsed excitation, unlimited resolution gain, digital filtering and both analog and digital
output. USCA will be used at Kennedy Space Center's launch pads for environmental measurements
such as vibrations, strains, temperatures and overpressures. USCA is presently being commercialized
through a co-funded agreement between NASA, the State of Florida, and Loral Test and Information
Systems, Inc.

202. Spatial Light Amplifier Modulators

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eng, Sverre T.; Olsson, N. Anders

1992-01-01

Spatial light amplifier modulators (SLAM's) are conceptual devices that effect two-dimensional spatial
modulation in optical computing and communication systems. Unlike current spatial light modulators,
these provide gain. Optical processors incorporating SLAM's designed to operate in reflection or
transmission mode. Each element of planar SLAM array is optical amplifier - surface-emitting diode
laser. Array addressed electrically with ac modulating signals superimposed on dc bias currents
supplied to lasers. SLAM device provides both desired modulation and enough optical gain to enable
splitting of output signal into many optical fibers without excessive loss of power.

203. A grid amplifier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kim, Moonil; Weikle, Robert M., II; Hacker, Jonathan B.; Delisio, Michael P.; Rutledge, David B.;
Rosenberg, James J.; Smith, R. P.

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1991-01-01

A 50-MESFET grid amplifier is reported that has a gain of 11 dB at 3.3 GHz. The grid isolates the
input from the output by using vertical polarization for the input beam and horizontal polarization for
the transmitted output beam. The grid unit cell is a two-MESFET differential amplifier. A simple
calibration procedure allows the gain to be calculated from a relative power measurement. This grid is
a hybrid circuit, but the structure is suitable for fabrication as a monolithic wafer-scale integrated
circuit, particularly at millimeter wavelengths.

204. Phase noise in RF and microwave amplifiers.

PubMed

Boudot, Rodolphe; Rubiola, Enrico

2012-12-01

Understanding amplifier phase noise is a critical issue in many fields of engineering and physics, such
as oscillators, frequency synthesis, telecommunication, radar, and spectroscopy; in the emerging
domain of microwave photonics; and in exotic fields, such as radio astronomy, particle accelerators,
etc. Focusing on the two main types of base noise in amplifiers, white and flicker, the power spectral
density of the random phase (t) is S(f) = b(0) + b(-1)/f. White phase noise results from adding white
noise to the RF spectrum in the carrier region. For a given RF noise level, b(0) is proportional to the
reciprocal of the carrier power P(0). By contrast, flicker results from a near-dc 1/f noise-present in all
electronic devices-which modulates the carrier through some parametric effect in the semiconductor.
Thus, b(-1) is a parameter of the amplifier, constant in a wide range of P(0). The consequences are the
following: Connecting m equal amplifiers in parallel, b(-1) is 1/m times that of one device. Cascading
m equal amplifiers, b(-1) is m times that of one amplifier. Recirculating the signal in an amplifier so
that the gain increases by a power of m (a factor of m in decibels) as a result of positive feedback
(regeneration), we find that b(-1) is m(2) times that of the amplifier alone. The feedforward amplifier
exhibits extremely low b(-1) because the carrier is ideally nulled at the input of its internal error
amplifier. Starting with an extensive review of the literature, this article introduces a system-oriented
model which describes the phase flickering. Several amplifier architectures (cascaded, parallel, etc.)
are analyzed systematically, deriving the phase noise from the general model. There follow numerous
measurements of amplifiers using different technologies, including some old samples, and in a wide
frequency range (HF to microwaves), which validate the theory. In turn, theory and results provide
design guidelines and give suggestions for CAD and

205. New microelectronic power amplifier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New, T. C.

1968-01-01

Integrated push-pull power amplifier fabricated on a chip of silicon has interdigitated power transistors
and is hermetically encapsulated in a beryllia flat package. It provides current output greater than the
nominal 10 amperes from an input current drive of 1 ampere.

206. Fourier plane image amplifier

DOEpatents

Hackel, L.A.; Hermann, M.R.; Dane, C.B.; Tiszauer, D.H.

1995-12-12

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A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 {micro}m. A small portion of the laser is split off and
generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with
the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated
Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the
opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier
transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are
preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the
holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only about 1/10th the power of a competitive
system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires
much less laser power. 1 fig.

207. Fourier plane image amplifier

DOEpatents

Hackel, Lloyd A.; Hermann, Mark R.; Dane, C. Brent; Tiszauer, Detlev H.

1995-01-01

A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 .mu.m. A small portion of the laser is split off and
generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with
the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated
Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the
opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier
transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are
preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the
holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only .about.1/10th the power of a competitive
system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires
much less laser power.

208. The radical amplifier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hastie, D. R.

1994-01-01

The radical amplifier as a method for measuring radical concentrations in the atmosphere has received
renewed attention lately. In principle, it can measure the total concentration of HO(x) and RO(x)
radicals by reacting ambient air with high concentrations of CO (3-10 percent) and NO (2-6 ppmv),
and measuring the NO2 produced.

209. The conversion of CESR to operate as the test accelerator, CesrTA, Part 4: superconducting wiggler
diagnostics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Billing, M. G.; Greenwald, S.; Liu, X.; Li, Y.; Sabol, D.; Smith, E. N.; Strohman, C. R.; Palmer, M. A.;
Munson, D. V.; Suetsugu, Y.

2016-10-01

Cornell's electron/positron storage ring (CESR) was modified over a series of accelerator shutdowns
beginning in May 2008, which substantially improves its capability for research and development for
particle accelerators. CESR's energy span from 1.8 to 5.6 GeV with both electrons and positrons
makes it appropriate for the study of a wide spectrum of accelerator physics issues and instrumentation
related to present light sources and future lepton damping rings. Additionally a number of these are
also relevant for the beam physics of proton accelerators. This paper, the last in a series of four,

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describes the vacuum system modifications of the superconducting wigglers to accommodate the
diagnostic instrumentation for the study of electron cloud (EC) behavior within wigglers. Earlier
papers provided an overview of the accelerator physics program, the general modifications of CESR,
the modifications of the vacuum system necessary for the conversion of CESR to the test accelerator,
CESRTA, enhanced to study such subjects as low emittance tuning methods, EC effects, intra-beam
scattering, fast ion instabilities as well as general improvements to beam instrumentation. While the
initial studies of CESRTA focussed on questions related to the International Linear Collider damping
ring design, CESR is a very versatile storage ring, capable of studying a wide range of accelerator
physics and instrumentation questions.

210. Cladding-pumped erbium-doped multicore fiber amplifier.

PubMed

Abedin, K S; Taunay, T F; Fishteyn, M; DiGiovanni, D J; Supradeepa, V R; Fini, J M; Yan, M F; Zhu,


B; Monberg, E M; Dimarcello, F V

2012-08-27

A cladding pumped multicore erbium-doped fiber amplifier for simultaneous amplification of 6


channels is demonstrated. Peak gain over 32 dB has been obtained at a wavelength of 1560 nm and the
bandwidth measured at 20-dB gain was about 35 nm. Numerical modeling of cladding pumped
multicore erbium-doped amplifier was also performed to study the properties of the amplifier. The
results of experiment and simulation are found to be in good agreement.

211. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

DOEpatents

Kuklo, T.C.

1993-03-30

A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining
a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one
another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-
apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with
one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the
other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window
pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so
as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the
mutually contacting glass window pieces.

212. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

DOEpatents

Kuklo, Thomas C.

1993-01-01

A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining
a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one
another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-
apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with
one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the
other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window
pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so

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as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the
mutually contacting glass window pieces.

213. PEAK LIMITING AMPLIFIER

DOEpatents

Goldsworthy, W.W.; Robinson, J.B.

1959-03-31

A peak voltage amplitude limiting system adapted for use with a cascade type amplifier is described.
In its detailed aspects, the invention includes an amplifier having at least a first triode tube and a
second triode tube, the cathode of the second tube being connected to the anode of the first tube. A
peak limiter triode tube has its control grid coupled to thc anode of the second tube and its anode
connected to the cathode of the second tube. The operation of the limiter is controlled by a bias voltage
source connected to the control grid of the limiter tube and the output of the system is taken from the
anode of the second tube.

214. STABILIZED TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER

DOEpatents

Noe, J.B.

1963-05-01

A temperature stabilized transistor amplifier having a pair of transistors coupled in cascade relation
that are capable of providing amplification through a temperature range of - 100 un. Concent 85% F to
400 un. Concent 85% F described. The stabilization of the amplifier is attained by coupling a feedback
signal taken from the emitter of second transistor at a junction between two serially arranged biasing
resistances in the circuit of the emitter of the second transistor to the base of the first transistor. Thus, a
change in the emitter current of the second transistor is automatically corrected by the feedback
adjustment of the base-emitter potential of the first transistor and by a corresponding change in the
base-emitter potential of the second transistor. (AEC)

215. Three-dimensional, time-dependent simulation of a regenerative amplifier free-electron laser

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Freund, H. P.; Nguyen, D. C.; Sprangle, P. A.; van der Slot, P. J. M.

2013-01-01

Free-electron lasers have been designed to operate over virtually the entire electromagnetic spectrum
from microwaves through x rays and in a variety of configurations including amplifiers and oscillators.
Oscillators typically operate in the low-gain regime where the full spectral width is (/)1/Nw and
the efficiency 1/(2.4Nw). Further, since a low-gain oscillator saturates when the gain compensates
for losses in the resonator G=L/(1-L), this implies that the losses must be relatively small and the
cavity Q must be relatively large. This imposes problems for high power oscillators because the high Q
can result in mirror loading above the damage threshold, and in short-wavelength oscillators because
sufficiently low loss resonators may not be possible at x-ray wavelengths. In contrast, regenerative
amplifier FELs (RAFELs) employ high-gain wigglers that reach exponential gain and can operate with
high loss (i.e., low Q) resonators. As such, RAFELs may be able to function at either high power
levels or short wavelengths. In this paper, we describe a three-dimensional, time-dependent simulation
of a RAFEL operating at a 2.2-m wavelength, and show that its behavior differs substantially from
that of low-gain oscillators, and is closer to that of self-amplified spontaneous radiation FELs in regard
to spectral linewidth and extraction efficiency.

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216. Helical Fiber Amplifier

DOEpatents

Koplow, Jeffrey P.; Kliner, Dahy; Goldberg, Lew

2002-12-17

A multi-mode gain fiber is provided which affords substantial improvements in the maximum pulse
energy, peak power handling capabilities, average output power, and/or pumping efficiency of fiber
amplifier and laser sources while maintaining good beam quality (comparable to that of a conventional
single-mode fiber source). These benefits are realized by coiling the multimode gain fiber to induce
significant bend loss for all but the lowest-order mode(s).

217. Results of the PALADIN experiment

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weir, J. T.; Orzechowski, T. J.; Miller, J. L.; Chong, Y. P.; Chambers, F.; Deis, G. A.; Paul, C.;
Prosnitz, D.; Scharlemann, E. T.; Halbach, K.

1989-03-01

PALADIN is a single pass, free laser amplifier located at the Lawrence Livermore National
Laboratory. This free electron laser (FEL) is designed to run at 10.6 micrometers. The 1-kA, 45-MeV
electron beam is provided by the Advanced Test Accelerator. The wiggler is 25 m long with an 8 cm
period. The input optical signal to the amplifier is provided by a conventional CO2 laser, which can
produce a peak input power of either 18 kW or 3.6 MW. We have demonstrated 31 dB of gain with the
18-kW input and 12.9 dB of gain for the 3.6-MW input, producing over 70 MW of optical power.
Using the 18-kW input, the gain saturated at about 12 m into the wiggler; with the 3.6-MW input, the
gain saturated at about 8 m. Modeling results are shown.

218. Stable dissipative solitons in semiconductor optical amplifiers.

PubMed

Ultanir, Erdem A; Stegeman, George I; Michaelis, Dirk; Lange, Christoph H; Lederer, Falk

2003-06-27

We have observed for the first time stable spatial solitons in semiconductor optical amplifiers. Soliton
destabilization due to the growth of background noise was suppressed by using patterned electrodes on
the device. Numerical simulations fit very well with the experiment results. We show that it is possible
to excite these solitons with about 60 mW input power.

219. Multiple pass laser amplifier system

DOEpatents

Brueckner, Keith A.; Jorna, Siebe; Moncur, N. Kent

1977-01-01

A laser amplification method for increasing the energy extraction efficiency from laser amplifiers
while reducing the energy flux that passes through a flux limited system which includes apparatus for
decomposing a linearly polarized light beam into multiple components, passing the components
through an amplifier in delayed time sequence and recombining the amplified components into an in
phase linearly polarized beam.

220. Improved-Bandwidth Transimpedance Amplifier


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NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chapsky, Jacob

2009-01-01

The widest available operational amplifier, with the best voltage and current noise characteristics, is
considered for transimpedance amplifier (TIA) applications where wide bandwidth is required to
handle fast rising input signals (as for time-of-flight measurement cases). The added amplifier inside
the TIA feedback loop can be configured to have slightly lower voltage gain than the bandwidth
reduction factor.


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221. Two-gigawatt burst-mode operation of the intense microwave prototype (IMP) free-electron laser
(FEL) for the microwave tokamak experiment (MTX)

SciTech Connect

Felker, B.; Allen, S.; Bell, H.

1993-10-06

The MTX explored the plasma heating effects of 140 GHz microwaves from both Gyrotrons and from
the IMP FEL wiggler. The Gyrotron was long pulse length (0.5 seconds maximum) and the FEL
produced short-pulse length, high-peak power, single and burst modes of 140 GHZ microwaves. Full-
power operations of the IMP FEL wiggler were commenced in April of 1992 and continued into
October of 1992. The Experimental Test Accelerator H (ETA-II) provided a 50-nanosecond, 6-MeV, 2-
-3 kAmp electron beam that was introduced co-linear into the IMP FEL with a 140 GHz Gyrotron
master oscillator (MO). The FEL was able to amplify the MO signal from approximately 7 kW to
peaks consistently in the range of 1--2 GW. This microwave pulse was transmitted into the MTX and
allowed the exploration of the linear and non-linear effects of short pulse, intense power in the MTX
plasma. Single pulses were used to explore and gain operating experience in the parameter space of the
IMP FEL, and finally evaluate transmission and absorption in the MTX. Single-pulse operations were
repeatable. After the MTX was shut down burst-mode operations were successful at 2 kHz. This paper
will describe the IMP FEL, Microwave Transmission System to MTX, the diagnostics used for
calorimetric measurements, and the operations of the entire Microwave system. A discussion of
correlated and uncorrelated errors that affect FEL performance will be made Linear and non-linear
absorption data of the microwaves in the MTX plasma will be presented.

222. Thermal recovery of the NIF amplifiers

SciTech Connect

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Beullier, J; Bicrel,; Erlandson, A; London, R; Manes, K; Marshall, C; Petty, C; Pierce, R; Smith, L;


Sutton, S; Zapata, L

1998-06-30

With approximately 99% of the electrical energy supplied to the National Ignition Facility (NIF)
appearing as heat in the amplifiers, thermal recovery of the NIF system is a major consideration in the
design process. The NIF shot rate is one shot every 8 hours, with a goal of 4 hours between shots. This
necessitates that thermal recovery take place in no more than 7 hours, with a goal of 3 hours for the
accelerated shot rate. Residual optical distortions, which restrict the shot rate, are grouped into two
discrete categories: (1) distortions associated with residual temperature gradients in the laser slabs, and
(2) distortions associated with buoyantly driven convective currents in the amplifier cavity and beam-
tube regions. Thermal recovery of the amplifiers is achieved by cooling the flashlamps and blastshields
with a turbulent gas flow. The cooled blastshields then serve as a cold boundary to radiatively extract
the residual heat deposited in the slabs and edge claddings. Advanced concepts, such as the use of
slightly chilled gas to accelerate some aspects of recovery, are addressed. To quantify recovery rates of
the amplifiers, experiments and numerical models are used to measure and calculate the temperatures
and optical distortions in NIF-like amplifier elements. The calculation results are benchmarked against
AMLAB temperature measurements, thus allowing a quantitative prediction of NIF thermal recovery.
These results indicate that the NIF requirement of 7 hour thermal recovery can be achieved with
chilled temperature cooling gas.

223. REGENERATIVE TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER

DOEpatents

Kabell, L.J.

1958-11-25

Electrical circults for use in computers and the like are described. particularly a regenerative bistable
transistor amplifler which is iurned on by a clock signal when an information signal permits and is
turned off by the clock signal. The amplifier porforms the above function with reduced power
requirements for the clock signal and circuit operation. The power requirements are reduced in one
way by employing transformer coupling which increases the collector circuit efficiency by eliminating
the loss of power in the collector load resistor.

224. Amplifying Electrochemical Indicators

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fan, Wenhong; Li, Jun; Han, Jie

2004-01-01

Dendrimeric reporter compounds have been invented for use in sensing and amplifying
electrochemical signals from molecular recognition events that involve many chemical and biological
entities. These reporter compounds can be formulated to target specific molecules or molecular
recognition events. They can also be formulated to be, variously, hydrophilic or amphiphilic so that
they are suitable for use at interfaces between (1) aqueous solutions and (2) electrodes connected to
external signal-processing electronic circuits. The invention of these reporter compounds is expected
to enable the development of highly miniaturized, low-power-consumption, relatively inexpensive,
mass-producible sensor units for diverse applications.

225. Amplified total internal reflection.

PubMed

Fan, J; Dogariu, A; Wang, L J

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2003-02-24

Totally internal reflected beams can be amplified if the lowerindex medium has gain. We analyze the
reflection and refraction of light, and analytically derive the expression for the Goos-Hnchen shifts of
a Gaussian beam incident on a lower-index medium, both active and absorptive. We examine the
energy flow and the Goos-Hnchen shifts for various cases. The analytical results are consistent with
the numerical results. For the TE mode, the Goos-Hnchen shift for the transmitted beam is exactly
half of that of the reflected beam, resulting in a "1/2" rule.

226. Fiber networks amplify active stress

PubMed Central

Ronceray, Pierre; Broedersz, Chase P.

2016-01-01

Large-scale force generation is essential for biological functions such as cell motility, embryonic
development, and muscle contraction. In these processes, forces generated at the molecular level by
motor proteins are transmitted by disordered fiber networks, resulting in large-scale active stresses.
Although these fiber networks are well characterized macroscopically, this stress generation by
microscopic active units is not well understood. Here we theoretically study force transmission in these
networks. We find that collective fiber buckling in the vicinity of a local active unit results in a
rectification of stress towards strongly amplified isotropic contraction. This stress amplification is
reinforced by the networks disordered nature, but saturates for high densities of active units. Our
predictions are quantitatively consistent with experiments on reconstituted tissues and actomyosin
networks and shed light on the role of the network microstructure in shaping active stresses in cells
and tissue. PMID:26921325

227. Resonantly amplified vibronic symmetry breaking

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poliakoff, E. D.; Rathbone, G. J.; Bozek, J. D.; Lucchese, R. R.

2002-05-01

In photoelectron spectroscopy, it is normally assumed that excitation of a single quantum of a non-


totally symmetric vibrational mode is forbidden owing to symmetry constraints. Using vibrationally
resolved photoelectron spectroscopy over a broad spectral range, we have shown that a previously
overlooked mechanism can lead to these nominally forbidden transitions. Specifically, the
photoelectron can mediate the oscillator strength for such a transition via resonantly amplified vibronic
symmetry breaking, and this effect results from intrachannel rather than interchannel coupling. In our
first experiments, we focused on bending excitation accompanying CO2 photoionization.
Photoelectron spectroscopy on the CO_2^+(C^2_g^+) state showed that the excitation of the (010)
vibrational mode is mediated by a shape resonant continuum electron. The degree of vibrational
excitation can be substantial, and extensions to other types of symmetry breaking are currently being
investigated.

228. The analysis of single-electron orbits in a free electron laser based upon a rectangular hybrid wiggler

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kordbacheh, A.; Ghahremaninezhad, Roghayeh; Maraghechi, B.

2012-09-01

A three-dimensional analysis of a novel free-electron laser (FEL) based upon a rectangular hybrid
wiggler (RHW) is presented. This RHW is designed in a configuration composed of rectangular rings

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with alternating ferrite and dielectric spacers immersed in a solenoidal magnetic field. An analytic
model of RHW is introduced by solution of Laplace's equation for the magnetostatic fields under the
appropriate boundary conditions. The single-electron orbits in combined RHW and axial guide
magnetic fields are studied when only the first and the third spatial harmonic components of the RHW
field are taken into account and the higher order terms are ignored. The results indicate that the third
spatial harmonic leads to group III orbits with a strong negative mass regime particularly in large
solenoidal magnetic fields. RHW is found to be a promising candidate with favorable characteristics to
be used in microwave FEL.

229. The analysis of single-electron orbits in a free electron laser based upon a rectangular hybrid wiggler

SciTech Connect

Kordbacheh, A.; Ghahremaninezhad, Roghayeh; Maraghechi, B.

2012-09-15

A three-dimensional analysis of a novel free-electron laser (FEL) based upon a rectangular hybrid
wiggler (RHW) is presented. This RHW is designed in a configuration composed of rectangular rings
with alternating ferrite and dielectric spacers immersed in a solenoidal magnetic field. An analytic
model of RHW is introduced by solution of Laplace's equation for the magnetostatic fields under the
appropriate boundary conditions. The single-electron orbits in combined RHW and axial guide
magnetic fields are studied when only the first and the third spatial harmonic components of the RHW
field are taken into account and the higher order terms are ignored. The results indicate that the third
spatial harmonic leads to group III orbits with a strong negative mass regime particularly in large
solenoidal magnetic fields. RHW is found to be a promising candidate with favorable characteristics to
be used in microwave FEL.

230. Effects of electromagnetic wiggler and ion channel guiding on equilibrium orbits and waves
propagation in a free electron laser

SciTech Connect

Amri, Hassan Ehsani; Mohsenpour, Taghi

2016-02-15

In this paper, an analysis of equilibrium orbits for electrons by a simultaneous solution of the equation
of motion and the dispersion relation for electromagnetic wave wiggler in a free-electron laser (FEL)
with ion-channel guiding has been presented. A fluid model has been used to investigate interactions
among all possible waves. The dispersion relation has been derived for electrostatic and
electromagnetic waves with all relativistic effects included. This dispersion relation has been solved
numerically. For group I and II orbits, when the transverse velocity is small, only the FEL instability is
found. In group I and II orbits with relatively large transverse velocity, new couplings between other
modes are found.

231. Implementation of ultrafast X-ray diffraction at the 1W2B wiggler beamline of Beijing Synchrotron
Radiation Facility.

PubMed

Sun, Da Rui; Xu, Guang Lei; Zhang, Bing Bing; Du, Xue Yan; Wang, Hao; Li, Qiu Ju; Zhou, Yang
Fan; Li, Zhen Jie; Zhang, Yan; He, Jun; Yue, Jun Hui; Lei, Ge; Tao, Ye

2016-05-01

The implementation of a laser pump/X-ray probe scheme for performing picosecond-resolution X-ray
diffraction at the 1W2B wiggler beamline at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility is reported. With
the hybrid fill pattern in top-up mode, a pixel array X-ray detector was optimized to gate out the signal

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from the singlet bunch with interval 85ns from the bunch train. The singlet pulse intensity is 2.5
10(6)photonspulse(-1) at 10keV. The laser pulse is synchronized to this singlet bunch at a 1kHz
repetition rate. A polycapillary X-ray lens was used for secondary focusing to obtain a 72m
(FWHM) X-ray spot. Transient photo-induced strain in BiFeO3 film was observed at a 150ps time
resolution for demonstration.

232. Simulations of Electron-Cloud Current Density Measurements in Dipoles, Drifts And Wigglers at
CesrTA

SciTech Connect

Calvey, J.; Crittenden, J. A.; Dugan, G.; Greenwald, S.; Livezey, J. A.; Palmer, M. A.; Rubin, D.;
Harkay, K. C.; Jain, P.; Kanazawa, K.; Suetsugu, Y.; Celata, C. M.; Furman, M.; Pivi, M. T. F.; Wang,
L.; Kreinick, D.; Penn, G.; Venturini, M.

2009-05-04

A core component of the CesrTA research program at Cornell is to fully understand the electron cloud
effect through the use of simulation programs that have been developed to predict the growth of the
cloud and its interaction with the beam. As a local probe of the electron cloud, several segmented
retarding field analyzers (RFAs) have been installed in CesrTA in dipole, drift and wiggler regions.
Using these RFAs, the energy spectrum of the time-average electron cloud current density striking the
walls has been measured for a variety of bunch train patterns, with different bunch currents, beam
energies, emittances, and bunch lengths, and for both positron and electron beams. This paper will
compare these measurements with the predictions of simulation programs.

233. Simulations of Electron-Cloud Current Density Measurements in Dipoles, Drifts, and Wigglers at
CesrTA

SciTech Connect

Calvey, J.; Crittenden, J. A.; Dugan, G.; Greenwald, S.; Kreinick, D.; Livezey, J. A.; Palmer, M. A.;
Rubin, D.; Fukuma, H.; Jain, P.; Kanazawa, K.; Suetsugu, Y.; Celata, C. M.; Furman, M.; Penn, G.;
Venturini, M.; Pivi, M.T.F.; Harkay, K.C.; Wang, L.

2009-05-01

A core component of the Cesr-TA research program at Cornell is to fully understand the electron cloud
effect through the use of simulation programs that have been developed to predict the growth of the
cloud and its interaction with the beam. As a local probe of the electron cloud, several segmented
retarding field analyzers (RFAs) have been installed in CesrTA in dipole, drift and wiggler regions.
Using these RFAs, the energy spectrum of the time-average electron cloud current density striking the
walls has been measured for a variety of bunch train patterns, with different bunch currents, beam
energies, emittances, and bunch lengths, and for both positron and electron beams. This paper will
compare these measurements with the predictions of simulation programs.

234. ENERGY MODULATION OF THE ELECTRONS BY THE LASER FIELD IN THEWIGGLER


MAGNET: ANALYSIS AND EXPERIMENT

SciTech Connect

Zholents, A.A.; Holldack, K.

2006-08-20

Energy modulation of the electron beam after the interactionwith the laser field in the wiggler magnet
can be calculated usinginterference of the laser field and the field of spontaneous emission inthe far
field region of wiggler radiation. Quite often this approachgives a deeper insight on the process than
traditional calculations wherethe effect of the laser field on the electron energy is integrated alongthe
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electron trajectory in the wiggler. We demonstrate it by showing theagreement between the analytical
model and the experiment involvingwiggler scan measurements with large detuning from the FEL
resonanceproducing more than one order of magnitude variations in the amplitude ofthe energy
modulation. The high sensitivity was achieved using the THzradiation from a sub-mm dip in the
electron density that energy modulatedelectrons leave behind while propagating along the storage ring
lattice.All measurements were performed at the BESSY-II electron storagering.

235. Development of a High-Power Wideband Amplifier on the Basis of a Free-Electron Maser Having an
Operating Frequency Near 30 GHz: Modeling and Results of the Initial Experiments

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bandurkin, I. V.; Donets, D. E.; Kaminsky, A. K.; Kuzikov, S. V.; Perel'shteyn, E. A.; Peskov, N. Yu.;
Savilov, A. V.; Sedykh, S. N.

2017-01-01

We develop a high-power wideband amplifier based on a free-electron maser for particle acceleration,
which will be operated in the 30 GHz frequency band, on the basis of the LIU-3000 linear induction
accelerator forming an electron beam with an electron energy of 0.8 MeV, a current of 250 A, and a
pulse duration of 200 ns. As the operating regime, we chose the regime of grazing of dispersion
curves, since, according to the modeling performed, it allows one to ensure an instantaneous
amplification band of about 5-7% in an undulator with regular winding for an output radiation power
at a level of 20 MW and a gain of 30-35 dB. The results of the first experiments studying this FEM-
based scheme are presented, in which the specified power level is achieved in the range around 30
GHz, and fast tuning of 0.5 GHz in the band of variations in the frequency of the master magnetron is
demonstrated. Modeling shows that the use of the non-resonance trapping/braking regime, which is
realized in an undulator with profiled parameters, allows one to expect an increase in the radiation
power of up to 35-40 MW with simultaneous widening of the amplification band up to 30% under the
conditions of the LIU-3000 experiments.

236. DIAMOND AMPLIFIED PHOTOCATHODES.

SciTech Connect

SMEDLEY,J.; BEN-ZVI, I.; BOHON, J.; CHANG, X.; GROVER, R.; ISAKOVIC, A.; RAO, T.; WU,
Q.

2007-11-26

High-average-current linear electron accelerators require photoinjectors capable of delivering tens to


hundreds of mA average current, with peak currents of hundreds of amps. Standard photocathodes face
significant challenges in meeting these requirements, and often have short operational lifetimes in an
accelerator environment. We report on recent progress toward development of secondary emission
amplifiers for photocathodes, which are intended to increase the achievable average current while
protecting the cathode from the accelerator. The amplifier is a thin diamond wafer which converts
energetic (few keV) primary electrons into hundreds of electron-hole pairs via secondary electron
emission. The electrons drift through the diamond under an external bias and are emitted into vacuum
via a hydrogen-terminated surface with negative electron affinity (NEA). Secondary emission gain of
over 200 has been achieved. Two methods of patterning diamond, laser ablation and reactive-ion
etching (RIE), are being developed to produce the required geometry. A variety of diagnostic
techniques, including FTIR, SEM and AFM, have been used to characterize the diamonds.

237. Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kinney, Frank

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1997-01-01

The Technological Research and Development Authority (TRDA) and NASA-KSC entered into a
cooperative agreement in March of 1994 to achieve the utilization and commercialization of a
technology development for benefiting both the Space Program and U.S. industry on a "dual-use
basis". The technology involved in this transfer is a new, unique Universal Conditioning Amplifier
(USCA) used in connection with various types of transducers. The project was initiated in partnership
with I-Net Corporation, Lockheed Martin Telemetry & Instrumentation (formerly Loral Test and
Information Systems) and Brevard Community College. The project consists of designing,
miniaturizing, manufacturing, and testing an existing prototype of USCA that was developed for
NASA-KSC by the I-Net Corporation. The USCA is a rugged and field-installable self (or remotely)-
programmable amplifier that works in combination with a tag random access memory (RAM) attached
to various types of transducers. This summary report comprises performance evaluations, TRDA
partnership tasks, a project summary, project milestones and results.

238. Amplified wind turbine apparatus

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hein, L. A.; Myers, W. N. (Inventor)

1982-01-01

An invention related to the utilization of wind energy and increasing the effects thereof for power
generation is described. Amplified wind turbine apparatus is disclosed wherein ambient inlet air is
prerotated in a first air rotation chamber having a high pressure profile increasing the turbulence and
Reynolds number thereof. A second rotation chamber adjacent and downstream of the turbine has a
low pressure core profile whereby flow across the turbine is accelerated and thereafter exits the turbine
apparatus through a draft anti-interference device. Interference with ambient winds at the outlet of the
turbine apparatus is thus eliminated. Pivotable vanes controlled in response to prevailing wind
direction admit air to the chambers and aid in imparting rotation. A central core may be utilized for
creating the desired pressure profile in the chamber.

239. Nanoscale electromechanical parametric amplifier

SciTech Connect

Aleman, Benjamin Jose; Zettl, Alexander

2016-09-20

This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to a parametric amplifier. In one
aspect, a device includes an electron source electrode, a counter electrode, and a pumping electrode.
The electron source electrode may include a conductive base and a flexible conductor. The flexible
conductor may have a first end and a second end, with the second end of the flexible conductor being
coupled to the conductive base. A cross-sectional dimension of the flexible conductor may be less than
about 100 nanometers. The counter electrode may be disposed proximate the first end of the flexible
conductor and spaced a first distance from the first end of the flexible conductor. The pumping
electrode may be disposed proximate a length of the flexible conductor and spaced a second distance
from the flexible conductor.

240. The microstrip SQUID amplifier

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Therrien, Roy

A Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDS) can operate at frequencies up to several


GHz and can be cooled to less than 100 mK. Such characteristics make the SQUID---a flux-to-voltage

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transducer---an excellent candidate for use as a low-noise rf amplifier. Coupling of input signals of
frequencies larger than 200 MHz, however, has been limited by the parasitic capacitance between the
input coil and SQUID body. We present experimental observations of a do SQUID-based rf amplifier
which circumvents this problem by incorporating the input coil as a microstrip resonator. The
microstrip input configuration uses the capacitance and inductance of the input coil to form a resonant
cavity capable of operating up to several GHz. The input signal is applied between the SQUID body
and one end of the input coil, while the other end of the coil is left open. We present data from
microstrip SQUID amplifiers with gains of up to 22 dB at 900 MHz. In order to understand the gain
and input impedance of the microstrip SQUID in greater detail, we made and studied a 1:190 scale
analog patterned on a double-sided printed circuit board consisting of copper deposited on a kapton
sheet. The measured input impedance of the analog SQUID is successfully modeled by describing the
microstrip input as a low-loss transmission line. When operated with the slit in the copper washer
ground plane shorted, the input coil behaves exactly like a linear resonator with the resonant frequency
given by f = 1/2(L 0C0)1/2, where L0 and C0 are the inductance and capacitance per unit length and
is the coil length. With the slit in the washer left open, the inductance of the input coil is significantly
altered in a manner partially consistent with the Ketchen-Jaycox model in which the reflected
inductance of the input coil is Li = n2L, where L is the inductance of the washer loop and n is the
number of turns in the coil. We present input impedance measurements on microstrip SQUIDs cooled
to 4


10
11
12
13
14


11
12
13
14
15

241. Reflex ring laser amplifier system

DOEpatents

Summers, Mark A.

1985-01-01

A laser pulse is injected into an unstable ring resonator-amplifier structure. Inside this resonator the
laser pulse is amplified, spatially filtered and magnified. The laser pulse is recirculated in the
resonator, being amplified, filtered and magnified on each pass. The magnification is chosen so that
the beam passes through the amplifier in concentric non-overlapping regions similar to a single pass
MOPA. After a number of passes around the ring resonator the laser pulse is spatially large enough to
exit the ring resonator system by passing around an output mirror.

242. Wavelength tunable alexandrite regenerative amplifier

SciTech Connect

Harter, D.J.; Bado, P.

1988-11-01

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We describe a wavelength tunable alexandrite regenerative amplifier which is used to amplify


nanosecond slices from a single-frequency cw dye laser or 50-ps pulses emitted by a diode laser to
energies in the 10-mJ range. The amplified 5-ns slices generated by the cw-pumped line narrowed dye
laser are Fourier transform limited. The 50-ps pulses emitted by a gain-switched diode laser are
amplified by more than 10 orders of magnitude in a single stage.

243. Mode couplings in a two-stream free-electron laser with a helical wiggler and an ion-channel guiding

SciTech Connect

Mohsenpour, Taghi Alirezaee, Hajar

2014-08-15

In this study, the method of perturbation has been applied to obtain the dispersion relation (DR) of a
two-stream free-electron laser (FEL) with a helical wiggler and an ion-channel with all relativistic
effects on waves. This DR has been solved numerically to find the unstable modes and their growth
rate. Numerical solutions of DR show that the growth rate is considerably enhanced in comparison
with single-stream free-electron laser. In group II orbits, with relatively large wiggler induced
velocities, new couplings are found. The effect of the velocity difference of the two electron beams on
the instabilities has also been investigated in this study. Moreover, the effect of the ion-channel density
on the maximum growth rate of FEL resonance has been analyzed.

244. Thermo-mechanical analysis of the white-beam slits for a wiggler/undulator beamline at the Advanced
Photon Source

SciTech Connect

Nian, H.L.T.; Kuzay, T.M.; Shu, D.; Tcheskidov, V.; Sheng, A.

1994-09-01

A set of precision, vertical, white-beam slits has been designed for an undulator/wiggler beamline at
the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The slit, a knife-edge-type precision device, is required to have
very small thermal distortion during operation with beam. The traditional slit consists of a cooling
block and an OFHC cooling channel inside the block. Our design consists of one large block and an
OFHC cooling tune (filler with copper mesh) brazed inside the large block. This design will
accommodate the x-ray source from both undulators and wigglers. Due to the powerful x-ray heat flux
coming from APS Undulator A, it is an exceedingly difficult problem to reduce the thermal distortion
to less than 50 microns as required by some users.

245. Suicide Risk: Amplifiers and Attenuators.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Plutchik, Robert; Van Praag, Herman M.

1994-01-01

Attempts to integrate findings on correlates of suicide and violent risk in terms of a theory called a
two-stage model of countervailing forces, which assumes that the strength of aggressive impulses is
modified by amplifiers and attenuators. The vectorial interaction of amplifiers and attenuators creates
an unstable equilibrium making prediction

246. Deflection amplifier for image dissectors

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Salomon, P. M.

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1977-01-01

Balanced symmetrical y-axis amplifier uses zener-diode level shifting to interface operational
amplifiers to high voltage bipolar output stages. Nominal voltage transfer characteristic is 40
differential output volts per input volt; bandwidth, between -3-dB points, is approximately 8 kHz; loop
gain is nominally 89 dB with closed loop gain of 26 dB.

247. Improved radiographic image amplifier panel

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brown, R. L., Sr.

1968-01-01

Layered image amplifier for radiographic /X ray and gamma ray/ applications, combines very high
radiation sensitivity with fast image buildup and erasure capabilities by adding a layer of material that
is both photoconductive and light-emitting to basic image amplifier and cascading this assembly with a
modified Thorne panel.

248. DIAMOND AMPLIFIER FOR PHOTOCATHODES.

SciTech Connect

RAO,T.; BEN-ZVI,I.; BURRILL,A.; CHANG,X.; HULBERT,S.; JOHNSON,P.D.; KEWISCH,J.

2004-06-21

We report a new approach to the generation of high-current, high-brightness electron beams. Primary
electrons are produced by a photocathode (or other means) and are accelerated to a few thousand
electron-volts, then strike a specially prepared diamond window. The large Secondary Electron Yield
(SEY) provides a multiplication of the number of electrons by about two orders of magnitude. The
secondary electrons drift through the diamond under an electric field and emerge into the accelerating
proper of the ''gun'' through a Negative Electron Affinity surface of the diamond. The advantages of
the new approach include the following: (1) Reduction of the number of primary electrons by the large
SEY, i.e. a very low laser power in a photocathode producing the primaries. (2) Low thermal emittance
due to the NEA surface and the rapid thermalization of the electrons. (3) Protection of the cathode
from possible contamination from the gun, allowing the use of large quantum efficiency but sensitive
cathodes. (4) Protection of the gun from possible contamination by the cathode, allowing the use of
superconducting gun cavities. (5) Production of high average currents, up to ampere class. (6)
Encapsulated design, making the ''load-lock'' systems unnecessary. This paper presents the criteria that
need to be taken into account in designing the amplifier.

249. Trial production of the handy amplifier for oesophagus speech.

PubMed

Satoh, I; Yamaguchi, T

1982-01-01

Oesophagus speakers cannot raise their voices. This seems to be the biggest trouble in daily life for
them. Therefore, a handy amplifier has been produced by way of trial experiment to alleviate their
trouble. This instrument is made up of a microphone, amplifier and speaker. The amplifier and speaker
is put in a compact box 10.0 x 6.7 x 2.8 cm. The microphone is put in a cigarette holder and connected
to the amplifier by a thin cord 30 cm long. When the sound is uttered whilst touching the holder with
the lips it is heard through the speaker via the amplifier in the chest pocket of the coat. This instrument
is recommended by many oesophagus speakers.

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250. Dual-pump wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers: performance enhancement with long
amplifiers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tomkos, Ioannis; Zacharopoulos, Ioannis; Syvridis, Dimitrios

1999-05-01

We demonstrate experimentally the improvement of the performance of the dual pump wave mixing
scheme in semiconductor optical amplifiers, using long amplifier chips and high optical pump powers.
The optical amplifiers used in the experiment had a ridge waveguide structure with bulk active layer
and antireflective-coated angled facets. Measurements of the conversion efficiency and SBR as a
function of wavelength shift are presented for a wavelength shift of more than 40 nm. The above
measurements are carried out for three amplifier lengths (500 micrometers , 1000 micrometers , and
1500 micrometers ) and for different levels of the optical power of the two pumps. It will be shown
that an increase in the amplifier length from 500 micrometers to 1500 micrometers results to an
increase of more than 25 dB for the efficiency and more than 20 dB for the SBR. This improvement
combined with the inherent advantages of the dual pump scheme (almost constant SBR and high
efficiency for large wavelength shifts) results in a highly performing wavelength converter/phase
conjugator, suitable for many applications.

251. Implantable neurotechnologies: a review of integrated circuit neural amplifiers.

PubMed

Ng, Kian Ann; Greenwald, Elliot; Xu, Yong Ping; Thakor, Nitish V

2016-01-01

Neural signal recording is critical in modern day neuroscience research and emerging neural prosthesis
programs. Neural recording requires the use of precise, low-noise amplifier systems to acquire and
condition the weak neural signals that are transduced through electrode interfaces. Neural amplifiers
and amplifier-based systems are available commercially or can be designed in-house and fabricated
using integrated circuit (IC) technologies, resulting in very large-scale integration or application-
specific integrated circuit solutions. IC-based neural amplifiers are now used to acquire
untethered/portable neural recordings, as they meet the requirements of a miniaturized form factor,
light weight and low power consumption. Furthermore, such miniaturized and low-power IC neural
amplifiers are now being used in emerging implantable neural prosthesis technologies. This review
focuses on neural amplifier-based devices and is presented in two interrelated parts. First, neural signal
recording is reviewed, and practical challenges are highlighted. Current amplifier designs with
increased functionality and performance and without penalties in chip size and power are featured.
Second, applications of IC-based neural amplifiers in basic science experiments (e.g., cortical studies
using animal models), neural prostheses (e.g., brain/nerve machine interfaces) and treatment of
neuronal diseases (e.g., DBS for treatment of epilepsy) are highlighted. The review concludes with
future outlooks of this technology and important challenges with regard to neural signal amplification.

252. Implantable neurotechnologies: a review of integrated circuit neural amplifiers

PubMed Central

Greenwald, Elliot; Xu, Yong Ping; Thakor, Nitish V.

2016-01-01

Neural signal recording is critical in modern day neuroscience research and emerging neural prosthesis
programs. Neural recording requires the use of precise, low-noise amplifier systems to acquire and
condition the weak neural signals that are transduced through electrode interfaces. Neural amplifiers
and amplifier-based systems are available commercially or can be designed in-house and fabricated
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using integrated circuit (IC) technologies, resulting in very large-scale integration or application-
specific integrated circuit solutions. IC-based neural amplifiers are now used to acquire
untethered/portable neural recordings, as they meet the requirements of a miniaturized form factor,
light weight and low power consumption. Furthermore, such miniaturized and low-power IC neural
amplifiers are now being used in emerging implantable neural prosthesis technologies. This review
focuses on neural amplifier-based devices and is presented in two interrelated parts. First, neural signal
recording is reviewed, and practical challenges are highlighted. Current amplifier designs with
increased functionality and performance and without penalties in chip size and power are featured.
Second, applications of IC-based neural amplifiers in basic science experiments (e.g., cortical studies
using animal models), neural prostheses (e.g., brain/nerve machine interfaces) and treatment of
neuronal diseases (e.g., DBS for treatment of epilepsy) are highlighted. The review concludes with
future outlooks of this technology and important challenges with regard to neural signal amplification.
PMID:26798055

253. Capacities of quantum amplifier channels

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Qi, Haoyu; Wilde, Mark M.

2017-01-01

Quantum amplifier channels are at the core of several physical processes. Not only do they model the
optical process of spontaneous parametric down-conversion, but the transformation corresponding to
an amplifier channel also describes the physics of the dynamical Casimir effect in superconducting
circuits, the Unruh effect, and Hawking radiation. Here we study the communication capabilities of
quantum amplifier channels. Invoking a recently established minimum output-entropy theorem for
single-mode phase-insensitive Gaussian channels, we determine capacities of quantum-limited
amplifier channels in three different scenarios. First, we establish the capacities of quantum-limited
amplifier channels for one of the most general communication tasks, characterized by the trade-off
between classical communication, quantum communication, and entanglement generation or
consumption. Second, we establish capacities of quantum-limited amplifier channels for the trade-off
between public classical communication, private classical communication, and secret key generation.
Third, we determine the capacity region for a broadcast channel induced by the quantum-limited
amplifier channel, and we also show that a fully quantum strategy outperforms those achieved by
classical coherent-detection strategies. In all three scenarios, we find that the capacities significantly
outperform communication rates achieved with a naive time-sharing strategy.

254. Fiber networks amplify active stress

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lenz, Martin; Ronceray, Pierre; Broedersz, Chase

Large-scale force generation is essential for biological functions such as cell motility, embryonic
development, and muscle contraction. In these processes, forces generated at the molecular level by
motor proteins are transmitted by disordered fiber networks, resulting in large-scale active stresses.
While fiber networks are well characterized macroscopically, this stress generation by microscopic
active units is not well understood. I will present a comprehensive theoretical study of force
transmission in these networks. I will show that the linear, small-force response of the networks is
remarkably simple, as the macroscopic active stress depends only on the geometry of the force-
exerting unit. In contrast, as non-linear buckling occurs around these units, local active forces are
rectified towards isotropic contraction and strongly amplified. This stress amplification is reinforced
by the networks' disordered nature, but saturates for high densities of active units. I will show that our
predictions are quantitatively consistent with experiments on reconstituted tissues and actomyosin
networks, and that they shed light on the role of the network microstructure in shaping active stresses
in cells and tissue.

255. Laser Amplifier Developments at Mercury


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DTIC Science & Technology

1993-06-01

particularly foil lifetime, with no degradation in pumping. Mercury Amplifier 2 (A2 or Pluto ) is a
downsized version of the Aurora Large Aperture Module (LAM...everywhere above the 4.5% cm-I
required. Modifications to Pluto (Amplifier 2) The second amplifier, Pluto , was constructed by
modifying Auroras...discharge the PFLs into matched resistors when the output switches failed to fire.
lJ Figure 3. The diode of Pluto has a 40-cm high by 200-cm long

256. Thermo-mechanical analysis of a user filter assembly for undulator/wiggler operations at the
Advanced Photon Source

SciTech Connect

Nian, H.L.T.; Kuzay, T.M.; Collins, J.; Shu, D.; Benson, C.; Dejus, R.

1996-12-31

This paper reports a thermo-mechanical study of a beamline filter (user filter) for undulator/wiggler
operations. It is deployed in conjunction with the current commissioning window assembly on the APS
insertion device (ID) front ends. The beamline filter at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) will
eventually be used in windowless operations also. Hence survival and reasonable life expectancy of
the filters under intense insertion device (ID) heat flu are crucial to the beamline operations. To
accommodate various user requirements, the filter is configured to be a multi-choice type and smart to
allow only those filter combinations that will be safe to operate with a given ring current and beamline
insertion device gap. However, this paper addresses only the thermo-mechanical analysis of individual
filter integrity and safety in all combinations possible. The current filter design is configured to have
four filter frames in a cascade with each frame holding five filters. This allows a potential 625 total
filter combinations. Thermal analysis for all of these combinations becomes a mammoth task
considering the desired choices for filter materials (pyrolitic graphite and metallic filters), filter
thicknesses, undulator gaps, and the beam currents. The paper addresses how this difficult task has
been reduced to a reasonable effort and computational level. Results from thermo-mechanical analyses
of the filter combinations are presented both in tabular and graphical format.

257. Asymptotic electron trajectories and an adiabatic invariant for a helical-wiggler free electron laser with
weak self-fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wang, L.; Kevorkian, J.

1996-03-01

The dynamics of a relativistic electron in the field configuration consisting of a constant-amplitude


helical-wiggler magnetic field, a uniform axial magnetic field, and the equilibrium self-fields is
described by a near-integrable three-degree-of-freedom Hamiltonian system. The system is solved
asymptotically for small by the method of averaging, where measures the strength of the self-fields.
Because the Hamiltonian does not depend on one of the coordinates, it immediately reduces to a two-
degree-of-freedom system. For =0, this reduced system is integrable, but is not in standard form. The
action-angle transformation to standard form is derived explicitly in terms of elliptic functions, thus
enabling the application of the averaging procedure. For almost all regular electron trajectories the
solution is explicitly derived in asymptotic form and an adiabatic invariant is constructed, both results
are in a form that remains uniformly valid over the time interval for electrons to transit the laser. The
analytical results are verified by numerical calculations for an example problem.

258. New Packaging for Amplifier Slabs

SciTech Connect
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Riley, M.; Thorsness, C.; Suratwala, T.; Steele, R.; Rogowski, G.

2015-03-18

The following memo provides a discussion and detailed procedure for a new finished amplifier slab
shipping and storage container. The new package is designed to maintain an environment of <5% RH
to minimize weathering.

259. Characterization of SLUG microwave amplifiers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hoi, I.-C.; Zhu, S.; Thorbeck, T.; McDermott, R.; Mutus, J.; Jeffrey, E.; Barends, R.; Chen, Y.;
Roushan, P.; Fowler, A.; Sank, D.; White, T.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.;
Kelly, J.; Megrant, A.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Quintana, C.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Martinis,
J. M.

2015-03-01

With the rapid growth of superconducting circuits quantum technology, a near quantum-limited
amplifier at GHz frequency is needed to enable high fidelity measurements. We describe such an
amplifier, the SQUID based, superconducting low inductance undulatory galvanometer (SLUG)
amplifier. We measure the full scattering matrix of the SLUG. In particular, we measure both forward
and reverse gain, as well as reflection. We see 15dB forward gain with added noise from one quanta to
several quanta. The -1 dB compression point is around -95 dBm, about two orders of magnitude higher
than that of typical Josephson parametric amplifiers. With these properties, SLUG is well suited for the
high fidelity, simultaneous multiplexed readout of superconducting qubits.

260. A single supply biopotential amplifier.

PubMed

Spinelli, E M; Martinez, N H; Mayosky, M A

2001-04-01

A biopotential amplifier for single supply operation is presented. It uses a Driven Right Leg Circuit
(DRL) to drive the patient's body to a DC common mode voltage, centering biopotential signals with
respect to the amplifier's input voltage range. This scheme ensures proper range operation when a
single power supply is used. The circuit described is especially suited for low consumption, battery-
powered applications, requiring a single battery and avoiding switching voltage inverters to achieve
dual supplies. The generic circuit is described and, as an example, a biopotential amplifier with a gain
of 60 dB and a DC input range of +/-200 mV was implemented using low power operational
amplifiers. A Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR) of 126 dB at 50 Hz was achieved without
trimming.


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261. Enhanced performance CCD output amplifier

DOEpatents

Dunham, Mark E.; Morley, David W.

1996-01-01

A low-noise FET amplifier is connected to amplify output charge from a che coupled device (CCD).
The FET has its gate connected to the CCD in common source configuration for receiving the output
charge signal from the CCD and output an intermediate signal at a drain of the FET. An intermediate
amplifier is connected to the drain of the FET for receiving the intermediate signal and outputting a
low-noise signal functionally related to the output charge signal from the CCD. The amplifier is
preferably connected as a virtual ground to the FET drain. The inherent shunt capacitance of the FET
is selected to be at least equal to the sum of the remaining capacitances.

262. Operational amplifiers-some misconceptions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summers, M. K.

1980-03-01

The simplified theoretical treatments of operational amplifier behaviour found in material for use by
teachers and students is often misleading and sometimes inaccurate. The author identifies some of
these inadequacies and describes some pedagogical pitfalls which are best avoided. The closed loop
gain of an operational amplifier in the inverting configuration taken from the JMB publication Physics
(Advanced)-Notes on the Core Syllabus (1978a) is reproduced to act as a focus for discussion.

263. 32-GHz Wideband Maser Amplifier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shell, J. S.; Neff, D. E.

1990-01-01

High-gain, wideband, microwave amplifier based on ruby cooled by liquid helium. Features include
low input equivalent noise temperature and 400-MHz bandwidth. Design basically extension of
previous reflected-wave masers built for frequency range of 18 to 26 GHz. Maser amplifier includes
eight stages connected in reflected-wave configuration. Particularly useful for detection of weak
microwave signals in radio astronomy and communications.

264. Linear semiconductor optical amplifiers for amplification of advanced modulation formats.

PubMed

Bonk, R; Huber, G; Vallaitis, T; Koenig, S; Schmogrow, R; Hillerkuss, D; Brenot, R; Lelarge, F; Duan,


G-H; Sygletos, S; Koos, C; Freude, W; Leuthold, J

2012-04-23

The capability of semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) to amplify advanced optical modulation
format signals is investigated. The input power dynamic range is studied and especially the impact of
the SOA alpha factor is addressed. Our results show that the advantage of a lower alpha-factor SOA
decreases for higher-order modulation formats. Experiments at 20 GBd BPSK, QPSK and 16QAM
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with two SOAs with different alpha factors are performed. Simulations for various modulation formats
support the experimental findings.

265. Higher-order harmonic effect of a three-dimensional helical wiggler on the Larmor rotation of the
equilibrium electrons in a free-electron laser with a positive or a reversed guide magnetic field

SciTech Connect

Zhang, Shi-Chang

2013-10-15

Analytical formulas of the Larmor rotation are derived in detail for the equilibrium electrons motion in
a free-electron laser with combination of a three-dimensional (3-D) helical wiggler and a positive or a
reversed guide magnetic field. Generally, the Larmor radius in the configuration of a reversed guide
field is much smaller than that in a positive guide field. At non-resonance, a helical orbit governed by
the zero-order component of a 3-D wiggler field could hold; meanwhile, the higher-harmonic effect
definitely influences those electrons with off-axis guiding centers and induces the electron-beam
spreads. At resonance, the Larmor radius in the configuration of a positive guide field has a singularity
with a limit tending to infinite, which causes all the electrons to hit the waveguide wall before the exit
of the wiggler. Although Larmor-radius singularity does not exist in the configuration of a reversed
guide field, at anti-resonance, the first-order harmonic of a 3-D wiggler field induces a transverse
displacement which rapidly grows in proportion to a square of time, and leads part of the electron
beam to hit the waveguide wall before reaching the wiggler exit, which depends on the specific
parameters of the individual electrons. The analytical conclusions derived in the present paper are
examined by the nonlinear simulations and the experimental observation. Disagreement with the
previous literatures is discussed in detail.

266. Novel 140 GHz Gyro-TWT Amplifier

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hu, W.; Kreischer, K. E.; Shapiro, M.; Temkin, R. J.

1996-11-01

We have designed and are currently building a novel gyro-twt amplifier to operate at 100 kW and a
frequency of 95 GHz. However, due to equipment availability in our laboratory, the amplifier will
actually be operated a frequency of 140 GHz. The electron beam will be provided by an existing MIG
electron gun which has been previously used in gyrotron oscillator research at the 100 kW power level
at 140 GHz. The gun operates at 65 kV and up to 8A with equal to 1.5. The novel wave circuit consists
of two facing mirrors with confocal profiles in the transverse direction and flat profiles in the
longitudinal direction. The mode is Gaussian-like in the transverse direction. This design effectively
reduces the mode competition problem in conventional amplifiers from two dimensional to one
dimensional. Another advantage of this circuit is the relatively large cavity size, which improves
power capacity. Preliminary calculations indicate that the linear gain is about 2.7dB/cm with an
efficiency exceeding 20preliminary experiment using an oscillator configuration has also been
designed.

267. Limit circuit prevents overdriving of operational amplifier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Openshaw, F. L.

1967-01-01

Cutoff-type high gain amplifier coupled by a diode prevents overdriving of operational amplifier. An
amplified feedback signal offsets the excess input signal that tends to cause the amplifier to exceed its

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preset limit. The output is, therfore, held to the set clamp level.

268. Kinetic description of a free electron laser with an electromagnetic-wave wiggler and ion-channel
guiding by using the Einstein coefficient technique

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mehdian, H.; AbasiRostami, S.; Hasanbeigi, A.

2016-04-01

A theoretical study of electron trajectories and gain in a free electron laser (FEL) with an
electromagnetic-wave wiggler and ion-channel guiding is presented based on the Einstein coefficient
method. The laser gain in the low-gain regime is obtained for the case of a cold tenuous relativistic
electron beam, where the beam plasma frequency is much less than the radiation frequency
propagating in this configuration. The resulting gain equation is analyzed numerically over a wide
range of system parameters.

269. Reactanceless synthesized impedance bandpass amplifier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kleinberg, L. L. (Inventor)

1985-01-01

An active R bandpass filter network is formed by four operational amplifier stages interconnected by
discrete resistances. One pair of stages synthesize an equivalent input impedance of an inductance (L
sub eq) in parallel with a discrete resistance (R sub o) while the second pair of stages synthesizes an
equivalent input impedance of a capacitance (C sub eq) serially coupled to another discrete resistance
(R sub i) coupled in parallel with the first two stages. The equivalent input impedances aggregately
define a tuned resonant bandpass filter in the roll-off regions of the operational amplifiers.

270. Optical amplifiers for coherent lidar

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fork, Richard

1996-01-01

We examine application of optical amplification to coherent lidar for the case of a weak return signal
(a number of quanta of the return optical field close to unity). We consider the option that has been
explored to date, namely, incorporation of an optical amplifier operated in a linear manner located after
reception of the signal and immediately prior to heterodyning and photodetection. We also consider
alternative strategies where the coherent interaction, the nonlinear processes, and the amplification are
not necessarily constrained to occur in the manner investigated to date. We include the complications
that occur because of mechanisms that occur at the level of a few, or one, quantum excitation. Two
factors combine in the work to date that limit the value of the approach. These are: (1) the weak signal
tends to require operation of the amplifier in the linear regime where the important advantages of
nonlinear optical processing are not accessed, (2) the linear optical amplifier has a -3dB noise figure
(SN(out)/SN(in)) that necessarily degrades the signal. Some improvement is gained because the gain
provided by the optical amplifier can be used to overcome losses in the heterodyned process and
photodetection. The result, however, is that introduction of an optical amplifier in a well optimized
coherent lidar system results in, at best, a modest improvement in signal to noise. Some improvement
may also be realized on incorporating more optical components in a coherent lidar system for purely
practical reasons. For example, more compact, lighter weight, components, more robust alignment, or
more rapid processing may be gained. We further find that there remain a number of potentially
valuable, but unexplored options offered both by the rapidly expanding base of optical technology and

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the recent investigation of novel nonlinear coherent interference phenomena occurring at the single
quantum excitation level. Key findings are: (1) insertion of linear optical

271. Laser system using regenerative amplifier

DOEpatents

Emmett, J.L.

1980-03-04

High energy laser system is disclosed using a regenerative amplifier, which relaxes all constraints on
laser components other than the intrinsic damage level of matter, so as to enable use of available laser
system components. This can be accomplished by use of segmented components, spatial filters, at least
one amplifier using solid state or gaseous media, and separated reflector members providing a long
round trip time through the regenerative cavity, thereby allowing slower switching and adequate time
to clear the spatial filters, etc. The laser system simplifies component requirements and reduces
component cost while providing high energy output. 10 figs.

272. Hybrid EDFA/Raman Amplifiers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Masuda, Hiroji

This chapter describes the technologies needed for cascading an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA)
and a fiber Raman amplifier (FRA or RA) to create a hybrid amplifier (HA), the EDFA/Raman HA.
Two kinds of HA are defined in this chapter: the narrowband HA (NB-HA) and the seamless and
wideband HA (SWB-HA). The NB-HA employs distributed Raman amplification in the transmission
fiber together with an EDFA and provides low noise transmission in the C- or L-band. The noise figure
of the transmission line is lower than it would be if only an EDFA were used. The SWB-HA, on the
other hand, employs distributed or discrete Raman amplification together with an EDFA, and provides
a low-noise and wideband transmission line or a low-noise and wideband discrete amplifier for the C-
and L-bands. The typical gain bandwidth () of the NB-HA is ~30 to 40 nm, whereas that of the
SWB-HA is ~70 to 80 nm.

273. Dye laser traveling wave amplifier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Davidson, F.

1983-01-01

A flash lamp pumped dye laser suitable for use as an amplifier stage was developed. The desired
output laser pulses are of nanosecond duration, tunable in center frequency, and of good optical
quality. Its usefulness as a laser oscillator is emphasized, because it constitutes a compact, relatively
efficient source of tunable dye laser light.

274. Photonic-Band-Gap Traveling-Wave Gyrotron Amplifier

PubMed Central

Nanni, E. A.; Lewis, S. M.; Shapiro, M. A.; Griffin, R. G.; Temkin, R. J.

2014-01-01

We report the experimental demonstration of a gyrotron traveling-wave-tube amplifier at 250 GHz that
uses a photonic band gap (PBG) interaction circuit. The gyrotron amplifier achieved a peak small
signal gain of 38 dB and 45 W output power at 247.7 GHz with an instantaneous 3 dB bandwidth of
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0.4 GHz. The amplifier can be tuned for operation from 245256 GHz. The widest instantaneous 3
dB bandwidth of 4.5 GHz centered at 253.25 GHz was observed with a gain of 24 dB. The PBG circuit
provides stability from oscillations by supporting the propagation of transverse electric (TE) modes in
a narrow range of frequencies, allowing for the confinement of the operating TE03-like mode while
rejecting the excitation of oscillations at nearby frequencies. This experiment achieved the highest
frequency of operation for a gyrotron amplifier; at present, there are no other amplifiers in this
frequency range that are capable of producing either high gain or high output power. This result
represents the highest gain observed above 94 GHz and the highest output power achieved above 140
GHz by any conventional-voltage vacuum electron device based amplifier. PMID:24476286

275. Improving Students' Understanding of Lock-In Amplifiers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DeVore, Seth; Gauthier, Alexandre; Levy, Jeremy; Chandralekha, Singh

2014-03-01

A lock-in amplifier is a versatile instrument frequently used in physics research. However, many
students struggle with the basic operating principles of a lock-in amplifier which can lead to a variety
of difficulties. To improve students' understanding, we have been developing and evaluating a
research-based tutorial which makes use of a computer simulation of a lock-in amplifier. The tutorial is
based on a field-tested approach in which students realize their difficulties after predicting the outcome
of simulated experiments involving a lock-in amplifier and check their predictions using the simulated
lock-in amplifier. Then, the tutorial guides and helps students develop a coherent understanding of the
basics of a lock-in amplifier. The tutorial development involved interviews with physics faculty
members and graduate students and iteration of many versions of the tutorial with professors and
graduate students. The student difficulties and the development and assessment of the research-based
tutorial are discussed. We thank National Science Foundation for award NSF-1124131.

276. Photonic-band-gap traveling-wave gyrotron amplifier.

PubMed

Nanni, E A; Lewis, S M; Shapiro, M A; Griffin, R G; Temkin, R J

2013-12-06

We report the experimental demonstration of a gyrotron traveling-wave-tube amplifier at 250 GHz that
uses a photonic band gap (PBG) interaction circuit. The gyrotron amplifier achieved a peak small
signal gain of 38 dB and 45 W output power at 247.7 GHz with an instantaneous -3dB bandwidth of
0.4 GHz. The amplifier can be tuned for operation from 245-256 GHz. The widest instantaneous -3dB
bandwidth of 4.5 GHz centered at 253.25 GHz was observed with a gain of 24 dB. The PBG circuit
provides stability from oscillations by supporting the propagation of transverse electric (TE) modes in
a narrow range of frequencies, allowing for the confinement of the operating TE03-like mode while
rejecting the excitation of oscillations at nearby frequencies. This experiment achieved the highest
frequency of operation for a gyrotron amplifier; at present, there are no other amplifiers in this
frequency range that are capable of producing either high gain or high output power. This result
represents the highest gain observed above 94 GHz and the highest output power achieved above 140
GHz by any conventional-voltage vacuum electron device based amplifier.

277. Frequency-Offset Cartesian Feedback Based on Polyphase Difference Amplifiers

PubMed Central

Zanchi, Marta G.; Pauly, John M.; Scott, Greig C.

2010-01-01

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A modified Cartesian feedback method called frequency-offset Cartesian feedback and based on
polyphase difference amplifiers is described that significantly reduces the problems associated with
quadrature errors and DC-offsets in classic Cartesian feedback power amplifier control systems. In this
method, the reference input and feedback signals are down-converted and compared at a low
intermediate frequency (IF) instead of at DC. The polyphase difference amplifiers create a complex
control bandwidth centered at this low IF, which is typically offset from DC by 2001500 kHz.
Consequently, the loop gain peak does not overlap DC where voltage offsets, drift, and local oscillator
leakage create errors. Moreover, quadrature mismatch errors are significantly attenuated in the control
bandwidth. Since the polyphase amplifiers selectively amplify the complex signals characterized by a
+90 phase relationship representing positive frequency signals, the control system operates somewhat
like single sideband (SSB) modulation. However, the approach still allows the same modulation
bandwidth control as classic Cartesian feedback. In this paper, the behavior of the polyphase difference
amplifier is described through both the results of simulations, based on a theoretical analysis of their
architecture, and experiments. We then describe our first printed circuit board prototype of a
frequency-offset Cartesian feedback transmitter and its performance in open and closed loop
configuration. This approach should be especially useful in magnetic resonance imaging transmit array
systems. PMID:20814450

278. Does surface roughness amplify wetting?

SciTech Connect

Malijevsk, Alexandr

2014-11-14

Any solid surface is intrinsically rough on the microscopic scale. In this paper, we study the effect of
this roughness on the wetting properties of hydrophilic substrates. Macroscopic arguments, such as
those leading to the well-known Wenzel's law, predict that surface roughness should amplify the
wetting properties of such adsorbents. We use a fundamental measure density functional theory to
demonstrate the opposite effect from roughness for microscopically corrugated surfaces, i.e., wetting is
hindered. Based on three independent analyses we show that microscopic surface corrugation increases
the wetting temperature or even makes the surface hydrophobic. Since for macroscopically corrugated
surfaces the solid texture does indeed amplify wetting there must exist a crossover between two
length-scale regimes that are distinguished by opposite response on surface roughening. This
demonstrates how deceptive can be efforts to extend the thermodynamical laws beyond their
macroscopic territory.

279. High power gas laser amplifier

DOEpatents

Leland, Wallace T.; Stratton, Thomas F.

1981-01-01

A high power output CO.sub.2 gas laser amplifier having a number of sections, each comprising a
plurality of annular pumping chambers spaced around the circumference of a vacuum chamber
containing a cold cathode, gridded electron gun. The electron beam from the electron gun ionizes the
gas lasing medium in the sections. An input laser beam is split into a plurality of annular beams, each
passing through the sections comprising one pumping chamber.

280. 338-GHz Semiconductor Amplifier Module

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Samoska, Lorene A.; Gaier, Todd C.; Soria, Mary M.; Fung, King Man; Rasisic, Vesna; Deal, William;
Leong, Kevin; Mei, Xiao Bing; Yoshida, Wayne; Liu, Po-Hsin; Uyeda, Jansen; Lai, Richard

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2010-01-01

Research findings were reported from an investigation of new gallium nitride (GaN) monolithic
millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifiers (PAs) targeting the highest output power
and the highest efficiency for class-A operation in W-band (75-110 GHz). W-band PAs are a major
component of many frequency multiplied submillimeter-wave LO signal sources. For spectrometer
arrays, substantial W-band power is required due to the passive lossy frequency multipliers.


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281. High temperature current mirror amplifier

DOEpatents

Patterson, III, Raymond B.

1984-05-22

A high temperature current mirror amplifier having biasing means in the transdiode connection of the
input transistor for producing a voltage to maintain the base-collector junction reversed-biased and a
current means for maintaining a current through the biasing means at high temperatures so that the
base-collector junction of the input transistor remained reversed-biased. For accuracy, a second current
mirror is provided with a biasing means and current means on the input leg.

282. High power regenerative laser amplifier

DOEpatents

Miller, J.L.; Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.; Zapata, L.E.

1994-02-08

A regenerative amplifier design capable of operating at high energy per pulse, for instance, from 20-
100 Joules, at moderate repetition rates, for instance from 5-20 Hertz is provided. The laser amplifier
comprises a gain medium and source of pump energy coupled with the gain medium; a Pockels cell,
which rotates an incident beam in response to application of a control signal; an optical relay system
defining a first relay plane near the gain medium and a second relay plane near the rotator; and a
plurality of reflectors configured to define an optical path through the gain medium, optical relay and
Pockels cell, such that each transit of the optical path includes at least one pass through the gain
medium and only one pass through the Pockels cell. An input coupler, and an output coupler are
provided, implemented by a single polarizer. A control circuit coupled to the Pockels cell generates the
control signal in timed relationship with the input pulse so that the input pulse is captured by the input
coupler and proceeds through at least one transit of the optical path, and then the control signal is
applied to cause rotation of the pulse to a polarization reflected by the polarizer, after which the

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captured pulse passes through the gain medium at least once more and is reflected out of the optical
path by the polarizer before passing through the rotator again to provide an amplified pulse. 7 figures.

283. High power regenerative laser amplifier

DOEpatents

Miller, John L.; Hackel, Lloyd A.; Dane, Clifford B.; Zapata, Luis E.

1994-01-01

A regenerative amplifier design capable of operating at high energy per pulse, for instance, from 20-
100 Joules, at moderate repetition rates, for instance from 5-20 Hertz is provided. The laser amplifier
comprises a gain medium and source of pump energy coupled with the gain medium; a Pockels cell,
which rotates an incident beam in response to application of a control signal; an optical relay system
defining a first relay plane near the gain medium and a second relay plane near the rotator; and a
plurality of reflectors configured to define an optical path through the gain medium, optical relay and
Pockels cell, such that each transit of the optical path includes at least one pass through the gain
medium and only one pass through the Pockels cell. An input coupler, and an output coupler are
provided, implemented by a single polarizer. A control circuit coupled to the Pockels cell generates the
control signal in timed relationship with the input pulse so that the input pulse is captured by the input
coupler and proceeds through at least one transit of the optical path, and then the control signal is
applied to cause rotation of the pulse to a polarization reflected by the polarizer, after which the
captured pulse passes through the gain medium at least once more and is reflected out of the optical
path by the polarizer before passing through the rotator again to provide an amplified pulse.

284. Highly stable biased amplifier and stretcher system

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Roddick, R. G.

1970-01-01

Amplifier and stretcher system, which minimizes thermal effects and compensates for repetition-rate
effects, maintains resolution levels in spectrum analysis. An additional inverting amplifier is used in
the system to provide a noiseless charge restorer.

285. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon

1990-01-01

The optimum conditions of a solar pumped iodine laser are found in this research for the case of a
continuous wave operation and a pulsed operation. The optimum product of the pressure(p) inside the
laser tube and the tube diameter(d) was pd=40 approx. 50 torr-cm on the contrary to the case of a high
intensity flashlamp pumped iodine laser where the optimum value of the product is known to be
pd=150 torr-cm. The pressure-diameter product is less than 1/3 of that of the high power iodine laser.
During the research period, various laser materials were also studied for solar pumping. Among the
laser materials, Nd:YAG is found to have the lowest laser threshold pumping intensity of about 200
solar constant. The Rhodamine 6G was also tested as the solar pumped laser material. The threshold
pumping power was measured to be about 20,000 solar constant. The amplification experiment for a
continuously pumped iodine laser amplifier was performed using Vortek solar simulator and the
amplification factors were measured for single pass amplification and triple pass amplification of the
15 cm long amplifier tube. The amplification of 5 was obtained for the triple pass amplification.

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286. SF/FAF Laser Oscillator/Amplifiers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shah, S. T.; Steen, W. M.

1987-09-01

There are two major requirements in laser design; sufficient power and correct mode structure. In the
design of higher powered lasers the mode structure may suffer. Current designs are often based upon
coupled cavities, in which a basic laser module is joined to another to make a single vacuum, optical
cavity system. Examples of such an arrangement are the latest Ferranti CLL10, UTRC 25kW and the
older Spectra Physics 5kW lasers. An alternative approach is to couple two or more lasers as an
oscillator/amplifier system. The results of joining two Fast Axial Flow (FAF) lasers in this way have
been discussed previously (1). This paper discusses some results from the coupling of a slow flow (SF)
laser oscillator having a near Gaussian mode structure to a FAF amplifier. The result was a more
powerful beam with a similar near Gaussian mode. The possibilit ies for laser design and mode
engineering by this technique are illustrated by reference to cutting and welding experiments.

287. NASA developments in solid state power amplifiers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Leonard, Regis F.

1990-01-01

Over the last ten years, NASA has undertaken an extensive program aimed at development of solid
state power amplifiers for space applications. Historically, the program may be divided into three
phases. The first efforts were carried out in support of the advanced communications technology
satellite (ACTS) program, which is developing an experimental version of a Ka-band commercial
communications system. These first amplifiers attempted to use hybrid technology. The second phase
was still targeted at ACTS frequencies, but concentrated on monolithic implementations, while the
current, third phase, is a monolithic effort that focusses on frequencies appropriate for other NASA
programs and stresses amplifier efficiency. The topics covered include: (1) 20 GHz hybrid amplifiers;
(2) 20 GHz monolithic MESFET power amplifiers; (3) Texas Instruments' (TI) 20 GHz variable power
amplifier; (4) TI 20 GHz high power amplifier; (5) high efficiency monolithic power amplifiers; (6)
GHz high efficiency variable power amplifier; (7) TI 32 GHz monolithic power amplifier
performance; (8) design goals for Hughes' 32 GHz variable power amplifier; and (9) performance
goals for Hughes' pseudomorphic 60 GHz power amplifier.

288. Solid state, S-band, power amplifier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digrindakis, M.

1973-01-01

The final design and specifications for a solid state, S-band, power amplifier is reported. Modifications
from a previously proposed design were incorporated to improve efficiency and meet input overdrive
and noise floor requirements. Reports on the system design, driver amplifier, power amplifier, and
voltage and current limiter are included along with a discussion of the testing program.

289. Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation

DOEpatents

Brookshier, William

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1987-01-01

A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response
time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifier circuit includes a first operational
amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a
second feedback loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier
with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops
having equal values so that each break point or pole is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

290. Functional Electronic Amplifiers with Broad Dynamic Band,

DTIC Science & Technology

1983-09-27

dynamic properties of amplifiers, assembled on this type of amplifier instruments, it is expedient to


introduce the concept of the dynamic quality...qjvL> ql. 3. Amplifier has data: K" =K/m; , vus,, q -
q4cujvv.4 in Fig. 1). Functional amplifier is assembled on the block diagram Fig. 2b. It has...following
data: K-mr vv;m-v-mvv-" qpYmq j ey" As can be seen from the given examples, dynamic quality of
FU, assembled on the identical amplifier

291. Exploitation of stimulated Raman scattering in short-pulse fiber amplifiers.

PubMed

Zhou, Shian; Takamido, Tetsuji; Imai, Shinji; Wise, Frank

2010-07-15

Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) generally limits the performance of short-pulse fiber amplifiers.
We present the results of experiments that show that, under some conditions, SRS can extend the
performance of amplifiers limited by nonlinear phase accumulation. The Stokes spectrum can be free
of distortions arising from self-phase modulation and can circumvent the gain-narrowing limit of the
amplifier. The generation of 1 microJ and 90 fs pulses from a single-mode fiber amplifier illustrates
the potential of the process.

292. Modeling of a diode four-side pumped cesium vapor laser amplifier with flowing medium

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Xia, Chunsheng; Shen, Binglin; Xu, Xingqi; Pan, Bailiang

2017-03-01

A physical model for a flowing four-side pumped alkali vapor laser MOPA system, which considers
the saturation effect and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and cross-sectional temperature
distribution, is established to simulate the output performance of the cesium vapor amplifier.
According to the experimental parameters, the simulated result agrees well with the experiment, which
demonstrates the validity of this model. Influences of the seed power, the flowing velocity, and the cell
length on the amplified power are simulated and analyzed, and a set of optimal operating parameters
are obtained. Thus, the model can provide an effective way for designing an efficient side-pumped
flowing-gas alkali vapor amplifier.

293. Theoretical and experimental analysis of double-pass ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zhang, Pengfei; Su, Rongtao; Huang, Long; Du, Daiyan; Yang, Lijia

2016-11-01
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We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate a double-pass ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier. First,


we numerically analyze the impact of fiber length on the amplifier. In our experiment, a laser seed with
output power of 100 W and wavelength of 1064 nm is amplified to 51.2 mW with a signal gain of
27.1 dB. With this double-pass configuration, amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) is effectively
suppressed to more than 30 dB. Compared with single pass configuration, it is found that double-pass
amplification configuration enhances the gain coefficient and improves the signal-to-noise ratio.

294. Design and production of a new surface mount charge-integrating amplifier for CDF

SciTech Connect

Nelson, C.; Drake, G.

1991-12-31

We present our experiences in designing and producing 26,000 new charge-integrating amplifiers for
CDF, using surface-mount components. The new amplifiers were needed to instrument 920 new 24-
channel CDF RABBIT boards, which are replacing an older design rendered obsolete by increases in
the collision rate. Important design considerations were frequency response, physical size and cost. 5
refs.

295. Design and production of a new surface mount charge-integrating amplifier for CDF

SciTech Connect

Nelson, C.; Drake, G.

1991-01-01

We present our experiences in designing and producing 26,000 new charge-integrating amplifiers for
CDF, using surface-mount components. The new amplifiers were needed to instrument 920 new 24-
channel CDF RABBIT boards, which are replacing an older design rendered obsolete by increases in
the collision rate. Important design considerations were frequency response, physical size and cost. 5
refs.

296. Low-frequency switching in a transistor amplifier.

PubMed

Carroll, T L

2003-04-01

It is known from extensive work with the diode resonator that the nonlinear properties of a P-N
junction can lead to period doubling, chaos, and other complicated behaviors in a driven circuit. There
has been very little work on what happens when more than one P-N junction is present. In this work,
the first step towards multiple P-N junction circuits is taken by doing both experiments and
simulations with a single-transistor amplifier using a bipolar transistor. Period doubling and chaos are
seen when the amplifier is driven with signals between 100 kHz and 1 MHz, and they coincide with a
very low frequency switching between different period doubled (or chaotic) wave forms. The
switching frequencies are between 5 and 10 Hz. The switching behavior was confirmed in a simplified
model of the transistor amplifier.

297. HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS.

SciTech Connect

BEN-ZVI, ILAN, DAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.

2005-08-21
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Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford
University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL
PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the
most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in
wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier.
One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average
power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can
be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well
with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination
has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can
introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives
the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for
an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL
amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere
Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-
Accelerator Department.

298. High gain pre-amplifier laser beam quality evaluating system

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liu, Yang; Yu, Jin; Zhao, Tianzhuo; Zhang, Xue; Fan, Zhongwei

2011-06-01

Designed a system for the high gain laser pre-amplifier to evaluate the image quality. The system uses
4f imaging principle and Kepler type telescope was choiced, it has two advantages: avert optical
distortion and eliminate aberration in the measurement system. Combined with the location of the lens
inside of pre-amplifier such as the spatial filter , the near field imaging structure was designed. The
structure can be reduced to 11.9 times the beam image, and clearly passed the image to the CCD target
surface. The location of first positive lens focus is the location of far field image. In this article, one
laser pre-amplifier was measured. The average measured near field modulation M=1.34, the average
measured far field diffraction limit is 2.94. Experiments show that the stability of measuring system is
less than+/-5%, it can meet the measurement requirements of ICF laser pre-amplifier parameters. Use
this system we can discover the problem during the design and installation. There is great meaning for
develop of laser pre-amplifier in ICF for further.

299. Design and development of 1 KW solid state RF amplifier

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ashok, Gayatri; Kadia, Bhavesh; Jain, Pragya; Kulkarni, S. V.; ICRH-RF Group

2010-02-01

Since low power tube based RF amplifiers are complicated, occupy a large space and are bulky, the
efforts are on to develop indigenously 1 KW solid state technology based RF Power amplifier. A
power level of 1KW is chosen for the initial design because RF power Mosfets upto 250 watt are
easily available and by clubbing 3-4 stages the power level of 1 KW can be made. Presently design
and testing of 100-watt stage is in progress. The first 2 stages are designed to give 5 Watt RF power
using bipolar transistors and are operated in CE, Class A to provide low noise level at the output of the
system. The 3rd stage will be MOSFET based MRF 174, which is ideally suited for class A operation
and is designed for 100 Watt RF power. The last stage will be MOSFET based ARF446 power
MOSFET in TO-247 plastic package. This amplifier will be used in the classical push- pull
configuration. This paper describes the design aspects as well as the test results of 100 watt amplifier
on 50 Ohm dummy load along with the specifications, design criteria, circuit used, operating
parameters of 1 KW Solid State RF power amplifier to be used as driver for 91.2 MHz, 1.5 MW stage
for ICRH experiments on SST-1 tokamak .

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300. ULTRA-STABILIZED D. C. AMPLIFIER

DOEpatents

Hartwig, E.C.; Kuenning, R.W.; Acker, R.C.

1959-02-17

An improved circuit is described for stabilizing the drift and minimizing the noise and hum level of d-c
amplifiers so that the output voltage will be zero when the input is zero. In its detailed aspects, the
disclosed circuit incorporates a d-c amplifier having a signal input, a second input, and an output
circuit coupled back to the first input of the amplifier through inverse feedback means. An
electronically driven chopper having a pair of fixed contacts and a moveable contact alternately
connects the two inputs of a difference amplifier to the signal input. The A. E. error signal produced in
the difference amplifier is amplified, rectified, and applied to the second input of the amplifier as the
d-c stabilizing voltage.


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301. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Han, K. S.

1985-01-01

This semiannual progress report covers the period from April 1, 1985 to Sept. 30, 1985 under NASA
grant NAS1-441 entitled direct solar pumped iodine laser amplifier. During this period the parametric
studies of the iodine laser oscillator pumped by a Vortek simulator was carried out before the amplifier
studies. The amplifier studies are postponed to the extended period following completion of the
parametric studies. In addition, the kinetic modeling of a solar pumped iodine laser amplifier, and the
experimental work for a solar pumped dye laser amplifier are in progress. This report contains three
parts: (1) the radiation characteristics of solar simulator and the parametric characteristics of
photodissociation iodine laser continuously pumped by a Vortek solar simulator; (2) kinetic modeling
of a solar pumped iodine laser amplifier; and (3) the study of the dye laser amplifier pumped by a
Tamarack solar simulator.

302. High temperature charge amplifier for geothermal applications

DOEpatents

Lindblom, Scott C.; Maldonado, Frank J.; Henfling, Joseph A.

2015-12-08

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An amplifier circuit in a multi-chip module includes a charge to voltage converter circuit, a voltage
amplifier a low pass filter and a voltage to current converter. The charge to voltage converter receives
a signal representing an electrical charge and generates a voltage signal proportional to the input
signal. The voltage amplifier receives the voltage signal from the charge to voltage converter, then
amplifies the voltage signal by the gain factor to output an amplified voltage signal. The lowpass filter
passes low frequency components of the amplified voltage signal and attenuates frequency
components greater than a cutoff frequency. The voltage to current converter receives the output signal
of the lowpass filter and converts the output signal to a current output signal; wherein an amplifier
circuit output is selectable between the output signal of the lowpass filter and the current output signal.

303. Nondegenerate optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier

DOEpatents

Jovanovic, Igor; Ebbers, Christopher A.

2005-03-22

A system provides an input pump pulse and a signal pulse. A first dichroic beamsplitter is highly
reflective for the input signal pulse and highly transmissive for the input pump pulse. A first optical
parametric amplifier nonlinear crystal transfers part of the energy from the input pump pulse to the
input signal pulse resulting in a first amplified signal pulse and a first depleted pump pulse. A second
dichroic beamsplitter is highly reflective for the first amplified signal pulse and highly transmissive for
the first depleted pump pulse. A second optical parametric amplifier nonlinear crystal transfers part of
the energy from the first depleted pump pulse to the first amplified signal pulse resulting in a second
amplified signal pulse and a second depleted pump pulse. A third dichroic beamsplitter receives the
second amplified signal pulse and the second depleted pump pulse. The second depleted pump pulse is
discarded.

304. Charge amplifier with bias compensation

DOEpatents

Johnson, Gary W.

2002-01-01

An ion beam uniformity monitor for very low beam currents using a high-sensitivity charge amplifier
with bias compensation. The ion beam monitor is used to assess the uniformity of a raster-scanned ion
beam, such as used in an ion implanter, and utilizes four Faraday cups placed in the geometric corners
of the target area. Current from each cup is integrated with respect to time, thus measuring
accumulated dose, or charge, in Coulombs. By comparing the dose at each corner, a qualitative
assessment of ion beam uniformity is made possible. With knowledge of the relative area of the
Faraday cups, the ion flux and areal dose can also be obtained.

305. High temperature current mirror amplifier

DOEpatents

Patterson, R.B. III.

1984-05-22

Disclosed is a high temperature current mirror amplifier having biasing means in the transdiode
connection of the input transistor for producing a voltage to maintain the base-collector junction
reversed-biased and a current means for maintaining a current through the biasing means at high
temperatures so that the base-collector junction of the input transistor remained reversed-biased. For
accuracy, a second current mirror is provided with a biasing means and current means on the input leg.
2 figs.

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306. Compressed magnetic flux amplifier with capacitive load

SciTech Connect

Stuetzer, O.M.

1980-03-01

A first-order analysis is presented for a compressed magnetic flux (CMF) current amplifier working
into a load with a capacitive component. Since the purpose of the investigation was to gain a general
understanding of the arrangement, a number of approximations and limitations were accepted. The
inductance of the transducer varies with time; the inductance/resistance/capacitance (LRC) circuit
therefore is parametric and solutions are different for the stable regime (high C), the oscillation regime
(low C), and the transition case. Solutions and performance depend strongly on circuit boundary
conditions, i.e., energization of the circuit by either an injected current or by an applied capacitor
charge. The behavior of current and energy amplification for the various cases are discussed in detail.
A number of experiments with small CMF devices showed that the first-order theory presented
predicts transducer performance well in the linear regime.

307. Development of a 3D FEL code for the simulation of a high-gain harmonic generation experiment.

SciTech Connect

Biedron, S. G.

1999-02-26

Over the last few years, there has been a growing interest in self-amplified spontaneous emission
(SASE) free-electron lasers (FELs) as a means for achieving a fourth-generation light source. In order
to correctly and easily simulate the many configurations that have been suggested, such as multi-
segmented wigglers and the method of high-gain harmonic generation, we have developed a robust
three-dimensional code. The specifics of the code, the comparison to the linear theory as well as future
plans will be presented.

308. High power RF solid state power amplifier system

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sims, III, William Herbert (Inventor); Chavers, Donald Gregory (Inventor); Richeson, James J.
(Inventor)

2011-01-01

A high power, high frequency, solid state power amplifier system includes a plurality of input multiple
port splitters for receiving a high-frequency input and for dividing the input into a plurality of outputs
and a plurality of solid state amplifier units. Each amplifier unit includes a plurality of amplifiers, and
each amplifier is individually connected to one of the outputs of multiport splitters and produces a
corresponding amplified output. A plurality of multiport combiners combine the amplified outputs of
the amplifiers of each of the amplifier units to a combined output. Automatic level control protection
circuitry protects the amplifiers and maintains a substantial constant amplifier power output.

309. High power operation of an X-band coaxial multi-beam relativistic klystron amplifier

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liu, Zhenbang; Huang, Hua; Jin, Xiao; Zhao, Yucong; He, Hu; Lei, Lurong; Chen, Zhaofu

2013-11-01

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An X-band coaxial multi-beam relativistic klystron amplifier is designed in order to increase output
microwave power and operating frequency of the amplifier tube. The experiment is performed on a
Tesla-type accelerator. The amplifier is driven by an electron beam of 2.8 kA at 720 kV, and a
microwave power of 30 kW and frequency of 9.384 GHz is injected into an input cavity by means of
an external source, then a microwave power of over 800 MW is extracted, the amplifier gain is about
44 dB, and conversion efficiency is 40%. The experiment proves that output power of nearly GWs can
be generated with the X-band coaxial multi-beam relativistic klystron amplifier driven by a kW-level
input power.

310. High power operation of an X-band coaxial multi-beam relativistic klystron amplifier

SciTech Connect

Liu, Zhenbang; Huang, Hua; Jin, Xiao; Zhao, Yucong; He, Hu; Lei, Lurong; Chen, Zhaofu

2013-11-15

An X-band coaxial multi-beam relativistic klystron amplifier is designed in order to increase output
microwave power and operating frequency of the amplifier tube. The experiment is performed on a
Tesla-type accelerator. The amplifier is driven by an electron beam of 2.8 kA at 720 kV, and a
microwave power of 30 kW and frequency of 9.384 GHz is injected into an input cavity by means of
an external source, then a microwave power of over 800 MW is extracted, the amplifier gain is about
44 dB, and conversion efficiency is 40%. The experiment proves that output power of nearly GWs can
be generated with the X-band coaxial multi-beam relativistic klystron amplifier driven by a kW-level
input power.

311. Signal-Conditioning Amplifier Recorders

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Medelius, Pedro J.; Taylor, John

2003-01-01

Signal-conditioning amplifier recorders (SCAmpRs) have been proposed as a means of simplifying


and upgrading the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Ground Measurement System (GMS), which is a
versatile data-acquisition system that gathers and records a variety of measurement data before and
during the launch of a space shuttle. In the present version of the GMS system, signal conditioning
amplifiers digitize and transmit data to a VME chassis that multiplexes up to 416 channels. The data is
transmitted via a high-speed data bus to a second VME chassis where it is available for snapshots. The
data is passed from the second VME chassis to a high-speed data recorder. This process is duplicated
for installations at two launch pads and the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). Since any failure of
equipment in the data path results in loss of data, much of the system is redundant. The architecture of
the existing GMS limits expansion or any modification to the system to meet changing requirements
because of the cost and time required. A SCAmpR-based system is much more flexible. The basis of
the simplification, flexibility, and reliability is the shifting of the recording function to the individual
amplifier channels. Each SCAmpR is a self-contained single channel data acquisition system, which in
its current implementation, has a data storage capacity of up to 30 minutes when operating at the
fastest data sampling rates. The SCAmpR channels are self-configuring and self-calibrating. Multiple
SCAmpR channels are ganged on printed circuit boards and mounted in a chassis that provides power,
a network hub, and Inter-Range Instrument Group (IRIG) time signals. The SCAmpR channels share
nothing except physical mounting on a circuit board. All circuitry is electrically separate for each
channel. All that is necessary to complete the data acquisition system is a single master computer tied
to the SCAmpR channels by standard network equipment. The size of the data acquisition system

312. Multistaged stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier

DOEpatents

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Kurnit, Norman A.

1980-01-01

A multistaged Stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier for providing a high gain Stokes
output signal. The amplifier uses a plurality of optically coupled capillary waveguide amplifiers and
one or more regenerative amplifiers to increase Stokes gain to a level sufficient for power
amplification. Power amplification is provided by a multifocused Raman gain cell or a large diameter
capillary waveguide. An external source of CO.sub.2 laser radiation can be injected into each of the
capillary waveguide amplifier stages to increase Raman gain. Devices for injecting external sources of
CO.sub.2 radiation include: dichroic mirrors, prisms, gratings and Ge Brewster plates. Alternatively,
the CO.sub.2 input radiation to the first stage can be coupled and amplified between successive stages.

313. High-efficiency solid state power amplifier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wallis, Robert E. (Inventor); Cheng, Sheng (Inventor)

2005-01-01

A high-efficiency solid state power amplifier (SSPA) for specific use in a spacecraft is provided. The
SSPA has a mass of less than 850 g and includes two different X-band power amplifier sections, i.e., a
lumped power amplifier with a single 11-W output and a distributed power amplifier with eight 2.75-
W outputs. These two amplifier sections provide output power that is scalable from 11 to 15 watts
without major design changes. Five different hybrid microcircuits, including high-efficiency
Heterostructure Field Effect Transistor (HFET) amplifiers and Monolithic Microwave Integrated
Circuit (MMIC) phase shifters have been developed for use within the SSPA. A highly efficient
packaging approach enables the integration of a large number of hybrid circuits into the SSPA.

314. Transverse pumped laser amplifier architecture

DOEpatents

Bayramian, Andrew James; Manes, Kenneth R.; Deri, Robert; Erlandson, Alvin; Caird, John; Spaeth,
Mary L.

2015-05-19

An optical gain architecture includes a pump source and a pump aperture. The architecture also
includes a gain region including a gain element operable to amplify light at a laser wavelength. The
gain region is characterized by a first side intersecting an optical path, a second side opposing the first
side, a third side adjacent the first and second sides, and a fourth side opposing the third side. The
architecture further includes a dichroic section disposed between the pump aperture and the first side
of the gain region. The dichroic section is characterized by low reflectance at a pump wavelength and
high reflectance at the laser wavelength. The architecture additionally includes a first cladding section
proximate to the third side of the gain region and a second cladding section proximate to the fourth
side of the gain region.

315. Transverse pumped laser amplifier architecture

DOEpatents

Bayramian, Andrew James; Manes, Kenneth; Deri, Robert; Erlandson, Al; Caird, John; Spaeth, Mary

2013-07-09

An optical gain architecture includes a pump source and a pump aperture. The architecture also
includes a gain region including a gain element operable to amplify light at a laser wavelength. The
gain region is characterized by a first side intersecting an optical path, a second side opposing the first
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side, a third side adjacent the first and second sides, and a fourth side opposing the third side. The
architecture further includes a dichroic section disposed between the pump aperture and the first side
of the gain region. The dichroic section is characterized by low reflectance at a pump wavelength and
high reflectance at the laser wavelength. The architecture additionally includes a first cladding section
proximate to the third side of the gain region and a second cladding section proximate to the fourth
side of the gain region.

316. Hydraulically amplified PZT mems actuator

DOEpatents

Miles, Robin R.

2004-11-02

A hydraulically amplified microelectromechanical systems actuator. A piece of piezoelectric material


or stacked piezo bimorph is bonded or deposited as a thin film. The piece is operatively connected to a
primary membrane. A reservoir is operatively connected to the primary membrane. The reservoir
contains a fluid. A membrane is operatively connected to the reservoir. In operation, energizing the
piezoelectric material causing the piezoelectric material to bow. Bowing of the piezoelectric material
causes movement of the primary membrane. Movement of the primary membrane results in a force in
being transmitted to the liquid in the reservoir. The force in the liquid causes movement of the
membrane. Movement of the membrane results in an operating actuator.

317. A THEORY FOR BROADBAND VARACTOR PARAMETRIC AMPLIFIERS

DTIC Science & Technology

This thesis is concerned with the development of a general and rigorous broadbanding theory for
varactor parametric amplifiers . Fundamental gain...bandwidth limitations of a varactor parametric
amplifier are obtained which are independent of the equalizer. Results obtained in this theory lead to
the...design and synthesis of broadband varactor parametric amplifiers . The circuit considered in this
thesis is that of linear variable capacitors embedded

318. A dc amplifier for nuclear particle measurement

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Macnee, A. B.; Masnari, N. A.

1978-01-01

A monolithic preamplifier-postamplifier combination has been developed for use with solid state
particle detectors. The direct coupled amplifiers employ interdigitated n-channel JFET's, diodes, and
diffused resistors. The circuits developed demonstrate the feasibility of matching the performance of
existing discrete component designs. The fabrication procedures for the monolithic amplifier
fabrication are presented and the results of measurements on a limited number of sample amplifiers are
given.

319. Class E/F switching power amplifiers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor); Rutledge, David B. (Inventor); Kee, Scott
David (Inventor)

2004-01-01

The present invention discloses a new family of switching amplifier classes called class E/F amplifiers.
These amplifiers are generally characterized by their use of the zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) phase
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correction technique to eliminate of the loss normally associated with the inherent capacitance of the
switching device as utilized in class-E amplifiers, together with a load network for improved voltage
and current wave-shaping by presenting class-F.sup.-1 impedances at selected overtones and class-E
impedances at the remaining overtones. The present invention discloses a several topologies and
specific circuit implementations for achieving such performance.

320. Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation

DOEpatents

Brookshier, W.

1985-02-08

A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response
time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifer circuit includes a first operational
amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a
second feedstock loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier
with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops
having equal values so that each break point is offset by a compensating break point or zero.


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321. Teaching the Common Emitter Amplifier.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ellse, Mark D.

1984-01-01

Describes experiments in which a bipolar transistor is used to examine the behavior of a simple circuit.
Also addresses problems in teaching the related concepts. (The experiments can be modified to
incorporate devices other than bipolar transistors.) (JN)

322. Ping-pong auto-zero amplifier with glitch reduction

DOEpatents

Larson, Mark R.

2008-01-22

A ping-pong amplifier with reduced glitching is described. The ping-pong amplifier includes a nulling
amplifier coupled to a switching network. The switching network is used to auto-zero a ping amplifier
within a ping-pong amplifier. The nulling amplifier drives the output of a ping amplifier to a proper
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output voltage level during auto-zeroing of the ping amplifier. By being at a proper output voltage
level, glitches associated with transitioning between a ping amplifier and a pong amplifier are reduced
or eliminated.

323. Large area electron beam pumped krypton fluoride laser amplifier

SciTech Connect

Sethian, J.D.; Obenschain, S.P.; Gerber, K.A.; Pawley, C.J.; Serlin, V.; Sullivan, C.A.; Webster, W.;
Deniz, A.V.; Lehecka, T.; McGeoch, M.W.; Altes, R.A.; Corcoran, P.A.; Smith, I.D.; Barr, O.C.

1997-06-01

Nike is a recently completed multi-kilojoule krypton fluoride (KrF) laser that has been built to study
the physics of direct drive inertial confinement fusion. This paper describes in detail both the pulsed
power and optical performance of the largest amplifier in the Nike laser, the 60 cm amplifier. This is a
double pass, double sided, electron beam-pumped system that amplifies the laser beam from an input
of 50 J to an output of up to 5 kJ. It has an optical aperture of 60 cm {times} 60 cm and a gain length
of 200 cm. The two electron beams are 60 cm high {times} 200 cm wide, have a voltage of 640 kV, a
current of 540 kA, and a flat top power pulse duration of 250 ns. A 2 kG magnetic field is used to
guide the beams and prevent self-pinching. Each electron beam is produced by its own Marx/pulse
forming line system. The amplifier has been fully integrated into the Nike system and is used on a
daily basis for laser-target experiments. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

324. Noise figure of hybrid optical parametric amplifiers.

PubMed

Marhic, Michel E

2012-12-17

Following a fiber optical parametric amplifier, used as a wavelength converter or in the phase-sensitive
mode, by a phase-insensitive amplifier (PIA) can significantly reduce four-wave mixing between
signals in broadband systems. We derive the quantum mechanical noise figures (NF) for these two
hybrid configurations, and show that adding the PIA only leads to a moderate increase in NF.

325. DESIGN OF A MOLECULAR AMPLIFIER GROUP.

DTIC Science & Technology

would be capable of field operation. The Molecular Amplifier Group consists of a traveling -wave
amplifier and sufficient support equipment to provide...Ferrite disks of yttrium iron garnet are
incorporated in the traveling -wave maser structure to provide sufficient reverse loss for short-circuit

326. Thermal recovery measurements on multi-segment amplifiers

SciTech Connect

Rotter, M.D.; McCracken, R.W.; Erlandson, A.C.; Brown, D.

1995-09-21

We present the results of a series of experiments to measure the thermal recovery times of a flashlamp-
pumped, Nd:Glass multi-segment laser amplifier. In particular, we investigated the thermal recovery
times under the following cooling options: (1) passive cooling; (2) active cooling of the flashlamp
cassettes, and (3) active cooling of the flashlamp cassettes and gas flow in the pump cavity.

327. Ultrafast disk lasers and amplifiers

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NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sutter, Dirk H.; Kleinbauer, Jochen; Bauer, Dominik; Wolf, Martin; Tan, Chuong; Gebs, Raphael;
Budnicki, Aleksander; Wagenblast, Philipp; Weiler, Sascha

2012-03-01

Disk lasers with multi-kW continuous wave (CW) output power are widely used in manufacturing,
primarily for cutting and welding applications, notably in the automotive industry. The ytterbium disk
technology combines high power (average and/or peak power), excellent beam quality, high efficiency,
and high reliability with low investment and operating costs. Fundamental mode picosecond disk
lasers are well established in micro machining at high throughput and perfect precision. Following the
world's first market introduction of industrial grade 50 W picosecond lasers (TruMicro 5050) at the
Photonics West 2008, the second generation of the TruMicro series 5000 now provides twice the
average power (100 W at 1030 nm, or 60 W frequency doubled, green output) at a significantly
reduced footprint. Mode-locked disk oscillators achieve by far the highest average power of any
unamplified lasers, significantly exceeding the 100 W level in laboratory set-ups. With robust long
resonators their multi-microjoule pulse energies begin to compete with typical ultrafast amplifiers. In
addition, significant interest in disk technology has recently come from the extreme light laser
community, aiming for ultra-high peak powers of petawatts and beyond.

328. Multi-pass light amplifier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plaessmann, Henry (Inventor); Grossman, William M. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

A multiple-pass laser amplifier that uses optical focusing between subsequent passes through a single
gain medium so that a reproducibly stable beam size is achieved within the gain region. A confocal
resonator or White Cell resonator is provided, including two or three curvilinearly shaped mirrors
facing each other along a resonator axis and an optical gain medium positioned on the resonator axis
between the mirrors (confocal resonator) or adjacent to one of the mirrors (White Cell). In a first
embodiment, two mirrors, which may include adjacent lenses, are configured so that a light beam
passing through the gain medium and incident on the first mirror is reflected by that mirror toward the
second mirror in a direction approximately parallel to the resonator axis. A light beam translator, such
as an optical flat of transparent material, is positioned to translate this light beam by a controllable
amount toward or away from the resonator axis for each pass of the light beam through the translator.
The optical gain medium may be solid-state, liquid or gaseous medium and may be pumped
longitudinally or transversely. In a second embodiment, first and second mirrors face a third mirror in a
White Cell configuration, and the optical gain medium is positioned at or adjacent to one of the
mirrors. Defocusing means and optical gain medium cooling means are optionally provided with either
embodiment, to controllably defocus the light beam, to cool the optical gain medium and to suppress
thermal lensing in the gain medium.

329. Post pulse shutter for laser amplifier

DOEpatents

Bradley, L.P.; Carder, B.M.; Gagnon, W.L.

1981-03-17

Disclosed are an apparatus and method for quickly closing off the return path for an amplified laser
pulse at the output of an amplifier so as to prevent damage to amplifiers and other optical components
appearing earlier in the chain by the return of an amplified pulse. The apparatus consists of a fast
retropulse or post pulse shutter to suppress target reflection and/or beam return. This is accomplished
by either quickly placing a solid across the light transmitting aperture of a component in the chain,
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such as a spatial filter pinhole, or generating and directing a plasma with sufficiently high density
across the aperture, so as to, in effect, close the aperture to the returning amplified energy pulse. 13
figs.

330. Dual-range linearized transimpedance amplifier system

DOEpatents

Wessendorf, Kurt O.

2010-11-02

A transimpedance amplifier system is disclosed which simultaneously generates a low-gain output


signal and a high-gain output signal from an input current signal using a single transimpedance
amplifier having two different feedback loops with different amplification factors to generate two
different output voltage signals. One of the feedback loops includes a resistor, and the other feedback
loop includes another resistor in series with one or more diodes. The transimpedance amplifier system
includes a signal linearizer to linearize one or both of the low- and high-gain output signals by scaling
and adding the two output voltage signals from the transimpedance amplifier. The signal linearizer can
be formed either as an analog device using one or two summing amplifiers, or alternately can be
formed as a digital device using two analog-to-digital converters and a digital signal processor (e.g. a
microprocessor or a computer).

331. Post pulse shutter for laser amplifier

DOEpatents

Bradley, Laird P. [Livermore, CA; Carder, Bruce M. [Antioch, CA; Gagnon, William L. [Berkeley, CA

1981-03-17

Apparatus and method for quickly closing off the return path for an amplified laser pulse at the output
of an amplifier so as to prevent damage to amplifiers and other optical components appearing earlier in
the chain by the return of an amplified pulse. The apparatus consists of a fast retropulse or post pulse
shutter to suppress target reflection and/or beam return. This is accomplished by either quickly placing
a solid across the light transmitting aperture of a component in the chain, such as a spatial filter
pinhole, or generating and directing a plasma with sufficiently high density across the aperture, so as
to, in effect, close the aperture to the returning amplified energy pulse.

332. Design and performance of the beamlet amplifiers

SciTech Connect

Erlandson, A.C.; Rotter, M.D.; Frank, M.D.; McCracken, R.W.

1996-06-01

In future laser systems, such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF), multi-segment amplifiers (MSAs)
will be used to amplify the laser beam to the required levels. As a prototype of such a laser
architecture, the authors have designed, built, and tested flash-lamp-pumped, Nd:Glass, Brewster-
angle slab MSAs for the Beamlet project. In this article, they review the fundamentals of Nd:Glass
amplifiers, describe the MSA geometry, discuss parameters that are important in amplifier design, and
present our results on the characterization of the Beamlet MSAs. In particular, gain and beam steering
measurements show that the Beamlet amplifiers meet all optical performance specifications and
perform close to model predictions.

333. Bandwidth tunable amplifier for recording biopotential signals.

PubMed

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Hwang, Sungkil; Aninakwa, Kofi; Sonkusale, Sameer

2010-01-01

This paper presents a low noise, low power, bandwidth tunable amplifier for bio-potential signal
recording applications. By employing depletion-mode pMOS transistor in diode configuration as a
tunable sub pA current source to adjust the resistivity of MOS-Bipolar pseudo-resistor, the bandwidth
is adjusted without any need for a separate band-pass filter stage. For high CMRR, PSRR and dynamic
range, a fully differential structure is used in the design of the amplifier. The amplifier achieves a
midband gain of 39.8dB with a tunable high-pass cutoff frequency ranging from 0.1Hz to 300Hz. The
amplifier is fabricated in 0.18m CMOS process and occupies 0.14mm(2) of chip area. A three
electrode ECG measurement is performed using the proposed amplifier to show its feasibility for low
power, compact wearable ECG monitoring application.

334. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Han, K. S.

1986-01-01

During this period the parametric studies of the iodine laser oscillator pumped by a Vortek simulator
were carried out before amplifier studies. The amplifier studies are postponed to the extended period
after completing the parametric studies. In addition, the kinetic modeling of a solar-pumped iodine
laser amplifier, and the experimental work for a solar pumped dye laser amplifier are in progress. This
report contains three parts: (1) a 10 W CW iodine laser pumped by a Vortek solar simulator; (2) kinetic
modeling to predict the time to lasing threshold, lasing time, and energy output of solar-pumped iodine
laser; and (3) the study of the dye laser amplifier pumped by a Tamarack solar simulator.

335. KrF amplifier design issues and application to ICF system design

SciTech Connect

Sullivan, J.A.; Allen, G.R.; Berggren, R.R.; Czuchlewski, S.J.; Harris, D.B.; Jones, M.E.; Krohn, B.J.;
Kurnit, N.A.; Leland, W.T.; Mansfield, C.; McLeod, J.; McCown, A.W.; McLeod, J.; Pendergrass,
J.H.; Rose, E.A.; Rosocha, L.A.; Thomas, V.A.

1991-01-01

Los Alamos National Laboratory has assembled an array of experimental and theoretical tools to
optimize amplifier design for future KrF lasers. The next opportunity to exercise these tools is with the
design of the second generation NIKE system under construction at the Naval Research Laboratory
with the collaboration of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Major issues include laser physics (energy
extraction in large modules with amplified spontaneous emission) and diode performance and
efficiency. High efficiency and low cost are increasingly important for larger future KrF amplifiers. In
this paper we present our approach to amplifier scaling and discuss the more important design
considerations for large KrF amplifiers. We point out where improvements in the fundamental data
base for KrF amplifiers could lead to increased confidence in performance predictions for large
amplifiers, and we address the currently unresolved issues of anomalous absorption near line center
and the possibility of diode instabilities for low impedance designs. Los Alamos has designed a 100-kJ
KrF laser-fusion system for both direct- and indirect-drive target physics experiments using 60-kJ
amplifier modules. The design of this system will be reviewed. 38 refs., 110 figs., 3 tabs.

336. Progress on diamond amplified photo-cathode

SciTech Connect

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Wang, E.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Burrill, A.; Kewisch, J.; Chang, X.; Rao, T.; Smedley, J.; Wu, Q.; Muller, E.;
Xin, T.

2011-03-28

Two years ago, we obtained an emission gain of 40 from the Diamond Amplifier Cathode (DAC) in
our test system. In our current systematic study of hydrogenation, the highest gain we registered in
emission scanning was 178. We proved that our treatments for improving the diamond amplifiers are
reproducible. Upcoming tests planned include testing DAC in a RF cavity. Already, we have designed
a system for these tests using our 112 MHz superconducting cavity, wherein we will measure DAC
parameters, such as the limit, if any, on emission current density, the bunch charge, and the bunch
length. The diamond-amplified photocathode, that promises to support a high average current, low
emittance, and a highly stable electron beam with a long lifetime, is under development for an electron
source. The diamond, functioning as a secondary emitter amplifies the primary current, with a few
KeV energy, that comes from the traditional cathode. Earlier, our group recorded a maximum gain of
40 in the secondary electron emission from a diamond amplifier. In this article, we detail our
optimization of the hydrogenation process for a diamond amplifier that resulted in a stable emission
gain of 140. We proved that these characteristics are reproducible. We now are designing a system to
test the diamond amplifier cathode using an 112MHz SRF gun to measure the limits of the emission
current's density, and on the bunch charge and bunch length.

337. Quasi-optical constrained lens amplifiers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Schoenberg, Jon S.

1995-09-01

A major goal in the field of quasi-optics is to increase the power available from solid state sources by
combining the power of individual devices in free space, as demonstrated with grid oscillators and grid
amplifiers. Grid amplifiers and most amplifier arrays require a plane wave feed, provided by a far field
source or at the beam waist of a dielectric lens pair. These feed approaches add considerable loss and
size, which is usually greater than the quasi-optical amplifier gain. In addition, grid amplifiers require
external polarizers for stability, further increasing size and complexity. This thesis describes using
constrained lens theory in the design of quasi optical amplifier arrays with a focal point feed,
improving the power coupling between the feed and the amplifier for increased gain. Feed and
aperture arrays of elements, input/output isolation and stability, amplifier circuitry, delay lines and bias
distribution are all contained on a single planar substrate, making monolithic circuit integration
possible. Measured results of X band transmission lenses and a low noise receive lens are presented,
including absolute power gain up to 13 dB, noise figure as low as 1.7 dB, beam scanning to +/-30 deg,
beam forming and beam switching of multiple sources, and multiple level quasi-optical power
combining. The design and performance of millimeter wave power combining amplifier arrays is
described, including a Ka Band hybrid array with 1 watt output power, and a V Band 36 element
monolithic array with a 5 dB on/off ratio.

338. Diode amplifier of modulated optical beam power

SciTech Connect

D'yachkov, N V; Bogatov, A P; Gushchik, T I; Drakin, A E

2014-11-30

Analytical relations are obtained between characteristics of modulated light at the output and input of
an optical diode power amplifier operating in the highly saturated gain regime. It is shown that a diode
amplifier may act as an amplitude-to-phase modulation converter with a rather large bandwidth (10
GHz). The low sensitivity of the output power of the amplifier to the input beam power and its high

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energy efficiency allow it to be used as a building block of a high-power multielement laser system
with coherent summation of a large number of optical beams. (lasers)

339. High Efficiency Microwave Power Amplifier (HEMPA) Design

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sims, W. Herbert

2004-01-01

This paper will focus on developing an exotic switching technique that enhances the DC-to-RF
conversion efficiency of microwave power amplifiers. For years, switching techniques implemented in
the 10 kHz to 30 MHz region have resulted in DC-to-RF conversion efficiencies of 90-95-percent.
Currently amplifier conversion efficiency, in the 2-3 GHz region approaches, 10-20-percent. Using a
combination of analytical modeling and hardware testing, a High Efficiency Microwave Power
Amplifier was built that demonstrated conversion efficiencies four to five times higher than current
state of the art.

340. Self-Amplified Optical Pattern Recognizer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liu, Hua-Kuang

1993-01-01

Self-amplified optical pattern recognizers developed for use in recognition of patterns, in optical
computing, and in optoelectronic neural networks. In recognizer, photorefractive crystal serves as
medium in which one holographically records diffraction-grating filter representing pattern with which
recognition sought. Apparatus "self-amplified" because signal amplified within filter to many orders of
magnitude greater than in prior optical pattern recognizers. Basic principle of operation applicable to
many types of correlation filters, including (but not limited to) Vander Lugt matched filters, joint-
transform filters, and phase-only filters.


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341. Achieving and maintaining cleanliness in NIF amplifiers

SciTech Connect

Burnham, A. K.; Horvath, J. A.; Letts, S. A.; Menapace, J. A.; Stowers, I. F.

1998-07-28

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Cleanliness measurements made on AMPLAB prototype National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser
amplifiers during assembly, cassette transfer, and amplifier operation are summarized. These
measurements include particle counts from surface cleanliness assessments using filter swipe
techniques and from airborne particle monitoring. Results are compared with similar measurements
made on the Beamlet and Nova lasers and in flashlamp test fixtures. Observations of Class 100,000
aerosols after flashlamp firings are discussed. Comparisons are made between typical damage densities
on laser amplifier optics from Novette, NOVA, Beamlet, and AMPLAB.

342. Quantum coherence effects in a Raman amplifier

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Harun, S. W.; Ahmad, H.

2011-01-01

We have studied optical pulse propagation in a Raman fiber amplifier doped with a three-level medium
and driven by a control laser pulse. We analyze the spatial-temporal dynamics of pulse propagation for
different atomic initial conditions. The propagation of an optical pulse through the amplifier can be
sustained by a control laser that induces transparency via quantum coherence, which is useful for
extending the distance between optical repeaters. Under certain conditions, amplification is achieved
without population inversion. The results could be useful for laser control of optical pulses in
amplifiers and waveguides.

343. The 60 GHz solid state power amplifier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mcclymonds, J.

1991-01-01

A new amplifier architecture was developed during this contract that is superior to any other solid state
approach. The amplifier produced 6 watts with 4 percent efficiency over a 2 GHz band at 61.5 GHz.
The unit was 7 x 9 x 3 inches in size, 5.5 pounds in weight, and the conduction cooling through the
baseplate is suitable for use in space. The amplifier used high efficiency GaAs IMPATT diodes which
were mounted in 1-diode circuits, called modules. Eighteen modules were used in the design, and
power combining was accomplished with a proprietary passive component called a combiner plate.

344. Multi-pass light amplifier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plaessmann, Henry (Inventor); Grossman, William M. (Inventor); Olson, Todd E. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

A multiple-pass laser amplifier that uses optical focusing between subsequent passes through a single
gain medium so that a reproducibly stable beam size is achieved within the gain region. A resonator or
a White Cell cavity is provided, including two or more mirrors (planar or curvilinearly shaped) facing
each other along a resonator axis and an optical gain medium positioned on a resonator axis between
the mirrors or adjacent to one of the mirrors. In a first embodiment, two curvilinear mirrors, which
may include adjacent lenses, are configured so that a light beam passing through the gain medium and
incident on the first mirror is reflected by that mirror toward the second mirror in a direction
approximately parallel to the resonator axis. A light beam translator, such as an optical flat of
transparent material, is positioned to translate this light beam by a controllable amount toward or away
from the resonator axis for each pass of the light beam through the translator. A second embodiment
uses two curvilinear mirrors and one planar mirror, with a gain medium positioned in the optical path
between each curvilinear mirror and the planar mirror. A third embodiment uses two curvilinear

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mirrors and two planar mirrors, with a gain medium positioned adjacent to a planar mirror. A fourth
embodiment uses a curvilinear mirror and three planar mirrors, with a gain medium positioned
adjacent to a planar mirror. A fourth embodiment uses four planar mirrors and a focusing lens system,
with a gain medium positioned between the four mirrors. A fifth embodiment uses first and second
planar mirrors, a focusing lens system and a third mirror that may be planar or curvilinear, with a gain
medium positioned adjacent to the third mirror. A sixth embodiment uses two planar mirrors and a
curvilinear mirror and a fourth mirror that may be planar or curvilinear, with a gain medium positioned
adjacent to the fourth mirror. In a seventh embodiment, first and second mirrors face a third

345. High-energy nanosecond radially polarized beam output from Nd:YAG amplifiers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chang, Chengcheng; Chen, Xudong; Pu, Jixiong

2017-03-01

Radially polarized laser beam amplification up to the 772 mJ using flash-lamp-pumped Nd:YAG
amplifiers was demonstrated. In the experiments, a nanosecond radially polarized seed beam was
converted from a conventional Q-switched Nd:YAG laser output with a polarization converter and then
amplified with two Nd:YAG amplifier stages. A maximum amplification output energy up to 772 mJ
was achieved at 10 Hz with a 10-ns pulse, corresponding to an amplification factor of 323%. Excellent
conservation of polarization was also obtained during the amplification.

346. Modelling nanofluidic field amplified sample stacking with inhomogeneous surface charge

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

McCallum, Christopher; Pennathur, Sumita

2015-11-01

Nanofluidic technology has exceptional applications as a platform for biological sample


preconcentration, which will allow for an effective electronic detection method of low concentration
analytes. One such preconcentration method is field amplified sample stacking, a capillary
electrophoresis technique that utilizes large concentration differences to generate high electric field
gradients, causing the sample of interest to form a narrow, concentrated band. Field amplified sample
stacking has been shown to work well at the microscale, with models and experiments confirming
expected behavior. However, nanofluidics allows for further concentration enhancement due to
focusing of the sample ions toward the channel center by the electric double layer. We have developed
a two-dimensional model that can be used for both micro- and nanofluidics, fully accounting for the
electric double layer. This model has been used to investigate even more complex physics such as the
role of inhomogeneous surface charge.

347. Graphene-based side-polished optical fiber amplifier.

PubMed

Karimi, Mohammad; Ahmadi, Vahid; Ghezelsefloo, Masoud

2016-12-20

We demonstrate a novel design for optical fiber amplifiers, utilizing side-polished fibers with a single-
layer graphene overlay as the active medium and carrier injection in the graphene layer to provide the
required inversion. We study the effects of an electrically induced graphene p-i-n heterojunction in the
forward bias regime on optical modes of side-polished fibers and show that gain values of 0.51, 1.81,
and 1.79 dB/cm for wavelengths 1064, 1330, and 1550 nm can be obtained for single-mode side-
polished fibers. Our results show that in multi-mode side-polished fibers, higher order modes
experience higher values of gain, and gain can be increased by increasing polished depth. The

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proposed system is a tunable wideband optical amplifier that can operate for wavelengths larger than
1000 nm.

348. Physics of vertically integrated waveguide photodetectors and amplifiers. Final report

SciTech Connect

Wright, E.M.

1993-11-01

This report describes the efforts supported by LLNL under the Subcontract No. B239593 at the
University of Arizona during the Fiscal Year 1992. A solid physical foundation has been developed for
understanding the operation of vertically integrated photodetectors and amplifiers. This has been
achieved through a combination of numerical simulation and development of simple coupled-mode
theories. Coupled-mode theory has been used to elucidate the physics underlying the operation of
vertically integrated photodetectors. In particular, the relation between the spatial transients observed
in experiments and numerical simulations, and the non-power orthogonality of the underlying modes
has been clarified. The coupled-mode theory has been extended to the case of coupled waveguide-
amplifiers.

349. Investigation of an X-band gigawatt long pulse multi-beam relativistic klystron amplifier

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liu, Zhenbang; Huang, Hua; Lei, Lurong; Jin, Xiao; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Ganping; He, Hu; Wu, Yao; Ge,
Yi; Yuan, Huan; Chen, Zhaofu

2015-09-01

To achieve a gigawatt-level long pulse radiation power in X-band, a multi-beam relativistic klystron
amplifier is proposed and studied experimentally. By introducing 18 electron drift tubes and extended
interaction cavities, the power capacity of the device is increased. A radiation power of 1.23 GW with
efficiency of 41% and amplifier gain of 46 dB is obtained in the particle-in-cell simulation. Under
conditions of a 10 Hz repeat frequency and an input RF power of 30 kW, a radiation power of 0.9 GW,
frequency of 9.405 GHz, pulse duration of 105 ns, and efficiency of 30% is generated in the
experiment, and the amplifier gain is about 45 dB. Both the simulation and the experiment prove that
the multi-beam relativistic klystron amplifier can generate a long pulse GW-level radiation power in
X-band.

350. Cryogenic Amplifier Based Receivers at Submillimeter Wavelengths

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Reck, Theodore and; Schlecht, Erich; Lin, Robert; Deal, William

2012-01-01

The operating frequency of InP high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) based amplifiers has moved
well in the submillimeter-wave frequencies over the last couple of years. Working amplifiers with
usable gain in waveguide packages has been reported beyond 700 GHz. When cooled cryogenically,
they have shown substantial improvement in their noise temperature. This has opened up the real
possibility of cryogenic amplifier based heterodyne receivers at submillimeter wavelengths for ground-
based, air-borne, and space-based instruments for astrophysics, planetary, and Earth science
applications. This paper provides an overview of the science applications at submillimeter wavelengths
that will benefit from this technology. It also describes the current state of the InP HEMT based
cryogenic amplifier receivers at submillimeter wavelengths.

351. Noise in phase-preserving linear amplifiers

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SciTech Connect

Pandey, Shashank; Jiang, Zhang; Combes, Joshua; Caves, Carlton M.

2014-12-04

The purpose of a phase-preserving linear amplifier is to make a small signal larger, so that it can be
perceived by instruments incapable of resolving the original signal, while sacrificing as little as
possible in signal-to-noise. Quantum mechanics limits how well this can be done: the noise added by
the amplifier, referred to the input, must be at least half a quantum at the operating frequency. This
well-known quantum limit only constrains the second moments of the added noise. Here we provide
the quantum constraints on the entire distribution of added noise: any phasepreserving linear amplifier
is equivalent to a parametric amplifier with a physical state for the ancillary mode; determines the
properties of the added noise.

352. Generating Entangled State with Parametric Amplifier

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Huang, Jian

2017-04-01

We present a scheme for generating entangled state with parametric amplifier with different initial
states. Its shown that the entangled state is always generated except some special cases by adjusting
the coupling strength and the total number of photons.

353. Signal amplifier-shapers for multiwire detectors

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bushnin, Yu. B.; Konoplyannikov, A. K.

Circuit diagram and specification of 8 and 16 channel modules of amplifier-shapers are described for
multiwire detectors. The modules have input impedance 200 Ohm sensitivity threshold 1.5 micro-A,
output pulse width 80 nsec.

354. Tester periodically registers dc amplifier characteristics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cree, D.; Wenzel, G. E.

1966-01-01

Motor-driven switcher-recorder periodically registers the zero drift and gain drift signals of a dc
amplifier subjected to changes in environment. A time coding method is used since several
measurements are shared on a single recorder trace.

355. Ku band low noise parametric amplifier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1976-01-01

A low noise, K sub u-band, parametric amplifier (paramp) was developed. The unit is a spacecraft-
qualifiable, prototype, parametric amplifier for eventual application in the shuttle orbiter. The amplifier
was required to have a noise temperature of less than 150 K. A noise temperature of less than 120 K at
a gain level of 17 db was achieved. A 3-db bandwidth in excess of 350 MHz was attained, while
deviation from phase linearity of about + or - 1 degree over 50 MHz was achieved. The paramp
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operates within specification over an ambient temperature range of -5 C to +50 C. The performance
requirements and the operation of the K sub u-band parametric amplifier system are described. The
final test results are also given.

356. How to characterize the nonlinear amplifier?

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kallistratova, Dmitri Kouznetsov; Cotera, Carlos Flores

1994-01-01

The conception of the amplification of the coherent field is formulated. The definition of the
coefficient of the amplification as the relation between the mean value of the field at the output to the
value at the input and the definition of the noise as the difference between the number of photons in
the output mode and square of the modulus of the mean value of the output amplitude are considered.
Using a simple example it is shown that by these definitions the noise of the nonlinear amplifier may
be less than the noise of the ideal linear amplifier of the same amplification coefficient. Proposals to
search another definition of basic parameters of the nonlinear amplifiers are discussed. This definition
should enable us to formulate the universal fundamental lower limit of the noise which should be valid
for linear quantum amplifiers as for nonlinear ones.

357. Defibrillator-embedded rapid recovery electrocardiogram amplifier.

PubMed

Neycheva, T; Krasteva, V

2003-01-01

One of the most important performances of the defibrillator-embedded amplifier-monitor-recorder


tract, connected to defibrillator electrodes, is its rapid recovery after the application of the shock pulse.
Practically near-immediate restoration of the signal trace is mandatory for studies of post-shock effects
on the myocardium. Automatic analysis of the electrocardiogram signal in public-access defibrillation,
aiming for about 100% correct recognition of shockable and non-shockable rhythms, now requires fast
amplifier settling, as the decision time should not exceed 10-20 s. Two circuits of post-shock amplifier
transient suppressors were developed with non-linear feedback, resulting in second-order high-pass
filtering, with gradual return to normally accepted first-order response. Simulation and testing in real
conditions resulted in recovery periods in the range of 1-2 s for an amplifier tract of 1-30 Hz
bandwidth, depending on the pulse waveform and electrode type.

358. Integrating and Amplifying Signal from Riboswitch Biosensors

DTIC Science & Technology

2014-08-01

AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2014-0108 INTEGRATING AND AMPLIFYING SIGNAL FROM


RIBOSWITCH BIOSENSORS Michael S. Goodson Yaroslav G. Chushak UES...Amplifying Signal
from Riboswitch Biosensors 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c.
PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Michael...88ABW-2014-1997; Cleared 30 Apr
2014. 14. ABSTRACT Biosensors offer a built-in energy supply and inherent sensing machinery that
when exploited

359. MMIC Amplifiers for 90 to 130 GHz

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Samoska, Lorene; Pukala, David; Peralta, Alejandro; Bryerton, Eric; Morgan, Matt; Boyd, T.; Hu,
Ming; Schmitz, Adele
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2007-01-01

This brief describes two monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) amplifier chips optimized to
function in the frequency range of 90 to 130 GHz, covering nearly all of F-band (90 - 140 GHz). These
amplifiers were designed specifically for local-oscillator units in astronomical radio telescopes such as
the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). They could also be readily adapted for use in electronic
test equipment, automotive radar systems, and communications systems that operate between 90 and
130 GHz.

360. Multiple excitation regenerative amplifier inertial confinement system

DOEpatents

George, Victor E. [Livermore, CA; Haas, Roger A. [Pleasanton, CA; Krupke, William F. [Pleasanton,
CA; Schlitt, Leland G. [Livermore, CA

1980-05-27

The invention relates to apparatus and methods for producing high intensity laser radiation generation
which is achieved through an optical amplifier-storage ring design. One or two synchronized,
counterpropagating laser pulses are injected into a regenerative amplifier cavity and amplified by gain
media which are pumped repetitively by electrical or optical means. The gain media excitation pulses
are tailored to efficiently amplify the laser pulses during each transit. After the laser pulses have been
amplified to the desired intensity level, they are either switched out of the cavity by some switch
means, as for example an electro-optical device, for any well known laser end uses, or a target means
may be injected into the regenerative amplifier cavity in such a way as to intercept simultaneously the
counterpropagating laser pulses. One such well known end uses to which this invention is intended is
for production of high density and temperature plasmas suitable for generating neutrons, ions and x-
rays and for studying matter heated by high intensity laser radiation.


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361. Multiple excitation regenerative amplifier inertial confinement system

DOEpatents

George, V.E.; Haas, R.A.; Krupke, W.F.; Schlitt, L.G.

1980-05-27

The invention relates to apparatus and methods for producing high intensity laser radiation generation
which is achieved through an optical amplifier-storage ring design. One or two synchronized,
counterpropagating laser pulses are injected into a regenerative amplifier cavity and amplified by gain
media which are pumped repetitively by electrical or optical means. The gain media excitation pulses
are tailored to efficiently amplify the laser pulses during each transit. After the laser pulses have been
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amplified to the desired intensity level, they are either switched out of the cavity by some switch
means, as for example an electro-optical device, for any well known laser end uses, or a target means
may be injected into the regenerative amplifier cavity in such a way as to intercept simultaneously the
counterpropagating laser pulses. One such well known end uses to which this invention is intended is
for production of high density and temperature plasmas suitable for generating neutrons, ions and x-
rays and for studying matter heated by high intensity laser radiation. 11 figs.

362. V-band IMPATT power amplifier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Schell, S. W.

1985-01-01

This program is the result of the continuing demand and future requirement for a high data rate 60-
GHz communications link. A reliable solid-state transmitter which delivers the necessary power over a
wide bandwidth using the present IMPATT diode technology required the development of combining
techniques. The development of a 60-GHz IMPATT power combiner amplifier is detailed. The results
form a basis from which future wideband, high-power IMPATT amplifiers may be developed. As a
result, several state-of-the-art advancements in millimeter-wave components technology were
achieved. Specific achievements for the amplifier integration were: development of a nonresonant
divider/combiner circuit; reproducible multiple junction circulator assemblies; and reliable high power
60-GHz IMPATT diodes. The various design approaches and tradeoffs which lead to the final amplifier
configuration are discussed. A detailed circuit design is presented for the various amplifier
components, and the conical line combiner, radial line combiner, and circulator development are
discussed. The performance of the amplifier, the overall achievement of the program, the implications
of the results, and an assessment of future development needs and recommendations are examined.

363. Some Notes on Wideband Feedback Amplifiers

DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

Fitch, V.

1949-03-16

The extension of the passband of wideband amplifiers is a highly important problem to the designer of
electronic circuits. Throughout the electronics industry and in many research programs in physics and
allied fields where extensive use is made of video amplifiers, the foremost requirement is a passband
of maximum width. This is necessary if it is desired to achieve a more faithful reproduction of
transient wave forms, a better time resolution in physical measurements, or perhaps just a wider band
gain-frequency response to sine wave signals. The art of electronics is continually faced with this
omnipresent amplifier problem. In particular, the instrumentation techniques of nuclear physics require
amplifiers with short rise times, a high degree of gain stability, and a linear response to high signal
levels. While the distributed amplifier may solve the problems of those seeking only a wide passband,
the requirements of stability and linearity necessitate using feedback circuits. This paper considers
feedback amplifiers from the standpoint of high-frequency performance. The circuit conditions for
optimum steady-state (sinusoidal) and transient response are derived and practical circuits (both
interstage and output) are presented which fulfill these conditions. In general, the results obtained may
be applied to the low-frequency end.

364. Amplify Errors to Minimize Them

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stewart, Maria Shine

2009-01-01
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In this article, the author offers her experience of modeling mistakes and writing spontaneously in the
computer classroom to get students' attention and elicit their editorial response. She describes how she
taught her class about major sentence errors--comma splices, run-ons, and fragments--through her
Sentence Meditation exercise, a rendition

365. Reviews Book: The Quantum Story: A History in 40 Moments Resource: Down2Earth Equipment:
Irwin Signal Generator/Power Amplifier Book: Laboratory Experiments in Physics for Modern
Astronomy Book: Heart of Darkness Book: The Long Road to Stockholm Book: The Address Book:
Our Place in the Scheme of Things Equipment: TI-Nspire Datalogger/Calculator Web Watch

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2013-07-01

WE RECOMMEND The Quantum Story: A History in 40 Moments Dip into this useful and accessible
guide to quantum theory Down2Earth Astronomical-science resource enables students to pursue real,
hands-on science, whatever the weather Irwin Signal Generator/Power Amplifier Students enjoy the
novelty factor of versatile, affordable kit Laboratory Experiments in Physics for Modern Astronomy
Book of experiments would make good supplementary material Heart of Darkness: Unravelling the
Mysteries of the Invisible Universe Accessible and distinctive account of cosmology impresses The
Long Road to Stockholm: The Story of MRIAn Autobiography Fascinating book tells personal and
scientific stories side by side WORTH A LOOK The Address Book: Our Place in the Scheme of
Things Entertaining and well-written essays offer insights and anecdotes TI-Nspire
Datalogger/Calculator Challenging interface gives this kit a steep learning curve, but once overcome,
results are good WEB WATCH Light-beam app game leaves little impression, while astronomy and
astrophysics projects provide much-needed resources

366. Low Noise Optically Pre-amplified Lightwave Receivers and Other Applications of Fiber Optic
Parametric Amplifiers

DTIC Science & Technology

2010-07-27

noise performance, optical gain bandwidth, and power efficiency. An interesting alternative to the
mature Erbium-doped fiber amplifier ( EDFA ) is the...fibers (HNLF) and high power booster EDFAs .
The FOPA can provide a very wide gain bandwidth [2], very high gain (70 dB was demonstrated in
[3]), and...amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise in EDFAs is also generated. It is sometimes
referred to as amplified quantum noise. Maximum gain (at the gain

367. Real Time Calibration Method for Signal Conditioning Amplifiers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Mata, Carlos T. (Inventor); Eckhoff, Anthony (Inventor); Perotti, Jose
(Inventor); Lucena, Angel (Inventor)

2004-01-01

A signal conditioning amplifier receives an input signal from an input such as a transducer. The signal
is amplified and processed through an analog to digital converter and sent to a processor. The
processor estimates the input signal provided by the transducer to the amplifier via a multiplexer. The
estimated input signal is provided as a calibration voltage to the amplifier immediately following the
receipt of the amplified input signal. The calibration voltage is amplified by the amplifier and provided
to the processor as an amplified calibration voltage. The amplified calibration voltage is compared to
the amplified input signal, and if a significant error exists, the gain and/or offset of the amplifier may
be adjusted as necessary.

368. Development and evaluation of a tutorial to improve students' understanding of a lock-in amplifier
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NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DeVore, Seth; Gauthier, Alexandre; Levy, Jeremy; Singh, Chandralekha

2016-12-01

A lock-in amplifier is a versatile instrument frequently used in physics research. However, many
students struggle with the basic operating principles of a lock-in amplifier which can lead to a variety
of difficulties. To improve students' understanding, we have been developing and evaluating a
research-based tutorial which makes use of a computer simulation of a lock-in amplifier. The tutorial is
based on a field-tested approach in which students realize their difficulties after predicting the outcome
of simulated experiments involving a lock-in amplifier and check their predictions using the simulated
lock-in amplifier. Then, the tutorial provides guidance and strives to help students develop a coherent
understanding of the basics of a lock-in amplifier. The tutorial development involved interviews with
physics faculty members and graduate students and iteration of many versions of the tutorial with
professors and graduate students. The student difficulties with lock-in amplifiers and the development
and evaluation of the research-based tutorial to help students develop a functional understanding of
this device are discussed.

369. High-Efficiency Microwave Power Amplifier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sims, Williams H.

2005-01-01

A high-efficiency power amplifier that operates in the S band (frequencies of the order of a few
gigahertz) utilizes transistors operating under class-D bias and excitation conditions. Class-D operation
has been utilized at lower frequencies, but, until now, has not been exploited in the S band. Nominally,
in class D operation, a transistor is switched rapidly between "on" and "off" states so that at any given
instant, it sustains either high current or high voltage, but not both at the same time. In the ideal case of
zero "on" resistance, infinite "off" resistance, zero inductance and capacitance, and perfect switching,
the output signal would be a perfect square wave. Relative to the traditional classes A, B, and C of
amplifier operation, class D offers the potential to achieve greater power efficiency. In addition,
relative to class-A amplifiers, class-D amplifiers are less likely to go into oscillation. In order to design
this amplifier, it was necessary to derive mathematical models of microwave power transistors for
incorporation into a larger mathematical model for computational simulation of the operation of a
class-D microwave amplifier. The design incorporates state-of-the-art switching techniques applicable
only in the microwave frequency range. Another major novel feature is a transmission-line power
splitter/combiner designed with the help of phasing techniques to enable an approximation of a square-
wave signal (which is inherently a wideband signal) to propagate through what would, if designed in a
more traditional manner, behave as a more severely band-limited device (see figure). The amplifier
includes an input, a driver, and a final stage. Each stage contains a pair of GaAs-based field-effect
transistors biased in class D. The input signal can range from -10 to +10 dBm into a 50-ohm load. The
table summarizes the performances of the three stages

370. Fiber optical parametric amplifiers in optical communication systems.

PubMed

Marhic, Michel E; Andrekson, Peter A; Petropoulos, Periklis; Radic, Stojan; Peucheret, Christophe;
Jazayerifar, Mahmoud

2015-01-01

The prospects for using fiber optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) in optical communication systems
are reviewed. Phase-insensitive amplifiers (PIAs) and phase-sensitive amplifiers (PSAs) are
considered. Low-penalty amplification at/or near 1 Tb/s has been achieved, for both wavelength- and
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time-division multiplexed formats. High-quality mid-span spectral inversion has been demonstrated at
0.64 Tb/s, avoiding electronic dispersion compensation. All-optical amplitude regeneration of
amplitude-modulated signals has been performed, while PSAs have been used to demonstrate phase
regeneration of phase-modulated signals. A PSA with 1.1-dB noise figure has been demonstrated, and
preliminary wavelength-division multiplexing experiments have been performed with PSAs. 512 Gb/s
have been transmitted over 6,000 km by periodic phase conjugation. Simulations indicate that PIAs
could reach data rate x reach products in excess of 14,000 Tb/s km in realistic wavelength-division
multiplexed long-haul networks. Technical challenges remaining to be addressed in order for fiber
OPAs to become useful for long-haul communication networks are discussed. [Formula: see text].

371. Fiber optical parametric amplifiers in optical communication systems

PubMed Central

Marhic (), Michel E; Andrekson, Peter A; Petropoulos, Periklis; Radic, Stojan; Peucheret,
Christophe; Jazayerifar, Mahmoud

2015-01-01

The prospects for using fiber optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) in optical communication systems
are reviewed. Phase-insensitive amplifiers (PIAs) and phase-sensitive amplifiers (PSAs) are
considered. Low-penalty amplification at/or near 1 Tb/s has been achieved, for both wavelength- and
time-division multiplexed formats. High-quality mid-span spectral inversion has been demonstrated at
0.64 Tb/s, avoiding electronic dispersion compensation. All-optical amplitude regeneration of
amplitude-modulated signals has been performed, while PSAs have been used to demonstrate phase
regeneration of phase-modulated signals. A PSA with 1.1-dB noise figure has been demonstrated, and
preliminary wavelength-division multiplexing experiments have been performed with PSAs. 512 Gb/s
have been transmitted over 6,000 km by periodic phase conjugation. Simulations indicate that PIAs
could reach data rate x reach products in excess of 14,000 Tb/s km in realistic wavelength-division
multiplexed long-haul networks. Technical challenges remaining to be addressed in order for fiber
OPAs to become useful for long-haul communication networks are discussed. PMID:25866588

372. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier

DOEpatents

Hackel, Lloyd A.; Dane, Clifford B.

1993-01-01

A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output
beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits.
The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including
a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain
medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce
diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam
makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier
gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS
phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but
opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the
beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without
polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to
direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in
the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is
produced.

373. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier

DOEpatents
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Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.

1993-08-24

A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output
beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits.
The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including
a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain
medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce
diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam
makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier
gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS
phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but
opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the
beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without
polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to
direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in
the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is
produced.

374. Plastic optical amplifier using europium complex

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oh, Doogie; Song, Namwoong; Kim, Jang-Joo

2001-04-01

Potential of polymer optical amplifier doped with europium complex has been analyzed for practical
use in visible range. Europium this(2-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate)-1,10- phenanthroline was used as the
amplification dopant and PMMA as matrix. Spectroscopic properties of the dopant such as metastable
excited state lifetime, simulated emission cross section, and stimulated absorption cross section were
obtained using the photoluminescence spectroscopy, UV visible spectrophotometry and time-resolved
spectroscopy. Lifetime of 5D0 metastable state is 0.9 ms, which is longer than usual rare earth
complex. Its emission cross section is comparable to erbium ions and absorption cross section is 4
orders of magnitude higher than bare rare earth ions. Optical amplifier was fabricated by the dip-
coating method. The refractive index profile of the polymer optical amplifier was designed to manifest
a single mode structure for the optimization of amplification performance. Amplification
characteristics were simulated with respect to pump power, amplifier length, and number density of
Eu(TTA)3phen. The simulations showed that optical gains are saturated above some maximum po9int.
More than 30 dB optical gain can be achieved with 5 m long amplifier at 300 mW pump power.

375. Injection- Seeded Optoplasmonic Amplifier in the Visible

PubMed Central

Gartia, Manas Ranjan; Seo, Sujin; Kim, Junhwan; Chang, Te-Wei; Bahl, Gaurav; Lu, Meng; Liu, Gang
Logan; Eden, J. Gary

2014-01-01

A hybrid optoplasmonic amplifier, injection-seeded by an internally-generated Raman signal and


operating in the visible (563675nm), is proposed and evidence for amplification is presented.
Comprising a gain medium tethered to a whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator with a protein,
and a plasmonic surface, the optical system described here selectively amplifies a single (or a few)
Raman line(s) produced within the WGM resonator and is well-suited for routing narrowband optical
power on-a-chip. Over the past five decades, optical oscillators and amplifiers have typically been
based on the buildup of the field from the spontaneous emission background. Doing so limits the
temporal coherence of the output, lengthens the time required for the optical field intensity to reach
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saturation, and often is responsible for complex, multiline spectra. In addition to the spectral control
afforded by injection-locking, the effective Q of the amplifier can be specified by the bandwidth of the
injected Raman signal. This characteristic contrasts with previous WGM-based lasers and amplifiers
for which the Q is determined solely by the WGM resonator. PMID:25156810

376. Method to amplify variable sequences without imposing primer sequences

DOEpatents

Bradbury, Andrew M.; Zeytun, Ahmet

2006-11-14

The present invention provides methods of amplifying target sequences without including regions
flanking the target sequence in the amplified product or imposing amplification primer sequences on
the amplified product. Also provided are methods of preparing a library from such amplified target
sequences.

377. Photon acceleration in the amplified plasma density wake of two copropagating laser pulses

SciTech Connect

Raj, G.; Islam, M. R.; Ersfeld, B.; Jaroszynski, D. A.

2010-07-15

Photon acceleration of a laser pulse occurs in a medium with a space and time-varying permittivity.
Using Hamiltonian formulation, a theoretical study of the frequency upshift of a probe laser pulse,
which is considered as a 'quasiphoton' or 'test particle,' propagating through an amplified plasma
density wake of two copropagating laser pulses, is presented. The linear superposition of wakefields
studied using an analytical model shows that the presence of a controlling pulse amplifies the wake of
a driver pulse. The amplified wake amplitude can be controlled by varying the delay between the two
pulses. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations demonstrate wake superposition due to the two
copropagating laser pulses. A phase space analysis shows that the probe photon can experience a
significant frequency upshift in the amplified density wake. Furthermore, the range of photon
frequencies trapped and accelerated is determined by the amplitude of the density wake.

378. Injection seeded, diode pumped regenerative ring Nd:YAG amplifier for spaceborne laser ranging
technology development

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coyle, D. Barry; Kay, Richard B.; Degnan, John J.; Krebs, Danny J.; Seery, Bernard D.

1992-01-01

A small, all solid state, regenerative ring amplifier designed as a prototype for space application is
discussed. Novel features include dual side pumping of the Nd:YAG crystal and a triangular ring
cavity design which minimizes the number of optical components and losses. The amplifier is
relatively small (3 ns round trip time) even though standard optical elements are employed. The ring
regeneratively amplifies a 100 ps single pulse by approximately 10(exp 5) at a repetition rate of 10 to
100 Hz. The amplifier is designed to be injection seeded with a pulsed, 100 ps laser diode at 1.06
microns, but another Nd:YAG laser system supplying higher pulse energies was employed for
laboratory experiment. This system is a prototype laser oscillator for the Geoscience Laser Ranging
System (GLRS) platform. Results on measurements of beam quality, astigmatism, and gain are given.

379. An HEMT-Based Cryogenic Charge Amplifier for Sub-kelvin Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

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Phipps, A.; Sadoulet, B.; Juillard, A.; Jin, Y.

2016-07-01

We present the design and noise performance of a fully cryogenic (T=4 K) high-electron mobility
transistor (HEMT)-based charge amplifier for readout of sub-kelvin semiconductor radiation detectors.
The amplifier is being developed for use in direct detection dark matter searches such as the cryogenic
dark matter search and will allow these experiments to probe weakly interacting massive particle
masses below 10 GeV/c^2 while retaining background discrimination. The amplifier dissipates 1
mW of power and provides an open loop voltage gain of several hundreds. The measured noise
performance is better than that of JFET-based charge amplifiers and is dominated by the noise of the
input HEMT. An optimal filter calculation using the measured closed loop noise and typical detector
characteristics predicts a charge resolution of _q=106 eV (35 electrons) for leakage currents below 4
10^{-15} A.

380. Nonlinear phase noise mitigation in phase-sensitive amplified transmission systems.

PubMed

Olsson, Samuel L I; Karlsson, Magnus; Andrekson, Peter A

2015-05-04

We investigate the impact of in-line amplifier noise in transmission systems amplified by two-mode
phase-sensitive amplifiers (PSAs) and present the first experimental demonstration of nonlinear phase
noise (NLPN) mitigation in a modulation format independent PSA-amplified transmission system. The
NLPN mitigation capability is attributed to the correlated noise on the signal and idler waves at the
input of the transmission span. We study a single-span system with noise loading in the transmitter but
the results are expected to be applicable also in multi-span systems. The experimental investigation is
supported by numerical simulations showing excellent agreement with the experiments. In addition to
demonstrating NLPN mitigation we also present a record high sensitivity receiver, enabled by low-
noise PSA-amplification, requiring only 4.1 photons per bit to obtain a bit error ratio (BER) of 1
10(-3) with 10 GBd quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) data.


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381. An integrated, low noise patch-clamp amplifier for biological nanopore applications.

PubMed

Wang, Gang; Dunbar, William B

2010-01-01

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We present an integrated, low noise patch-clamp amplifier for biological nanopore applications. Our
amplifier consists of an integrator-differentiator architecture coupled with a novel opamp design in the
CMOS 0.35 m process. The post-layout full-chip simulation shows the input referred noise of the
amplifier is 0.49 pA RMS over a 5 kHz bandwidth using a verified electrical model for the biological
nanopore system. In our biological nanopore experiments studying protein-DNA interactions, we
encounter capacitive transients with a nominal settling time of 5 ms. Our amplifier design reduces the
settling time to 0.2 ms, without requiring any compensation circuitry.

382. Modulation instability in high power laser amplifiers.

PubMed

Rubenchik, Alexander M; Turitsyn, Sergey K; Fedoruk, Michail P

2010-01-18

The modulation instability (MI) is one of the main factors responsible for the degradation of beam
quality in high-power laser systems. The so-called B-integral restriction is commonly used as the
criteria for MI control in passive optics devices. For amplifiers the adiabatic model, assuming locally
the Bespalov-Talanov expression for MI growth, is commonly used to estimate the destructive impact
of the instability. We present here the exact solution of MI development in amplifiers. We determine
the parameters which control the effect of MI in amplifiers and calculate the MI growth rate as a
function of those parameters. The safety range of operational parameters is presented. The results of
the exact calculations are compared with the adiabatic model, and the range of validity of the latest is
determined. We demonstrate that for practical situations the adiabatic approximation noticeably
overestimates MI. The additional margin of laser system design is quantified.

383. Ultrashort pulse amplification in cryogenically cooled amplifiers

DOEpatents

Backus, Sterling J.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret Mary

2004-10-12

A laser amplifier system amplifies pulses in a single "stage" from .about.10.sup.-9 joules to more than
10.sup.-3 joules, with average power of 1-10 watts, and beam quality M.sup.2 <2. The laser medium is
cooled substantially below room temperature, as a means to improve the optical and thermal
characteristics of the medium. This is done with the medium inside a sealed, evacuated or purged cell
to avoid moisture or other materials condensing on the surface. A "seed" pulse from a separate laser is
passed through the laser medium, one or more times, in any of a variety of configurations including
single-pass, multiple-pass, and regenerative amplifier configurations.

384. Noise in chi (3) and photorefractive amplifiers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sternklar, Shmuel; Glick, Yaakov

1995-12-01

A comparison of the noise characteristics of chi (3) and photorefractive coherent amplifiers reveals
basic differences in their dependence on operating parameters. Unlike all types of chi (3) amplifiers,
which are shown to have a well-defined optimum working point in the region of the self-stimulated
scattering threshold, the photorefractive amplifier can be made increasingly quieter by lowering the
pump power. This is demonstrated by use of highly doped Co:BaTiO3 in a tight-focus reflection
grating geometry. It is shown that scattering from inhomogeneities in the crystal is the major limiting
noise source and is significantly higher than predictions resulting from fundamental considerations

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such as random space-charge noise. An extremely high small-signal gain of 107 was measured with
this crystal and geometry. To our knowledge this is the highest photorefractive gain reported to date.

385. Wideband pulse amplifiers for the NECTAr chip

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sanuy, A.; Delagnes, E.; Gascon, D.; Sieiro, X.; Bolmont, J.; Corona, P.; Feinstein, F.; Glicenstein, J.-
F.; Naumann, C. L.; Nayman, P.; Rib, M.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Toussenel, F.; Vincent, P.; Vorobiov, S.

2012-12-01

The NECTAr collaboration's FE option for the camera of the CTA is a 16 bits and 1-3 GS/s sampling
chip based on analog memories including most of the readout functions. This works describes the
input amplifiers of the NECTAr ASIC. A fully differential wideband amplifier, with voltage gain up to
20 V/V and a BW of 400 MHz. As it is impossible to design a fully differential OpAmp with an 8 GHz
GBW product in a 0.35 CMOS technology, an alternative implementation based on HF linearized
transconductors is explored. The output buffer is a class AB miller operational amplifier, with special
non-linear current boost.

386. Ultraflexible organic amplifier with biocompatible gel electrodes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Kuribara, Kazunori; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Fukushima,


Takanori; Inoue, Yusuke; Sekino, Masaki; Isoyama, Takashi; Abe, Yusuke; Onodera, Hiroshi; Someya,
Takao

2016-04-01

In vivo electronic monitoring systems are promising technology to obtain biosignals with high
spatiotemporal resolution and sensitivity. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a biocompatible
highly conductive gel composite comprising multi-walled carbon nanotube-dispersed sheet with an
aqueous hydrogel. This gel composite exhibits admittance of 100 mS cm-2 and maintains high
admittance even in a low-frequency range. On implantation into a living hypodermal tissue for 4
weeks, it showed a small foreign-body reaction compared with widely used metal electrodes.
Capitalizing on the multi-functional gel composite, we fabricated an ultrathin and mechanically
flexible organic active matrix amplifier on a 1.2-m-thick polyethylene-naphthalate film to amplify
(amplification factor: ~200) weak biosignals. The composite was integrated to the amplifier to realize
a direct lead epicardial electrocardiography that is easily spread over an uneven heart tissue.

387. Ultraflexible organic amplifier with biocompatible gel electrodes.

PubMed

Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Kuribara, Kazunori; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Fukushima,


Takanori; Inoue, Yusuke; Sekino, Masaki; Isoyama, Takashi; Abe, Yusuke; Onodera, Hiroshi; Someya,
Takao

2016-04-29

In vivo electronic monitoring systems are promising technology to obtain biosignals with high
spatiotemporal resolution and sensitivity. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a biocompatible
highly conductive gel composite comprising multi-walled carbon nanotube-dispersed sheet with an
aqueous hydrogel. This gel composite exhibits admittance of 100 mS cm(-2) and maintains high
admittance even in a low-frequency range. On implantation into a living hypodermal tissue for 4
weeks, it showed a small foreign-body reaction compared with widely used metal electrodes.
Capitalizing on the multi-functional gel composite, we fabricated an ultrathin and mechanically
flexible organic active matrix amplifier on a 1.2-m-thick polyethylene-naphthalate film to amplify

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(amplification factor: 200) weak biosignals. The composite was integrated to the amplifier to realize
a direct lead epicardial electrocardiography that is easily spread over an uneven heart tissue.

388. Development of a Josephson parametric amplifier for the preparation and detection of nonclassical
states of microwave fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Castellanos Beltran, Manuel Angel

Recent innovations in the technology of superconducting circuits have made it possible to create
nonclassical states of microwave light fields. These states are usually associated with the subject of
quantum optics. The ability to manipulate quantum states of microwave light fields holds out the
promise of building dense integrable circuits to process quantum information electrically. However, a
major difficulty lies in the fact that there is no general purpose method of efficiently measuring the
quantum state of a microwave field. In this thesis, I describe the development of an amplifier, based on
a Josephson parametric amplifier. This new parametric amplifier enables this kind of efficient
measurement. Although parametric amplifiers are narrowband (only amplifying signals in a narrow
frequency range around a central frequency), I have developed an amplifier whose central frequency is
widely tunable (a full octave, 4--8 GHz), greatly improving its usefulness. I have studied the gain,
bandwidth, dynamic range, and added noise of the amplifier. I have shown that when operated in a
particular manner, known as degenerate mode, the parametric amplifier adds less noise than the noise
associated with the quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic vacuum. In addition, its gain is large
enough to ensure that the amplified vacuum noise overwhelms the noise added by conventional
amplifiers that follow the parametric amplifier. Together, these two features make it possible to
measure either the phase or amplitude of a microwave signal where the dominant uncertainty comes
from the quantum noise of the signal itself. In addition, a degenerate parametric amplifier also prepares
particular nonclassical states called squeezed states. Our parametric amplifier prepares squeezed states,
which have (in one of its quadratures) noise with a variance less than one tenth that of the vacuum
noise. I have employed the parametric amplifier in two experiments that require its ability to

389. Class E power amplifiers for wireless communications

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sowlati Hashjani, Tirdad

In this thesis, the use of Class E power amplifiers for digital wireless communication applications is
presented for the first time. A linear transmitter design using Class E amplifier is proposed for the
North American Digital Cellular Standard. In this architecture, a phase correcting feedback loop is
used to cancel the AM-PM distortion in Class E power amplifier. Several low voltage Class E power
amplifiers, and the phase correcting feedback loop are designed and implemented in a commercially
available 0.8 mum GaAs MESFET process. A fully integrated Class E power module operating at 835
MHz is presented. The power module consists of a Class F driver stage and a Class E power amplifier,
and delivers 250 mW to the standard 50 Omega load with a power added efficiency of 51%. The
design and implementation of a hybrid Class E power module operating at 835 MHz is also discussed.
In this design, the output matching network is implemented on an alumina substrate, and has a lower
power dissipation than its GaAs counterpart. The power module delivers 443 mW to the 50 Omega
load with a power added efficiency of 67%. A 1.8 GHz fully integrated Class E power module is also
presented. In this case, the power module delivers 200 mW of power to the 50 Omega load with a
power added efficiency of 57%. The design and implementation of the phase correcting feedback loop,
which consists of a limiting amplifier, a phase detector and two phase shifters, are discussed. The
phase correcting feedback loop is used to linearize the 835 MHz Class E hybrid power module. With a
loop gain of 20, the maximum phase distortion in the power module was reduced from 30sp to 4sp
and the total power added efficiency was 65%.

390. Transverse intensity transformation by laser amplifiers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)


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Litvin, Igor A.; King, Gary; Collett, Oliver J. P.; Strauss, Hencharl J.

2015-03-01

Lasers beams with a specific intensity profile such as super-Gaussian, Airy or Dougnut-like are
desirable in many applications such as laser materials processing, medicine and communications. We
propose a new technique for laser beam shaping by amplifying a beam in an end-pumped bulk
amplifier that is pumped with a beam that has a modified intensity profile. Advantages of this method
are that it is relatively easy to implement, has the ability to reshape multimode beams and is naturally
suited to high power/energy beams. Both three and four level gain materials can be used as amplifier
media. However, a big advantage of using three level materials is their ability to attenuate of the seed
beam, which enhances the contrast of the shaping. We first developed a numerical method to obtain the
required pump intensity for an arbitrary beam transformation. This method was subsequently
experimentally verified using a three level system. The output of a 2.07 m seed laser was amplified in
a Ho:YLF bulk amplifier which was being pumped by a 1.89 m Tm:YLF laser which had roughly a
TEM10 Hermit Gaussian intensity profile. The seed beam was amplified from 0.3 W to 0.55 W at the
full pump power of 35 W. More importantly, the beam profile in one transverse direction was
significantly shaped from Gaussian to roughly flat-top, as the model predicted. The concept has
therefore been shown to be viable and can be used to optimise the beam profile for a wide range of
applications.

391. Beyond nonlinear saturation of backward Raman amplifiers

DOE PAGES

Barth, Ido; Toroker, Zeev; Balakin, Alexey A.; ...

2016-06-27

Backward Raman amplification is limited by relativistic nonlinear dephasing resulting in saturation of


the leading spike of the amplified pulse. We employed pump detuning in order to mitigate the
relativistic phase mismatch and to overcome the associated saturation. In an amplified pulse can then
be reshaped into a monospike pulse with little precursory power ahead of it, with the maximum
intensity increasing by a factor of two. Finally, this detuning can be employed advantageously both in
regimes where the group velocity dispersion is unimportant and where the dispersion is important but
small.

392. Implementation of Digital Lock-in Amplifier

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bhattacharyya, Sabyasachi; Nasir Ahmed, Ragib; Bijoy Purkayastha, Basab; Bhattacharyya, Kaustubh

2016-10-01

The recovery of signal under the presence of noise is utmost essential for proper communication. The
signals corrupted due to noise can be recovered using various techniques. However the weak signals
are more prone to noise and hence they can be easily degraded due to noise. In such cases, a digital
lock-in amplifier becomes an essential device for recovery of such weak signals. Keeping the cost,
speed and other considerations, we will present the implementation of digital lock-in amplifier and
how it recovers the weak signal under extreme noisy conditions.

393. Master-Oscillator/Power-Amplifier Laser System

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A.; Unger, Glenn L.

1994-01-01

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Master-oscillator/power-amplifier (MOPA) laser system operates in continuous-wave mode or in


amplitude-modulation (e.g., pulse) mode by modulation of oscillator current. Power amplifier is laser-
diode-pumped neodymium:yttrium lithium fluoride (Nd:YLF) laser; oscillator is laser diode. Offers
relatively high efficiency and power. Because drive current to oscillator modulated, external electro-
optical modulator not needed. Potential uses include free-space optical communications, coded laser
ranging, and generation of high-power, mode-locked pulses.

394. Transportable setup for amplifier phase fidelity measurements

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trbs, M.; Bogan, C.; Barke, S.; Khn, G.; Reiche, J.; Heinzel, G.; Danzmann, K.

2015-05-01

One possible laser source for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) consists of an
Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier originally developed for inter-satellite communication, seeded by the
laser used for the technology demonstrator mission LISA Pathfinder. LISA needs to transmit clock
information between its three spacecraft to correct for phase noise between the clocks on the individual
spacecraft. For this purpose phase modulation sidebands at GHz frequencies will be imprinted on the
laser beams between spacecraft. Differential phase noise between the carrier and a sideband introduced
within the optical chain must be very low. We report on a transportable setup to measure the phase
fidelity of optical amplifiers.

395. Measurements of the temporal and spatial phase variations of a 33 GHz pulsed free electron laser
amplifier and application to high gradient RF acceleration

SciTech Connect

Volfbeyn, P.; Bekefi, G.

1995-12-31

We report the results of temporal and spatial measurements of phase of a pulsed free electron laser
amplifier (FEL) operating in combined wiggler and axial guide magnetic fields. The 33 GHz FEL is
driven by a mildly relativistic electron beam (750 kV, 90-300 A, 30 ns) and generates 61 MW of
radiation with a high power magnetron as the input source. The phase is measured by an
interferometric technique from which frequency shifting is determined. The results are simulated with
a computer code. Experimental studies on a CERN-CLIC 32.98 GHz 26-cell high gradient accelerating
section (HGA) were carried out for input powers from 0.1 MW to 35 MW. The FEL served as the r.f.
power source for the HGA. The maximum power in the transmitted pulse was measured to be 15 MW
for an input pulse of 35 MW. The theoretically calculated shunt impedance of 116 M{Omega}/m
predicts a field gradient of 65 MeV/m inside the HGA. For power levels >3MW the pulse transmitted
through the HGA was observed to be shorter than the input pulse and pulse shortening became more
serious with increasing power input. At the highest power levels the output pulse length (about 5 nsec)
was about one quarter of the input pulse length. Various tests suggest that these undesirable effects
occur in the input coupler to the HGA. Light and X-ray production inside the HGA have been
observed.

396. Ultra-low noise miniaturized neural amplifier with hardware averaging

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dweiri, Yazan M.; Eggers, Thomas; McCallum, Grant; Durand, Dominique M.

2015-08-01

Objective. Peripheral nerves carry neural signals that could be used to control hybrid bionic systems.
Cuff electrodes provide a robust and stable interface but the recorded signal amplitude is small (<3

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Vrms 700 Hz-7 kHz), thereby requiring a baseline noise of less than 1 Vrms for a useful signal-to-
noise ratio (SNR). Flat interface nerve electrode (FINE) contacts alone generate thermal noise of at
least 0.5 Vrms therefore the amplifier should add as little noise as possible. Since mainstream neural
amplifiers have a baseline noise of 2 Vrms or higher, novel designs are required. Approach. Here we
apply the concept of hardware averaging to nerve recordings obtained with cuff electrodes. An
optimization procedure is developed to minimize noise and power simultaneously. The novel design
was based on existing neural amplifiers (Intan Technologies, LLC) and is validated with signals
obtained from the FINE in chronic dog experiments. Main results. We showed that hardware averaging
leads to a reduction in the total recording noise by a factor of 1/N or less depending on the source
resistance. Chronic recording of physiological activity with FINE using the presented design showed
significant improvement on the recorded baseline noise with at least two parallel operation
transconductance amplifiers leading to a 46.1% reduction at N = 8. The functionality of these
recordings was quantified by the SNR improvement and shown to be significant for N = 3 or more.
The present design was shown to be capable of generating <1.5 Vrms total recording baseline noise
when connected to a FINE placed on the sciatic nerve of an awake animal. An algorithm was
introduced to find the value of N that can minimize both the power consumption and the noise in order
to design a miniaturized ultralow-noise neural amplifier. Significance. These results demonstrate the
efficacy of hardware averaging on noise improvement for neural recording with cuff electrodes, and
can accommodate the

397. An inverse free electron laser accelerator: Experiment and theoretical interpretation

SciTech Connect

Fang, Jyan-Min

1997-01-01

Experimental and numerical studies of the Inverse Free Electron Laser using a GW-level 10.6 m CO2
laser have been carried out at Brookhaven`s Accelerator Test Facility. An energy gain of 2.5 % (E/E)
on a 40 MeV electron beam has been observed E which compares well with theory. The effects on
IFEL acceleration with respect to the variation of the laser electric field, the input electron beam
energy, and the wiggler magnetic field strength were studied, and show the importance of matching the
resonance condition in the IFEL. The numerical simulations were performed under various conditions
and the importance of the electron bunching in the IFEL is shown. The numerical interpretation of our
IFEL experimental results was examined. Although good numerical agreement with the experimental
results was obtained, there is a discrepancy between the level of the laser power measured in the
experiment and used in the simulation, possibly due to the non-Gaussian profile of the input high
power laser beam. The electron energy distribution was studied numerically and a smoothing of the
energy spectrum by the space charge effect at the location of the spectrometer was found, compared
with the spectrum at the exit of the wiggler. The electron bunching by the IFEL and the possibility of
using the IFEL as an electron prebuncher for another laser-driven accelerator were studied
numerically. We found that bunching of the electrons at 1 meter downstream from the wiggler can be
achieved using the existing facility. The simulation shows that there is a fundamental difference
between the operating conditions for using the IFEL as a high gradient accelerator, and as a prebuncher
for another accelerator.

398. Wide-Temperature-Range Integrated Operational Amplifier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mojarradi, Mohammad; Levanas, Greg; Chen, Yuan; Kolawa, Elizabeth; Cozy, Raymond; Blalock,
Benjamin; Greenwell, Robert; Terry, Stephen

2007-01-01

A document discusses a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide/semiconductor


(CMOS) integrated- circuit operational amplifier to be replicated and incorporated into sensor and
actuator systems of Mars-explorer robots. This amplifier is designed to function at a supply potential
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less than or equal to 5.5 V, at any temperature from -180 to +120 C. The design is implemented on a
commercial radiation-hard SOI CMOS process rated for a supply potential of less than or equal to 3.6
V and temperatures from -55 to +110 C. The design incorporates several innovations to achieve this,
the main ones being the following: NMOS transistor channel lengths below 1 m are generally not used
because research showed that this change could reduce the adverse effect of hot carrier injection on the
lifetimes of transistors at low temperatures. To enable the amplifier to withstand the 5.5-V supply
potential, a circuit topology including cascade devices, clamping devices, and dynamic voltage biasing
was adopted so that no individual transistor would be exposed to more than 3.6 V. To minimize
undesired variations in performance over the temperature range, the transistors in the amplifier are
biased by circuitry that maintains a constant inversion coefficient over the temperature range.

399. 32 CFR 245.12 - Amplifying instructions.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-07-01

.... These supplements are to consider the special requirement of organized civil defense and disaster
relief... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amplifying instructions. 245.12 Section
245.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF
DEFENSE...

400. 32 CFR 245.12 - Amplifying instructions.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-07-01

.... These supplements are to consider the special requirement of organized civil defense and disaster
relief... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amplifying instructions. 245.12 Section
245.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF
DEFENSE...


18
19
20
21
22


19
20
21
22
23

401. 32 CFR 245.12 - Amplifying instructions.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-07-01

.... These supplements are to consider the special requirement of organized civil defense and disaster
relief... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amplifying instructions. 245.12 Section
245.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF
DEFENSE...
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402. 32 CFR 245.12 - Amplifying instructions.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-07-01

.... These supplements are to consider the special requirement of organized civil defense and disaster
relief... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amplifying instructions. 245.12 Section
245.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF
DEFENSE...

403. Design of a lock-amplifier circuit

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liu, H.; Huang, W. J.; Song, X.; Zhang, W. Y.; Sa, L. B.

2017-01-01

The lock-in amplifier is recovered by phase sensitive detection technique for the weak signal
submerged in the noise background. This design is based on the TI ultra low power LM358, INA129,
OPA227, OP07 and other chips as the core design and production of the lock-in amplifier. Signal
generator by 10m ohms /1K ohm resistance points pressure network 10 mu V 1mV adjustable sine
wave signal s (T). The concomitant interference signal together through the AC amplifier and band-
pass filter signal x (T), on the other hand reference signal R (T) driven by square wave phase shift etc.
steps to get the signal R (T), two signals and by phase sensitive detector are a DC full wave, again
through its low pass filter and a DC amplifier to be measured signal more accurate detection, the final
circuit through the AD conversion and the use of single-chip will display the output.

404. Simulations of the LANL regenerative amplifier FEL

SciTech Connect

Kesselring, M.; Colson, W.B.; Wong, R.K.; Sheffield, R.L.

1997-08-01

The LANL regenerative amplifier FEL is designed to produce an average output power of 1 kW.
Simulations study the transverse effects due to guiding by the intense electron beam and feedback.
These simulations coupled with experimental measurements can be used to improve future high-power
FEL designs.

405. High Power Amplifier Harmonic Output Level Measurement

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perez, R. M.; Hoppe, D. J.; Khan, A. R.

1995-01-01

A method is presented for the measurement of the harmonic output power of high power klystron
amplifiers, involving coherent hemispherical radiation pattern measurements of the radiated klystron
output. Results are discussed for the operation in saturated and unsaturated conditions, and with a
waveguide harmonic filter included.

406. Stable spatial solitons in semiconductor optical amplifiers.

PubMed

Ultanir, E A; Michaelis, D; Lederer, F; Stegeman, G I


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2003-02-15

The existence of stable dissipative spatial solitons at low intensities in patterned electrode
semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) is predicted theoretically. In contrast to conventional SOAs,
this system may support stable solitons because the inherent saturating losses provide subcritical
bifurcations for both the plane-wave and the soliton solution.

407. Stereoscopy Amplifies Emotions Elicited by Facial Expressions.

PubMed

Hakala, Jussi; Ktsyri, Jari; Hkkinen, Jukka

2015-12-01

Mediated facial expressions do not elicit emotions as strongly as real-life facial expressions, possibly
due to the low fidelity of pictorial presentations in typical mediation technologies. In the present study,
we investigated the extent to which stereoscopy amplifies emotions elicited by images of neutral,
angry, and happy facial expressions. The emotional self-reports of positive and negative valence
(which were evaluated separately) and arousal of 40 participants were recorded. The magnitude of
perceived depth in the stereoscopic images was manipulated by varying the camera base at 15, 40, 65,
90, and 115mm. The analyses controlled for participants' gender, gender match, emotional empathy,
and trait alexithymia. The results indicated that stereoscopy significantly amplified the negative
valence and arousal elicited by angry expressions at the most natural (65mm) camera base, whereas
stereoscopy amplified the positive valence elicited by happy expressions in both the narrowed and
most natural (15-65mm) base conditions. Overall, the results indicate that stereoscopy amplifies the
emotions elicited by mediated emotional facial expressions when the depth geometry is close to
natural. The findings highlight the sensitivity of the visual system to depth and its effect on emotions.

408. Stereoscopy Amplifies Emotions Elicited by Facial Expressions

PubMed Central

Ktsyri, Jari; Hkkinen, Jukka

2015-01-01

Mediated facial expressions do not elicit emotions as strongly as real-life facial expressions, possibly
due to the low fidelity of pictorial presentations in typical mediation technologies. In the present study,
we investigated the extent to which stereoscopy amplifies emotions elicited by images of neutral,
angry, and happy facial expressions. The emotional self-reports of positive and negative valence
(which were evaluated separately) and arousal of 40 participants were recorded. The magnitude of
perceived depth in the stereoscopic images was manipulated by varying the camera base at 15, 40, 65,
90, and 115mm. The analyses controlled for participants gender, gender match, emotional empathy,
and trait alexithymia. The results indicated that stereoscopy significantly amplified the negative
valence and arousal elicited by angry expressions at the most natural (65mm) camera base, whereas
stereoscopy amplified the positive valence elicited by happy expressions in both the narrowed and
most natural (1565mm) base conditions. Overall, the results indicate that stereoscopy amplifies the
emotions elicited by mediated emotional facial expressions when the depth geometry is close to
natural. The findings highlight the sensitivity of the visual system to depth and its effect on emotions.
PMID:27551358

409. Touching the Heart: Books That Amplify Life.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gilles, Carol; Pfannenstiel, Gennie

2000-01-01

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Describes 31 children's books that connect with children and illustrate the significance that books that
amplify life can hold for young and old alike. Discusses books with language and illustrations that are
compelling, and how stories and images work together. Describes how teachers and college students
chose books and artwork to help themselves

410. Research on fluidics, valves, and proportional amplifiers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1974-01-01

Research and development being conducted at the Systems and Controls Laboratory is reviewed.
Static characteristics (supply, input, transfer, output, and noise characteristics) of laminar proportional
amplifiers were investigated. Other topics discussed include velocity profiles for laminar fluidic jets,
speed control systems employing a jet pipe valve, and power amplification with a vortex valve.

411. LOW-LEVEL DIRECT CURRENT AMPLIFIER

DOEpatents

Kerns, Q.A.

1959-05-01

A d-c amplifier is described. Modulation is provided between a d-c signal and an alternating current to
give an output signal proportional to the d- c signal. The circuit has high sensitivity and accuracy.
(T.R.H.)

412. Induction-linac based free-electron laser amplifiers for plasma heating

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jong, R. A.

1988-08-01

We describe an induction-linac based free-electron laser amplifier that is presently under construction
at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It is designed to produce up to 2 MW of average
power at a frequency of 250 GHz for plasma heating experiments in the Microwave Tokamak
Experiment. In addition, we shall describe a FEL amplifier design for plasma heating of advanced
tokamak fusion devices. This system is designed to produce average power levels of about 10 MW at
frequencies ranging from 280 to 560 GHz.

413. Induction-linac based free-electron laser amplifiers for plasma heating

SciTech Connect

Jong, R.A.

1988-08-22

We describe an induction-linac based free-electron laser amplifier that is presently under construction
at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It is designed to produce up to 2 MW of average
power at a frequency of 250 GHz for plasma heating experiments in the Microwave Tokamak
Experiment. In addition, we shall describe a FEL amplifier design for plasma heating of advanced
tokamak fusion devices. This system is designed to produce average power levels of about 10 MW at
frequencies ranging form 280 to 560 GHz. 7 refs., 1 tab.

414. Valves Based on Amplified Piezoelectric Actuators

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NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Le Letty, R.; Lhermet, N.; Patient, G.; Claeyssen, F.; Lang, M.

2004-10-01

Amplified Piezo Actuators have been developed at CEDRAT TECHNOLOGIES for several years and
found several applications in space. Their well-known advantages (rapid response and precise
positioning) have been used in valve designs to obtain either rapid or fine proportional valves. A first
gas valve is using a small amplified piezo actuator and is further driven with a switched amplifier to
get a high frequency modulation. A frequency modulation higher than 400 Hz with a stroke of 100 m
has been measured. These properties can also be used for gasoline injectors. A second gas valve is also
using an amplified piezo actuator, a linear amplifier, and a servo controller to get an accurate
proportional valve dedicated to precise gas flow control in the fields of instrumentation and space. A
linear and stable flow control has been demonstrated. The low power consumption of the piezoelectric
valve in the space applications is an additional advantage. A stable flow of dry Nitrogen ranging from
0.1 sccm to 200 sccm has been measured with an inlet pressure of 1 bar. These valves have been
designed with the help of several modelling tools: finite element procedure for the electro-mechanical
part, the contact mechanics between the poppet and the seat, the computational fluid dynamics. The
valves have been further measured by using several measuring equipment's, including a laser
interferometer, a spectrum analyser to measure the gas flow stability, Thermal vacuum and leak tests
have also been performed. A special emphasis is realised on the driving and control aspects of this
valve for space applications.

415. A balanced wide-band amplifier for microwave applications

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Panzariu, Mircea; Lupescu, Horia; Dumitrascu, Ana; Tamas, Razvan D.

2015-02-01

Due to its better performance, high fiability and large power capability, balanced amplifier is one of
the most popular designs used in narrow band applications. However, with a balanced amplifier in
class A operation, the band-pass is still narrow with classical coupler [1]. In this paper, we propose a
new method for widen the band-pass and linearity of the amplifier, by using two Lange couplers and
by adding two drivers, so that small signal could be amplified [2], [3], [4], [5]. The proposed amplifier
works in the 0.9 - 2.4 GHz band, with good performances. We also propose an A class X-band
amplifier, with Wilkinson power divider used as a combiner and divider. The amplifier will operate at
9,5 GHz with Continuous Wave (C.W). The two methods were validated by simulating the balanced
amplifier with Lange coupler and the balanced amplifier with Wilkinson power divider, in class A
operation.

416. Multi-pass amplifier architecture for high power laser systems

DOEpatents

Manes, Kenneth R; Spaeth, Mary L; Erlandson, Alvin C

2014-04-01

A main amplifier system includes a first reflector operable to receive input light through a first
aperture and direct the input light along an optical path. The input light is characterized by a first
polarization. The main amplifier system also includes a first polarizer operable to reflect light
characterized by the first polarization state. The main amplifier system further includes a first and
second set of amplifier modules. Each of the first and second set of amplifier modules includes an
entrance window, a quarter wave plate, a plurality of amplifier slablets arrayed substantially parallel to
each other, and an exit window. The main amplifier system additionally includes a set of mirrors

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operable to reflect light exiting the first set of amplifier modules to enter the second set of amplifier
modules and a second polarizer operable to reflect light characterized by a second polarization state.

417. Screening of pi-basic naphthalene and anthracene amplifiers for pi-acidic synthetic pore sensors.

PubMed

Hagihara, Shinya; Gremaud, Ludovic; Bollot, Guillaume; Mareda, Jiri; Matile, Stefan

2008-04-02

Synthetic ion channels and pores attract current attention as multicomponent sensors in complex
matrixes. This application requires the availability of reactive signal amplifiers that covalently capture
analytes and drag them into the pore. pi-Basic 1,5-dialkoxynaphthalenes (1,5-DAN) are attractive
amplifiers because aromatic electron donor-acceptor (AEDA) interactions account for their recognition
within pi-acidic naphthalenediimide (NDI) rich synthetic pores. Focusing on amplifier design, we
report here the synthesis of a complete collection of DAN and dialkoxyanthracene amplifiers,
determine their oxidation potentials by cyclic voltammetry, and calculate their quadrupole moments.
Blockage experiments reveal that subtle structural changes in regioisomeric DAN amplifiers can be
registered within NDI pores. Frontier orbital overlap in AEDA complexes, oxidation potentials, and, to
a lesser extent, quadrupole moments are shown to contribute to isomer recognition by synthetic pores.
Particularly important with regard to practical applications of synthetic pores as multianalyte sensors,
we further demonstrate that application of the lessons learned with DAN regioisomers to the expansion
to dialkoxyanthracenes provides access to privileged amplifiers with submicromolar activity.

418. Edge-pumped multi-slab amplifier for inertial fusion energy (IFE)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Li, Min; Zhang, Xiaomin; Li, Mingzhong; Cui, Xudong; Wang, Zhenguo; Yan, Xiongwei; Jiang,
Xinying; Zheng, Jiangang

2016-11-01

We proposed a novel laser amplifier for inertial fusion energy (IFE) based on an edge-pumped, gas-
cooled multi-slab architecture. Compared to the face-pumped laser amplifiers for IFE, this architecture
enables the pump, coolant and laser propagating orthogonally in the amplifier, thereby decoupling
them in space and being beneficial to construction of the amplifier. To satisfy the high efficiency
required for IFE, high-irradiance rectangle-waveguide coupled diode laser arrays are employed in the
edge-pumped architecture and the pump light will be homogenized by total internal reflection. A
traverse gradient doping profile is applied to the gain media, thus the pump absorption and gain
uniformity can be separately optimized. Furthermore, the laser beam normal to the surfaces of the gas-
cooled slabs will experience minimum thermal wavefront distortions in the amplifier head and ensure
high beam quality. Since each slab has its own pump source and uniform gain in the aperture, power
scaling can be easily achieved by placing identical slabs along the laser beam axis. Our investigations
might provide an efficient and convenient way to design and optimize the amplifiers for IFE.

419. Low phase noise oscillator using two parallel connected amplifiers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kleinberg, Leonard L.

1987-01-01

A high frequency oscillator is provided by connecting two amplifier circuits in parallel where each
amplifier circuit provides the other amplifier circuit with the conditions necessary for oscillation. The
inherent noise present in both amplifier circuits causes the quiescent current, and in turn, the generated
frequency, to change. The changes in quiescent current cause the transconductance and the load

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impedance of each amplifier circuit to vary, and this in turn results in opposing changes in the input
susceptance of each amplifier circuit. Because the changes in input susceptance oppose each other, the
changes in quiescent current also oppose each other. The net result is that frequency stability is
enhanced.

420. The warm, rich sound of valve guitar amplifiers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Keeports, David

2017-03-01

Practical solid state diodes and transistors have made glass valve technology nearly obsolete.
Nevertheless, valves survive largely because electric guitar players much prefer the sound of valve
amplifiers to the sound of transistor amplifiers. This paper discusses the introductory-level physics
behind that preference. Overdriving an amplifier adds harmonics to an input sound. While a
moderately overdriven valve amplifier produces strong even harmonics that enhance a sound, an
overdriven transistor amplifier creates strong odd harmonics that can cause dissonance. The
functioning of a triode valve explains its creation of even and odd harmonics. Music production
software enables the examination of both the wave shape and the harmonic content of amplified
sounds.


19
20
21
22
23


20
21
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421. An optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier for seeding high repetition rate free-electron lasers

SciTech Connect

Hppner, H.; Tanikawa, T.; Schulz, M.; Riedel, R.; Teubner, U.; Faatz, B.; Tavella, F.

2015-05-15

High repetition rate free-electron lasers (FEL), producing highly intense extreme ultraviolet and x-ray
pulses, require new high power tunable femtosecond lasers for FEL seeding and FEL pump-probe
experiments. A tunable, 112 W (burst mode) optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier (OPCPA) is
demonstrated with center frequencies ranging from 720900 nm, pulse energies up to 1.12 mJ and a
pulse duration of 30 fs at a repetition rate of 100 kHz. Since the power scalability of this OPCPA is
limited by the OPCPA-pump amplifier, we also demonstrate a 6.713.7 kW (burst mode) thin-disk
OPCPA-pump amplifier, increasing the possible OPCPA output power to many hundreds of watts.
Furthermore, third and fourth harmonic generation experiments are performed and the results are used
to simulate a seeded FEL with high-gain harmonic generation.

422. Breadboard Amplifier: Building and Using Simple Electrophysiology Equipment

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PubMed Central

Crisp, Kevin M.; Lin, Hunter; Prosper, Issa

2016-01-01

Electrophysiology is a valuable skill for the neuroscientist, but the learning curve for students can be
steep. Here we describe a very simple electromyography (EMG) amplifier that can be built from
scratch by students with no electronics experience in about 30 minutes, making it ideal for
incorporating into a laboratory activity. With few parts and no adjustments except the gain, students
can begin physiology experiments quickly while having the satisfaction of having built the equipment
themselves. Because the output of the circuit goes to a computer sound card, students can listen to
electrophysiological activity as they see it on the computer screen, a feature many of our students
greatly appreciated. Various applications are discussed, including dual channel recording, using
streaming media platforms with remote lab partners and acquiring data in the field on a smart phone.
Our students reported that they enjoyed being able to build a working device and using it to record
from their own muscles. PMID:27385921

423. High-gain cryogenic amplifier assembly employing a commercial CMOS operational amplifier.

PubMed

Proctor, J E; Smith, A W; Jung, T M; Woods, S I

2015-07-01

We have developed a cryogenic amplifier for the measurement of small current signals (10 fA-100 nA)
from cryogenic optical detectors. Typically operated with gain near 10(7) V/A, the amplifier performs
well from DC to greater than 30 kHz and exhibits noise level near the Johnson limit. Care has been
taken in the design and materials to control heat flow and temperatures throughout the entire detector-
amplifier assembly. A simple one-board version of the amplifier assembly dissipates 8 mW to our
detector cryostat cold stage, and a two-board version can dissipate as little as 17 W to the detector
cold stage. With current noise baseline of about 10 fA/(Hz)(1/2), the cryogenic amplifier is generally
useful for cooled infrared detectors, and using blocked impurity band detectors operated at 10 K, the
amplifier enables noise power levels of 2.5 fW/(Hz)(1/2) for detection of optical wavelengths near 10
m.

424. ECH by FEL and gyrotron sources on the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX) tokamak

SciTech Connect

Stallard, B.W.; Turner, W.C.; Allen, S.L.; Byers, J.A.; Felker, B.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Ferguson,
S.W.; Hooper, E.G.; Thomassen, K.I.; Throop, A.L. ); Makowski, M.A. )

1990-08-09

The Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX) at LLNL is studying the physics of intense pulse ECH is
a high-density tokamak plasma using a microwave FEL. Related technology development includes the
FEL, a windowless quasi-optical transmission system, and other microwave components. Initial
plasma experiments have been carried out at 140 GHz with single rf pulses generated using the ETA-II
accelerator and the ELF wiggler. Peak power levels up to 0.2 GW and pulse durations up to 10 ns were
achieved for injection into the plasma using as untapered wiggler. FEL pulses were transmitted over 33
m from the FEL to MTX using six mirrors mounted in a 50-cm-diam evacuated pipe. Measurements of
the microwave beam and transmission through the plasma were carried out. For future rapid pulse
experiments at high average power (4 GW peak power, 5kHz pulse rate, and {bar P} > 0.5 MW) using
the IMP wiggler with tapered magnetic field, a gyrotron (140 GHz, 400 kW cw or up to 1 MW short
pulse) is being installed to drive the FEL input or to directly heat the tokamak plasma at full gyrotron
power. Quasi-optic techniques will be used to couple the gyrotron power. For direct plasma heating,
the gyrotron will couple into the existing mirror transport system. Using both sources of rf generation,
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experiments are planned to investigate intense pulse absorption and tokamak physics, such as the ECH
of a pellet-fueled plasma and plasma control using localized heating. 12 refs., 9 figs.

425. ECH by FEL and gyrotron sources on the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX) tokamak

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stallard, B. W.; Turner, W. C.; Allen, S. L.; Byers, J. A.; Felker, B.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Ferguson,
S. W.; Hooper, E. G.; Thomassen, K. I.; Throop, A. L.

1990-08-01

The Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX) at LLNL is studying the physics of intense pulse ECH is
a high-density tokamak plasma using a microwave FEL. Related technology development includes the
FEL, a windowless quasi-optical transmission system, and other microwave components. Initial
plasma experiments have been carried out at 140 GHz with single RF pulses generated using the ETA-
2 accelerator and the ELF wiggler. Peak power levels up to 0.2 GW and pulse durations up to 10 ns
were achieved for injection into the plasma using as untapered wiggler. FEL pulses were transmitted
over 33 m from the FEL to MTX using six mirrors mounted in a 50 cm diam evacuated pipe.
Measurements of the microwave beam and transmission through the plasma were carried out. For
future rapid pulse experiments at high average power (4 GW peak power, 5 kHz pulse rate, and bar P
is greater than 0.5 MW) using the IMP wiggler with tapered magnetic field, a gyrotron (140 GHz, 400
kW CW or up to 1 MW short pulse) is being installed to drive the FEL input or to directly heat the
tokamak plasma at full gyrotron power. Quasi-optic techniques will be used to couple the gyrotron
power. For direct plasma heating, the gyrotron will couple into the existing mirror transport system.
Using both sources of RF generation, experiments are planned to investigate intense pulse absorption
and tokamak physics, such as the ECH of a pellet-fueled plasma and plasma control using localized
heating.

426. Power-Amplifier Module for 145 to 165 GHz

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Samoska, Lorene; Peralta, Alejandro

2007-01-01

A power-amplifier module that operates in the frequency range of 145 to 165 GHz has been designed
and constructed as a combination of (1) a previously developed monolithic microwave integrated
circuit (MMIC) power amplifier and (2) a waveguide module. The amplifier chip was needed for
driving a high-electron-mobility-transistor (HEMT) frequency doubler. While it was feasible to
connect the amplifier and frequency-doubler chips by use of wire bonds, it was found to be much more
convenient to test the amplifier and doubler chips separately. To facilitate separate testing, it was
decided to package the amplifier and doubler chips in separate waveguide modules. Figure 1 shows the
resulting amplifier module. The amplifier chip was described in "MMIC HEMT Power Amplifier for
140 to 170 GHz" (NPO-30127), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 11, (November 2003), page 49. To
recapitulate: This is a three-stage MMIC power amplifier that utilizes HEMTs as gain elements. The
amplifier was originally designed to operate in the frequency range of 140 to 170 GHz. The waveguide
module is based on a previously developed lower frequency module, redesigned to support operation
in the frequency range of 140 to 220 GHz. Figure 2 presents results of one of several tests of the
amplifier module - measurements of output power and gain as functions of input power at an output
frequency of 150 GHz. Such an amplifier module has many applications to test equipment for power
sources above 100 GHz.

427. Automatic alignment of double optical paths in excimer laser amplifier

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wang, Dahui; Zhao, Xueqing; Hua, Hengqi; Zhang, Yongsheng; Hu, Yun; Yi, Aiping; Zhao, Jun
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2013-05-01

A kind of beam automatic alignment method used for double paths amplification in the electron
pumped excimer laser system is demonstrated. In this way, the beams from the amplifiers can be
transferred along the designated direction and accordingly irradiate on the target with high stabilization
and accuracy. However, owing to nonexistence of natural alignment references in excimer laser
amplifiers, two cross-hairs structure is used to align the beams. Here, one crosshair put into the input
beam is regarded as the near-field reference while the other put into output beam is regarded as the far-
field reference. The two cross-hairs are transmitted onto Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) by image-
relaying structures separately. The errors between intersection points of two cross-talk images and
centroid coordinates of actual beam are recorded automatically and sent to closed loop feedback
control mechanism. Negative feedback keeps running until preset accuracy is reached. On the basis of
above-mentioned design, the alignment optical path is built and the software is compiled, whereafter
the experiment of double paths automatic alignment in electron pumped excimer laser amplifier is
carried through. Meanwhile, the related influencing factors and the alignment precision are analyzed.
Experimental results indicate that the alignment system can achieve the aiming direction of automatic
aligning beams in short time. The analysis shows that the accuracy of alignment system is 0.63rad
and the beam maximum restoration error is 13.75m. Furthermore, the bigger distance between the
two cross-hairs, the higher precision of the system is. Therefore, the automatic alignment system has
been used in angular multiplexing excimer Main Oscillation Power Amplification (MOPA) system and
can satisfy the requirement of beam alignment precision on the whole.

428. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Han, Kwang S.; Kim, K. H.; Stock, L. V.

1986-01-01

In order to evaluate the feasibility of the solar pumped dye laser, the parametric study of a dye laser
amplifier pumped by a solar simulator and flashlamp was carried out, and the amplifier gains were
measured at various pump beam irradiances on the dye cell. Rhodamine 6G was considered as a
candidate for the solar pumped laser because of its good utilization of the solar spectrum and high
quantum efficiency. The measurement shows that a solar concentration of 20,000 is required to reach
the threshold of the dye. The work to construct a kinetic model algorithm which predicts the output
parameter of laser was progressed. The kinetic model was improved such that there is good agreement
between the theoretical model and experimental data for the systems defined previously as flashlamp
pumped laser oscillator, and the long path length solar pumped laser.

429. Solid state radiographic image amplifiers, part C

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Szepesi, Z.

1971-01-01

The contrast sensitivity of the radiographic amplifiers, both the storage type and nonstorage type, their
absolute sensitivity, and the reproducibility of fabrication were investigated. The required 2-2T quality
level was reached with the radiographic storage screen. The sensitivity threshold was 100 to 200 mR
with 45 to 100 kV filtered X-rays. The quality level of the radiographic amplifier screen (without
storage) was 4-4T; for a 6 mm (0.25 in.) thick aluminum specimen, a 1 mm (0.040 in.) diameter hole
in a 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) thick penetrameter was detected. Its sensitivity threshold was 2 to 6 mR/min.
The developed radiographic screens are applicable for uses in nondestructive testing.

430. Ideal photon number amplifier and duplicator

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)


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Dariano, G. M.

1992-01-01

The photon number-amplification and number-duplication mechanism are analyzed in the ideal case.
The search for unitary evolutions leads to consider also a number-deamplification mechanism, the
symmetry between amplification and deamplification being broken by the integer-value nature of the
number operator. Both transformations, amplification and duplication, need an auxiliary field which, in
the case of amplification, turns out to be amplified in the inverse way. Input-output energy
conservation is accounted for using a classical pump or through frequency-conversion of the fields.
Ignoring one of the fields is equivalent to considering the amplifier as an open system involving
entropy production. The Hamiltonians of the ideal devices are given and compared with those of
realistic systems.

431. Linear control of oscillator and amplifier flows*

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Schmid, Peter J.; Sipp, Denis

2016-08-01

Linear control applied to fluid systems near an equilibrium point has important applications for many
flows of industrial or fundamental interest. In this article we give an exposition of tools and
approaches for the design of control strategies for globally stable or unstable flows. For unstable
oscillator flows a feedback configuration and a model-based approach is proposed, while for stable
noise-amplifier flows a feedforward setup and an approach based on system identification is
advocated. Model reduction and robustness issues are addressed for the oscillator case; statistical
learning techniques are emphasized for the amplifier case. Effective suppression of global and
convective instabilities could be demonstrated for either case, even though the system-identification
approach results in a superior robustness to off-design conditions.

432. Magnetic Amplifier for Power Flow Control

SciTech Connect

2012-02-24

GENI Project: ORNL is developing an electromagnet-based, amplifier-like device that will allow for
complete control over the flow of power within the electric grid. To date, complete control of power
flow within the grid has been prohibitively expensive. ORNLs controller could provide a reliable,
cost-effective solution to this problem. The team is combining two types of pre-existing technologies
to assist in flow control, culminating in a prototype iron-based magnetic amplifier. Ordinarily, such a
device would require expensive superconductive wire, but the magnetic iron core of ORNLs device
could serve as a low-cost alternative that is equally adept at regulating power flow.

433. Multiwatts narrow linewidth fiber Raman amplifiers.

PubMed

Feng, Yan; Taylor, Luke; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico

2008-07-21

Up to 4.8 W, approximately 10 MHz, 1178 nm laser is obtained by Raman amplification of a


distributed feedback diode laser in standard single mode fibers pumped by an 1120 nm Yb fiber laser.
More than 10% efficiency and 27 dB amplification is achieved, limited by onset of stimulated
Brillouin scattering. The ratio of Raman to Brillouin gain coefficient of a fiber is identified as a figure
of merit for building a narrow linewidth fiber Raman amplifier.

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434. Radiation and particle detector and amplifier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Schmidt, K. C. (Inventor)

1973-01-01

A radiation or charged particle detector is described which incorporates a channel multiplier structure
to amplify the detected rays or particles. The channel multiplier structure has a support multiplying
element with a longitudinal slot along one side. The element supports a pair of plates positioned
contiguous with the slot. The plates funnel the particles or rays to be detected into the slotted aperture
and the element, thus creating an effectively wide aperture detector of the windowless type.

435. One Kilowatt UHF Solid State Power Amplifier.

DTIC Science & Technology

1982-02-01

den:fiy t, . .mber) One-Killowat t Satellite Communications UHF Hopping Filter Solid State Amplifier
20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse aide It neceeary...in this report are power input versus power
output, intermodulation products measurement, thermal, and satellite tests.FORM13 DD , JAN73 1 3
EDITION OF...DESCRIPTIONS OF TESTS 18 1. Laboratory and Flight Preliminary Tests 18 2.
Power Input vs Power Output Tests 27 3. Satellite Tests 30 4

436. Wide Band Gyrotron Traveling Wave Amplifier Analysis.

DTIC Science & Technology

1987-12-01

phase versus frequency characteristics. It is in these aspects that the gyrotron amplifier effort has been
less than successful. A C-band gyro- TWT ...proposals were made several years ago, no experimental
results have yet been reported. Another concept for increasing the bandwidth of the gyro- TWT is
to...including dielectric loading of the waveguide [24], helix loaded waveguide (25]-[26], and disc-
loaded waveguide [26]-(27). No experimental results on

437. Self-amplifying mRNA vaccines.

PubMed

Brito, Luis A; Kommareddy, Sushma; Maione, Domenico; Uematsu, Yasushi; Giovani, Cinzia;
Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Otten, Gillis R; Yu, Dong; Mandl, Christian W; Mason, Peter W;
Dormitzer, Philip R; Ulmer, Jeffrey B; Geall, Andrew J

2015-01-01

This chapter provides a brief introduction to nucleic acid-based vaccines and recent research in
developing self-amplifying mRNA vaccines. These vaccines promise the flexibility of plasmid DNA
vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity and safety. The key to realizing the full potential of these
vaccines is efficient delivery of nucleic acid to the cytoplasm of a cell, where it can amplify and
express the encoded antigenic protein. The hydrophilicity and strong net negative charge of RNA
impedes cellular uptake. To overcome this limitation, electrostatic complexation with cationic lipids or
polymers and physical delivery using electroporation or ballistic particles to improve cellular uptake
has been evaluated. This chapter highlights the rapid progress made in using nonviral delivery systems
for RNA-based vaccines. Initial preclinical testing of self-amplifying mRNA vaccines has shown
nonviral delivery to be capable of producing potent and robust innate and adaptive immune responses
in small animals and nonhuman primates. Historically, the prospect of developing mRNA vaccines
was uncertain due to concerns of mRNA instability and the feasibility of large-scale manufacturing.
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Today, these issues are no longer perceived as barriers in the widespread implementation of the
technology. Currently, nonamplifying mRNA vaccines are under investigation in human clinical trials
and can be produced at a sufficient quantity and quality to meet regulatory requirements. If the
encouraging preclinical data with self-amplifying mRNA vaccines are matched by equivalently
positive immunogenicity, potency, and tolerability in human trials, this platform could establish
nucleic acid vaccines as a versatile new tool for human immunization.

438. Gas amplified ionization detector for gas chromatography

DOEpatents

Huston, Gregg C.

1992-01-01

A gas-amplified ionization detector for gas chromatrography which possesses increased sensitivity and
a very fast response time. Solutes eluding from a gas chromatographic column are ionized by UV
photoionization of matter eluting therefrom. The detector is capable of generating easily measured
voltage signals by gas amplification/multiplication of electron products resulting from the UV
photoionization of at least a portion of each solute passing through the detector.

439. High-Power Amplifier Free Electron Lasers

DTIC Science & Technology

2006-06-01

society, including laser pointers , printers, compact-disc players, DVD players, product scanners and
even as instruments in medical procedures. With...FREE ELECTRON LASERS by Tyrone Y. Voughs
June 2006 Thesis Advisor: William B. Colson Co-Advisor: Robert L. Armstead...2006 3. REPORT
TYPE AND DATES COVERED Masters Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE High-Power Amplifier
Free Electron Lasers 6. AUTHOR(S) LT Tyrone Y

440. Design and simulation of a gyroklystron amplifier

SciTech Connect

Chauhan, M. S. Swati, M. V.; Jain, P. K.

2015-03-15

In the present paper, a design methodology of the gyroklystron amplifier has been described and
subsequently used for the design of a typically selected 200kW, Ka-band, four-cavity gyroklystron
amplifier. This conceptual device design has been validated through the 3D particle-in-cell (PIC)
simulation and nonlinear analysis. Commercially available PIC simulation code MAGIC has been
used for the electromagnetic study at the different location of the device RF interaction structure for
the beam-absent case, i.e., eigenmode study as well as for the electron beam and RF wave interaction
behaviour study in the beam present case of the gyroklystron. In addition, a practical problem of
misalignment of the RF cavities with drift tubes within the tube has been also investigated and its
effect on device performance studied. The analytical and simulation results confirmed the validity of
the gyroklystron device design. The PIC simulation results of the present gyroklystron produced a
stable RF output power of 218kW for 0% velocity spread at 35GHz, with 45dB gain, 37%
efficiency, and a bandwidth of 0.3% for a 70kV, 8.2A gyrating electron beam. The simulated values of
RF output power have been found in agreement with the nonlinear analysis results within 5%.
Further, the PIC simulation has been extended to study a practical problem of misalignment of the
cavities axis and drift tube axis of the gyroklystron amplifier and found that the RF output power is
more sensitive to misalignments in comparison to the device bandwidth. The present paper,
gyroklystron device design, nonlinear analysis, and 3D PIC simulation using commercially available

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code had been systematically described would be of use to the high-power gyro-amplifier tube
designers and research scientists.


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441. Parallel reservoir computing using optical amplifiers.

PubMed

Vandoorne, Kristof; Dambre, Joni; Verstraeten, David; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Bienstman, Peter

2011-09-01

Reservoir computing (RC), a computational paradigm inspired on neural systems, has become
increasingly popular in recent years for solving a variety of complex recognition and classification
problems. Thus far, most implementations have been software-based, limiting their speed and power
efficiency. Integrated photonics offers the potential for a fast, power efficient and massively parallel
hardware implementation. We have previously proposed a network of coupled semiconductor optical
amplifiers as an interesting test case for such a hardware implementation. In this paper, we investigate
the important design parameters and the consequences of process variations through simulations. We
use an isolated word recognition task with babble noise to evaluate the performance of the photonic
reservoirs with respect to traditional software reservoir implementations, which are based on leaky
hyperbolic tangent functions. Our results show that the use of coherent light in a well-tuned reservoir
architecture offers significant performance benefits. The most important design parameters are the
delay and the phase shift in the system's physical connections. With optimized values for these
parameters, coherent semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) reservoirs can achieve better results than
traditional simulated reservoirs. We also show that process variations hardly degrade the performance,
but amplifier noise can be detrimental. This effect must therefore be taken into account when
designing SOA-based RC implementations.

442. LLNL/Lion Precision LVDT amplifier

SciTech Connect

Hopkins, D.J.

1994-04-01

A high-precision, low-noise, LVDT amplifier has been developed which is a significant advancement
on the current state of the art in contact displacement measurement. This amplifier offers the dynamic
range of a typical LVDT probe but with a resolution that rivals that of non contact displacement
measuring systems such as capacitance gauges and laser interferometers. Resolution of 0.1 {mu} in
with 100 Hz bandwidth is possible. This level of resolution is over an order of magnitude greater than
what is now commercially available. A front panel switch can reduce the bandwidth to 2.5 Hz and
attain a resolution of 0.025 {mu} in. This level of resolution meets or exceeds that of displacement
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measuring laser interferometry or capacitance gauge systems. Contact displacement measurement


offers high part spatial resolution and therefore can measure not only part contour but surface finish.
Capacitance gauges and displacement laser interferometry offer poor part spatial resolution and can
not provide good surface finish measurements. Machine tool builders, meteorologists and quality
inspection departments can immediately utilize the higher accuracy and capabilities that this amplifier
offers. The precision manufacturing industry can improve as a result of improved capability to
measure parts that help reduce costs and minimize material waste.

443. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In H.; Stock, Larry V.

1988-01-01

A XeCl laser which was developed earlier for an iodine laser oscillator was modified in order to
increase the output pulse energy of XeCl laser so that the iodine laser output energy could be
increased. The electrical circuit of the XeCl laser was changed from a simple capacitor discharge
circuit of the XeCl laser to a Marx system. Because of this improvement the output energy from the
XeCl laser was increased from 60 mj to 80 mj. Subsequently, iodine laser output energy was increased
from 100 mj to 3 mj. On the other hand, the energy storage capability and amplification characteristics
of the Vortek solar simulator-pumped amplifier was calculated expecting the calculated amplification
factor is about 2 and the energy extraction efficiency is 26 percent due to the very low input energy
density to the amplifier. As a result of an improved kinetic modeling for the iodine solar simulator
pumped power amplifier, it is found that the I-2 along the axis of the tube affects seriously the gain
profile. For the gas i-C3F7I at the higher pressures, the gain will decrease due to the I-2 as the
pumping intensity increases, and at these higher pressures an increase in flow velocity will increase the
gain.

444. Tiny biomedical amplifier combines high performance, low power drain

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Deboo, G. J.

1965-01-01

Transistorized, portable, high performance amplifier with low power drain facilitates biomedical
studies on mobile subjects. This device, which utilizes a differential input to obtain a common-mode
rejection, is used for amplifying electrocardiogram and electromyogram signals.

445. Matched wideband low-noise amplifiers for radio astronomy.

PubMed

Weinreb, S; Bardin, J; Mani, H; Jones, G

2009-04-01

Two packaged low noise amplifiers for the 0.3-4 GHz frequency range are described. The amplifiers
can be operated at temperatures of 300-4 K and achieve noise temperatures in the 5 K range (<0.1 dB
noise figure) at 15 K physical temperature. One amplifier utilizes commercially available, plastic-
packaged SiGe transistors for first and second stages; the second amplifier is identical except it utilizes
an experimental chip transistor as the first stage. Both amplifiers use resistive feedback to provide
input reflection coefficient S11<-10 dB over a decade bandwidth with gain over 30 dB. The amplifiers
can be used as rf amplifiers in very low noise radio astronomy systems or as i.f. amplifiers following
superconducting mixers operating in the millimeter and submillimeter frequency range.

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446. Testing of active Fresnel rhomb zig-zag slab amplifier

SciTech Connect

Bikmatov, R.G.; Charikov, A.V.; Chernyak, V.M.; Ignat`ev, L.P.; Kondrashov, V.N.; Kuznetsov, V.G.;
Nikolaevskii, V.G.; Nugumanov, A.M.; Pergament, M.I.; Rozhkov, A.D.; Manes, K.

1995-12-31

The work is devoted to the investigation of a wide-aperture amplifier which is intended to be installed
in the laser system Nova Upgrade. The amplifier should meet rather severe requirements. The authors
have carried out the experimental investigation of gain nonuniformity over all the aperture of the
amplifier and estimated depolarization and phase distortions to determine the sizes of the amplifier
aperture operating zone.

447. Investigation of a Background Suppression Transimpedance Amplifier for Photovoltaic Detectors.

DTIC Science & Technology

1992-12-01

generation of transimpedance amplifier based detector systems are limited by opamp saturation when
operating at a high gain or in the presence of a...Physics ABSTRACT The current generation of
transimpedance amplifier based detector systems are limited by opamp saturation when operating at a
high gain...amplifier, normally consists of a photodetector, an operational amplifier ( opamp ) with a
high gain and input impedance, and a high resistance feedback

448. Cleanliness improvements of NIF (National Ignition Facility) amplifiers as compared to previous
large-scale lasers

SciTech Connect

Honig, J

2004-06-09

Prior to the recent commissioning of the first NIF (National Ignition Facility) beamline, full-scale
laser-amplifier-glass cleanliness experiments were performed. Aerosol measurements and obscuration
data acquired using a modified flatbed scanner compare favorably to historical large-scale lasers and
indicate that NIF is the cleanest large-scale laser built to date.

449. Evaluation and comparison of three IR detectors and three amplifier designs for a new, high-speed IR
pyrometer

SciTech Connect

J.A. Young, S. Borrora, A.W. Obst, J.R. Payton, A. Seifter

2005-01-01

At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), a high-speed, four-wavelength, infrared (IR) pyrometer
has been used for surface temperature measurements in shock-physics experiments for several years.
The pyrometer uses solid state detectors and a single fiber-optic cable for transmission of light from
the target surface to the detectors. This instrument has recently been redesigned for an upcoming
experiment at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Three different IR detectors (two HgCdTe variants as well
as the existing InSb chip) were compared for sensitivity, signal-to-noise ratio, and bandwidth. Of
major concern was detector amplifier recovery time from overload saturation. In shock physics
experiments, a short but very bright precursor frequently accompanies shock breakout (often from
trapped air). This precursor can saturate the amplifier and may ''swamp-out'' the signal of interest
before the amplifier recovers. With this in mind, we evaluated two new amplifier designs by the Perry
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Amplifier Company for linearity, signal-to-noise characteristics, gain, and saturation recovery time.
This paper describes experimental setup for detector comparison and results obtained. Furthermore, we
discuss new amplifier design and suitability for highspeed infrared pyrometry in shock physics
experiments.

450. 47 CFR 2.815 - External radio frequency power amplifiers.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External radio frequency power amplifiers.
2... External radio frequency power amplifiers. (a) As used in this part, an external radio frequency
power amplifier is any device which, (1) when used in conjunction with a radio transmitter as a signal
source...

451. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-04-01

... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.
870.2050 Section 870.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION,
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a)
Identification. A biopotential amplifier and...

452. 21 CFR 882.1835 - Physiological signal amplifier.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-04-01

... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Physiological signal amplifier. 882.1835 Section
882.1835 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH
AND HUMAN SERVICES... signal amplifier. (a) Identification. A physiological signal amplifier is a
general purpose device...

453. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.
870.2050 Section 870.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION,
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a)
Identification. A biopotential amplifier and...

454. 47 CFR 2.815 - External radio frequency power amplifiers.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External radio frequency power amplifiers.
2... External radio frequency power amplifiers. (a) As used in this part, an external radio frequency
power amplifier is any device which, (1) when used in conjunction with a radio transmitter as a signal
source...

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12/08/2017 amplifier experiment wiggler: Topics by Science.gov

455. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-04-01

... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.
870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION,
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a)
Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

456. 21 CFR 882.1835 - Physiological signal amplifier.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-04-01

... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Physiological signal amplifier. 882.1835 Section
882.1835 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH
AND HUMAN SERVICES... signal amplifier. (a) Identification. A physiological signal amplifier is a
general purpose device...

457. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-04-01

... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.
870.2050 Section 870.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION,
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a)
Identification. A biopotential amplifier and...

458. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-04-01

... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.
870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION,
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a)
Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

459. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.
870.2050 Section 870.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION,
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a)
Identification. A biopotential amplifier and...

460. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01
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12/08/2017 amplifier experiment wiggler: Topics by Science.gov

... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.
870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION,
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a)
Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...


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461. 47 CFR 2.815 - External radio frequency power amplifiers.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false External radio frequency power amplifiers.
2... External radio frequency power amplifiers. (a) As used in this part, an external radio frequency
power amplifier is any device which, (1) when used in conjunction with a radio transmitter as a signal
source...

462. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-04-01

... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.
870.2050 Section 870.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION,
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a)
Identification. A biopotential amplifier and...

463. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.
870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION,
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a)
Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

464. 21 CFR 882.1835 - Physiological signal amplifier.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:-y9PEApPU5cJ:https://www.science.gov/topicpages/a/amplifier%2Bexperiment%2 149/161
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... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Physiological signal amplifier. 882.1835 Section
882.1835 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH
AND HUMAN SERVICES... signal amplifier. (a) Identification. A physiological signal amplifier is a
general purpose device...

465. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-04-01

... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.
870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION,
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a)
Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

466. 47 CFR 2.815 - External radio frequency power amplifiers.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External radio frequency power amplifiers.
2... External radio frequency power amplifiers. (a) As used in this part, an external radio frequency
power amplifier is any device which, (1) when used in conjunction with a radio transmitter as a signal
source...

467. 21 CFR 882.1835 - Physiological signal amplifier.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-04-01

... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Physiological signal amplifier. 882.1835 Section
882.1835 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH
AND HUMAN SERVICES... signal amplifier. (a) Identification. A physiological signal amplifier is a
general purpose device...

468. 21 CFR 882.1835 - Physiological signal amplifier.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Physiological signal amplifier. 882.1835 Section
882.1835 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH
AND HUMAN SERVICES... signal amplifier. (a) Identification. A physiological signal amplifier is a
general purpose device...

469. 47 CFR 2.815 - External radio frequency power amplifiers.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false External radio frequency power amplifiers.
2... External radio frequency power amplifiers. (a) As used in this part, an external radio frequency
power amplifier is any device which, (1) when used in conjunction with a radio transmitter as a signal
source...

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12/08/2017 amplifier experiment wiggler: Topics by Science.gov

470. Differential transimpedance amplifier circuit for correlated differential amplification

DOEpatents

Gresham, Christopher A.; Denton, M. Bonner; Sperline, Roger P.

2008-07-22

A differential transimpedance amplifier circuit for correlated differential amplification. The amplifier
circuit increase electronic signal-to-noise ratios in charge detection circuits designed for the detection
of very small quantities of electrical charge and/or very weak electromagnetic waves. A differential,
integrating capacitive transimpedance amplifier integrated circuit comprising capacitor feedback loops
performs time-correlated subtraction of noise.

471. Signal Conditioning Amplifier and Recorder (SCAmpR)

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Medelius, Pedro J.; Voska, Ned (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

The Signal Conditioning Amplifier and Recorder (SCAmpR) system is presented. The topics include:
1) System Description; 2) Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier (USCA); 3) Advanced Data
Acquisition System (ADAS); and 4) Signal Conditioning Amplifier and Recorder (SCAmpR). This
paper is presented in viewgraph form.

472. Distributed Amplifier Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Design

DTIC Science & Technology

2012-10-01

Distributed Amplifier Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Design by John E. Penn
ARL-TR-6237 October 2012...Distributed Amplifier Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit
(MMIC) Design John E. Penn Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL...TITLE AND
SUBTITLE Distributed Amplifier Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Design 5a.
CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

473. Design of double-pass discrete Raman amplifier and the impairments induced by Rayleigh
backscattering.

PubMed

Tang, M; Shum, P; Gong, Y

2003-08-11

We report on the investigation of discrete Raman fiber amplifier in double-pass configuration based on
the dispersion-compensated fiber and high reflection FBG. We proved in simulation and experiments
that the double-pass configuration requires nearly 50% less pump power and the same fiber length to
provide the same Raman gain and double-dispersion-compensation performance compared to the
typical counter-pumped Raman amplifier. We also analyzed the equivalent noise figure (NF) and the
Rayleigh backscattering impairments. The theoretical results shown that the impact of multipath
interference (MPI) noise is the dominating limitation factor of this system operated at very high
Raman gain region.

474. Time-domain model of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers for wideband optical signals.

PubMed
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Puris, D; Schmidt-Langhorst, C; Ldge, K; Majer, N; Schll, E; Petermann, K

2012-11-19

We present a novel theoretical time-domain model for a quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier,
that allows to simulate subpicosecond pulse propagation including power-based and phase-based
effects. Static results including amplified spontaneous emission spectra, continuous wave
amplification, and four-wave mixing experiments in addition to dynamic pump-probe simulations are
presented for different injection currents. The model uses digital filters to describe the frequency
dependent gain and microscopically calculated carrier-carrier scattering rates for the interband carrier
dynamics. It can be used to calculate the propagation of multiple signals with different wavelengths or
one wideband signal with high bitrate.

475. Optimization of femtosecond Yb-doped fiber amplifiers for high-quality pulse compression.

PubMed

Chen, Hung-Wen; Lim, JinKang; Huang, Shu-Wei; Schimpf, Damian N; Krtner, Franz X; Chang,
Guoqing

2012-12-17

We both theoretically and experimentally investigate the optimization of femtosecond Yb-doped fiber
amplifiers (YDFAs) to achieve high-quality, high-power, compressed pulses. Ultrashort pulses
amplified inside YDFAs are modeled by the generalized nonlinear Schrdinger equation coupled to the
steady-state propagation-rate equations. We use this model to study the dependence of compressed-
pulse quality on the YDFA parameters, such as the gain fiber's doping concentration and length, and
input pulse pre-chirp, duration, and power. The modeling results confirmed by experiments show that
an optimum negative pre-chirp for the input pulse exists to achieve the best compression.

476. Optical rogue-wave-like extreme value fluctuations in fiber Raman amplifiers.

PubMed

Hammani, Kamal; Finot, Christophe; Dudley, John M; Millot, Guy

2008-10-13

We report experimental observation and characterization of rogue wave-like extreme value statistics
arising from pump-signal noise transfer in a fiber Raman amplifier. Specifically, by exploiting Raman
amplification with an incoherent pump, the amplified signal is shown to develop a series of temporal
intensity spikes whose peak power follows a power-law probability distribution. The results are
interpreted using a numerical model of the Raman gain process using coupled nonlinear Schrdinger
equations, and the numerical model predicts results in good agreement with experiment.

477. Dual-rod Cr: LiSAF oscillator/amplifier for remote sensing applications

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Early, J. W.; Lester, C. S.; Cockroft, N. J.; Johnson, Christyl C.; Reichle, D. J.; Mordaunt, D. W.

1996-01-01

A dual rod configuration is used to achieve 16W average power operation from a flashlamp-pumped
Cr:LiSAF laser oscillator. A double-pass dual-rod amplifier configuration was used to amplify
141(mu)J pulses from a Q-switched diode-pumped LiSAF oscillator by a factor of
(approximately)120. This experiment established a small signal gain of 13.4% per cm at 820 nm.
Improved slope efficiency (7.4% electrical-to-light) and pulse repetition frequency (40Hz) were
achieved with a single-rod oscillator using improved Cr:LiSAF material.

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478. Design, construction, and operational results of an 800-A, 10-kV hot deck amplifier

SciTech Connect

Reass, W.A.

1984-06-01

This paper describes the electrical design, implementation, and operational results of a high fidelity
(feedback regulated) 800 A, 10-kV hard tube, hot deck amplifier. The amplifier can produce any linear
waveform to 800-A for 30 ms and beyond (depending on main energy storage). The present use is to
drive the vertical field (VF) control windings on ZT-40M, a toroidal reversed field pinch plasma
physics experiment. Although our application requires only 10 kV (8 MW) of switching, anode
voltage may be as high as 40 kV (32 MW).

479. Sum and buffer amplifier for lead-glass barrel calorimeter in the TOPAZ detector

SciTech Connect

Ujiie, N.; Ikeda, M.; Inaba, S.

1988-02-01

Analog sum and buffer amplifiers have been developed to provide a fast trigger signal from the lead-
glass electromagnetic calorimeter in the TOPAZ detector for TRISTAN e/sup +/e/sup -/ collider
experiments at KEK. The total kick-back noise from the 4300 channel gate signals of the LeCroy
FASTBUS ADC 1885N has been suppressed to less than 40 mV (equivalent to a 0.4 GeV electron
signal). The performances of the analog sum and buffer amplifiers that have been developed are
described.

480. First operation of a dielectric-loaded double-stripline free-electron maser experiment

SciTech Connect

Einat, M.; Jerby, E.; Shahadi, A.

1995-12-31

A tabletop free-electron maser (FEM) experiment based on a dielectric-loaded double-stripline


waveguide is presented. It employs a low-energy (8 keV, 0.5 A) electron beam and a folded-foil
wiggler ({lambda}w = 2 cm). Metal striplines protects the dielectric slabs from the electron beam and
support quasi-TEM modes in the waveguide. Radiation output is observed at f = 3.5 GHz, in
agreement with the dielectric-loaded FEM tuning relation.


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481. Assessing the reliability of amplified RNA used in microarrays: a DUMB table approach.

PubMed

Bearden, Edward D; Simpson, Pippa M; Peterson, Charlotte A; Beggs, Marjorie L

2006-01-01

A certain minimal amount of RNA from biological samples is necessary to perform a microarray
experiment with suitable replication. In some cases, the amount of RNA available is insufficient,
necessitating RNA amplification prior to target synthesis. However, there is some uncertainty about
the reliability of targets that have been generated from amplified RNA, because of nonlinearity and
preferential amplification. This current work develops a straightforward strategy to assess the
reliability of microarray data obtained from amplified RNA. The tabular method we developed, which
utilises a Down-Up-Missing-Below (DUMB) classification scheme, shows that microarrays generated
with amplified RNA targets are reliable within constraints. There was an increase in false negatives
because of the need for increased filtering. Furthermore, this analysis method is generic and can be
broadly applied to evaluate all microarray data. A copy of the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is available
upon request from Edward Bearden.

482. Enhanced Dynamic Range in N-SQUID Lumped Josephson Parametric Amplifiers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eddins, A.; Levenson-Falk, E. M.; Toyli, D. M.; Vijay, R.; Minev, Z.; Siddiqi, I.

2014-03-01

Simultaneously providing high gain and nearly quantum-limited noise performance, superconducting
parametric amplifiers (paramps) have been used successfully for high fidelity qubit readout, quantum
feedback, and microwave quantum optics experiments. The Lumped Josephson Parametric Amplifier
(LJPA) consists of a capacitively shunted SQUID coupled to a transmission line to form a nonlinear
resonator. Like other paramps employing a resonant circuit, the LJPA's dynamic range-a potentially
key ingredient for multiplexing-is limited. Simple theory predicts that the dynamic range can be
increased without any reduction in bandwidth or gain by distributing the resonator nonlinearity over a
series array of SQUIDs. We fabricated such array devices with up to 5 SQUIDs and observed a clear
increase in the critical power for bifurcation about which parametric gain occurs. We discuss in detail
amplifier performance as a function of the number of SQUIDs in the array. This research was
supported by the Army Research Office under a QCT grant.

483. 18 W single-stage single-frequency acoustically tailored Raman fiber amplifier.

PubMed

Vergien, Christopher; Dajani, Iyad; Robin, Craig

2012-05-15

A single-mode polarization-maintaining fiber doped to increase the Raman gain while suppressing
stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) was utilized in a single-stage counter-pumped Raman fiber
amplifier. The SBS suppression was achieved through the acoustic tailoring of the core. A pump probe
experiment was conducted to characterize the Brillouin gain and indicated the existence of multiple
Brillouin peaks. When the amplifier was seeded with approximately 15 mW of 1178 nm light, 11.5 W
of cw output power was obtained with a linewidth 2 MHz. The application of a thermal gradient to
further mitigate the SBS process increased the output power to 18 W, thus providing a net amplifier
gain >30 dB.

484. Numerical simulation of cross field amplifiers

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SciTech Connect

Eppley, K.

1990-01-01

Cross field amplifiers (CFA) have been used in many applications where high power, high frequency
microwaves are needed. Although these tubes have been manufactured for decades, theoretical
analysis of their properties is not as highly developed as for other microwave devices such as
klystrons. One feature distinguishing cross field amplifiers is that the operating current is produced by
secondary emission from a cold cathode. This removes the need for a heater and enables the device to
act as a switch tube, drawing no power until the rf drive is applied. However, this method of generating
the current does complicate the simulation. We are developing a simulation model of cross field
amplifiers using the PIC code CONDOR. We simulate an interaction region, one traveling wavelength
long, with periodic boundary conditions. An electric field with the appropriate phase velocity is
imposed on the upper boundary of the problem. Evaluation of the integral of E{center dot}J gives the
power interchanged between the wave and the beam. Given the impedance of the structure, we then
calculate the change in the traveling wave field. Thus we simulate the growth of the wave through the
device. The main advance of our model over previous CFA simulations is the realistic tracking of
absorption and secondary emission. The code uses experimental curves to calculate secondary
production as a function of absorbed energy, with a theoretical expression for the angular dependence.
We have used this code to model the 100 MW X-band CFA under construction at SLAC, as designed
by Joseph Feinstein and Terry Lee. We are examining several questions of practical interest, such as
the power and spectrum of absorbed electrons, the minimum traveling wave field needed to initiate
spoke formation, and the variation of output power with dc voltage, anode-cathode gap, and magnetic
field. 5 refs., 8 figs.

485. Analytical and numerical solutions to the amplifier with incoherent pulse temporal overlap

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Li, M.; Zhang, X. M.; Wang, Z. G.; Cui, X. D.; Yan, X. W.; Jiang, X. Y.; Zheng, J. G.; Wang, W.; Li,
Mingzhong

2017-01-01

Serious pulse temporal overlap in amplifiers would result in the decrease of energy extraction
efficiency and the increase of pulse-shape distortion (PSD). Precisely predicting pulse temporal
overlap is of significance to an effective amplifier design. In this work, the analytical expressions with
complete pulse overlap are derived and a numerical method is proposed to solve the case with partial
temporal overlap for a double-pass Nd:YAG amplifier. Our studies, in which pulse temporal overlap is
taken into account, can precisely predict the output energy and temporal shape, compared to the results
from Hirano and other experiments. In addition, our numerical routes could provide the applicable
range of analytical solutions to conventional Frantz-Nodvik equations in the case of pulse overlap,
further extending the applicability and reducing computational costs. For given conditions, energy
reduction and PSD are mainly determined by the overlap degree. For step-shaped pulse, we
demonstrate that avoiding overlap in the peak pulse and allowing overlap in the foot pulse have small
impacts on the energy extraction and PSD, which extends the range of duration of the pulse for a
designed amplifier. Our investigations might provide an efficient way to carefully design a pulsed
amplifier with controllable temporal overlap.

486. Low power RF amplifier circuit for ion trap applications

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noriega, J. R.; Garca-Delgado, L. A.; Gmez-Fuentes, R.; Garca-Jurez, A.

2016-09-01

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A low power RF amplifier circuit for ion trap applications is presented and described. The amplifier is
based on a class-D half-bridge amplifier with a voltage mirror driver. The RF amplifier is composed of
an RF class-D amplifier, an envelope modulator to ramp up the RF voltage during the ion analysis
stage, a detector or amplitude demodulation circuit for sensing the output signal amplitude, and a
feedback amplifier that linearizes the steady state output of the amplifier. The RF frequency is set by a
crystal oscillator and the series resonant circuit is tuned to the oscillator frequency. The resonant circuit
components have been chosen, in this case, to operate at 1 MHz. In testings, the class-D stage operated
at a maximum of 78 mW at 1.1356 MHz producing 225 V peak.

487. Investigations of electronic amplifiers supplying a piezobimorph actuator

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Milecki, Andrzej; Regulski, Roman

2016-10-01

Piezoelectric bending actuators, also known as bimorphs, are characterized by very good dynamic
properties and by displacements in a range of a few millimeters. Therefore these actuators are used in a
wide range of applications. However their usage is limited because they require supplying amplifiers
with output voltage of about 200 V, which are rather expensive. This paper presents investigation
results of such amplifiers with high voltage output. The model of a piezobending actuator is proposed
and implemented in Matlab-Simulink software in order to simulate the behavior of the actuator
supplied by the amplifiers. The simulation results are presented and compared with investigation
results of high voltage amplifier used for supplying a piezoactuator. The influence of current limitation
of operational amplifier on the actuator current is tested. Finally, a low cost audio power amplifier is
proposed to control the piezobender actuator (as a cheaper alternative to the high-voltage amplifier)
and its investigations results are presented in the paper.

488. Waveguide harmonic damper for klystron amplifier.

SciTech Connect

Kang, Y.

1998-10-27

A waveguide harmonic damper was designed for removing the harmonic frequency power from the
klystron amplifiers of the APS linac. Straight coaxial probe antennas are used in a rectangular
waveguide to form a damper. A linear array of the probe antennas is used on a narrow wall of the
rectangular waveguide for damping klystron harmonics while decoupling the fundamental frequency
in dominent TE{sub 01} mode. The klystron harmonics can exist in the waveguide as waveguide
higher-order modes above cutoff. Computer simulations are made to investigate the waveguide
harmonic damping characteristics of the damper.

489. Chemically amplified photoresist: Materials and processes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pawloski, Adam Richard

2002-01-01

Advances in microfabrication technology to construct smaller and faster integrated circuits depend on
improving resolution capabilities of patterning thin films of photoresist materials by photolithographic
imaging. Positive-tone, chemically amplified photoresists represent one of the most important classes
of photoresist materials. These materials function by the generation of a photoacid catalyst from the
decomposition of a photoacid generator with exposure that catalyzes chemical reactions that alter the
development rate of the exposed resist. Chemical amplification is derived from the fact that a single

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molecule of photogenerated catalyst may participate in numerous reactions. Photoacid catalyzes the
cleavage of acid-labile protecting groups from the backbone of the resin polymer, increasing the
dissolution rate of the resist in aqueous base. A pattern is formed in the photoresist film from the
difference between dissolution rates of the exposed and unexposed material. The continual
improvement of the resolution of chemically amplified resists depends on understanding, controlling,
and optimizing the chemical processes that govern pattern formation, namely photoacid generation,
resin deprotection, and resist dissolution. To elucidate how the formulation of the resist affects these
processes, a systematic methodology was designed, validated and implemented to analyze the
materials and processing of chemically amplified photoresist systems. The efficiency of photoacid
generation and the concentration of photoacid produced upon exposure were determined for a wide
range of resist formulations, processing conditions, and exposure technologies. The chemical structure
of photoacid generators and base quenchers were found to affect the processes of acid-base
neutralization, resin deprotection, and resist development. The reaction-diffusion process of photoacid
to deprotect the resin was identified to depend on the concentration of the photoacid generator. A much

490. Near-Quantum-Limited SQUID Amplifier

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clarke, John

2009-03-01

The SET (Single-Electron Transistor), which detects charge, is the dual of the SQUID
(Superconducting QUantum Interference Device), which detects flux. In 1998, Schoelkopf and co-
workers introduced the RFSET, which uses a resonance circuit to increase the frequency response to
the 100-MHz range. The same year saw the introduction of the Microstrip SQUID Amplifier^1 (MSA)
in which the input coil forms a microstrip with the SQUID washer, thereby extending the operating
frequency to the gigahertz range. I briefly describe the theory of SQUID amplifiers involving a tuned
input circuit with resonant frequency f. For an optimized SQUID at temperature T, the power gain and
noise temperature are approximately G = fp/f and TN = 20T(f/fp), respectively; fp is the plasma
frequency of one of the Josephson junctions. Because the SQUID voltage and current noise are
correlated, however, the optimum noise temperature is at a frequency below resonance. For a phase-
preserving amplifier, TN = (.5ex1-.1em/ -.15em.25ex2 + A)hf/kB, where Caves' added noise number
A = .5ex1-.1em/ -.15em.25ex2 at the quantum limit. Simulations based on the quantum Langevin
equation (QLE) suggest that the SQUID amplifier should attain A = .5ex1-.1em/ -.15em.25ex2 . We
have measured the gain and noise of an MSA in which the resistive shunts of the junctions are coupled
to cooling fins to reduce hot electron effects. The minimum value A = 1.1 0.2 occurs at a frequency
below resonance. On resonance, the value A = 1.5 0.3 is close to the predictions of the QLE,
suggesting that this model may fail to predict the cross-correlated noise term correctly. Indeed, recent
work suggests that a fully quantum mechanical theory is required to account properly for this term^2.
This work is in collaboration with D. Kinion and supported by DOE BES. ^1M. Mueck, et al., Appl.
Phys. Lett. 72, 2885 (1998). ^2A. Clerk, et al., http://arxiv.org/abs/0810.4729.

491. On Distortion in Digital Microwave Power Amplifiers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Al-Mozani, Dhamia; Wentzel, Andreas; Heinrich, Wolfgang

2017-01-01

In this paper, a first study of distortion in digital power amplifiers (PA) is presented. The work is based
on a voltage mode class-S PA with a GaN MMIC for the 900 MHz frequency band. The investigation
focuses on the quasi-static amplitude-to-amplitude (AM-AM) and amplitude-to-phase (AM-PM)
distortions. Different digital modulation schemes are applied and studied versus output power back-
off. This includes two pulse-width modulation (PWM) versions as well as band-pass delta-sigma
(BPDS) modulation. The results are verified by measurement data.

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492. Voltage Amplifier Based on Organic Electrochemical Transistor

PubMed Central

Braendlein, Marcel; Lonjaret, Thomas; Leleux, Pierre; Badier, JeanMichel

2016-01-01

Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are receiving a great deal of attention as amplifying
transducers for electrophysiology. A key limitation of this type of transistors, however, lies in the fact
that their output is a current, while most electrophysiology equipment requires a voltage input. A
simple circuit is built and modeled that uses a drain resistor to produce a voltage output. It is shown
that operating the OECT in the saturation regime provides increased sensitivity while maintaining a
linear signal transduction. It is demonstrated that this circuit provides high quality recordings of the
human heart using readily available electrophysiology equipment, paving the way for the use of
OECTs in the clinic. PMID:28105401

493. Undulations from amplified low frequency surface waves

SciTech Connect

Coutant, Antonin; Parentani, Renaud

2014-04-15

We study the linear scattering of gravity waves in longitudinal inhomogeneous stationary flows. When
the flow becomes supercritical, it is known that counterflow propagating shallow waves are blocked
and converted into deep waves. Here we show that in the zero-frequency limit, the reflected waves are
amplified in such a way that the free surface develops an undulation, i.e., a zero-frequency wave of
large amplitude with nodes located at specific places. This amplification involves negative energy
waves and implies that flat surfaces are unstable against incoming perturbations of arbitrary small
amplitude. The relation between this instability and black hole radiation (the Hawking effect) is
established.

494. Chemically amplified laser direct-writing of aluminum

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tsao, J. Y.; Ehrlich, D. J.

Laser microchemical direct writing has important advantages over other techniques for the deposition
of thin-film patterns. Disadvantages, however, are lower throughput and the need to suppress
competing processes such as gas phase nucleation of particles or substrate damage. Methods for
increasing the overall speed of laser direct writing by microchemistry were investigated. A class of
laser deposition techniques has emerged in which laser radiation is used only to enhance or to impede
the initial nucleation of a thin film. In general, it is convenient to draw a distinction between nucleation
barriers due to physical effects and those due to chemical effects. The first type of barrier is derived
from surface tension. The laser deposits a pattern of heterogeneous catalyst to initiate a subsequent
transformation that is chemically self-sustaining or autocatalytic. Experiments, in which the laser
direct writing of patterned thin films of Al is chemically amplified by subsequent selective pyrolytic
chemical vapor deposition are summarized.

495. Investigating student understanding of operational-amplifier circuits

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Papanikolaou, Christos P.; Tombras, George S.; Van De Bogart, Kevin L.; Stetzer, MacKenzie R.

2015-12-01

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The research reported in this article represents a systematic, multi-year investigation of student
understanding of the behavior of basic operational-amplifier (op-amp) circuits. The participants in this
study were undergraduates enrolled in upper-division physics courses on analog electronics at three
different institutions, as well as undergraduates in introductory and upper-division electrical
engineering courses at one of the institutions. The findings indicate that many students complete these
courses without developing a functional understanding of the behavior of op-amp circuits. This article
describes the most prevalent conceptual and reasoning difficulties identified (typically after lecture and
hands-on laboratory experience) as well as several implications for electronics instruction that have
emerged from this investigation.

496. Amplifying the helicopter drift in a conformal HMD

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Schmerwitz, Sven; Knabl, Patrizia M.; Lueken, Thomas; Doehler, Hans-Ullrich

2016-05-01

Helicopter operations require a well-controlled and minimal lateral drift shortly before ground contact.
Any lateral speed exceeding this small threshold can cause a dangerous momentum around the roll
axis, which may cause a total roll over of the helicopter. As long as pilots can observe visual cues from
the ground, they are able to easily control the helicopter drift. But whenever natural vision is reduced
or even obscured, e.g. due to night, fog, or dust, this controllability diminishes. Therefore helicopter
operators could benefit from some type of "drift indication" that mitigates the influence of a degraded
visual environment. Generally humans derive ego motion by the perceived environmental object flow.
The visual cues perceived are located close to the helicopter, therefore even small movements can be
recognized. This fact was used to investigate a modified drift indication. To enhance the perception of
ego motion in a conformal HMD symbol set the measured movement was used to generate a pattern
motion in the forward field of view close or on the landing pad. The paper will discuss the method of
amplified ego motion drift indication. Aspects concerning impact factors like visualization type,
location, gain and more will be addressed. Further conclusions from previous studies, a high fidelity
experiment and a part task experiment, will be provided. A part task study will be presented that
compared different amplified drift indications against a predictor. 24 participants, 15 holding a fixed
wing license and 4 helicopter pilots, had to perform a dual task on a virtual reality headset. A
simplified control model was used to steer a "helicopter" down to a landing pad while acknowledging
randomly placed characters.

497. Design criteria for ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manzoni, C.; Cerullo, G.

2016-10-01

Optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) exploit second-order nonlinearity to transfer energy from a fixed
frequency pump pulse to a variable frequency signal pulse, and represent an easy way of tuning over a
broad range the frequency of an otherwise fixed femtosecond laser system. OPAs can also act as
broadband amplifiers, transferring energy from a narrowband pump to a broadband signal and thus
considerably shortening the duration of the pump pulse. Due to these unique properties, OPAs are
nowadays ubiquitous in ultrafast laser laboratories, and are employed by many users, such as solid
state physicists, atomic/molecular physicists, chemists and biologists, who are not experts in ultrafast
optics. This tutorial paper aims at providing the non-specialist reader with a self-consistent guide to the
physical foundations of OPAs, deriving the main equations describing their performance and
discussing how they can be used to understand their most important working parameters (frequency
tunability, bandwidth, pulse energy/repetition rate scalability, control over the carrier-envelope phase
of the generated pulses). Based on this analysis, we derive practical design criteria for OPAs, showing
how their performance depends on the type of the nonlinear interaction (crystal type, phase-matching

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configuration, crystal length), on the characteristics of the pump pulse (frequency, duration, energy,
repetition rate) and on the OPA architecture.

498. Hot prospect for new gene amplifier

SciTech Connect

Not Available

1991-11-29

Molecular biologist Francis Barany is investigating one of the hottest areas in biotechnology: a gene-
amplification technique called ligase chain reaction, or LCR. Already scientists have used LCR to
detect the tiny mutation that causes sickle cell anemia and have adapted it to screen for a handful of
other genetic diseases simultaneously - in a single test-tube. Some experts, in fact, are predicting that
LCR will supplement the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and in some cases even supplant it. LCR
could revolutionize DNA diagnostics just as PCR transformed basic molecular biology following its
introduction 6 years ago. With its ease of automation and ability to produce useful quantitative results,
LCR could become a major player in the rapidly growing market for DNA diagnostics. LCR, like
PCR, uses snippets of nucleic acid, or oligonucleotides, that anneal to a specific, complementary
sequence on the target DNA to be amplified. But where PCR uses oligos that bracket the stretch to be
amplified, LCR uses pairs of oligos that completely cover the target sequence.

499. Backward Raman Amplifier for Laser Wakefield Accelerator

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ludwig, Joshua; Masson-Laborde, Paul-Edouard; Huller, Stefan; Rozmus, Wojciech; Wilks, Scott C.

2016-10-01

Particle in cell simulations via SCPIC and theoretical work on Raman amplification and laser wake
field acceleration will be presented. Laser energy depletion has been shown to be a limiting factor
during wake field acceleration. This work focuses on optimizing parameters for Raman amplification
to work in conjunction with wake field acceleration in order in order to sustain an accelerating laser
pulse as it generates plasma waves. It has been shown that laser pulses undergo red shifting during
wake generation. Our work demonstrates that this red shifting results in a detuning between pump and
seed in the backward Raman Amplifier. This detuning limits the amount of energy that can be
transferred from the pump to the seed, and places new limits on backward Raman amplification. To
overcome this limiting factor, this study makes use of a chirped pump allowing for extended coupling
to the accelerating pulse. Three wave coupling model of Raman amplifier with a frequency shift term
due to wake field will also be discussed and compared with PIC simulations.

500. Amplified Fiber-Loop Ringdown Spectroscopy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Litman, Jessica; Barnes, Jack; Loock, Hans-Peter

2009-06-01

Many commercial liquid chemical analysis systems, such as high-performance liquid chromatography
(HPLC) or capillary electrophoresis consist of a separation followed by optical detection. Besides
small volumes and low detection limits, the system should also allow the detection of a large variety of
analytes. Existing absorption and fluorescence detectors are often not very sensitive or require
labelling. Here, an absorption detector is presented based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS)
where the optical cavity is made from fibre optic waveguides and the light source is a continuous wave
(cw) diode laser. The purpose of this project is to increase the detection of analytes through their
overtone absorption in the telecom region at 1300 to 1500 nm. This is done by increasing the ratio of

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desired loss (extinction caused by the sample), to undesirable loss (due to the waveguides or solvents)
through amplification of the ringdown signal using a gain-clamped erbium doped fibre amplifier
(EDFA). The amplified cavity has a round-trip time of 750 ns and we achieved a detection limit of at
most 250 ppm when measuring acetylene at 1532.83 nm. The application of our method to detection of
dissolved analytes or particles in liquids will be discussed.


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