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TI LIU V MNG 5G

I) S LC V 5G
5G (Th h mng di ng th 5 hoc h thng khng dy th 5) l th h tip theo
ca cng ngh truyn thng di ng sau th h 4G Theo cc nh pht minh, mng 5G s
c tc nhanh hn khong 100 ln so vi mng 4G hin nay, gip m ra nhiu kh
nng mi v hp dn. Lc , xe t li c th a ra nhng quyt nh quan trng ty
theo thi gian v hon cnh. Tnh nng chat video s c hnh nh mt m v tri chy
hn, lm cho chng ta cm thy nh ang trong cng mt mng ni b.Cc c quan
chc nng trong thnh ph c th theo di tnh trng tc nghn giao thng, mc
nhim v nhu cu ti cc bi u xe, do c th gi nhng thng tin ny n nhng
chic xe thng minh ca mi ngi dn theo thi gian thc.
Mng 5G c xem l cha kha chng ta i vo th gii Mng li vn vt kt ni
Internet (IoT), trong cc b cm bin l nhng yu t quan trng trch xut d liu
t cc i tng v t mi trng. Hng t b cm bin s c tch hp vo cc thit b
gia dng, h thng an ninh, thit b theo di sc khe, kha ca, xe hi v thit b eo
Tuy nhin, cung cp 5G, cc nh mng s cn phi tng cng h tng c s mng
li (gi l trm gc). H c th bt u bng cch khai thc di ph hin cn trng.
Sng tn hiu vi tn s o MHz s c nng cao ln thnh GHz hay thm ch nhanh
hn. Tn s giao tip ca in thoi hin nay di mc 3 GHz nhng mng 5G s yu
cu nhng bng tn cao hn. Mng 5G c tung ra vo nm 2020 p ng nhu cu
kinh doanh v ngi tiu dng

Bi cnh ca 5G
K t khi h thng 1G c Nordic Mobile Telephone gii thiu ln u tin vo nm
1981, c khong 10 nm li xut hin mt th h in thoi di ng mi. Cc h thng
2G u tin bt u tung ra vo nm 1991, cc h thng 3G u tin xut hin ln u
vo nm 2001 v h thng 4G hon ton tun th cc tiu chun "IMT nng cao" c
chun ha vo nm 2012. S pht trin cc h thng tiu chun ca cc mng 2G (GSM)
v 3G (IMT-2000 v UMTS) mt khong 10 nm k t khi cc d n R & D chnh thc
bt u, v qu trnh pht trin h thng 4G c bt u t nm 2001 hoc 2002. Cc
cng ngh lm tin cho mt th h mi thng c gii thiu trn th trng t mt
vi nm trc , v d nh h thng CdmaOne/IS95 ti M vo nm 1995 c xem l
tin cho 3G, h thng Mobile WiMAX Hn Quc nm 2006 c xem l tin cho
4G, v h thng th nghim u tin cho LTE l Scandinavia nm 2009. T thng 4
nm 2008, Machine-to-Machine Intelligence (M2Mi) Corp - mt t hp trong NASA
Research Park - di s lnh o ca Geoff Brown - bt u pht trin cng ngh thng
tin lin lc 5G
Cc th h in thoi di ng thng da trn cc yu cu i vi cc tiu chun di ng
khng-tng-thch-ngc di y - theo ITU-R, nh IMT-2000 cho 3G v IMT-
Advanced cho 4G. Song song vi s pht trin ca cc th h in thoi di ng ca ITU-
R, IEEE v cc c quan tiu chun ha khc cng pht trin cc cng ngh truyn thng
khng dy, thng cho tc d liu cao hn v tn s cao hn, nhng phm vi truyn
ngn hn. Cc tiu chun gigabit IEEE u tin l IEEE 802.11ac, a vo thng mi t
nm 2013, v gn nh lp tc c tip ni bi tiu chun a gigabit khc l WiGig hay
IEEE 802.11ad.
Trong bo co Ericsson Mobility Report c cng b thng 6/2014, Ericsson d on
ti nm 2019, t l thu bao 4G LTE Bc M s chim ti 85% v y c th s l mt
trong nhng khu vc u tin ng dng 5G. Nht Bn v Hn Quc d kin cng s l
nhng quc gia sm trin khai 5G v NTT DOCOMO v SK Telecom cng ang rt quan
tm n cng ngh ny.
Seizo Onoe, Ph ch tch iu hnh kim Gim c k thut ca NTT DOCOMO tin
rng: "5G ha hn mang ti nhng tnh nng quan trng h tr ng dng, mang li li ch
cho ngi dng v ngnh cng nghip. Thnh cng ca Ericsson chng t tim nng
thc t ca cng ngh truy cp v tuyn 5G ngay giai on u tin".
Theo Sathya Atreyam, chuyn gia ca IDC, hin cha c chun chnh thc cho 5G,
nhng 5G t mt bc tin vt bc t tm nhn cng ngh tr thnh mt yu t
quan trng trong chin lc pht trin mng li v kinh doanh ca cc nh khai thc
vin thng. Vi tc nhanh hn, gim tr v hiu sut hot ng cao hn cc khu
vc mt cao, 5G mang n nhng tri nghim tin tin hn cho ngi dng, ng thi
thc y s pht trin cc ng dng M2M phc v ngi tiu dng.

1) Mng di ng 5G: nhng thch thc v an ton thng tin


Cng ngh mng 5G ha hn s mang n cho ngi dng nhng tri nghim cha tng
c v cht lng cao v a dng cc loi hnh dch v thng tin di ng, mt th gii kt
ni vn vt (IoT). p ng c nhng yu cu trn, thch thc v vn ATTT m
mng 5G s phi i mt cng khng nh. Bi bo ny gii thiu v kin trc c
xut v phn tch nhng kh khn bo mt m mng 5G s phi i mt.

*) Kin trc mng 5G xut

Cng ngh mng 4G LTE/LTE-A hin v ang c trin khai rng khp trn ton th
gii, tuy nhin vn cha p ng nhu cu thng tin gii tr vi cht lng ngy cng
cao ca ngi dng. Cht lng tn hiu b suy gim r rt, thm ch mt kt ni ti
nhng khu vc c mt cao ngi s dng (sn vn ng, l hi, bn xe,...) hay di
chuyn trn cc phng tin giao thng tc cao (tu in, tu ha). Hn na, mng 4G
khng h tr cc cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn a dng hin nay, c th p ng yu
cu IoT. Do , Lin minh vin thng quc t ITU nh ngha mng thng tin di ng
th h k tip vi tn gi IMT-2020 (hay ngn gn l 5G), d kin s c tiu chun
ha vo nm 2018 v trin khai dch v t nm 2020.
t c nhng yu cu kht khe , mng 5G cn p dng ng b, tng th nhng
cng ngh tin tin trn mi mt. Kin trc mng 5G c xut trn c s gii php
mng khng ng nht HetNet (Hnh v).
Trong , phn mng li c phn chia thnh 3 lp ring bit: Lp truyn ti, lp iu
khin v lp qun l. Lp truyn ti ng dng cng ngh o ha v nh ngha bng phn
mm SDN/NFV. Lp iu khin gm cc chc nng kim sot vic cp pht, chuyn
giao ti nguyn v tuyn SDRN; iu khin, gim st truy cp d liu trn nn cng
ngh in ton m my; iu khin o ha h tng thit b mng. Lp qun l m nhn
cc chc nng logic v qun l di ng, qun l thu bao, qun l chnh sch, tng
ng nh cc thc th chc nng trong mng 4G th h trc, km theo qun l kh
nng t cu trc, t khc phc s c theo cng ngh mng SON (Self Organizing
Network).
Lp truy nhp h tr a dng cc kin trc, bao gm: C-RAN (mng truy nhp v tuyn
hp tc, tp trung ha), UDN (mng mt siu cao), WiFi, WiMAX, PLC (cng ngh
truyn thng trn ng dy ti in), VLC (cng ngh truyn thng bng nh sng kh
kin), cng vi cc cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn di ng nh: massive MIMO, macro
cell, small cell, truy cp a cng ngh, s dng tn s cao, k thut chia s ph tn linh
ng....
Lp u cui khng ch bao gm cc in thoi thng minh m cn gm cc mng cm
bin khng dy (WSN), truyn thng trc tip gia cc thit b (D2D), my mc (M2M)
v xe c (V2X), theo xu hng IoT.
Kin trc mng 5G xut c phn tch tng i r rng v lp chc nng, th hin
tnh hi t v tng h cao vi a dng cc chun cng ngh. Tuy nhin, iu cng
dn n vic cc ri ro v ATTT m cng ngh 5G phi i mt l rt phc tp, c tnh
tch hp v tng tc gia cc cng ngh c tch hp.

*) Thch thc v An ton thng tin

Mi lp mng trong kin trc mng 5G phi i mt vi cc nguy c v ATTT khc


nhau. Vic phn tch cc ri ro v ATTT ca tng lp mng s l c s xy dng
cc gii php bo m ph hp.

*) Lp qun l

Cc thnh phn mng lp qun l chu trch nhim v thng tin c nhn ca thu bao,
quyt nh qu trnh thit lp kt ni v chnh sch dch v. Thnh phn qun l SON
chu trch nhim v cu hnh, thit lp h tng kin trc mng. Mc d cc thnh phn
ny rt kh c th b tn cng do nm trong mng li ca h thng, c bo v cht ch.
Tuy nhin, do tnh cht quan trng sng cn ca h thng nn n vn l mc tiu tn
cng u tin vi tin tc. Mc nh hng ca tn cng lp ny c bit nghim trng,
tc ng trn ton b mng.

*) Cc ri ro v ATTT bao gm:

Chim quyn iu khin: Nhm chim dng ton b hoc mt phn quyn qun l ca
cc thit b, thay i thng tin, sa i chnh sch dch v, sa cu hnh thit b mng vi
ring, hoc tm dng hot ng h thng. Loi hnh tn cng ny c tnh cht nguy
him nht. Mt khi chim c quyn iu khin thit b, k tn cng c th d dng
thc hin cc cch thc tn cng khc.
Ph v tnh sn sng ca h thng: Nhm vt kit ti nguyn ca cc thit b v h thng,
dn n h thng khng cn nng lc hot ng, nh tr dch v. Cc hnh thc tn
cng DoS, DdoS, tn cng vo bng thng, giao thc, s dng gi tin bt thng,
thng qua proxy, khai thc l hng trn h iu hnh thit b mng,....
Ly cp thng tin: Nhm ly thng tin ring t ca ngi dng bao gm thng tin c
nhn, lch s cuc gi, ti khon in thoi,.... Ly thng tin v cu hnh, cch thc t
chc ca cc thit b trong mng nhm phc v cho cc mc ch tn cng tip theo. Cc
phng php ch yu c s dng l khai thc l hng v chim quyn kim sot h
iu hnh ca thit b mng, sao chp v gii m bt hp php thng tin trong log file,
bn tin thng bo,....

*) Lp iu khin

Thnh phn lp iu khin qun l hot ng ca thit b h tng v ti nguyn h thng,


bao gm ti nguyn v tuyn, nng lc chuyn mch v truy xut d liu ni dung.
Tng t lp qun l, lp iu khin c ch trng bo mt nn kh b tn cng. Tuy
nhin, khi b tn cng, mc nh hng ca n cng tc ng trn phm vi ton h
thng. Cc ri ro bao gm:
Chim quyn iu khin: Thay i thng tin v chnh sch cu hnh, phn b ti nguyn
mng hoc tm dng hot ng cc thit b. Cho php cc thit b bt hp php thit lp
kt ni vo h tng mng m ng cho cc bc tn cng tip theo, hy hoi, sao
chp ti nguyn d liu ni dung ca nh mng.
Ph v tnh sn sng ca h thng: Mc ch nhm lm gin on vic iu khin cp
pht ti nguyn v tuyn v chuyn mch gy nh hng n cht lng v tnh n nh
dch v khch hng, gy kh khn trong vic truy xut.

*) Lp truyn ti

Cc thit b trong lp truyn ti chu trch nhim trc tip trong vic chuyn giao v kt
ni thng tin cho thu bao. Phm vi chu nh hng khi thit b lp ny b tn cng hu
nh ch mang tnh cc b. Cc ri ro v ATTT chnh bao gm tn cng t chi dch v v
chim quyn iu khin. Mc ch ca i tng tn cng nhm gy suy gim nng lc
thit b; iu khin chuyn tip, sao chp d liu ca thu bao theo hng khc v nh
cp thng tin.

*) Lp truy nhp
Trong kin trc mng 5G, do tnh a dng v cng ngh truy nhp c h tr, nn ngoi
cc ri ro truyn thng trn giao din v tuyn thng thng, mng 5G cn chu tc ng
mang tnh cng hng ca nhiu nguy c khc n t s a dng ca cc loi hnh
cng ngh kt ni. Phm vi nh hng nh, ch tc ng n dch v v d liu ca mt
hoc mt nhm ngi 6ung nht nh. Tuy nhin, giao din v tuyn cng l 6ung6g tin
chnh thng c k tn cng li dng truy cp h thng, tn cng cc lp cao hn. Mt
s nguy c mt an ton nh:
Ph 6ung:
K tn cng c th s s dng mt hoc nhiu ngun pht 6ung bn ngoi lm nhiu
knh v tuyn, cn tr thu bao khng th kt ni c vo mng.
Truy nhp bt hp php: Li dng im yu trong cc k thut xc thc, k tn cng c
th gi mo danh ngi 6ung hp php, chim quyn truy nhp h thng. Thng thng,
vic truy nhp bt hp php vo mng di ng khng d dng. Tuy nhin, mng 5G cho
php thit b u cui kt ni thng qua WiFi, WiMAX, VLC, c kh nng bo mt
khng cao, lm tng nguy c mt an ton khi truy nhp.
*) Nghe ln thng tin:
T cc phin bn nng cp ca mng 2G, vn ny v c bn c khc phc. Tuy
nhin, khi kt ni qua cc cng ngh truy nhp khc, nguy c r r thng tin tr nn cao
hn. Tin tc d tm cc tham s phc v cho vic gii m d liu, theo di theo thi gian
thc, lu tr li thng tin.

*) Sao chp d liu:

Tin tc thc hin chn bt ton b d liu, bao gm c d liu m ha trong phm vi d
tm. D liu ny c lu tr ngoi tuyn gii m. Cng vi s tr gip ca cc siu
my tnh, qu trnh gii m d liu c th c rt ngn ng k. Ging nh cc ri ro k
trn, cc cng ngh truy cp nh WiFi, WiMAX, VLC cha mnh m bo vn
ny.

*) Lp u cui

Lp u cui c nh gi l c mc an ton thp nht trong kin trc mng 5G. Khi b
tn cng, phm vi nh hng ca lp ny ch tc ng n cht lng dch v, d liu v
thng tin ca ngi s dng. Cc ri ro n t thit b u cui bao gm:
Khng thc hin ng quy trnh an ton: Ngi dng thng thng b qua vic tun th
mt s chnh sch an ton nh: thc hin cc thao tc ci t, s dng giao thc v phn
mm bo mt. Cc yu cu v xc thc 2 chiu, m ha d liu truyn ti, s dng phn
mm dnh ring cho cc giao dch in t khng c coi trng ng mc.
S dng H iu hnh v phn mm khng ng nguyn tc: H iu hnh thng b sa
i (root, jailbreak,), ci t phn mm khng ngun gc, khng s dng phn mm
bo mt trn in thoi, khng kch hot cp nht t ng, l nhng nguyn nhn chnh
c th dn n thit b nhim phn mm c hi, b theo di, nh cp d liu v ti
khon ngi dng.
S dng m hnh kt ni khng an ton: Thng cc kt ni ngang hng khng c ch
trng v tnh bo mt. Mng 5G cho php s dng cc kt ni trc tip (D2D, M2M,
V2X) v cc kt ni chuyn tip (WSN) chia s thng tin gia cc thit b. Cho n
nay, ATTT vn cn l ni dung ln ang c nghin cu trong cc m hnh kt ni ny.
Nng lc thit b hn ch: Vi cc thit b kt ni mng theo xu hng IoT, hu ht u
c cu hnh phn cng v phn mm kh hn ch. Cc im kt ni ny phn ln khng
nng lc p dng cc k thut bo mt tin tin nhm m bo an ton cho thit b.

Kt lun

Loi ngi ang bc vo k nguyn Internet, cng ngh mng 5G c k vng s gip hin
thc ha iu mt cch nhanh chng. Ngi dng c tri nghim cc dch v cht lng
cao, kim sot tt hn trong cuc sng. Tuy vy, nhng thch thc v ATTT m mng di ng
5G ang v s phi i mt l khng nh. Tuy nhin, cho n thi im cng ngh 5G t n
chn mui, th thi gian cn kh di cc nh khoa hc nghin cu v a ra phng n bo v
ATTT ti u nht cho h thng.

II) Nn tng cng ngh 5G


Mng Intertnet di ng th h th nm c mong i s l mt nn tng World Wide Wireless
Web (wwww) hon ho kt ni mi ni trn tri t. Mt th gii kt ni khng dy thc s,
ni chng ta c th truy cp Internet xuyn sut m khng gp phi cc ro cn, gii hn no v
mt khng gian v thi gian. V bn cht, mng 5G vn pht trin da trn nn tng ca 4G
nhng mc cao hn. Mng 5G s h tr LAS-CDMA (Large Area Synchronized Code
Division Multiple Access), UWB (Ultra Wideband), Network-LMDS (Local Multipoint
Distribution Service), Ipv6 v BDMA (Beam Division Multiple Access).
Vi s h tr a dng cc nn tng, ngi dng c th kt ni cng lc vi nhiu thit b qua
mng khng dy v d dng chuyn i qua li mt cch nhanh chng m khng gp phi bt k
tr ngi no. Cc thit b ny c th s dng cc mng di ng khc nhau nh 2,5G, 3G,
4G hoc 5G, Wi-Fi, WPAN hoc bt k cng ngh truy cp no khc xut hin trong tng lai.
Nh cp trn, thi i IoT (Internet of Things) ang dn nh hng n cuc sng ca con
ngi. Cc thit b nh ng h thng minh, vng eo tay theo theo di sc khe, thit b cm
bin trn xe hi, knh thng minh cho n cc cm bin gim st 24/7... l nhng thit b i hi
tnh tng tc cao thng qua Internet kt ni c duy tr lin tc, lin mch v truyn ti mt
khi lng ln d liu.
Lu l mng 5G vn trong giai on pht trin nn c rt nhiu xut v tranh lun v l
trnh cng nh cch thc hot ng ca n. Tuy nhin, chc chn mt iu l khng ging cc
tiu chun truyn thng khng dy trc y, th h mng mi ny buc phi gii quyt cc vn
thch thc lin quan n cng ngh nhiu hn. Nu 4G tp trung vo vic ci thin kh nng
v tc kt ni th 5G s bao gm tt c cc iu v b sung thm nhn t rt quan trng l
tr thng minh.

Nhng thch thc 5G gp phi


Theo d kin, cng ngh mng 5G c th s ra mt vo nm 2020, nhng cho n nay gii quan
st vn cha thy bt k d n chnh thc pht trin mng 5G mang tm vc quc t c
khi ng ngoi mt s d n ring l do cc tp on cng ngh t nghin cu. in hnh l
Samsung va kt hp vi trng i hc New York t tm ra hng i ring ca mnh.
Huawei cho bit u t khong 600 triu USD cho cc hot ng nghin cu v pht trin
(R&D) cng ngh 5G n nm 2018 khi tham gia vo mt s d n nghin cu cng ngh 5G
ca EU v phi hp xy dng Trung tm Sng to 5G (5G Innovation Center - 5GIC) ti Anh
quc nhm xy dng mt h thng tiu chun thng nht cho mng 5G trn phm vi ton cu.
Cng ngh 5G vn cn trong vng nghin cu v cc nh khoa hc vn ang tm kim gii php
thch hp nht. Theo Osseiran, nh nghin cu cao cp ti Ericsson kim iu phi vin d n
METIS c thnh lp bi cc trng i hc phi hp cng cng ty ti chnh chu u tm ra
cc gii php ti u nht cho mng 5G). METIS cho bit vn ang xem xt cc cng ngh khc
nhau, bao gm k thut iu ch v m ha d liu mi, qun l can thip tt hn, mng li
lin lc nhiu chng (multi-hop) v c nhng thit k thit b truyn nhn d liu tin tin.
Osseiran cn nht mnh rng c th ca mng 5G l s dng kt hp nhiu h thng khc nhau
v cng ngh sng milimeter ca Samsung ch l mt phn nh trong .
Nhng li ch do mng 5G mang li l rt ln. Mc d vy, vn cn mt s vn cn phi c
gii quyt trc khi cng ngh 5G c th tr thnh hin thc. l s sn sng ca bng tn v
cc thch thc v mt cng ngh, chng hn nh lm th no to ra cc kin trc mng c th
gia tng c lng d liu truyn ti cao hn v cc tc truyn ti d liu cn thit c th
cha c nhiu ngi dng hn trn h thng mng.
Theo thng k, t y n nm 2020 th s lng cc thit b thng minh s tng nhanh mt cch
chng mt, c n hn 50 t thit b c kt ni vi mng di ng. Vi s tng trng nhanh
chng nh vy, cng ng ngha vi lng d liu cn chia s cao gp 1.000 ln v tc
truyn ti nhanh hn t 10 n 100 ln tc mng hin nay. Bn cnh , vic h tr a dng
nhiu nn tng thit b, dch v v ng dng s dng nhng bng tn khc nhau cn l mt thch
thc ang ch n 5G.
Mng di ng trong tng lai c th s tr thnh mng Internet chnh khng ch kt ni gia
ngi vi ngi m cn gia ngi vi my mc, thit b. V vy chng cn phi p ng c
cc yu t quan trng v QoS (Quality of Service), tnh bo mt v tin cy. tr thnh hin
thc, cng ngh 5G cn c kh nng p ng tc truyn ti vo khong 10 Gb/giy, tng t
mng cp quang mi c th x l c ht ni dung a phng tin v truyn thng o vi
phn gii siu nt.
h tr cc ng dng thc t o v video phn gii siu nt, tc truyn d liu buc phi
t mc ti thiu l 1 Gb/giy hoc cao hn. Bn cnh , dch v m my di ng li i hi
tc truy sut rt cao ln n 10 Gb/giy. Ngoi bng thng cc ln, tng t nh mng cp
quang hin nay, th thi gian p ng v tr ca mng 5G phi lun mc cc k thp vi
n v tnh nh hn hoc bng 1 mms (mili giy) mi c th t c yu cu h tr cc thit b
di ng thi gian thc, cc ng dng v thit b lin lc gia cc phng tin vi nhau.
Mng 5G cn h tr cc cng ngh truy cp sng radio khc nhau, v vy m bo dch v
c thng sut th thi gian gia cc ln chuyn mch khng c vt qu 10 mms.
Vi hn 50 t thit b IoT s xut hin trn th trng vo nm 2020, tng ng vi s lng
ngi dng s kt ni vo mng di ng v cng ng ngha vi hng t hay thm ch hng trm
t cc ng dng c kch hot v lun trng thi hot ng (always-on) th r rng vi bng
thng hin nay s khng th p ng ni.
Tng lai cng ngh 5G
Theo d kin, cng ngh mng 5G c th s ra mt vo nm 2020, nhng cho n nay gii quan
st vn cha thy bt k d n chnh thc pht trin mng 5G mang tm vc quc t c
khi ng ngoi mt s d n ring l do cc tp on cng ngh t nghin cu. in hnh l
Samsung va kt hp vi trng i hc New York t tm ra hng i ring ca mnh.
Huawei cho bit u t khong 600 triu USD cho cc hot ng nghin cu v pht trin
(R&D) cng ngh 5G n nm 2018 khi tham gia vo mt s d n nghin cu cng ngh 5G
ca EU v phi hp xy dng Trung tm Sng to 5G (5G Innovation Center - 5GIC) ti Anh
quc nhm xy dng mt h thng tiu chun thng nht cho mng 5G trn phm vi ton cu.
Cng ngh 5G vn cn trong vng nghin cu v cc nh khoa hc vn ang tm kim gii php
thch hp nht. Theo Osseiran, nh nghin cu cao cp ti Ericsson kim iu phi vin d n
METIS c thnh lp bi cc trng i hc phi hp cng cng ty ti chnh chu u tm ra
cc gii php ti u nht cho mng 5G). METIS cho bit vn ang xem xt cc cng ngh khc
nhau, bao gm k thut iu ch v m ha d liu mi, qun l can thip tt hn, mng li
lin lc nhiu chng (multi-hop) v c nhng thit k thit b truyn nhn d liu tin tin.
Osseiran cn nht mnh rng c th ca mng 5G l s dng kt hp nhiu h thng khc nhau
v cng ngh sng milimeter ca Samsung ch l mt phn nh trong .
Cc c tnh cng ngh ca mng 5G
Nh gii thiu bi trc, mng 5G ra i vi mc tiu p ng nhng yu cu v cng kht
khe v kt ni v truyn dn vi nhng tham s k thut v cng n tng, bi vy m 5G cng
c c trng bi vic s dng mt lot cc cng ngh hin i nh: Massive MIMO, trm gc
thng minh, truyn ti RAN sng mm, dng sng mi, truyn dn khng trc giao, truy nhp
ph tn chia s, phi hp lin node nng cao, truyn ti ng thi thu nhn, tch hp v qun l
multi-RAT, truyn thng thit b n thit b (D2D), ng trc khng dy tch hp truy cp,
mng v tnh di ng linh hot, nhn thc bi cnh mng, mng di ng nh (SCNs)Di y
l phn m t c th mt s c tnh cng ngh tim nng ca mng 5G.

Massive MIMO v Trm gc thng minh


Massive MIMO l cng ngh s dng mng anten rt ln vi s lng phn t trn mng c th
ln ti hng trm phn t anten vi mc tiu tng dung lng truyn dn v ci thin tng ch
ca anten ln rt nhiu ln. Massive MIMO m rng khi nim MU-MIMO bng cch gia tng
ng k s lng anten c trin khai ti trm gc tng s lng ngi dng c phc v
cng lc trong cng mt khi ti nguyn tn s, thi gian, hiu sut s dng ph c th tng t 5
n 10 ln, vi hng trm anten ph v hng chc ngi dng thng lng cao. Hn na, tin
m ha yu cu mi tn hiu ngi dng c gim n gin vic to bp kt hp.

Thch thc chnh ca vic thu thp thng tin knh ti my pht c gii quyt bng cch trin
khai song cng phn chia theo thi gian, khi m cng mt ph tn c s dng cho c ng
xung v ng ln, m bo rng knh ng xung gn nh ging vi knh ng ln tng
ng vi ng truyn i xng trong thng tin quang. Nhiu cu hnh khc nhau cho cc
anten MIMO c th s dng c m t trong hnh di y t cc h thng anten phn tn n
cc mng hnh tr hay mng phng.
Cc cu hnh anten mng cho vic trin khai massive MIMO

Trm gc thng minh s dng massive MIMO


Trn c s cng ngh massive MIMO, vi vic iu chnh pha v bin tn hiu trn mi phn
t anten ca mng bng phn mm (SDR) trn trm gc, kt hp vi c tnh ph hp ca sng
milimet (mmWave), ta c th to ra cc chm sng tp trung, t ng hng chm sng ti cc
thit b u cui khi c kt ni, v thit lp cng tn hiu da trn yu cu v hon cnh ca
mi trng. K thut iu chnh chm sng nh trn c gi l beamforming. Trm gc s
dng k thut beamforming c gi l trm gc thng minh nng cao hiu qu s dng ph tn
v ci thin hiu sut h thng ln nhiu ln. Kin trc trm gc thng minh c m t nh
hnh di

Truyn thng thit b n thit b (Devide to Devide D2D)

Truyn thng thit b n thit b (D2D) cho php giao tip trc tip gia cc thit b gn nhau
bng cch s dng cc lin kt t bo hoc ad-hoc, qua ci thin vic s dng ph tn, bng
thng h thng v nng lng ca mng.

Trong mng 5G, s lng cc thit b truy cp vo mng l v cng ln, iu ny dn n nguy
c tht c chai h thng khi trm gc khng p ng yu cu kt ni ca khu vc mng. Vi
D2D, cc kt ni ti trm gc s c gim thiu ng k, ng thi cho php ngi dng tri
nghim nhng li ch v tr truyn thng nh hn, tng tc d liu v gim tiu th nng
lng do khong cch truyn thng ngn hn.

D2D cho php to ra m hnh mng phn cp vi cc m my di ng mt cch t ng nhm


ti u ha s dng nng lng cng nh ph tn ca h thng. Vi D2D, mng di ng 5G tr
thnh mt mng cm bin khng dy WSN khng l a nng nh trong hnh m t di y, va
cho php lin lc trc tuyn thi gian thc, va cho php truyn ti d liu tc cao, li c kh
nng cm bin phn hi ha hn to ra mt th gii Internet vn vt IoT tin li v an ton.
Trong trng hp ny, cc thit b tham gia vo mng s ng vi tr nh cc nt cm bin,
cng nhau chia s kt ni v thng tin. Cc nt trong mt khu vc s c iu khin cu hnh
thnh mt m my di ng tng ng vi mt cm trong WSN, cc nt thnh vin trong cm
s chia s vi nhau vai tr lm nt ch (Cloud Head CH) hay nt chuyn tip (Relay Node)
nhm chuyn tip kt ni, lu lng n trm gc hoc cc nt khc. Vi cc thut ton thng
minh ca cng ngh, mt thit b trong mng s lun lun c s dng nhng kt ni tt nht.

M hnh truyn thng D2D trong mng 5G

Cc kt ni t mt mt thit b n cc thit b khc cng nh n trm gc c th l kt ni trc


tip, cng c th l kt ni chuyn tip a chng vi cc im chuyn tip l cc thit b khc trong
mng. Bng cch ny, D2D mang li kh nng m bo kt ni thnh cng vi t l cao hn ng
k so vi mng truy nhp thng thng nh hnh di. Trong kch bn ny, khi mt trm gc ca
mng b s c v ngng hot ng mng truy nhp thng thng khng c D2D, cc nt nm
trong vng ph sng ca trm gc ny s lp tc b mt kt ni ti mng v khng th lin lc ra
ngoi nu khng c mt cng ngh mng no khc kh dng. Vi mng truy nhp s dng D2D,
trong trng hp ny, cc m my di ng c hnh thnh v vn tip tc hot ng giao tip
lin m my cng nh ni m my vi nhau, cc nt ang gi vai tr CH s thc hin nhim v
d tm kt ni ti cc nt nm trong vng ph kh dng, hoc cc nt c kt ni ti trm gc cn
hot ng gn n v thit lp kt ni, khi phc lin lc.
M hnh truyn thng D2D vi mt trm gc b s c

Nhn thc bi cnh mng


Cc mng khng th cung cp ti nguyn phc v cho mt lot cc thit b v ng dng mt
cch ph hp m khng cn thng tin v bi cnh. Nhn thc v bi cnh cho php mng thch
ng vi nhu cu ca cc ng dng trong khun kh v chnh sch iu hnh hn ch. Thm vo
, kh nng mng v thit b ngi dng nhn thc bi cnh (v d: v tr, m hnh truyn thng
da trn nghin cu lch s, s thch ca thu bao) c th gip nng cao hn na kinh nghim
ngi dng. Kh nng ny cng cho php cc khi nim ca Internet n vi ngi s dng vi
cc thng tin c lin quan nht v kp thi nht hn l ngi dng phi vo Internet ly thng
tin c lin quan nht v kp thi nht hn l ngi dng phi vo Internet ly thng tin v sau
lc ra cc phn thng tin khng lin quan. Nhn thc v bi cnh bao gm nhng iu sau
y:

Phn tch mng: bao gm cc la chn RATs, lp mng (macrocell, smallcell, Wi-Fi), mc
tc nghn, kh nng v c tnh hot ng.

Phn tch thu bao: bao gm cc thuc tnh thu bao, mc hot ng, trng thi qun l, phn
tch kinh nghim, hot ng ca thu bao trong lch s, lch s v tr, v tr hin ti, a ch lin
lc thu bao, v tr bi cnh (v d, cng vic, gia nh) v ng dng s dng.

Cc thuc tnh thit b v kh nng: bao gm c thng tin v thit b n chc nng v thit b a
chc nng, thit b h tr cho cc ng dng chuyn ngnh, MTC, thit b thu bao v kh nng
ti u ha mng.

Yu cu ng dng: bao gm c cc yu cu cht lng dch v QoS (v d, tr, thng lng,


thi gian ch), tin cy kt ni, gi truy cp, tiu th nng lng v mc bo mt.

Cc thu bao u tin: bao gm ty chn truy cp u tin, tit kim in nng so vi hiu sut v
chi ph truy cp.

Cc chnh sch iu hnh v ng k bi cnh: bao gm c dch v cho php, cc thuc tnh dch
v v QoS.

Thng tin bi cnh c th c thu thp t cc thit b gim st, cc phn t mng, c s d liu
v cc phn tch nn tng. N c x l bi h thng mng. Thuc tnh dch v truy cp bao
gm chi ph, tin cy, in nng tiu th, mc bo mt, QoS v tnh di ng. Thuc tnh
dch v truy cp c th c nh x ti cc c tnh cu hnh 5G c gn bi mng.
Kin trc nh (Small cell network SCN)
S xut hin ca cc dch v mi trong 5G dn n cc yu cu nghim ngt v tc bit trn
mi din tch ph sng m cc mng khng dy th h mi ny d kin s cung cp. Xu hng
tng ny thc gic cc nh khai thc mng di ng xem xt cch thc mi ci thin vng
ph sng, thc y nng lc mng li, v lm gim vn v kinh ph hot ng ca cc mng di
ng. Mt cch tip cn y ha hn gii quyt vn ny l thng qua vic trin khai cc
kin trc nh (SCNs), vi cc trm pht sng ph sng quy m trong nh hay mt khu ph
din tch va phi, cng sut thp. Vic s dng cc SCNs cho php cc mng 5G th h tip
theo cung cp tc d liu cao, cho php gim ti lu lng truy cp t cc ln (macrocell)
v cung cp dung lng dnh ring cho gia nh, doanh nghip hoc cc im nng th. SCNs
bao gm mt lot rng ri cc nh, chng hn nh microcell, picocell v cc t bo femtocell
cng nh chuyn tip khng dy tin tin v anten phn tn c th c trin khai trn thc t
bt c ni no.

Vic s dng kin trc nh cho php mng tr thnh mng m hnh phn cp vi hai hay nhiu
lp th cp c bao ph bi ln. Kin trc ny gip mng s dng ph tn hiu qu hn,
gim ng k cc kt ni tp trung vo trm gc c bn. Do khong cch t mi ngi dng n
cc trm gc l nh tng ng nhau nn tc d liu ti ngi dng mi v tr trong
c phn b u hn, iu ny c th thy c trong m hnh phn b lu lng di y.
Phn b lu lng ton mng 5G

Truy nhp ph tn chia s


y ban truyn thng lin bang (FCC) mi y tch cc trong n lc to ra mt ph tn mi
cho truyn thng di ng. FCC 2010 National Broadband Plan bao gm ph tn mi t 1.2GHz
n 1.7 GHz c yu cu p ng s m rng lu lng s liu v tuyn. FCC ang theo
ui truy nhp ph tn chia s nh mt cch gii phng ph tn. Ngi dng th cp s c
php s dng ph tn khi m ngi dng chnh hoc khch hng c th khng s dng ph tn
trong v tr a l xc nh thi im xc nh. FCC cng khai mt thng bo xut cho
ph tn ba tng trong bng tn 3.5GHz: khch hng c th, c bo v v truy nhp chng
thc chung. Mt my ch truy nhp s qun l phn chia ph thn gia cc tng.

Mt s yu cu cn thit cho mng di ng s dng ph tn chia s:


RAN phi c kh nng giao tip vi SAS yu cu v nhn s phn chia ph tn, v cung
cp cho SAS thng tin nhn bit ph tn t trm gc.

Trm gc phi c ph nhanh v kh nng nhn bit ph tn. Nhn bit ph tn ngha l gim st
knh tn s cho vic s dng bi ngi dng chnh. Vi ph tn nhanh, ngi dng c phc
v trong mt knh c chuyn sang knh mi v sau , bo v khch hng c th, dng
pht trn knh u tin khi SAS yu cu. iu ny c th t c vi v tuyn thch ng bng
rng. S chuyn di c th c thit k theo cch m ngi s dng khng thy c s hon
thnh thng qua cc kch bn kt hp knh khi mt trong s cc knh b chn tm thi, truyn
thng c th tip tc trn cc knh cn li.

Mng o ha v tp trung
in ton n hi v lu tr trong trung tm d liu m ra mt nhu cu mi cho cho php xc
nh mng bng phn mm (Software Defined Networks SDN). SDN l mt cu trc mi,
c thit k cho php h thng mng tr nn linh ng v c hiu qu chi ph hn. SDN l mt
khi nim mang tnh l thuyt, v mt bn cht, SDN tch ring cc mt phng iu khin phn
tn t cc mt phng chuyn tip v a cc chc nng ca mt phng iu khin vo trong mt
phng iu khin tp trung. Mt phng iu khin v mt phng chuyn tip l hai dng tin
trnh m cc thit b mng u thc hin. V d, ti cu trc mng truyn thng, nu ta truy cp
vo router, trc hin cc tc v nh cu hnh cc giao thc gateway th cc hot ng ny u
c thc hin trn cng mt thit b (trn mt phng iu khin v mt phng chuyn tip ca
router), do cc nt trong network hot ng mt cch c lp da trn cc cu hnh ni b ti
chnh cc nt . iu c ngha, cho d cu trc mng c linh ng, hiu qu nh th no th
kt qu ca cc tc v hot ng trong mng phi ph thuc vo cu hnh ca tng nt. Nu nh
s lng nt nhiu (1000, 10000 nt) th ng ngha cc nh vn hnh mng phi qun l ton
b (1000, 10000) mt phng iu khin.
M hnh 3 lp ca SDN

Cc ng dng ca SDN trong 5G c th m rng ra ngoi s kim sot ca cc ngun ti nguyn


truyn ti bao gm khung chnh sch ca cc mng khng dy. Ni rng hn, mt khung SDN
cng c th c p dng cho cc chc nng iu khin khng dy v d nh: qun l di ng,
an ninh, sc pin v ti u ha cc ng dng.
Kin trc SDN

Mng chc nng o ha (Network Function Virtualization NFV) l s tru tng ha ca


nhiu thit b mng nh router v gateway, cho php di chuyn cc chc nng mng t cc thit
b phn cng chuyn dng ti cc my ch chung. Vi NFV, phn ln cc thng tin hin nay s
c a ln b phn qun l (h thng my ch,), phn cng chuyn dng c hot ng
vi phn mm chy trn cc phn cng a nng. Kt qu ca gii php ny l mt c s h tng
thng tin o ha hon ton, bao gm c my ch o, h thng lu tr v mng, lm n gin ho
vic trin khai v qun l cho cc nh cung cp dch v mng v vin thng.
Kin trc NFV

NFV v SDN s cch mng ha th h tip theo ca cc h tng mng. Cng vi nhau, chng
tng thm tnh linh hot, kh nng m rng, s thng minh v ti s dng cho hu ht mi kha
cnh ca h thng mng.

Tnh di ng linh hot


Tnh di ng linh hot cho php t ng cu hnh tm thi cho mt thit b theo ng cnh, hoc
cu hnh c nh cho cc thit b chuyn bit. Tnh di ng linh hot bao gm hai thnh phn:

Qun l tnh di ng ca thit b hot ng

Theo di v a ra cc thit b c h tr ch ch tit kim in.


Ch ch lin quan n vic theo di v tr khi thit b ch ng. Hot ng di ng
cp n vic xc lp IP tin cy, ni im cui ng hm c cp nht khi cc UE di chuyn
gia cc trm gc phin IP c duy tr lin tc.

Cung cp mt lot cc ty chn di ng khng c trong 4G hin nay, cho php p ng tt hn


gia nhu cu ca cc thit b, ng dng v ti nguyn mng. iu ny c li cho c mng v
ngi dng.

Vi ch tnh di ng ang hot ng, mt m anchor c gn cho mt trong s cc yu


t mng, chng hn nh mt router trm gc, tp hp router, router bin , trong trng hp tnh
di ng khng hot ng, cc yu t mng s c gn m no anchor. Mt thit b nh in
thoi thng minh c th hot ng a ch cho cc ng dng khc nhau.

Tnh di ng linh hot c kch hot bi hai cng ngh quan trng. u tin l nhn thc v bi
cnh. Cc mng cn thuc tnh thng tin v nhng nhu cu ca ng dng v kh nng ca thit b
xc nh mc ph hp ca hot ng v ch nhn ri di ng gn. Cng ngh th hai
l kim sot SDN ca ng dn truyn ti. Ch tnh di ng hot ng c th c gn
anchor ng ti mt im trung tm gn cc thit b. iu ny i hi phi c mt b iu
khin nhn bit ng cnh c th lp trnh cc yu t truyn ti thit lp ng hm ni cn
thit v chuyn tip lu lng ph hp.

ng trc v tuyn, tch hp truy cp


nhiu ni trn th gii, tuyn ng trc v tuyn l mt phn chnh trong tng danh mc vn
u t ca mng ng trc, c bit l cc khu vc t dn c, ni m cc gii php ng trc
khc l khng kinh t hoc khng kh thi v mt k thut. ng trc v tuyn da trn mt
cng ngh kt ni v tuyn c lp, s dng phng thc ng truyn tm nhn thng (Line of
Sight). Trong cc h thng thng tin di ng trc y, mng ng trc v tuyn thng s
dng ph tn di 6GHz, in hnh cng ngh l WiMax c nh. Hin nay, xu hng gii
phng cc ph tn cht hp (di 6GHz) v khai thc s dng cc bng tn milimet (trn
30GHz) vi cc u im v c tnh ph hp, bng thng rng ang rt c quan tm. Gn y,
cc ng trc s dng ph tn bng E (70-80GHz) bt u c trin khai cho tc truyn
dn ln n 5Gbps.

Trong trng hp ng trc tch hp truy cp, ngi ta thy vic truy cp v kt ni ng trc
ch l hai kt ni trong mt gii php truy cp khng dy tng th thng nht:

Cng mt b cc cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn c th c s dng trn cc kt ni truy cp


(BS UE) v kt ni ng trc.

Cc kt ni ng trc v truy cp da trn cng mt hc ph. iu ny khng c ngha l mt


tn s sng mang phi c s dng trn hai ng kt ni cng mt lc v cng mt v tr.

Qun l ti nguyn, ti u ha QoS v cc nhim v khc c thc hin chung cho kt ni


ng trc v truy cp.

Mc ch ca tch hp truy cp, ng trc l t c hiu qu s dng ca cng ngh, ph


v ci thin hiu sut, cht lng chung ca ton b kt ni u cui u cui.

S dng ph tn milimet
Ngnh cng nghip di ng, tri qua bn thp k tn ti, ph thuc hon ton vo mt di tn
s c bit n di tn gi sng siu cao tn (ultrahigh frequency band) vn c bng thng
ch vo khong 1% ca ton b di tn c php s dng. Cc k s v tuyn xem di tn s
trong khong t 300 MHz n 3 GHz ny l thin ng cho cng ngh mng di ng mc d
cc di tn ny c gi cp php v cng t (ln ti hng chc t USD). Bc sng di tn ny
ngn c th dng nhng anten nh nm gn trong cc thit b cm tay nhng cng di
c th i vng qua hoc i xuyn qua nhng vt cn nh nh ca v cy ci. Ngay c khi
c pht cng sut thp, nhng tn hiu ny c th truyn i mt cch ng tin cy trn nhng
khong cch xa hng cy s trong hu nh bt c mi trng no, bt k l trong trung tm ca
thnh ph hay trn nhng cnh ng c xanh.
Tuy nhin, cho d cc cng ty vin thng c sn lng chi tr n bao nhiu i chng na cho di
tn s ny, h vn khng khi no c bng thng dng. Vic s dng in thoi thng minh
v my tnh bng ang gia tng nhanh chng, cn ngi s dng th duyt web, xem phim, v
chia s nh trong khi di chuyn dn n lng d liu c truyn ti qua sng v tuyn tr
nn nhiu hn bao gi ht. Lu lng thng tin di ng trn ton th gii tng gp i sau mi
nm, theo cc bo co t Cisco v Ericsson, v vic gia tng theo cp s nhn s cn tip
din trong tng lai. n nm 2020, mt ngi s dng thit b di ng thng thng c th ti
xung khong 1 TB d liu mi nm tng ng vi khong hn 1000 b phim di.

Cc nhm xy dng tiu chun truyn thng khng dy lm kiu tng dung lng cho
cc mng di ng 4G theo chun LTE ngy nay, bao gm c nhng cch nh s dng nhiu
anten, chia nh cc thu pht sng, v phi hp cc thit b mt cch thng minh hn. Nhng
nhng gii php ny s chng th gii quyt c s gia tng lu lng d liu sau bn n su
nm na. Cc chuyn gia trong lnh vc ny ng rng cng ngh di ng 5G s phi c mt
vo cui thp k ny. V trin khai nhng mng di ng mi ny, cc cng ty vin thng chc
chn s cn n nhng di tn mi. Nhng tm u by gi? Rt may l c mt di tn cc
rng vi tn s trn 3 GHz m trc gi khng c ch . Chng ta ang ni n nhng tn s
c bc sng trong khong milimet.

Theo nh ngha ca Lin minh Vin thng Th gii (ITU), di tn s milimet, cn c gi l


di tn s siu siu cao, l di tn s t 30GHz n 300 GHz. Tuy nhin, khi dng thut ng ny,
chng ta cng bao gm lun c phn ln cc tn s nm trong di tn s siu cao, trong khong
t 10 n 30 GHz, bi v tn hiu tn s ny cng lan truyn vi c tnh tng t nh tn hiu
milimet. Cc nh nghin cu d on rng cc nh chc trch c th s dnh n 100 GHz bng
thng trong di tn ny cho thng tin di ng ngha l hn 100 ln so vi lng bng thng m
cc mng di ng c c ngy hm nay. Bng cch khai thc di tn mi ny, cc cng ty vin
thng c th cung cp cho ngi tiu dng mt dung lng d liu ln gp hng trm ln so vi
4G LTE v cho php ti d liu xung vi tc hng chc Gbps vi mt mc gi kh thp.
V mt lch s, cc cng ty vin thng khng s dng di tn milimet bi v cc thit b thu
pht sng qu tn km v h cho rng cc tn s vic truyn tn hiu gia cc trm thu pht
v thit b di ng truyn thng s khng c tt. H cng lo ngi rng tn hiu milimet s b
hp th v phn tn do khng kh, ma, v cy ci v khng i xuyn vo bn trong nh
c.Nhng nhng lo ngi hin ang nhanh chng bin mt. Nhng kt qu nghin cu gn
y ang dn thuyt phc ngnh thng tin di ng xem xt li di tn rng ln v cha c s
dng ny.

Mt s link cho bn tham kho thm v cng ngh 5G:


1. https://www.google.com.vn/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=4&cad=rja
&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjTwPmdtbTSAhUGHZQKHTqrDcoQFggnMAM&url=https
%3A%2F%2Fwww.qualcomm.com%2Fmedia%2Fdocuments%2Ffiles%2Fqualcomm-
5g-vision-presentation.pdf&usg=AFQjCNEiUSNnoJOnJIaLb1qB454-
TsDCjA&bvm=bv.148441817,d.dGc
2. http://www.sharetechnote.com/html/5G/5G_4Gto5G.html
2. http://www.sharetechnote.com/html/5G/5G_4Gto5G.html
3. https://telecom-newsrf.blogspot.com/search?q=5g