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Chapter 68

Drive Shaft and Transfer


Case Technology
Objectives
After studying this chapter, you will be able to:
Identify and describe the parts of a modern drive
shaft assembly.
Explain the functions of a drive shaft.
Describe the different types of universal joints.
List the different types of drivelines.
Explain the basic operation of a transfer case.
Correctly answer ASE certification test questions
that require a knowledge of drive shafts and
transfer cases.

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Drive Shaft Assembly
Drive shaft assembly components
Slip yoke
Connects transmission output shaft to front
universal joint
Drive shaft
Hollow metal tube that transfers turning power from
front universal joint to rear universal joint

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Drive Shaft Assembly (Cont.)
Rear universal joint
Flex joint connecting drive shaft to rear yoke
Rear yoke
Holds rear universal joint and transfers torque to
gears in rear axle assembly and differential

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Drive Shaft Assembly (Cont.)

(Mazda)
Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Functions of Drive Shaft Assembly
Sends turning power from transmission to rear
axle assembly
Flexes and allows vertical movement of rear axle
assembly
Provides sliding action to adjust for changes in
driveline length
Provides smooth power transfer

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Drive Shaft Operation
Transmission output shaft turns slip yoke
Slip yoke then turns front universal joint, drive
shaft, rear universal joint, and rear yoke on
differential
Differential contains gears that transfer power to
rear drive axles
Axles rotate wheels

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Driveline Flex
When tires strike a bump in the road, rear
suspension moves upward and springs are
compressed
Universal joints
Let driveline flex as rear axle moves up and down
Protects drive shaft from any damage caused by
movement

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Slip Yoke
Slip yoke, or slip joint
Splined to transmission
output shaft
Allows for changes in
driveline length by sliding
in and out of transmission

(Ford)

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Slip Yoke (Cont.)
Extension housing bushing
Supports slip yoke as it spins in transmission
Transmission rear seal
Rides on slip yoke and prevents fluid leakage from
rear of transmission

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Rear Yoke
Rear yoke is yoke bolted to outer end of pinion
gear on rear axle assembly
It transfers torque to gears in rear axle assembly
Rear universal joint held by this yoke

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Drive Shaft
Drive shaft or propeller shaft
Hollow steel tube with permanent yokes welded on
each end
Very strong and light
Spins much faster than wheels and tires
It must be straight and perfectly balanced

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Drive Shaft Assembly

(Toyota)

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Drive Shaft Balance
Drive shaft must be perfectly balanced, with its
weight evenly distributed around its centerline
Drive shaft balancing weights
Welded to shaft to reduce vibration
Drive shaft vibration damper
Large, ring shaped weight mounted on rubber
Helps keep shaft spinning smoothly by absorbing
torsional vibration

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Universal Joints
Universal joint or U-joint
Swivel connection capable
of transferring turning
force between shafts at
angle to one another
Simple universal joint
made of two Y-shaped
yokes (knuckles)
connected by cross
(spider)

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Cross-and-Roller Universal Joint
Cross-and-roller joint or cardan universal joint
Most common type of drive shaft universal joint
Bearing caps are held stationary in drive shaft
yokes
Roller bearings fit between caps and cross to
reduce friction
Cross is free to rotate inside caps and yokes

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Cross-and-Roller Universal Joint
(Cont.)

(Chrysler)
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Constant Velocity Universal Joint
Constant velocity universal joint or double-cardan
joint
Two cross-and-roller joints connected by centering
socket and center yoke
Two joints operate together on one end of drive
shaft
Output shaft speed fluctuations are counteracted

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Constant Velocity Universal Joint
(Cont.)

(Ford)
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Ball-and-Trunnion Universal Joint
Ball-and-trunnion joint
Another joint designed for constant velocity
Eliminates shaft speed fluctuations
Allows for slight length changes in driveline
Ball-and-trunnion joint seldom used

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Center Support Bearing
Center support bearing
Holds middle of two-piece drive shaft
Center bearing bolts to vehicles frame or
underbody
Supports center of drive shaft where two shafts
come together

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Center Support Bearing
(Cont.)

(Fiat)

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Driveline Types
Hotchkiss driveline
Exposed drive shaft that operates rear axle
assembly mounted on springs
Usually has cross-and-roller universal joints
Torque tube driveline
Solid steel drive shaft enclosed in large hollow tube
With independent rear suspension, drive shaft can
be one piece without universal joint

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Hotchkiss Driveline

(Ford)

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Transfer Cases
Transfer case
Sends power to both front and rear axle assemblies
in four-wheel-drive vehicle
Mounts behind and is driven by transmission
Two drive shafts normally run from transfer case,
one to each drive axle

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Transfer Cases (Cont.)

(Ford)

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Two-Wheel-Drive, High Range (2H)
2H range provided for normal driving when four-
wheel-drive traction not needed
Sliding clutch remains in neutral position
Torque is not transferred to front axle assembly

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Four-Wheel-Drive, High Range (4H)
Sliding clutch is shifted into main shaft clutch gear
Torque then flows through drive chain, front output
yoke, and front drive axle assembly
Both front and rear axles drive vehicle

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Four-Wheel-Drive, Low Range (4L)
Torque transfer is almost same as in 4H
Ring gear is shifted forward into lock plate
This holds ring gear stationary
Planet gears walk inside ring gear, producing gear
reduction

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All-Wheel Drive
All-wheel drive
Four-wheel-drive system that does not use
conventional transfer case
Designed for front-wheel-drive transaxle or
transmission
Transmission or transaxle in all-wheel-drive
system is modified to allow power flow to front and
rear drive axles

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Drive Systems

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