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- ANSYS CFX Reference Guide
- ANSYS Mechanical Tutorials
- ANSYS Explicit Dynamics Analysis Guide
- ANSYS Explicit Dynamics Analysis Guide
- Explicit Dynamics Chapter 3 Eng Data
- Explicit Dynamics Chapter 7 Body Interactions
- ANSYS Mechanical Tutorials r170
- Explicit Dynamics Chapter 6 Explicit Meshing
- Explicit Dynamics Chapter 5 Results Processing
- Explicit Dynamics Chapter 8 Analysis Settings
- ANSYS Meshing Users Guide r170
- Explicit Dynamics Chapter 10 Optimization Studies
- ANSYS Mechanical APDL Performance Guide
- Explicit Dynamics Chapter 9 Material Models
- ANSYS Fluent Advanced Add-On Modules
- ANSYS Fluent Tutorial Guide r170
- ANSYS CFX Tutorials r170
- Explicit Dynamics Exp Dyn Basics
- ANSYS Mechanical APDL Connection Users Guide
- ANSYS CFX Introduction

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Table of Contents

1. Explicit Dynamics Analysis Guide Overview ........................................................................................... 1

2. Explicit Dynamics Workflow ................................................................................................................... 3

2.1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 3

2.2. Create the Analysis System ................................................................................................................ 4

2.3. Define Engineering Data ................................................................................................................... 4

2.4. Attach Geometry .............................................................................................................................. 4

2.5. Define Part Behavior ......................................................................................................................... 6

2.6. Define Connections .......................................................................................................................... 7

2.6.1. Spot Welds in Explicit Dynamics Analyses ................................................................................. 8

2.6.2. Body Interactions in Explicit Dynamics Analyses ....................................................................... 9

2.6.2.1. Properties for Body Interactions Folder ........................................................................... 11

2.6.2.1.1. Contact Detection ................................................................................................. 11

2.6.2.1.2. Formulation .......................................................................................................... 13

2.6.2.1.3. Sliding Contact ..................................................................................................... 14

2.6.2.1.4. Shell Thickness Factor and Nodal Shell Thickness ................................................... 14

2.6.2.1.5. Body Self Contact .................................................................................................. 15

2.6.2.1.6. Element Self Contact ............................................................................................. 15

2.6.2.1.7. Tolerance .............................................................................................................. 15

2.6.2.1.8. Pinball Factor ........................................................................................................ 16

2.6.2.1.9. Time Step Safety Factor ......................................................................................... 16

2.6.2.1.10. Limiting Time Step Velocity ................................................................................. 16

2.6.2.1.11. Edge on Edge Contact ......................................................................................... 16

2.6.2.2. Interaction Type Properties for Body Interaction Object .................................................. 17

2.6.2.2.1. Frictionless Type ................................................................................................... 17

2.6.2.2.2. Frictional Type ...................................................................................................... 17

2.6.2.2.3. Bonded Type ........................................................................................................ 18

2.6.2.2.4. Reinforcement Type .............................................................................................. 22

2.6.2.3. Identifying Body Interactions Regions for a Body ............................................................ 23

2.7. Setting Up Symmetry ...................................................................................................................... 23

2.7.1. Explicit Dynamics Symmetry .................................................................................................. 23

2.7.1.1. General Symmetry ......................................................................................................... 24

2.7.1.2. Global Symmetry Planes ................................................................................................ 24

2.7.2. Symmetry in an Euler Domain ................................................................................................ 24

2.8. Define Remote Points ..................................................................................................................... 25

2.8.1. Explicit Dynamics Remote Points ............................................................................................ 25

2.8.2. Explicit Dynamics Remote Boundary Conditions ..................................................................... 26

2.8.3. Initial Conditions on Remote Points ........................................................................................ 27

2.8.4. Constraints and Remote Points ............................................................................................... 27

2.9. Apply Mesh Controls/Preview Mesh ................................................................................................ 28

2.10. Establish Analysis Settings ............................................................................................................. 29

2.10.1. Analysis Settings for Explicit Dynamics Analyses ................................................................... 33

2.10.1.1. Explicit Dynamics Step Controls ................................................................................... 34

2.10.1.2. Explicit Dynamics Solver Controls ................................................................................. 38

2.10.1.3. Explicit Dynamics Euler Domain Controls ..................................................................... 41

2.10.1.4. Explicit Dynamics Damping Controls ............................................................................ 43

2.10.1.5. Explicit Dynamics Erosion Controls ............................................................................... 44

2.10.1.6. Explicit Dynamics Output Controls ............................................................................... 45

2.10.1.7. Explicit Dynamics Data Management Settings .............................................................. 48

2.10.1.8. Recommendations for Analysis Settings in Explicit Dynamics ........................................ 48

2.11. Define Initial Conditions ................................................................................................................ 52

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2.12.1. Impedance Boundary ........................................................................................................... 54

2.12.2. Detonation Point .................................................................................................................. 57

2.13. Solve ............................................................................................................................................ 60

2.13.1. Solving from Time = 0 ........................................................................................................... 61

2.13.2. Resume Capability for Explicit Dynamics Analyses ................................................................. 61

2.13.2.1. Load and Constraint Behavior when Extending Analysis End Time ................................ 62

2.13.3. Explicit Dynamics Performance in Parallel ............................................................................. 62

2.14. Postprocessing ............................................................................................................................. 63

2.14.1. Solution Output ................................................................................................................... 63

2.14.2. Result Trackers ..................................................................................................................... 64

2.14.2.1. Point Scoped Result Trackers for Explicit Dynamics ....................................................... 64

2.14.2.2. Body Scoped Result Trackers for Explicit Dynamics ....................................................... 67

2.14.2.3. Spring Result Trackers for Explicit Dynamics ................................................................. 69

2.14.2.4. Viewing and Filtering Result Tracker Graphs for Explicit Dynamics ................................. 69

2.14.2.5. Force Reaction Result Trackers for Explicit Dynamics ..................................................... 70

2.14.3. Review Results ..................................................................................................................... 71

2.14.4. Eroded Nodes in Explicit Dynamics Analyses ......................................................................... 72

2.14.5. Euler Domain in Explicit Dynamics Analyses .......................................................................... 73

2.14.6. User Defined Results for Explicit Dynamics Analyses .............................................................. 76

3. Transforming an Implicit Model to run in Explicit Dynamics ................................................................ 83

3.1. When Implicit Models Can be Run in Explicit .................................................................................... 83

3.2. When to Consider an Explicit Analysis .............................................................................................. 84

3.2.1. Incorrect Model Setup ............................................................................................................ 84

3.2.2. Large Deformations ............................................................................................................... 85

3.2.3. Large Contact Models ............................................................................................................ 86

3.2.4. Rigid Body Deformations ........................................................................................................ 87

3.3. Setting up the Explicit Dynamics Analysis ........................................................................................ 88

3.3.1. Attaching an Explicit Dynamics System to an Existing Static Structural System ......................... 88

3.3.2. Materials ................................................................................................................................ 89

3.3.3. Meshing ................................................................................................................................. 89

3.3.3.1. Uniform Mesh Works Best .............................................................................................. 90

3.3.3.2. Midside Nodes not Used ................................................................................................ 90

3.3.3.3. Hex/Rectangular Mesh Elements most Effective ............................................................. 91

3.3.4. Contact/Connections ............................................................................................................. 91

3.3.4.1. Contacts Tab .................................................................................................................. 91

3.3.4.2. Body Interactions Tab .................................................................................................... 92

3.3.5. Boundary Conditions ............................................................................................................. 92

3.3.5.1. Adjusting Load Cases for Reasonable Run Times ............................................................. 92

3.3.5.2. Missing Boundary Conditions from Explicit Dynamics ..................................................... 93

3.3.5.3. Application of Boundary Conditions Using Steps ............................................................ 93

3.3.5.4. Avoiding Conflicting Boundary Conditions ..................................................................... 93

3.3.5.5. Initial Conditions ........................................................................................................... 93

3.4. Analysis Settings ............................................................................................................................. 94

3.4.1. Analysis Setting Preference ..................................................................................................... 94

3.4.2. Step Controls ......................................................................................................................... 94

3.4.2.1. End Time ....................................................................................................................... 94

3.4.2.2.Timestep Controls .......................................................................................................... 95

3.4.2.3. Restarting an Analysis .................................................................................................... 97

3.4.3. Solution Stability .................................................................................................................... 97

3.4.3.1. Mass Scaling .................................................................................................................. 97

3.4.3.2. Erosion .......................................................................................................................... 98

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3.4.4. Output Controls ..................................................................................................................... 99

3.5. Solution Information ..................................................................................................................... 100

3.6. Postprocessing ............................................................................................................................. 101

3.6.1. Result Trackers ..................................................................................................................... 102

3.6.2. Result Sets ........................................................................................................................... 102

3.6.3. Improving your Simulation ................................................................................................... 103

4. Applying Pre-Stress Effects for Explicit Analysis ................................................................................ 105

4.1. Recommended Guidelines for Pre-Stress Explicit Dynamics ............................................................ 105

4.2. Pre-Stress Object Properties .......................................................................................................... 107

5. Using Explicit Dynamics to Define Initial Conditions for Implicit Analyses ........................................ 109

5.1. Transfering Explicit Results to MAPDL ............................................................................................ 109

6. Explicit Dynamics Theory Guide ......................................................................................................... 113

6.1. Why use Explicit Dynamics? ........................................................................................................... 113

6.2. What is Explicit Dynamics? ............................................................................................................ 113

6.2.1. The Solution Strategy ........................................................................................................... 114

6.2.2. Basic Formulations ............................................................................................................... 114

6.2.2.1. Implicit Transient Dynamics ......................................................................................... 115

6.2.2.2. Explicit Transient Dynamics .......................................................................................... 115

6.2.3. Time Integration ................................................................................................................... 116

6.2.3.1. Implicit Time Integration .............................................................................................. 116

6.2.3.2. Explicit Time Integration .............................................................................................. 116

6.2.3.3. Mass Scaling ................................................................................................................ 118

6.2.4. Wave Propagation ................................................................................................................ 118

6.2.4.1. Elastic Waves ............................................................................................................... 119

6.2.4.2. Plastic Waves ............................................................................................................... 119

6.2.4.3. Shock Waves ................................................................................................................ 119

6.2.5. Reference Frame .................................................................................................................. 120

6.2.5.1. Lagrangian and Eulerian Reference Frames .................................................................. 120

6.2.5.2. Eulerian (Virtual) Reference Frame in Explicit Dynamics ................................................ 122

6.2.5.3. Key Concepts of Euler (Virtual) Solutions ...................................................................... 124

6.2.5.3.1. Multiple Material Stress States ............................................................................. 124

6.2.5.3.2. Multiple Material Transport ................................................................................. 126

6.2.5.3.3. Supported Material Properties ............................................................................. 126

6.2.5.3.4. Known Limitations of Euler Solutions ................................................................... 126

6.2.6. Explicit Fluid Structure Interaction (Euler-Lagrange Coupling) ............................................... 126

6.2.6.1. Shell Coupling ............................................................................................................. 128

6.2.6.2. Sub-cycling ................................................................................................................. 128

6.3. Analysis Settings ........................................................................................................................... 129

6.3.1. Step Controls ....................................................................................................................... 129

6.3.2. Damping Controls ................................................................................................................ 130

6.3.3. Solver Controls ..................................................................................................................... 134

6.3.4. Erosion Controls ................................................................................................................... 142

6.4. Model Size Limitations in Explicit Dynamics ................................................................................... 143

6.5. References .................................................................................................................................... 144

7. Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis .......................................................................... 147

7.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 147

7.2. Explicit Material Library ................................................................................................................. 149

7.3. Density ......................................................................................................................................... 155

7.4. Linear Elastic ................................................................................................................................. 155

7.4.1. Isotropic Elasticity ................................................................................................................ 155

7.4.2. Orthotropic Elasticity ............................................................................................................ 156

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7.5. Test Data ....................................................................................................................................... 157

7.6. Hyperelasticity .............................................................................................................................. 157

7.7. Plasticity ....................................................................................................................................... 162

7.7.1. Bilinear Isotropic Hardening ................................................................................................. 163

7.7.2. Multilinear Isotropic Hardening ............................................................................................ 163

7.7.3. Bilinear Kinematic Hardening ............................................................................................... 164

7.7.4. Multilinear Kinematic Hardening .......................................................................................... 164

7.7.5. Johnson-Cook Strength ........................................................................................................ 164

7.7.6. Cowper-Symonds Strength ................................................................................................... 166

7.7.7. Steinberg-Guinan Strength ................................................................................................... 167

7.7.8. Zerilli-Armstrong Strength .................................................................................................... 168

7.8. Brittle/Granular ............................................................................................................................. 170

7.8.1. Drucker-Prager Strength Linear ............................................................................................ 170

7.8.2. Drucker-Prager Strength Stassi ............................................................................................. 171

7.8.3. Drucker-Prager Strength Piecewise ....................................................................................... 172

7.8.4. Johnson-Holmquist Strength Continuous ............................................................................. 173

7.8.5. Johnson-Holmquist Strength Segmented ............................................................................. 175

7.8.6. RHT Concrete Strength ......................................................................................................... 177

7.8.7. MO Granular ........................................................................................................................ 182

7.9. Equations of State ......................................................................................................................... 183

7.9.1. Background ......................................................................................................................... 183

7.9.2. Bulk Modulus ....................................................................................................................... 184

7.9.3. Shear Modulus ..................................................................................................................... 184

7.9.4. Ideal Gas EOS ....................................................................................................................... 184

7.9.5. Polynomial EOS .................................................................................................................... 185

7.9.6. Shock EOS Linear .................................................................................................................. 187

7.9.7. Shock EOS Bilinear ................................................................................................................ 188

7.9.8. JWL EOS ............................................................................................................................... 190

7.10. Porosity ...................................................................................................................................... 192

7.10.1. Porosity-Crushable Foam .................................................................................................... 192

7.10.2. Compaction EOS Linear ...................................................................................................... 195

7.10.3. Compaction EOS Non-Linear .............................................................................................. 196

7.10.4. P-alpha EOS ....................................................................................................................... 198

7.11. Failure ......................................................................................................................................... 201

7.11.1. Plastic Strain Failure ............................................................................................................ 203

7.11.2. Principal Stress Failure ........................................................................................................ 203

7.11.3. Principal Strain Failure ........................................................................................................ 204

7.11.4. Stochastic Failure ............................................................................................................... 205

7.11.5. Tensile Pressure Failure ....................................................................................................... 206

7.11.6. Crack Softening Failure ....................................................................................................... 207

7.11.7. Johnson-Cook Failure ......................................................................................................... 209

7.11.8. Grady Spall Failure .............................................................................................................. 210

7.12. Strength ..................................................................................................................................... 211

7.13. Thermal Specific Heat .................................................................................................................. 212

7.14. Rigid Materials ............................................................................................................................ 212

7.15. References .................................................................................................................................. 212

8. Using Workbench LS-DYNA for an Explicit Dynamics Analysis ........................................................... 215

8.1. How to Load Workbench LS-DYNA ................................................................................................ 215

8.2. How to use Workbench LS-DYNA ................................................................................................... 215

8.3. LS-DYNA Keywords used by Workbench LS-DYNA .......................................................................... 216

8.4. Supported LS-DYNA Keywords ...................................................................................................... 216

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Explicit Dynamics Analysis Guide

Index ........................................................................................................................................................ 247

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Chapter 1: Explicit Dynamics Analysis Guide Overview

ANSYS Explicit Dynamics is a transient explicit dynamics Workbench application that can perform a

variety of engineering simulations, including the modeling of nonlinear dynamic behaviour of solids,

fluids, gases and their interaction. Additionally, the LS-DYNA ACT extension is available to analyze a

model using the LS-DYNA solver.

A typical simulation consists of setting up the model, interactions and the applied loads, solving the

model's nonlinear dynamic response over time for the loads and interactions, then examining the details

of the response with a variety of available tools.

The Explicit Dynamics application has objects arranged in a tree structure that guide you through the

different steps of a simulation. By expanding the objects, you expose the details associated with the

object, and you can use the corresponding tools and specification tables to perform that part of the

simulation. Objects are used, for example, to define environmental conditions such as contact surfaces

and loadings, and to define the types of results you want to have available for review.

The following sections describe in detail how to use the Explicit Dynamics application to set up and

run a simulation:

Using Explicit Dynamics to Define Initial Conditions for Implicit Analyses (p. 109)

The following section discusses how to solve an Explicit Dynamics analysis using the LS-DYNA solver:

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Chapter 2: Explicit Dynamics Workflow

To learn how to perform an analysis, see Create Analysis System in the ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide.

Note that the features available may differ from one solver to another.

To perform analyses that are beyond those available using Workbench, you can insert a Commands

object in the tree.

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Create the Analysis System

2.3. Define Engineering Data

2.4. Attach Geometry

2.5. Define Part Behavior

2.6. Define Connections

2.7. Setting Up Symmetry

2.8. Define Remote Points

2.9. Apply Mesh Controls/Preview Mesh

2.10. Establish Analysis Settings

2.11. Define Initial Conditions

2.12. Apply Loads and Supports

2.13. Solve

2.14. Postprocessing

2.1. Introduction

You can perform a transient Explicit Dynamics analysis in the Mechanical application using an Explicit

Dynamics system. Additionally, the Workbench LS-DYNA ACT Extension is available to analyze a model

using the LS-DYNA solver. Unless specifically mentioned otherwise, this section addresses both the Ex-

plicit Dynamics system and Workbench LS-DYNA. Special conditions for Workbench LS-DYNA are noted

where pertinent.

An Explicit Dynamics analysis is used to determine the dynamic response of a structure due to stress

wave propagation, impact or rapidly changing time-dependent loads. Momentum exchange between

moving bodies and inertial effects are usually important aspects of the type of analysis being conducted.

This type of analysis can also be used to model mechanical phenomena that are highly nonlinear.

Nonlinearities may stem from the materials, (for example, hyperelasticity, plastic flows, failure), from

contact (for example, high speed collisions and impact) and from the geometric deformation (for example,

buckling and collapse). Events with time scales of less than 1 second (usually of order 1 millisecond)

are efficiently simulated with this type of analysis. For longer time duration events, consider using a

Transient analysis system.

The time step used in an Explicit Dynamics analysis is constrained to maintain stability and consistency

via the CFL condition (p. 116); that is, the time increment is proportional to the smallest element dimension

in the model and inversely proportional to the sound speed in the materials used. Time increments are

usually on the order of 1 microsecond and therefore thousands of time steps (computational cycles)

are usually required to obtain the solution.

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Explicit Dynamics Workflow

An Explicit Dynamics analysis typically includes many different types of nonlinearities including large

deformations, large strains, plasticity, hyperelasticity, material failure etc.

An Explicit Dynamics analysis can contain both rigid and flexible bodies. For rigid/flexible body dynamic

simulations involving mechanisms and joints you may wish to consider using either the Transient

Structural Analysis or Rigid Dynamics Analysis options.

Note

Consult our technical support department to obtain a more thorough treatment of this

topic.

For general information about creating an analysis system see Create Analysis System in the ANSYS

Mechanical User's Guide.

From the Toolbox drag an Explicit Dynamics or a Workbench LS-DYNA template to the Project

Schematic.

Note

You need to load the Workbench LS-DYNA ACT extension before you see the template in

the toolbox.

Explicit Dynamics analyses only support the mm, mg, ms solver unit system (see Explicit

Dynamics Solver Controls (p. 38) for supported units in a Workbench LS-DYNA analysis).

The Explicit Dynamics solver is double precision (a Workbench LS-DYNA analysis can use

single or double precision).

For general information about defining Engineering Data, see Define Engineering Data in the ANSYS

Mechanical User's Guide.

Material properties can be linear elastic or orthotropic. Many different forms of material nonlinearity

can be represented including hyperelasticity, rate and temperature dependent plasticity, pressure-de-

pendent plasticity, porosity, material strength degradation (damage), material fracture/failure/fragment-

ation. For a detailed discussion on material models used in Explicit Dynamics, refer to Material Models

Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis (p. 147).

Density must always be specified for materials used in an Explicit Dynamics analysis.

For general information about attaching a geometry to a system, see Attach Geometry in the ANSYS

Mechanical User's Guide.

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Attach Geometry

Solid, Surface, and Line bodies can be present in an Explicit Dynamics analysis.

Only symmetric cross sections are supported for line bodies in Explicit Dynamics analyses, except those

using the Workbench LS-DYNA ACT extension. The following cross sections are not supported: T-Sections,

L-Sections, Z-Sections, Hat sections, Channel Sections. For I-Sections, the two flanges must have the

same thickness. For rectangular tubes, opposite sides of the rectangle must be of the same thickness.

For Workbench LS-DYNA all available cross sections in DesignModeler will be exported for analysis with

the LS-DYNA solver. However, there are some limitations in the number of dimensions that the LS-DYNA

solver supports for the Z, Hat and Channel cross sections. For more information consult the LS-DYNA

Keywords manual.

To prevent the generation of unnecessarily small elements (and long run times) try using DesignModeler

or SpaceClaim to remove unwanted "small" features or holes from your geometry.

Thickness can be specified for selected faces on a surface body by inserting a thickness object. Constant,

tabular, and functional thickness are all supported.

Stiffness Behavior

Coordinate System

Local Cartesian coordinate systems can be assigned to bodies. These will be used to define the material

directions when using the Orthotropic Elasticity property in a material definition. The material directions

1, 2, 3 will be aligned with the local x, y and z axes of the local coordinate system.

Note

Cylindrical coordinate systems assigned to bodies are not supported for Explicit Dynamics

systems. Cylindrical coordinate systems are only supported to define rotational displacement

or velocity constraints.

Reference Temperature

Reference Frame

Available for solid bodies when an Explicit Dynamics system is part of the solution; the user has the

option of setting the Reference Frame to Lagrangian (default) or Eulerian (Virtual). If Stiffness Behavior

is defined as Rigid, Eulerian is not a valid setting.

Rigid Materials

For bodies defined to have rigid stiffness, only the Density property of the material associated with the

body will be used. For Explicit Dynamics systems all rigid bodies must be discretized with a Full Mesh

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Explicit Dynamics Workflow

or the Rigid Body Behavior must be defined as Dimensionally Reduced. The Full Mesh option will be

specified by default for the Explicit meshing physics preference.

The mass and inertia of the rigid body will be derived from the elements and material density for each

body.

By default, a kinematic rigid body is defined and its motion will depend on the resultant forces and

moments applied to it through interaction with other Parts of the model. Elements filled with rigid

materials can interact with other regions via contact.

Constraints can only be applied to an entire rigid body. For example, a fixed displacement cannot be

applied to one edge of a rigid body, it must be applied to the whole body.

Note

2-D Explicit Dynamics analyses are supported for Plane Strain and Axisymmetric behaviors.

Flexible and rigid bodies cannot be combined in Multi-body Parts. Bonded connections can be

applied to connect rigid and flexible bodies.

The Thickness Mode and Offset Type fields for surface bodies are not supported for Explicit

Dynamics systems.

if sliding contact is to be used. There are several methods available in Workbench to remove

initial penetration.

For general information about defining parts, see Define Part Behavior in the ANSYS Mechanical User's

Guide.

Parts may be defined as rigid or flexible. In the solver, rigid parts are represented by a single point that

carries the inertial properties together with a discretized exterior surface that represents the geometry.

Rigid bodies should be meshed using similar Method mesh controls as those used for flexible bodies.

The inertial properties used in the solver will be derived from the discretized representation of the body,

and the material density and hence may differ slightly from the values presented in the properties of

the body in the Mechanical application GUI.

At least one flexible body must be specified when using the Explicit Dynamics solver. The solver requires

this in order to calculate the time-step increments. In the absence of a flexible body, the time-step be-

comes underdefined. The boundary conditions allowed for the rigid bodies with Explicit Dynamics are:

Connections

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Define Connections

Body Interactions: Frictionless, Frictional and Bonded. Bonded body interactions are not supported

for Workbench LS-DYNA.

In Explicit Dynamics systems, rigid bodies may not be bonded to other rigid bodies.

Loads: Pressure and Force. Force is not supported for Explicit Dynamics analyses.

For an Explicit Dynamics analysis, the following postprocessing features are available for rigid bodies:

If a multibody part consists only of rigid bodies, all of which share the same material assignment, the

part will act as a single rigid body, even if the individual bodies are not physically connected.

For general information about defining connections, see Define Connections in the ANSYS Mechanical

User's Guide.

Contact Detection is set to Proximity Based in the Body Interactions Details view.

IC_SINGLE_SURFACE keywords when a friction or frictionless Body Interaction is scoped to geometry

that contains line bodies. The keywords handle contacts between line bodies only, and line bodies to

other body types respectively. In the case where the Body Interaction is scoped to only line bodies,

then only the *CONTACT_AUTOMATIC_GENERAL keyword is used.

Reinforcement body interaction should be supported in the case when only line bodies are scoped to

a Body Interaction of Type = Reinforcement. The line bodies will then be tied to any solid body that

they intersect. Reinforcement body interactions are not supported for Workbench LS-DYNA or for 2D

Explicit Dynamics analyses. However utilizing Keyword Snippets under Contact Region objects should

provide a suitable alternative.

Body Interactions (p. 9), Contact and Spot Welds are all valid in Explicit Dynamics analyses. Frictional,

Frictionless and Bonded body interactions and contact options are available. Conditionally bonded

contact can be simulated using the breakable property of each bonded region. Spot Welds can also be

made to fail using the breakable property.

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Explicit Dynamics Workflow

Joints and Beam connections are not supported for Explicit Dynamics analyses. Springs are not supported

for Workbench LS-DYNA analyses. The Contact Tool is also not applicable to Explicit Dynamics analyses.

For Workbench LS-DYNA, bonded body interactions are not supported. Also, Contact Region objects

with Auto Asymmetric Behavior or just Asymmetric Behavior are treated the same. Symmetric Be-

havior will create a _SURFACE_TO_SURFACE keyword for the contact and an Asymmetric Behavior

will create a _NODES_TO_SURFACE keyword.

For Workbench LS-DYNA, contacts between line bodies and solids can be implemented using the

Keyword Snippets facility available under the Manual Contact Region objects.

Bonded contact is not supported in an Explicit Dynamics analysis for bodies that have their Reference

Frame set to Eulerian (Virtual). A solver warning is shown to let the user know that such bodies will be

ignored for bonds. Bonded contact is not support in a 2D Explicit Dynamics analysis.

To avoid hourglassing problems, remote points can be used if there are only a few nodes active in the

bond definition.

Bonds are not recommended for joining tetrahedral meshes. Use multibodied parts or remote points

instead.

By default, a Body Interaction object will be automatically inserted in the Mechanical application tree

and will be scoped to all bodies in the model. This object activates frictionless contact behavior between

all bodies that come into proximity during the analysis.

Spot welds provide a mechanism to rigidly connect two discrete points in a model and can be used to

represent welds, rivets, bolts, etc. The points usually belong to two different surfaces and are defined

on the geometry (see DesignModeler or SpaceClaim help).

During the solver initialization process, the two points defining each spot weld will be connected by a

rigid beam element. Additionally, rigid beam elements will be generated on each surface to enable

transfer of rotations at the spot weld location (see figure below). If the point of the spot weld lies on

a shell body, both translational and rotational degrees of freedom will be linked at the connecting point.

If the point of the spot weld lies on a surface of a solid body, additional rigid beam elements will be

generated to enable transfer of rotations at the spot weld location.

Spot welds can be released during a simulation using the Breakable Stress or Force option. If the stress

criteria is selected the user will be asked to define an effective cross sectional area. This is used to

convert the defined stress limits into equivalent force limits. A spot weld will break (release) if the fol-

lowing criteria is exceeded:

(2.1)

Where:

Sn and Ss are the maximum allowed normal and shear force limits

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Define Connections

Note that the normal interface force f n is non-zero for tensile values only.

After failure of the spot weld the rigid body connecting the points is removed from the simulation.

Spot welds of zero length are permitted. However, if such spot welds are defined as breakable the

above failure criteria is modified since local normal and shear directions cannot be defined. A modified

criteria is used with global forces:

(2.2)

Where, are the force differences across the spot weld in the global coordinate system.

Note

A spot weld is equivalent to a rigid body and as such multiple nodal boundary conditions

cannot be applied to spot welds.

Within an Explicit Dynamics analysis, the body interaction feature represents contact between bodies

and includes settings that allow you to control these interactions. If the geometry you use has two or

more bodies in contact, a Body Interactions object folder appears by default under Connections in the

tree. Included in a Body Interactions folder are one or more Body Interaction objects, with each object

representing a contact pair.

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Explicit Dynamics Workflow

To add a Body Interactions folder, highlight the Connections folder and choose Body Interactions from

the toolbar. A Body Interactions folder is added and includes one Body Interaction object.

To add a Body Interaction object to an existing Body Interactions folder, highlight the Connections folder,

the Body Interactions folder, or an existing Body Interaction object, and choose Body Interaction from

the toolbar.

General Notes

Each Body Interaction object activates an interaction for the bodies scoped in the object. With body

interactions, contact detection is completely automated in the solver. At any time point during the

analysis any node of the bodies scoped in the interaction may interact with any face of the bodies

scoped in the interaction. The interactions are automatically detected during the solution.

The default frictionless interaction type that is scoped to all bodies activates frictionless contact between

any external node and face that may come into contact in the model during the analysis.

To improve the efficiency of analyses involving large number of bodies, you are advised to suppress

the default frictionless interaction that is scoped to all bodies, and instead insert additional Body Inter-

action objects which limit interactions to specific bodies. The union of all frictional/frictionless body

interactions defines the matrix of possible body interactions during the analysis.

Body A is traveling towards body B and we require frictional contact to occur. A frictional body interaction

type scoped only to bodies A and B will achieve this. Body A will not come close to body C during the ana-

lysis so it does not need to be included in the interaction.

Body B is bonded to body C. A bonded body Interaction type, scoped to bodies B and C will achieve this.

If the bond between bodies B and C breaks during the analysis, we want frictional contact to take place

between bodies B and C. A frictional body interaction type scoped only to bodies B and C will achieve this.

A bonded body interaction type can be applied in addition to a frictional/frictionless body interaction.

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Define Connections

interaction.

Object property settings are included in the Details view for both the Body Interactions folder and the

individual Body Interaction objects. Refer to the following sections for descriptions of these properties.

2.6.2.1. Properties for Body Interactions Folder

2.6.2.2. Interaction Type Properties for Body Interaction Object

2.6.2.3. Identifying Body Interactions Regions for a Body

All properties for the Body Interactions folder are included in an Advanced category and define the

global properties of the contact algorithm for the analysis. These properties are applied to all Body

Interaction objects and to all frictional and frictionless manual contact regions.

This section includes descriptions of the following properties for the Body Interactions folder:

2.6.2.1.1. Contact Detection

2.6.2.1.2. Formulation

2.6.2.1.3. Sliding Contact

2.6.2.1.4. Shell Thickness Factor and Nodal Shell Thickness

2.6.2.1.5. Body Self Contact

2.6.2.1.6. Element Self Contact

2.6.2.1.7.Tolerance

2.6.2.1.8. Pinball Factor

2.6.2.1.9.Time Step Safety Factor

2.6.2.1.10. Limiting Time Step Velocity

2.6.2.1.11. Edge on Edge Contact

The available choices are described below.

Trajectory

The trajectory of nodes and faces included in frictional or frictionless contact are tracked during the

computation cycle. If the trajectory of a node and a face intersects during the cycle a contact event is

detected.

The trajectory contact algorithm is the default and recommended option in most cases for contact in

Explicit Dynamics analyses. Contacting nodes/faces can be initially separated or coincident at the start

of the analysis. Trajectory based contact detection does not impose any constraint on the analysis time

step and therefore often provides the most efficient solution.

Note that nodes which penetrate into another element at the start of the simulation will be ignored

for the purposes of contact and thus should be avoided. To generate duplicate conforming nodes across

a contact interface:

1. Use the multibody part option in DesignModeler and set Shared Topology to Imprint.

2. For meshing, use Contact Sizing, the Arbitrary match control or the Match mesh Where Possible option

of the Patch Independent mesh method.

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Explicit Dynamics Workflow

Proximity Based

The external faces, edges and nodes of a mesh are encapsulated by a contact detection zone. If during

the analysis a node enters this detection zone, it will be repelled using a penalty based force.

Note

An additional constraint is applied to the analysis time step when this contact detection algorithm

is selected. The time step is constrained such that a node cannot travel through a fraction of the

contact detection zone size in one cycle. The fraction is defined by the Time Step Safety

Factor (p. 16) described below. For analyses involving high velocities, the time step used in the

analysis is often controlled by the contact algorithm.

The initial geometry/mesh must be defined such that there is a physical gap/separation of at

least the contact detection zone size between nodes and faces in the model. The solver will give

error messages if this criteria is not satisfied. This constraint means this option may not be prac-

tical for very complex assemblies.

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2.6.2.1.2. Formulation

This property is available if Contact Detection is set to Trajectory.

Penalty

If contact is detected, a local penalty force is calculated to push the node involved in the contact event

back to the face. Equal and opposite forces are calculated on the nodes of the face in order to conserve

linear and angular momentum.

Where:

Note

Kinetic energy is not necessarily conserved. You can track conservation of energy in contact using

the Solution Information object, the Solution Output, or one of the energy summary result

trackers.

The applied penalty force will push the nodes back towards the true contact position during the

cycle. However, it will usually take several cycles to satisfy the contact condition.

Decomposition Response

All contacts that take place at the same point in time are first detected. The response of the system to

these contact events is then calculated to conserve momentum and energy. During this process, forces

are calculated to ensure that the resulting position of nodes and faces does not result in further penet-

ration at that time point.

Note

The decomposition response algorithm cannot be used in combination with bonded contact

regions. The formulation will be automatically switch to penalty if bonded regions are present

in the model.

The decomposition response algorithm is more impulsive (in a given cycle) than the penalty

method. This can give rise to large hourglass energies and energy errors.

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Explicit Dynamics Workflow

This option is available if Contact Detection is set to Trajectory.

When a contact event is detected part way through a cycle and the contact node has a tangential ve-

locity relative to the face it has made contact with, the node needs to slide along the face for the re-

mainder of the cycle. If the node should slide to the edge of the face before the end of the cycle, it is

necessary to determine whether the node needs to begin to slide along an adjacent face. Two options

described below are available for determining which (if any) face the node needs to slide to.

Discrete Surface

When a node slides to the edge of a face, the next face the node needs to slide on is determined using

the contact detection algorithm. This option is the default and will provide the most time efficient

solution. However, penetrations of nodes may be seen in situations where the faces that the nodes are

sliding on are experiencing large deformations or rotations. When such penetrations occur, it is recom-

mended the user switches to the Connected Surface option.

Connected Surface

When a node slides to the edge of a face, the next face the node needs to slide on is determined using

the mesh connectivity.

These properties are available if the geometry includes one or more surface bodies and if Contact De-

tection is set to Trajectory.

The Shell Thickness Factor allows you to control the effective thickness of surface bodies used in the

contact. You can specify a value between 0.0 and 1.0.

A value of 0.0 means that contact will ignore the physical thickness of the surface body and the contact

surface will be coincident with the mid-plane of the shell.

A value of 1.0 means that the contact shell thickness will be equal to the physical shell thickness. The contact

surface will be offset from the mid-plane of the shell by half the shell thickness (on both sides of the shell).

Nodal Shell Thickness is only active when the Shell Thickness Factor value is not zero (0). It allows

you to obtain the most accurate shell to shell contact by improving on the Shell Thickness Factor ap-

proach.

When set to Yes, contact between shells is improved by eliminating the inherent small overlap that may

occur even when the Shell Thickness Factor is set to 1.0. Essentially this setting (along with a thickness

factor of 1.0) will provide the most accurate shell thickness contact behaviour.

When set to No, the contact shell thickness will be determined by the value of the Shell Thickness Factor

and the nodal shell thickness will not have any effect.

When set to Program Controlled, the behavior of nodal shell thickness is determined by the Analysis

Settings Preference Type (p. 48).

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Define Connections

When set to Yes, the contact detection algorithm will check for external nodes of a body contacting

with faces of the same body in addition to other bodies. This is the most robust option since all possible

external contacts should be detected.

When set to No, the contact detection algorithm will only check for external nodes of a body contacting

with external faces of other bodies. This setting reduces the number of possible contact events and can

therefore improve efficiency of the analysis. This option should not be used if a body is likely to fold

onto itself during the analysis, as it would during plastic buckling for example.

When set to Program Controlled, the behavior of self contact is determined by the Analysis Settings

Preference Type (p. 48).

When set to Yes, automatic erosion (removal of elements) is enabled when an element deforms such

that one of its nodes comes within a specified distance of one of its faces. In this situation, elements

are removed before they become degenerated. Element self contact is very useful for impact penetration

examples where removal of elements is essential to allow generation of a hole in a structure. Element

removal through Element Self Contact is only activated when one of the erosion options under Erosion

Controls is also set to Yes.

When set to Program Controlled, the behavior of self contact is determined by the Analysis Settings

Preference Type (p. 48).

2.6.2.1.7. Tolerance

This property is available if Contact Detection is set to Trajectory and Element Self Contact is set to

Yes.

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Explicit Dynamics Workflow

Tolerance defines the size of the detection zone for element self contact when the trajectory contact

option is used (see Element Self Contact (p. 15)). The value input is a factor in the range 0.1 to 0.5. This

factor is multiplied by the smallest characteristic dimension of the elements in the mesh to give a

physical dimension. A setting of 0.5 effectively equates to 50% of the smallest element dimension in

the model.

Note

This property is available if Contact Detection is set to Proximity Based.

The pinball factor defines the size of the detection zone for proximity based contact. The value input

is a factor in the range 0.1 to 0.5. This factor is multiplied by the smallest characteristic dimension of

the elements in the mesh to give a physical dimension. A setting of 0.5 effectively equates to 50% of

the smallest element dimension in the model.

Note

The smaller the fraction the more accurate the solution. The time step in the analysis could

be reduced significantly if small values are used (see Time Step Safety Factor (p. 16)).

This property is available if Contact Detection is set to Proximity Based.

For proximity based contact, the time step used in the analysis is additionally constrained by contact

such that in one cycle, a node in the model cannot travel more than the detection zone size, multiplied

by a safety factor. The safety factor is defined with this property and the recommended default is 0.2.

Increasing the factor may increase the time step and hence reduce runtimes, but may also lead to

missed contacts. The maximum value you can specify is 0.5.

This property is available if Contact Detection is set to Proximity Based.

For proximity based contact, this setting limits the maximum velocity that will be used to compute the

proximity based contact time step calculation.

This property is available if Contact Detection is set to Proximity Based.

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Define Connections

By default, contact events in Explicit Dynamics are detected by nodes impacting faces. Use this option

to extend the contact detection to include discrete edges impacting other edges in the model.

Note

This option is numerically intensive and can significantly increase runtimes. It is recommended

that you compare results with and without edge contact to make sure this feature is required.

This section includes descriptions of the interaction types for the Body Interaction object:

2.6.2.2.1. Frictionless Type

2.6.2.2.2. Frictional Type

2.6.2.2.3. Bonded Type

2.6.2.2.4. Reinforcement Type

Setting Type to Frictionless activates frictionless sliding contact between any exterior node and any

exterior face of the scoped bodies. Individual contact events are detected and tracked during the ana-

lysis. The contact is symmetric between bodies (that is, each node will belong to a master face impacted

by adjacent slave nodes; each node will also act as a slave impacting a master face).

Supported Connections

Explicit Dynamics

Volume Yes Yes Yes

Shell Yes Yes Yes

Line Yes Yes *Yes

*Only for Contact Detection = Proximity Based and Edge on Edge Contact = Yes (This option switches

on contact between ALL lines / bodies / edges; that is, there is no dependence on the scoping selection

of body interactions.)

Workbench LS-DYNA

Volume Yes Yes No

Shell Yes Yes No

Line No No No

Setting Type to Frictional activates frictional sliding contact between any exterior node and any exter-

ior face of the scoped bodies. Individual contact events are detected and tracked during the simulation.

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Explicit Dynamics Workflow

The contact is symmetric between bodies (that is, each node will belong to a master face impacted by

adjacent slave nodes, each node will also act as a slave impacting a master face).

Friction Coefficient: A non-zero value will activate Coulomb type friction between bodies (F = R).

The relative velocity () of sliding interfaces can influence frictional forces. A dynamic frictional formu-

lation for the coefficient of friction can be used.

(2.3)

where

= friction coefficient

Non-zero values of the Dynamic Coefficient and Decay Constant should be used to apply dynamic

friction.

Supported Connections

Explicit Dynamics

Volume Yes Yes Yes

Shell Yes Yes Yes

Line Yes Yes *Yes

*Only for Contact Detection = Proximity Based and Edge on Edge Contact = Yes (This option switches

on contact between ALL lines / bodies / edges; that is, there is no dependence on the scoping selection

of body interactions.)

Workbench LS-DYNA

Volume Yes Yes No

Shell Yes Yes No

Line No No No

Descriptions of the following properties are also addressed in this section:

Maximum Offset

Breakable

Stress Criteria

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Define Connections

External nodes of bodies included in bonded interactions will be tied to faces of bodies included in the

interaction if the distance between the external node and the face is less than the value defined by the

user in Maximum Offset. The solver automatically detects the bonded nodes/faces during the initialization

phase of the analysis.

Note that it is important to select an appropriate value for the Maximum Offset. The automatic search

will bond everything together which is found within this value.

During the analysis the nodes are kept at the same relative position on the face to which they are

bonded. This is done by means of penalty forces which are either dependent on the mass of the

nodes/faces or the stiffness of the material. The stiffness is weighted based on materials on either side

of the bond. In models with mass scaling the penalty method is chosen based on the mass scaling

setting:

Mass scaling off: Penalty method based on harmonic mass in the bonded pair.

Mass scaling on: Penalty method based on harmonic stiffness in the bonded pair.

Off On

Any Workbench project opened in R18.0 or Harmonic Mass Harmonic

later Stiffness

Note

The stiffness weighted penalty method is typically superior to a mass weighted penalty and

increases the robustness of (offset) bonds. By switching on mass scaling and still using a

small target timestep (eg 1e-20) no mass will be added, but the penalty method will be

switched to harmonic stiffness.

When large material stiffness occurs between two materials that are bonded, it is recommen-

ded that you use an asymmetric definition where the contact scope (nodes to be bonded)

refers to the soft material and the target scope (faces to bond to) refers to the stiffer mater-

ial.

Use the custom variable BOND_STATUS to check bonded connections in Explicit Dynamics. The variable

records the number of nodes bonded to the faces on an element during the analysis. This can be used

not only to verify that initial bonds are generated appropriately, but also to identify bonds that break

during the simulation.

The automatic search algorithm for bonded regions will search for the minimum distance to any of the

faces. If this minimum distance falls within the maximum offset value, the bond pair will be established.

In order to compute the proper distance to a face the algorithm will determine if the perpendicular

projection to the face falls within the face. If that is not the case, the perpendicular projection to the

face edges is considered. If that is not the case, the distance to one of the face nodes is considered.

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Explicit Dynamics Workflow

This algorithm guarantees that a minimum distance is always found and can be properly compared

against the value input for Maximum Offset.

Verification of the initialized bonds can be done by inspection of the prt file. A summary is given which

lists the number of candidate nodes for bonding and the actual number of nodes that were bonded.

If the percentage of nodes to be bonded is 0% it means none of the nodes are actually bonded. You

should consider increasing the Maximum Offset in this case.

Maximum Offset defines the tolerance used at initialization to determine whether a node is bonded

to a face.

Breakable = No implies that the bond will remain throughout the analysis.

Breakable = Stress Criteria implies that the bond may break (or be released) during the analysis. The

criteria for breaking a bond is defined as:

(2.4)

where

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All other bonded connections (if the Contact or Target is scoped to a vertex or edge) will behave

asymmetrically.

Note that there are two distinguishing factors during initialization based on behavior:

For symmetric bond behavior the perpendicular projection of a node to a face has to fall within the

face bounds otherwise the bond pair is disregarded a candidate.

For asymmetric bond behavior the perpendicular projection of a node to a face does not have to

fall within the face bounds in order to be considered as a candidate.

For both types of behavior the Maximum offset is always taken into account.

If needed, a symmetric bond definition can also be changed to search out-of-plane by taking the

following steps:

bonds will be searched out of plane.

Symmetric bonds are disregarded for definitions that scope to a single part.

Asymmetric bonds are considered for definitions that scope to a single part.

Supported Connections

Explicit Dynamics

Note

Bonded body interactions and contact are not supported for 2D Explicit Dynamics analyses.

Workbench LS-DYNA*

Volume Yes Yes No

Shell Yes Yes No

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Explicit Dynamics Workflow

Line Yes Yes No

*The above matrix is valid only for Contact Regions. Bonded body interactions are not supported at all.

This body interaction type is used to apply discrete reinforcement to solid bodies. All line bodies scoped

to the object will be flagged as potential discrete reinforcing bodies in the solver. On initialization of

the solver, all elements of the line bodies scoped to the object which are contained within any solid

body in the model will be converted to discrete reinforcement. Elements which lie outside all volume

bodies will remain as standard line body elements.

The reinforcing beam nodes will be constrained to stay at the same initial parametric location within

the volume element they reside during element deformation. Typical applications involve reinforced

concrete or reinforced rubber structures likes tires and hoses.

If the volume element to which a reinforcing node is tied is eroded, the beam node bonding constraint

is removed and becomes a free beam node.

On erosion of a reinforcing beam element node, if inertia is retained, the node will remain tied to the

parametric location of the volume element. If inertia is not retained, the node will also be eroded.

Note

Volume elements that are intersected by reinforcement beams, but do not contain a beam

node, will not be experiencing any reinforced beam forces. Good modeling practice is

therefore to have the element size of the beams similar or less than that of the volume ele-

ments.

Note that the target solid bodies do not need to be scoped to this object these will be identified

automatically by the solver on initialization.

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Setting Up Symmetry

Supported Connections

Explicit Dynamics

Volume No No *Yes

Shell No No No

Line *Yes No No

*Only the line body needs to be included in the scope. The Explicit Dynamics solver automatically detects

which volume bodies that the line body passes through.

Note

Reinforcement body interactions are not supported for 2D Explicit Dynamics analyses.

Workbench LS-DYNA

Volume No No No

Shell No No No

Line No No No

See the description for Body Interactions for Selected Bodies in the section Correlating Tree Outline

Objects with Model Characteristics in the ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide.

For general information about setting up symmetry see Symmetry in the Mechanical Application in the

ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide.

Symmetry regions can be defined in Explicit Dynamics analyses. Symmetry objects should be scoped

to faces of flexible bodies defined in the model. All nodes lying on the plane defined by the selected

face are constrained to give a symmetrical response of the structure.

Note

Anti-symmetry, periodicity, and anti-periodicity symmetry regions are not supported in Explicit

Dynamics systems.

Only the General Symmetry interpretation is used by the solver in 2D Explicit Dynamics analyses.

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Explicit Dynamics Workflow

2.7.1.2. Global Symmetry Planes

In general, a symmetry condition will result in degree of freedom constraints being applied to the nodes

on the symmetry plane. For volume elements, the translational degree of freedom normal to the sym-

metry plane will be constrained. For shell and beam elements, the rotational degrees of freedom in the

plane of symmetry will be additionally constrained.

For nodes that have multiple symmetry regions assigned to them (for example, along the edge between

two adjacent faces), the combined constraints associated with the two symmetry planes will be enforced.

Note

Symmetry regions defined with different local coordinate systems may not be combined, unless

they are orthogonal with the global coordinate system.

General symmetry does not constrain eroded nodes. Thus, if after a group of elements erodes,

a "free" eroded node remains, the eroded node will not be constrained by the symmetry condition.

This can be resolved in certain situations via the special case of Global symmetry, described in

the next section.

If a symmetry object is aligned with the Cartesian planes at x=0, y=0 or z=0, and all nodes in the model

are on the positive side of x=0, y=0, or z=0, the symmetry condition is interpreted as a special case

termed Global symmetry plane. In addition to general symmetry constraints:

If a symmetry plane is coincident with the YZ plane of the global coordinate system (X=0), and no parts of

the geometry lie on the negative side of the plane, then a symmetry plane is activated at X=0. This will

prevent any nodes (including eroded nodes) from moving through the plane X=0 during the analysis.

If a symmetry plane is coincident with the ZX plane of the global coordinate system (Y=0), and no parts of

the geometry lie on the negative side of the plane, then a symmetry plane is activated at Y=0. This will

prevent any nodes (including eroded nodes) from moving through the plane Y=0 during the analysis.

If a symmetry plane is coincident with the XY plane of the global coordinate system (Z=0), and no parts of

the geometry lie on the negative side of the plane, then a symmetry plane is activated at Z=0. This will

prevent any nodes (including eroded nodes) from moving through the plane Z=0 during the analysis.

Note

There are additional considerations if an Euler Domain is defined for an analysis. For symmetry to be

applied to an Euler Domain, symmetry will have to be defined with the global coordinate system, not

a local one, and it will need to be applied on geometry faces which lie on the global coordinate system

planes.

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Define Remote Points

If the symmetry is not defined with the global coordinate system, it is ignored and a warning is shown

in the messages window saying that such symmetry will be ignored but the analysis continues to solve.

If the symmetry is not applied on faces which lie on the global coordinate system planes then an error

is shown and the solution is terminated.

In the case where symmetry is valid for use with Euler Domains, if the boundary of the Euler Domain

which is parallel to the symmetry plane is below the symmetry plane, then that boundary will be moved

to lie on the symmetry plane if the following conditions are true:

The Euler Domain Size Definition option in the Analysis settings is set to Program Controlled.

The Euler body is on the positive side of the global coordinate axis.

The algorithm in the Explicit Dynamics solver is different from the Implicit solver in the way it handles

rigid bodies. For general information about how to use remote points, see Specifying Remote Points

in the Mechanical Application and Remote Boundary Conditions in the ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide.

The following topics describe the use of remote points and boundary conditions for the explicit solvers:

2.8.1. Explicit Dynamics Remote Points

2.8.2. Explicit Dynamics Remote Boundary Conditions

2.8.3. Initial Conditions on Remote Points

2.8.4. Constraints and Remote Points

A remote point in Explicit Dynamics consists of a:

Location - The point in space from which a remote boundary condition can be applied.

Scoped region - The area of geometry the remote point is scoped to. The nodes of this scoping form a group

of rigid body nodes along with a further node created at the remote point location.

Boundary condition (optional) - The Remote Displacement and Remote Force boundary conditions are

currently available as remote boundary conditions.

The Explicit Dynamics solver does not support Deformable Behavior when using remote points.

The group of rigid body nodes which is created is treated as a regular rigid body by the Explicit Dynamics

solver. For example, if the scoped region of the remote point consists of two faces from two separate

parts, the solver will determine the center of mass and the inertial properties for all the nodes, with all

the nodes making up a combined group of rigid body nodes. This calculation creates a rigid connection

between the two parts.

In the solution, the forces acting on the group of rigid body nodes are summed at each time step. This

calculation determines the rigid body motion of the nodes belonging to the remote point. Due to the

mandatory rigid behavior of Remote Points, the group of rigid body nodes are unable to deform, even

if the elements of the parts used have flexible behavior. The group of rigid body nodes are, however,

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Explicit Dynamics Workflow

free to translate and rotate. Due to this restriction it is important to maintain a sufficient number of

nodes in the scoped area of a remote point when scoped to a flexible solid part.

Note

The Behavior field must be set to Rigid. If it is set to Deformable the solution will terminate and

an error will be generated.

Only the remote displacement and remote force boundary conditions are supported for Remote

Points in Explicit Dynamics analyses.

Commands are not supported for Remote Points in Explicit Dynamics analyses.

Remote Points and boundary conditions are not supported for 2D Explicit Dynamics analyses.

The remote boundary conditions available in the Explicit Dynamics solver are Remote Displacement

and Remote Force.

The geometry that the Remote Displacement boundary condition is scoped to becomes a group of rigid

body nodes, determining its mass and inertial properties, and preventing these nodes from deforming. If

this group of rigid body nodes spans multiple parts, then these parts will be rigidly connected.

Displacements and/or rotations at the remote point and the group of rigid body nodes are tracked and

converted into velocities and angular velocities for use by the solver.

The actual translation and rotation of the remote point are a combination of the imposed boundary constraints

of the Remote Displacement definition and the forces acting on the group of nodes scoped to the Remote

Point. Therefore, the translation and rotation of the Remote Point and the group of rigid body nodes are

determined simultaneously and enforced with the use of a single corrective force and moment.

The geometry that the Remote Force boundary condition is scoped to becomes a group of rigid body nodes,

determining its mass and inertial properties, and preventing these nodes from deforming. If this group of

rigid body nodes spans multiple parts, then these parts will be rigidly connected.

The force specified is applied to the node representing the remote point, which is rigidly attached to the

group of rigid body nodes.

The force is applied to the scoped group of nodes specified by the remote point.

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Define Remote Points

The motion of the remote point is determined by a combination of the loads applied to the remote point,

the mass and inertial properties of the group of rigid body nodes, and the properties of the parts the group

of rigid body nodes are attached to.

Note

Initial conditions are scoped to geometric parts in the model. Effectively this means that the initial

condition is scoped to a set of elements. However, remote points are scoped to the underlying nodes

in the model. This may result in different initial conditions on the same node in a remote point definition.

This section describes the behavior in such instances.

Initial conditions can be scoped to a subset of or all elements in a flexible part. It is not necessary to scope

an initial condition to all the nodes in the remote point definition, as long as there is only one initial con-

dition defined for the nodes that participate in the remote point definition.

The remote point definition will automatically include all the nodes in a rigid part. Therefore the initial

condition (or multiple identical initial conditions) should be scoped to all the elements in the rigid part. The

scoped nodes of the remote point will follow the initial condition of the scoped rigid body. If the flexible

scoped nodes of the remote point contain their own initial condition, this will be ignored.

When applying constraints to a model that includes remote points, it is important to ensure that the

model is not over-constrained. Since the Explicit Dynamics solver treats the remote point and its scoped

region as a single rigid body, the model could be over-constrained in the following two examples:

Two remote points share common nodes in their scoped regions. This is an over-constraint because each

remote point generates its own rigid body and rigid bodies cannot share nodes.

Example of an overconstrained model caused by two remote points scoped to adjacent faces.

A velocity boundary condition applied to some or all of the nodes in a remote point scoping, and a remote

displacement applied to the remote point.

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Explicit Dynamics Workflow

support applied to a face which is adjacent to a remote point scoping with a remote displacement

applied.

This list of examples is not exhaustive and a setup error will be issued to the user on solve if any such

over-constraints occur.

For general information about how to apply mesh controls and preview the mesh, see Apply Mesh

Controls and Preview Mesh in the ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide

All mesh methods available in the Workbench meshing application can be utilized in Explicit Dynamics

systems.

A smooth uniform mesh should be sought in the regions of interest for the analysis. Elsewhere,

coarsening of the mesh may help to reduce the overall size of the problem to be solved. Use the Ex-

plicit meshing preference (set by default) to auto-assign the default mesh controls that will provide a

mesh well suited for Explicit Dynamics analyses. This preference automatically sets the Rigid Body Be-

havior mesh control to Full Mesh. The Full Mesh setting is only applicable to Explicit Dynamics analyses.

Other physics preferences can be used if better consistency is desired between implicit and explicit

models.

Consideration should be given to the number of elements in the model and the quality of the mesh to

produce larger resulting time steps and therefore more efficient simulations. A coarse mesh can often

be used to gain insight into the basic dynamics of a system while a finer mesh is required to investigate

nonlinear material effects and failure. The Mesh Metric option allows you to view mesh metric information

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Establish Analysis Settings

and thereby evaluate the mesh quality. A very useful mesh metric is the Characteristic Length: it is

primarily used to determine the timestep for an element.

Swept/multi-zone meshes are preferred in Explicit Dynamics analyses so geometry slicing, combined

with multibody part options in DesignModeler, are recommended to facilitate hexahedral meshing. Al-

ternatively, use the patch independent tetrahedral meshing method to obtain more uniform element

sizing and take advantage of automatic defeaturing.

Define the element size manually to produce more uniform element size distributions especially on

surface bodies.

Midside nodes should be dropped from the mesh (set Element Order to Linear) for all elements types

(solids, surface and line bodies). Error/warning messages are provided if unsupported (higher order)

elements are present in the mesh.

Pyramid elements are not supported in Explicit Dynamics analyses. Any elements of this type are con-

verted into two tetrahedral elements, and will warrant a warning in the message window of the Mech-

anical application.

An Explicit Dynamics model with fewer elements than the number of slave processes specified cannot

be run in parallel.

For Workbench LS-DYNA, only the element types listed below are supported (partly due to LS-DYNA

limitations). Any parts with a mesh containing unsupported elements will be excluded from the exported

mesh. A warning is displayed specifying excluded parts.

Shells

Solids

Note

Pyramids are not recommended for LS-DYNA. A warning is issued if such elements are present

in the mesh.

When performing an implicit static structural or transient structural analysis to an Explicit Dynamics

analysis, the same mesh is required for both the implicit and explicit analysis and only low order elements

are allowed. If high order elements are used, the solve will be blocked and an error message will be

issued.

For general information about how to establish analysis settings, see Establish Analysis Settings in the

ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide.

The basic analysis settings for Explicit Dynamics analyses (p. 33) are:

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Explicit Dynamics Workflow

Step Controls - The required input for step control is the termination time for the analysis. This should be

set to your best estimate of the solution time required to simulate the event being modeled. You should

normally allow the solver to determine its own time step size based on the smallest CFL condition (p. 116)

in the model. The efficiency of the solution can be increased with the help of mass scaling options. Use this

feature with caution; too much mass scaling can give rise to non-physical results.

An Explicit Dynamics solution may be started, interrupted and resumed at any point in time. For ex-

ample, an existing solution that has reached its End Time may be extended to continue to review

the progression of the mechanical phenomena simulated. The Resume From Cycle option enables

you to select which Restart file you would like to use to resume the analysis. See Resume Capability

for Explicit Dynamics Analyses (p. 61) for more information. Explicit dynamics analyses are always

solved in a single analysis step.

Maximum Number of Cycles in the Explicit Dynamics system is replaced by Maximum time steps

in Workbench LS-DYNA

The Maximum Element Scaling and Update frequency (options not available in Workbench LS-

DYNA)

Solver Controls These advanced controls allow you to control a range of solver features including element

formulations and solution velocity limits. The defaults are applicable to wide range of applications.

Shell thickness update, shell inertia update, density update, minimum velocity, maximum velocity and

radius cutoff options can only be set in the Explicit Dynamics system.

Full shell integration and a selectable Unit System are available only in Workbench LS-DYNA.

Euler Domain Controls There are three sets of parameters that are necessary to define the Euler Domain:

the size of the whole domain (Domain Size Definition), the number of computational cells in the domain

(Domain Resolution Definition), and the type of boundary conditions to be applied to the edges of the

domain.

Note

The domain size can be defined automatically (Domain Size Definition = Program Controlled) or

manually (Domain Size Definition = Manual). For both the automatic and manual options, the size

is defined from a 3D origin point and the X, Y, and Z dimensions of the domain.

For the automatic option, specify the Scope of the Domain Size Definition so that the origin and X,

Y, and Z dimensions are set to create a box large enough to include all bodies in the geometry (Scope

= All Bodies) or the Eulerian Bodies only (Scope = Eulerian Bodies Only). The automatically determ-

ined domain size can be controlled with three scaling parameters, one for each direction (X Scale

Factor, Y Scale Factor, Z Scale Factor).

The size of the domain is affected by the scale factors according to the following equations:

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Establish Analysis Settings

(2.5)

(2.6)

(2.7)

where

lx, ly, lz are the lengths of the unscaled domain in the x, y, and z directions respectively. These para-

meters are obtained automatically from the mesh.

l'x, l'y, l'z are the lengths of the scaled domain in the x, y, and z directions respectively.

Fx, Fy, Fz are the scale factors for the x, y, and z directions respectively.

For the Manual option of the Domain Size Definition, specify the origin of the Euler Domain (Minimum

X Coordinate, Minimum Y Coordinate, Minimum Z Coordinate) and the dimension in each direction

(X Dimension, Y Dimension, Z Dimension).

The domain resolution specifies how many cells should be created in the X, Y, and Z directions of

the domain. Use the Domain Resolution Definition field to specify how to determine the resolution:

either the cell size (Cell Size), the number of cells in each of the X, Y, and Z directions (Cells per

Component), or the total number of cells to be created (Total Cells).

For the Cell Size option, specify the size of the cell in the Cell Size parameter. The value specified is the

dimension of the cell in each of the X, Y, and Z directions. The units used for the cell size follow the ones

specified in the Mechanical application window and are displayed in the text box.

The number of the cells in each direction of the domain are then determined from this cell size

and the size of the domain with the following equations:

(2.8)

(2.9)

(2.10)

where

Nx, Ny, Nz are the number of cells in the X, Y, and Z directions respectively.

D is the dimension of the cell in each direction (this is the same in all directions).

For the Cells per Component option, enter the number of cells required in each of the X, Y, and Z directions

(Number of Cells in X, Number of Cells in Y, Number of Cells in Z).

For the Total Cells option, specify Total Cells (the default is 250,000). The size of the cells will depend on

the size of the Euler Domain.

(2.11)

where

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Explicit Dynamics Workflow

If any bodies are defined as Eulerian (Virtual), when Analysis Settings is selected in the outline view,

the Euler domain bounding box is displayed in the graphics window. The Euler domain resolution is

indicated by black node markers along each edge line of the Euler domain. The visibility of this can

be controlled by the Display Euler Domain option in the Analysis Settings.

You can set boundary conditions on each of the faces of the Euler Domain. The faces are labeled

Lower X Face, Lower Y Face, Lower Z Face (which correspond to the faces with the minimum X, Y,

and Z coordinates) and Upper X Face, Upper Y Face, and Upper Z Face (which correspond to the

faces with the maximum X, Y, and Z coordinates). The values of the boundary conditions that can be

set for each face are:

Flow Out

Use the Flow Out boundary condition to flow out material through cell faces. The boundary

condition makes the material state of the dummy cell outside the Euler domain the same as

that of the cell adjacent to the Flow Out boundary, thus setting the gradients of velocity and

stress to zero over the boundary. This approach simulates a far field solution at the boundary,

but is only exact for outflow velocities higher than the speed of sound and is an approximation

for lower velocities. Therefore, the Flow Out boundary condition is approximate in many cases,

and should be placed as far as possible from region of interest and best at a location where

the gradients are small.

Impedance

The Impedance boundary condition acts exactly the same as the Flow Out boundary condition

and provides the same results.

Rigid

Use the Rigid boundary condition to prevent flow of material through cell faces. The cell faces

are closed for material transport and act as rigid non-slip walls. The Rigid boundary condition

takes the material state of the dummy cell outside the Euler domain as a mirrored image of

the cell adjacent to the Wall boundary, thus setting the normal material velocity at the rigid

wall to zero and leaving the tangential velocity unaffected.

Euler Tracking is currently only By Body, which scopes the results to Eulerian bodies in the same

manner as Lagrangian bodies.

Damping Controls Damping is used to control oscillations behind shock waves and reduce hourglass

modes in reduced integration elements. These options allow you to adapt the levels of damping, and for-

mulation used for the analysis being conducted. Elastic oscillations in the solution can also be automatically

damped to provide a quasi-static solution after a dynamic event.

For Hourglass Damping, only one of either the Viscous Coefficient or Stiffness Coefficient, is used

for the Flanagan Belytschko option - when running an Explicit Dynamics analysis using the LS-DYNA

solver, LS-DYNA does not allow for two coefficients to be entered in *CONTROL_HOURGLASS. Thus

the non-zero coefficient determines the damping format to be either "Flanagan-Belytschko viscous"

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Establish Analysis Settings

or "Flanagan-Belytschko stiffness", accordingly. If both are non-zero, the Stiffness Coefficient will be

used.

Note

Linear Viscosity in Expansion options are not supported for Workbench LS-DYNA.

the same control is AUTODYN Standard.

Erosion Controls Erosion is used to automatically remove highly distorted elements from an analysis and

is required for applications such as cutting and impact penetration. In an Explicit Dynamics analysis, erosion

is a numerical tool to help maintain large time steps, and thus obtain solutions in appropriate time scales.

Several options are available to initiate erosion. The default settings will erode elements which experience

geometric strains in excess of 150%. The default value should be increased when modeling hyperelastic

materials. Geometric strain limit and material failure criteria are not present in LS-DYNA.

Results files which are used to provide nodal and element data for contour and probe results such as de-

formation, velocity, stress and strain. Note that probe results will provide a filtered time history of the

result data due to the relatively infrequent saving of results files.

Restart files should be stored less frequently than results files and can be used to resume an analysis.

Tracker data is usually stored much more frequently than results or restart data and thus is used to produce

full transient data for specific quantities.

Output controls to save result tracker and solution output are not available for LS-DYNA.

When performing an implicit to explicit analysis, for a nonlinear implicit analysis, the Strain Details view

property must be set to Yes because plastic strains are needed for the correct results.

The following sections describe the available properties for the Analysis Settings folder in an Explicit

Dynamics analysis. In addition to describing each setting, it is noted whether the setting is available

for 2D analyses, and whether it is available on restart (applies to 2D and 3D analyses).

2.10.1.1. Explicit Dynamics Step Controls

2.10.1.2. Explicit Dynamics Solver Controls

2.10.1.3. Explicit Dynamics Euler Domain Controls

2.10.1.4. Explicit Dynamics Damping Controls

2.10.1.5. Explicit Dynamics Erosion Controls

2.10.1.6. Explicit Dynamics Output Controls

2.10.1.7. Explicit Dynamics Data Management Settings

2.10.1.8. Recommendations for Analysis Settings in Explicit Dynamics

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Explicit Dynamics Workflow

Field Options Description 2D Restart

Resume From Allows you to select the integration Yes Yes

Cycle cycle from which to start the solution

upon selecting Solve. A cycle of zero

(default setting) indicates the solution

will clear any previous progress and

start from time zero. A non-zero cycle,

on the other hand, allows you to revisit

a previous solution and extend it further

in time. A solution obtained from a

non-zero cycle is considered to have

been "resumed" or "restarted".

non-zero selections if a solve was

previously executed and restart files

have been generated.

analysis settings will be respected

where possible. For example, you may

wish to resume an analysis with an

extended termination time. Changes to

any other features in the model

(geometry suppression, connections,

loads, and so on) will prevent restarts

from taking place.

Dynamics Analyses (p. 61) for more

information.

This field is not available for Workbench

LS-DYNA.

Maximum Num- The maximum number of cycles allowed Yes Yes

ber of Cycles during the analysis. The analysis will stop

once the specified value is reached. Enter a

large number to have the analysis run to the

defined End Time.

End Time (Required input) The maximum length of Yes Yes

time (starting from time zero) to be

simulated by the explicit analysis. You should

enter a reasonable estimate to cover the

phenomena of interest.

Maximum Energy Energy conservation is a measure of the Yes Yes

Error quality of an Explicit Dynamics analysis.

Large deviations from energy conservation

usually imply a less than optimal model

definition. This parameter allows you to

automatically stop the solution if the

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Establish Analysis Settings

deviation from energy conservation becomes

unacceptable. Enter a fraction of the total

system energy (measured at the Reference

Energy Cycle) for which you want the

analysis to stop. For example, the default

value of 0.1 will cause the analysis to stop

if the energy error exceeds 10% of the

energy at the reference cycle.

requires a percentage to be entered.

Thus the field name changes to Maxim-

um Energy Error (%).

Reference Energy The cycle at which you want the solver to Yes Yes

Cycle calculate the reference energy, against which

it will calculate the energy error. Usually this

will be the start cycle (cycle = 0). You may

need to increase this value if the model has

zero energy at cycle = 0 (for example if you

have no initial velocity defined).

LS-DYNA.

Initial Time Step Enter an initial time step you want to use, Yes Yes

or use the Program Controlled default. If

left on Program Controlled, the time step

will be automatically set to the computed

element stability time step. The Program

Controlled setting is recommended.

left on Program Controlled, the initial

time step will be determined by the

solver.

Minimum Time Enter the minimum time step allowed in the Yes Yes

Step analysis, or use the Program Controlled

default. If the time step drops below this

value the analysis will stop. If set to Program

Controlled, the value will be chosen as

1/10th the initial time step.

LS-DYNA.

Maximum Time Enter the maximum time step allowed in the Yes Yes

Step analysis, or use the Program Controlled

default. The solver will use the minimum of

this value or the computed stability time

step during the solve. The Program Con-

trolled setting is recommended.

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Explicit Dynamics Workflow

Time Step Safety A safety factor limit is applied to the Yes Yes

Factor computed stability time step to help keep

the solution stable. The default value of 0.9

should work for most analyses.

Characteristic Di- Diagonals (default The characteristic dimension (p. 116) Yes No

mension setting) used to determine the time-step for hex

elements will be calculated as the

volume of the element divided by the

square of the longest element diagonal

and then scaled by sqrt(2/3).

LS-DYNA.

Opposing Face The characteristic dimension used to

determine the time-step for hex

elements will be based on the minimum

distance between opposing faces.

time step for hex solid elements.

Experience to date has shown that this

option can significantly improve the

efficiency of 3D Lagrange simulations.

However, in certain circumstances when

cells become highly distorted,

instabilities have been observed causing

the calculation to terminate with high

energy errors. The correct choice of

erosion strain can reduce these

problems. It is therefore recommended

that users only utilize this option if

efficiency is critical.

LS-DYNA.

Nearest Face The characteristic dimension used to

determine the time-step for hex

elements will be based on the minimum

distance between neighboring faces.

option can significantly improve the

efficiency of 3D Lagrange simulations.

However, in certain circumstances when

cells become highly distorted,

instabilities have been observed causing

the calculation to terminate with high

energy errors. The correct choice of

erosion strain can reduce these

problems. It is therefore recommended

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Establish Analysis Settings

that users only utilize this option if

efficiency is critical.

LS-DYNA.

Automatic Mass If set to Yes, activates automatic mass Yes Yes

Scaling scaling and exposes the following options.

Minimum CFL The time step that you want to achieve Yes Yes

Time Step in the analysis.

Caution

additional mass into the

system to increase the

computed CFL time

step (p. 116). Introducing too

much mass can lead to

non-physical results.

Note

MASS_SCALE (ratio of scaled

mass/physical mass) and

TIMESTEP to review the

effects of automatic mass

scaling on the model.

Maximum Ele- This value limits the ratio of scaled Yes Yes

ment Scaling mass/physical mass that can be applied to

each element in the model.

LS-DYNA.

Maximum Part This value limits the ratio of scaled Yes Yes

Scaling mass/physical mass that can be applied to

an individual body. If this value is exceeded,

the analysis will stop and an error message

is displayed.

LS-DYNA.

Maximum Mass This value limits the ratio of scaled

Scaling (%) mass/physical mass that is applied to the

whole model. The ratio is expressed as a

percentage.

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Explicit Dynamics Workflow

This field is only available for

Workbench LS-DYNA.

Update Fre- Allows you to control the frequency at which Yes Yes

quency the mass scaling will be calculated during

the solve. The frequency equates to the

increment in cycles at which the mass scale

factor will be recomputed, based on the

current shape of the elements. The default

of 0 is recommended and means that the

mass scale factor is only calculated once, at

the start of the solve.

frequency is always set to 0.

LS-DYNA.

Field Options Description 2D Restart

Solve Units All model inputs will be converted to Yes No

this set of units during the solve. Results

from the analysis will be converted back

to the user units system in the GUI.

For Explicit Dynamics systems, this setting

is always mm, mg, ms.

termed Unit System and four systems

are available for selection: m, kg, s;

mm, ton, s; mm, mg, ms; in, lbf, s.

Beam Solution Bending Any line bodies will be represented as beam No No

Type elements including a full bending moment

calculation.

Truss Any line bodies will be represented as truss

elements. No bending moments are

calculated.

Beam Time Step An additional safety factor you may apply No No

Safety Factor to the stability time step calculated for beam

elements. The default value ensures stability

for most cases.

Hex Integration Exact Provides an accurate calculation of element No No

Type volume, even for warped elements.

1pt Gauss Approximates the volume calculation and is

less accurate for elements featuring warped

faces. This option is more efficient.

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Shell Sublayers The number of integration points through No No

the thickness of an isotropic shell. The

default of 3 is suitable for many applications;

however, this number can be increased to

achieve better resolution of through

thickness plastic deformation and/or flow.

Shell Shear Cor- The transverse shear in the element No No

rection Factor formulation is assumed constant over the

thickness. This correction factor accounts for

the replacement of the true parabolic

variation through the thickness in response

to a uniform transverse shear stress. Using

a value other than the default is not

recommended.

Shell BWC Warp The Belytschko-Lin-Tsay element formulation No No

Correction becomes inaccurate if the elements are

warped. To overcome this, the element

formulation has an optional correction to

include warping. Setting this correction to

Yes is recommended.

Shell Thickness Nodal Changes in shell thickness are calculated at No No

Update the nodes of shell elements.

LS-DYNA.

Elemental Changes in shell thickness are calculated at

the element integration points.

LS-DYNA.

Full Shell Integra- Available only for Workbench LS-DYNA. N/A N/A

tion

Provides a very fast and accurate shell

element formulation.

Tet Integration Average Nodal The tetrahedral element formulation includes No No

Pressure an average nodal pressure integration. This

formulation does not exhibit volumetric

locking, and can be used for large

deformation, and nearly incompressible

behavior such as plastic flow or

hyperelasticity. This formulation is

recommended for the majority of tetrahedral

meshes.

Constant Pressure Uses the constant pressure integrated

tetrahedral formulation. This formulation is

more efficient than Average Nodal, however

it suffers from volumetric locking under

constant bulk deformation.

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Explicit Dynamics Workflow

Nodal Strain When Tet Integration is set to Nodal

Strain the Puso Stability Coefficient,

field is shown.

modes, the Puso coefficient can be set

to a non-zero value. A value of 0.1 is

recommended. See Solver

Controls (p. 134) for more information.

Shell Inertia Up- Recompute The principal axes of rotary inertia are by No No

date default recalculated each cycle.

LS-DYNA

Rotate Rotates the axes, rather than recomputing

each cycle. This option is more efficient;

however, it can lead to numerical instabilities

due to floating point round-off for long

running simulations.

LS-DYNA.

Density Update Program Con- The solver decides whether an incremental Yes No

trolled update is necessary based on the rate and

extent of element deformation.

LS-DYNA.

Incremental Forces the solver to always use the

incremental update.

LS-DYNA.

Total Forces the solver to always recalculate the

density from element-volume and mass.

LS-DYNA.

Minimum Velo- The minimum velocity you want to allow in Yes Yes

city the analysis. If any model velocity drops

below this Minimum Velocity, it will be set

to zero. The default is recommended for

most analyses.

LS-DYNA.

Maximum Velo- The maximum velocity you want to allow in Yes Yes

city the analysis. If any model velocity rises

above the Maximum Velocity, it will be

capped. This can improve the

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Establish Analysis Settings

stability/robustness of the analysis in some

instances. The default is recommended for

most analyses.

LS-DYNA.

Radius Cutoff At the start of your calculation, if a node is Yes Yes

within the specified radius of a symmetry

plane, it will be placed on the symmetry

plane. If a node is outside the specified

radius from a symmetry plane at the start of

your calculation, it will not be allowed to

come closer than this radius to the symmetry

plane as your calculation proceeds.

LS-DYNA.

Minimum Strain The minimum strain rate you want to allow Yes Yes

Rate Cutoff in the analysis. If any model strain rate drops

below this value, it will be set to zero. The

default is recommended for most analyses.

For low speed or quasi-static analyses, it may

be necessary to decrease this value.

LS-DYNA.

Field Options Description 2D Restart

Domain Size Program Con- Set Domain Size Definition to automatic. No No

Definition trolled

Manual Set Domain Size Definition to manual.

Display Euler Do- Toggles visibility of the annotation of the No No

main Euler domain in the graphics window.

Scope All Bodies Euler domain is sized to include all bodies. No No

Eulerian Bodies Euler domain is sized to include Euler bodies

Only only.

X Scale factor, Y User defined scaling factors for the No No

Scale factor, Z automatically determined X, Y, and Z sizes .

Scale Factor

Minimum X Co- X, Y, Z coordinates for the Euler domain No No

ordinate, Minim- origin for the Manual option.

um Y Coordinate,

Minimum Z Co-

ordinate

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Explicit Dynamics Workflow

X Dimension, Y Euler domain X, Y, Z dimensions for the No No

Dimension, Z Di- Manual option.

mension

Domain Resolu- Total Cells Set Domain Resolution Definition by No No

tion Definition specifying the total number of cells in the

Euler domain.

Cell Size Set Domain Resolution Definition by

specifying the size of the cells in the Euler

domain.

Cells per Compon- Set Domain Resolution Definition by

ent specifying the number of cells in each

dimension in the Euler domain.

Total Cells Total number of cells that the Euler domain No No

should contain if Domain Resolution

Definition is Total Number of Cells.

Cell Size Dimension of the cell in each of the X, Y, and No No

Z directions if Domain Resolution Definition

is Cell Size.

Number of Cells Number of cells required in the X, Y, and Z No No

in X, Number of directions if Domain Resolution Definition is

Cells in Y, Num- Number of Cells by Component.

ber of Cells in Z

Lower X Face, Flow Out (Default Specify the boundary condition of the No No

Lower Y Face, setting) selected Euler domain face to be Flow Out.

Lower Z Face, Up- Impedance Specify the boundary condition of the

per X Face, Upper selected Euler domain face to be Impedance.

Y Face, Upper Z

Face Rigid Specify the boundary condition of the

selected Euler domain face to be Rigid.

Euler Tracking By Body Results may be scoped to Eulerian bodies in No No

the same way as for Lagrangian bodies.

If any bodies are defined as Eulerian (Virtual), when Analysis Settings is selected in the outline view the

Euler domain bounding box is displayed in the graphics window, as shown below.

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Establish Analysis Settings

The Euler domain resolution is indicated by black node markers along each edge line of the Euler domain.

The visibility of this can be controlled by the Display Euler Domain option in the Analysis Settings.

Field Options Description 2D Restart

Linear Artificial A linear coefficient of artificial viscosity. This Yes Yes

Viscosity coefficient smooths out shock discontinuities

over the mesh. Using a value other than the

default is not recommended.

Quadratic Artifi- A quadratic coefficient of artificial viscosity. Yes Yes

cial Viscosity This coefficient damps out post shock

discontinuity oscillations. Using a value other

than the default is not recommended.

Linear Viscosity Artificial viscosity is normally applied to Yes Yes

in Expansion materials in compression only. This option

allows you to apply the viscosity for materials

in compression and expansion.

LS-DYNA.

Artificial Viscosity Apply artificial viscosity to all shell elements No Yes

for Shells in addition to solid elements.

LS-DYNA.

Hourglass Damp- AUTODYN Stand- The method of hourglass damping to be Yes Yes

ing ard used with solid hexahedral elements. The

Flanagan AUTODYN Standard option is available For

Belytschko 2D analyses only.

Stiffness Coeffi- The Stiffness Coefficient for Flanagan No Yes

cient Belytschko hourglass damping in solid

hexahedral elements.

Viscous Coeffi- The viscous coefficient for hourglass Yes Yes

cient damping used in hexahedral solid elements

and quadrilateral shell elements.

Static Damping A static damping constant may be specified Yes Yes

which changes the solution from a dynamic

solution to a relaxation iteration converging

to a state of stress equilibrium. For optimal

convergence, the value chosen for the

damping constant, R, may be defined by: R

= 2*timestep/T where timestep is the

expected average value of the timestep and

T is longest period of vibration for the

system being analyzed.

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Explicit Dynamics Workflow

Field Options Description 2D Restart

On Geometric If set to Yes, elements will automatically Yes Yes

Strain Limit erode if the geometric strain in the element

exceeds the specified limit.

LS-DYNA.

Geometric Strain The geometric strain limit for erosion. Yes Yes

Limit Recommended values are in the range from

0.75 to 3.0. The default value is 1.5.

LS-DYNA.

On Material Fail- If set to Yes, elements will automatically Yes Yes

ure erode if a material failure property is defined

in the material used in the elements, and

the failure criteria has been reached.

Elements with materials including a damage

model will also erode if damage reaches a

value of 1.0.

LS-DYNA.

On Minimum Ele- If set to Yes, elements will automatically Yes Yes

ment Time Step erode if their calculated time step falls below

the specified value.

Minimum Ele- The minimum controlling time Yes Yes

ment Time Step step (p. 95) that an element can have.

If the element time step drops below

the specified value, the element will be

eroded.

Retain Inertia of If all elements that are connected to a Yes No

Eroded Material node in the mesh erode, the inertia of

the resulting free node can be retained

if this option is set to Yes. The mass and

momentum of the free node is retained

and can be involved in subsequent

impact events to transfer momentum

in the system.

automatically removed from the

analysis.

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Establish Analysis Settings

Field Options Description 2D Restart

Save Results on During the solve of an Explicit Dynamics Yes Yes

system, results are saved to disk at a

frequency defined through this control. The

following settings are available.

Cycles Save results files after a specified increment Yes Yes

in the number of cycles. Exposes a Cycles

field where you enter the increment in

cycles.

Workbench LS-DYNA.

Time Save results file after a specified increment Yes Yes

in time. Exposes a Time field where you

enter a time increment.

Equally Spaced (Default) Save a specified number of result Yes Yes

Points files during the analysis. The frequency is

defined by the termination time / number

of points. Exposes a Number of Points field

where you enter the number of results files

required.

Save Restart Files During the solve of an Explicit Dynamics Yes Yes

on system, restart files are saved to disk at a

frequency defined through this control. The

following settings are available.

Cycles Save restart files after a specified increment Yes Yes

in the number of cycles. Exposes a Cycles

field where you enter the increment in

cycles.

Time Save restart files after a specified increments Yes Yes

in time. Exposes a Time field where you

enter a time increment.

Workbench LS-DYNA.

Equally Spaced (Default) Save a specified number of restart Yes Yes

Points files during the analysis. The frequency is

defined by the termination time / number

of points. Exposes a Number of Points field

where you enter the number of restart files

required.

Save Result Use this control to define the frequency Yes Yes

Tracker Data on at which result tracker data and solution

output is saved to disk.

to specific regions in a model.

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Explicit Dynamics Workflow

Solution output provides a summary of

the state of the solution as the solve

proceeds. This is shown when Solution

Information is highlighted in the

project tree. This setting applies to all

the selectable views in the Solution

Output drop down list located in the

Solution Information Details view.

LS-DYNA.

Cycles (Default) Save results tracker and solution Yes Yes

output data after a specified increment in

the number of cycles. Exposes a Cycles field

where you enter the increment in cycles. The

default value is 1.

entered for Cycles, then the following

plots available from the Solution Out-

put drop down will be updated every

10 cycles unless overall progress has

increased by 5% since the last data

point (in which case, the plots will be

updated at a frequency as close to the

entered cycle increment as possible).

Results trackers are excluded from this

limitation.

Time Increment

Energy Conservation

Momentum Summary

Energy Summary

tion Output drop down will be updated

at the entered cycle increment.

be displayed even if it is not a multiple

of the cycles entered.

Time Save result tracker and solution output data Yes Yes

after a specified increment in time. Exposes

a Time field where you enter a time

increment.

Solution Output update is limited to no

more than every 10 cycles. If a time

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Establish Analysis Settings

equating to 10 cycles or less is chosen,

then the following plots available from

the Solution Output drop down will

be updated every 10 cycles, unless

overall progress has increased by 5%

since the last data point (in which case,

the output will be updated at a

frequency as close to the entered time

increment as possible). Results trackers

are excluded from this limitation.

Time Increment

Energy Conservation

Momentum Summary

Energy Summary

tion Output drop down will be updated

every cycle.

Output Contact Use this control to define the frequency No Yes

Forces that contact forces are written out to

file.

solution directory into ASCII files named

extfcon_*.cfr, where * is the cycle

number.

and z directions for nodes on external

faces, where the forces are non-zero.

bodies or Eulerian (Virtual) bodies.

analyses.

the following format:

Node number

Contact Force X Contact Force Y Contact Force Z

visualize the contact pressure between

bodies.

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Explicit Dynamics Workflow

Cycles Write contact forces to a file after a specified No Yes

increment in the number of cycles. Exposes

a Cycles field where you enter the increment

in cycles.

Time Write contact forces to a file after a specified No Yes

increment in time. Exposes a Time field

where you enter a time increment.

Equally Spaced Write a specified number of contact force No Yes

Points files during the analysis. The frequency is

defined by the termination time/ number of

points. Exposes a Number of Points field

where you enter the number of contact force

files required.

Note that these settings cannot be changed from the Details panel.

Field Description

Solver Files Directory The permanent location for all the files generated during a solve.

This is a read-only field provided for information.

Scratch Solver Files Directory A temporary location for all files generated during a solve. These

files are then moved to the Solver Files Directory for completed

solves. This is a read-only field provided for information. See

Analysis Data Management in the ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide

for more information.

Explicit Dynamics may be used for a wide range of applications, and a default set of Analysis Settings

designed to provide the most robust solution are not necessarily suited to every application. Therefore,

the Type setting allows the selection of particular defaults depending on the requirements of the

solution. The following options are available:

Program Controlled This is the default setting with a priority for a robust solution.

Efficiency Settings for minimum runtime. In some cases, this may have an impact on robustness and accur-

acy.

The exact Analysis Settings values for each of the Analysis Settings Preference Types are shown in the

table below. Switching the Type property will update all of the items displayed in the table as indicated.

If any of these settings are subsequently changed, then the Type will be indicated as Custom.

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Establish Analysis Settings

Controlled Velocity Velocity

Default Setting for Recommended Recommended Recommended

(Robustness) minimum setting for for high setting

run time low deformation/velocity

for

(also deformation/velocity

simulations quasi-static

minimum simulations (>100m/s) simulations

robustness (<100m/s)

and

accuracy

in some

cases)

Analysis Notes

Settings

Step Controls

Timestep 0.9 1 0.9 0.9 0.9 If solving in the Euler

Safety Factor reference frame the

maximum timestep

safety factor is 0.66667.

This will override any

values entered by the

user.

Mass Scaling No Yes Yes No Yes The user needs to

enter a reasonable

desired timestep.

Mass Scaling: Off User Must User Must Off User Must The user needs to

Minimum CFL Define Define Define enter a sensible

timestep desired timestep and

ensure the physical

response is not

significantly altered by

the additional mass

added.

Mass Scaling: Off 1000 100 Off 1000

Maximum

Element

Scaling Factor

(%)

Mass Scaling: Off 1000 5 Off 1000

Maximum

Part Scaling

Mass Scaling: Off 0 0 Off 0 Note that for low

Update deformation problems,

Frequency setting an update

frequency of

approximately 250

may also help maintain

a higher timestep

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Explicit Dynamics Workflow

Controlled Velocity Velocity

Characteristic Diagonals Opposing Opposing Diagonals Opposing

Dimension Faces Faces Faces

Solver

Controls

Beam Time 0.5 1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Increasing the safety

Step Safety factor can lead to

Factor unstable results. Check

results carefully.

Hex Exact 1pt Gauss 1pt Gauss Exact 1pt Gauss

Integration

Type

Shell 3 2 3 3 3

Sublayers

Shell Inertia Recompute Rotate Recompute Recompute Recompute Rotate option is most

Update efficient but can lead

to unstable results.

Check results carefully.

Tet ANP SCP NBS ANP NBS SCP tet is very efficient

Integration but suffers from shear

and volume locking.

Check results carefully

if using this option.

Minimum 1e-10 1e-10 0.0 1e-10 0.0

Strain Rate

Cutoff

Damping

Controls

Hourglass AUTODYN AUTODYN Flanagan AUTODYN Flanagan Autodyn standard is

Damping standard standard Belytschko standard Belytschko not rigid body rotation

invariant. Must use

Flanagan Belytschko if

large rotations are

involved.

Static 0 0 0 0 User Must For quasi-static

Damping Define analyses, it is

recommended that

static damping is used,

but the value used

depends on the

configuration of the

model. See Explicit

Dynamics Damping

Controls (p. 43) for

more details on

selecting an

appropriate value.

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Establish Analysis Settings

Controlled Velocity Velocity

Erosion

Controls

On Geometric Yes No No Yes No If you expect large

Strain Limit deformations and

mesh distortions

during the simulation,

a geometric strain limit

of 1.0 to 1.5 will be

required for the

minimum run time

case.

Geometric 1.5 0.75 Unchanged 1.5 Unchanged

Strain Limit

Output

Controls

Save Results 20 20 50 50 10

on: Equally

Spaced Points

Save Result 1 10 10 1 10

Tracker Data:

Cycles

Save Solution 100 1000 100 100 100

Output:

Cycles

Body

Interactions:

Details

options

Nodal Shell No No No No No

Thickness

Body Self Yes No No Yes No

Contact

Element Self Yes No No Yes No

Contact

When using the Explicit Dynamics analysis system, the Body Self Contact and Element Self Contact

settings in the Body Interactions object Details panel should be set to Program Controlled in order for

the Analysis Settings Preference Type to have an effect on the Body Interactions objects. If the Program

Controlled setting is used, the values of the Body Interactions settings will be as shown in the table.

Note

Consider the following guidelines for setting up other areas of your analysis:

Material Properties

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Explicit Dynamics Workflow

Bonds

Meshing

Use the patch independent tetrahedral mesh method to ensure uniform element size and

timestep optimization

For general information about how to define initial conditions, see Define Initial Conditions in the ANSYS

Mechanical User's Guide

You can assign a translational or angular velocity to a single body or to multiple bodies. In an Explicit Dy-

namics analysis, by default, all bodies are assumed to be at rest with no external constraint or load applied.

It is not a requirement to apply these types of initial conditions to a body.

An Explicit Dynamics solution requires that the model contains at least one initial condition (translational

or angular velocity), a non-zero constraint (displacement or velocity), or a valid load.

You can use the results of an implicit analysis as a pre-stress initial condition for an Explicit Dynamics ana-

lysis. For more information, see Applying Pre-Stress Effects for Explicit Analysis (p. 105).

For general information about how to apply loads and supports, see Apply Loads and Supports in the

ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide

You can apply the following loads and supports in an Explicit Dynamics analysis:

Acceleration

Pressure

Hydrostatic Pressure

Force

Nodal Force

Line Pressure

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Apply Loads and Supports

Fixed Support

Displacement

Nodal Displacement

Velocity

Simply Supported

Fixed Rotation

Remote Displacement

Remote Force

Notes

Cylindrical coordinate systems allow the definition of a single rotational displacement or velocity constraint

on a rigid or flexible body. These coordinate systems are fixed and so do not move with the body.

For Explicit Dynamics analyses, the Y component (that is, direction) of a velocity constraint defined by

a cylindrical coordinate system has units relating to angular velocity.

For Explicit Dynamics analyses, the Y component (that is, direction) of a displacement constraint defined

by a cylindrical coordinate system has units relating to rotation.

Stepped or time varying tabular loads can be applied in an Explicit Dynamics analysis. However, Explicit

Dynamics does not support using tabular data to specify the magnitude or components of Accelerations

or Line Pressures.

Displacement and rotation boundary conditions must be ramped, meaning that they cannot have non-zero

values at the first cycle.

For Explicit Dynamics analyses, loads defined by functions are supported for Pressure, Velocity, and Remote

Force boundary conditions, but only when defined as varying in time. Spatially varying function definitions

are not supported in Explicit Dynamics. See Setting Up Boundary Conditions.

Loads and supports are not valid when applied to bodies having a Reference Frame of Eulerian (Virtual).

Detonation Points are only available for 3D Explicit Dynamics analyses, not for Workbench LS-DYNA or 2D

Explicit Dynamics analyses.

For Explicit Dynamics analyses, if multiple constraints (for example, displacements) are applied to a node

then they must use the same coordinate system. This restriction is especially applicable at nodes on a shared

topology such as an edge, where two adjacent faces, each with different constraints, may come together.

These constraints must use the same coordinate system in their specification.

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Explicit Dynamics Workflow

In the LS-DYNA solver, a Velocity or Displacement boundary condition (implemented with the *BOUND-

ARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION keyword) will override a Fixed Support or a Simple Support or a Fixed Rotation

boundary condition (implemented with the *BOUNDARY_SPC keyword). Hence if a body has a Velocity

constraint and a Fixed Support applied to it, the whole body will move in the direction of the applied velocity.

The default unconstrained body is valid. It is not a requirement to constrain any DOF of a body In Explicit

Dynamics systems.

An Explicit Dynamics solve can be performed if the model contains at least one Initial Condition (Translational

or Rotational velocity) or a non-zero constraint (displacement or velocity) or a valid load.

An Explicit Dynamics analysis which contains Pressure, Velocity, Displacement, Force, or Remote Displacement

boundary conditions defined with a function cannot be run in parallel.

The Remote Displacement and Remote Force boundary conditions are not supported in 2D Explicit Dynamics

analyses.

A Remote Displacement boundary condition must have the Behavior field set to Rigid for an Explicit Dy-

namics analysis. An error will be reported if it is set to Deformable. If the Remote Displacement or Remote

Force object is scoped to a Remote Point that has its Behavior set to Rigid, the Remote Displacement or

Remote Force Behavior will automatically be set to Rigid also.

Impedance Boundary is available for an Explicit Dynamics analysis only. It is not available for Workbench

LS-DYNA.

You can use the impedance boundary condition to transmit waves through cell faces. The boundary

condition predicts the pressure P in the dummy cell from the impedance, particle velocity, and a reference

pressure (P0). Only the perpendicular component is transmitted, as the pressure is spherical. Therefore,

the Impedance boundary condition is only approximate, and should be placed as far as possible from

region of interest.

Theory

In order to economize on problem size it is sometimes advantageous for problems which have only

outward traveling solutions (e.g. an expanding high pressure source) to limit the size of the grid by a

boundary condition which allows outward traveling waves to pass through it without reflecting energy

back into the computational grid.

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Apply Loads and Supports

In practice it proves impossible to include a simple boundary condition which is accurate for all wave

strengths but the algorithm used here give a reasonable approximation over a wide spectrum. However

it should always be borne in mind that the condition is only approximate and some reflected wave,

however small, will be created and care must be taken that such a wave does not have a significant

effect on the later solution. Note that the following analysis deals only with the normal component of

velocity of the wave and the velocity component parallel to the boundary is assumed to be unaffected

by the boundary.

For a one-dimensional wave traveling in the direction of increasing x, the conditions on the rearward

facing characteristic are

(2.12)

where c is the acoustic impedance ( is the local density and c is the local sound speed) and dp and

du are the changes of pressure and velocity normal to the wave along the characteristic. Since it is as-

sumed that no wave energy is being propagated back in the direction of decreasing x the error in ap-

plying the above condition on a non-characteristic direction is in general small and it is applied on the

transmitting boundary in the form

(2.13)

where:

For an initially stationary structure at zero pressure, the reference values (pref and uref) are normally set

to zero. In this case we have

(2.14)

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Explicit Dynamics Workflow

which is exact for a plane elastic longitudinal wave propagating in an infinite elastic medium.

Note

The default Material Impedance (Program Controlled) is zero. In this case the impedance

at the boundary is taken to be the impedance at time t of the element to which the

boundary is applied. This represents the case of perfect transmission of plane normal elastic

waves.

Common Characteristics

The following section outlines the common boundary condition characteristics that include application

requirements of the boundary condition, support limitations, as well as loading definitions and values.

Dimensional Types

3D Simulation: Supported.

2D Simulation: Supported.

Geometry Types: Geometry types supported for the Impedance Boundary boundary condition include:

Solid: Supported.

Surface/Shell: Supported.

Topology: The following topology selection options are supported for Impedance Boundary.

Face: Supported.

Loading Data Definition: Enter loading data using one of the following options.

To apply an Impedance Boundary:

1. On the Environment context toolbar: click Supports>Impedance Boundary. Or, right-click the Environ-

ment tree object or the Geometry window and select Insert>Impedance Boundary.

The selections available in the Details view are described below.

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Apply Loads and Supports

Category Fields/Options/Description

Scope Scoping Method: Options include:

applied to a geometry or geometries, which are chosen using a graphical selection

tools.

Displays the type of geometry (Body, Face, etc.) and the number of geometric

entities (for example: 1 Body, 2 Edges) to which the boundary has been applied

using the selection tools.

Selection.

Named Selection: Visible when the Scoping Method is set to Named Selection.

This field provides a drop-down list of available user-defined Named Selections.

Definition Type: Read-only field that describes the object - Impedance Boundary.

You can detonate an explosive by various methods of delivering energy to it. However whether an ex-

plosive is dropped, thermally irradiated, or shocked, either mechanically or through a shock from an

initiator (of a more sensitive explosive), initiation of an explosive always goes through a stage in which

a shock wave is an important feature.

It is assumed that, on initiation, a detonation wave travels away from the initiation point with constant

detonation velocity, being refracted around any inert obstacles in the explosive without moving the

obstacle, maintaining a constant detonation velocity in the refracted zone and detonating each particle

of explosive on arrival at that particle.

Analysis Types

Detonation Point is available for an Explicit Dynamics analysis only.

Common Characteristics

This section describes the characteristics of the boundary condition, including the application require-

ments, support limitations, and loading definitions and values.

Dimensional Types

3D Simulation: Supported.

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Explicit Dynamics Workflow

Note

1. On the Environment context toolbar: click Loads>Detonation Point. Or, right-click the Environment

tree object or the Geometry window and select Insert>Detonation Point.

2. Specify Location.

Multiple detonation points can be added to an analysis. The location of the selected detonation point

and the detonation time are displayed in the annotation on the model.

The selections available in the Details view are described below.

Category Fields/Options/Description

Definition Burn Instantaneously: When set to Yes, results in initiation of detonation for all

elements with an explosive material at the start of the solve.

Detonation Time: User can enter the time for initiation of detonation. [Only visible

if Burn Instantaneously is set to No.]

Location Enter detonation point coordinates:

X Coordinate

Y Coordinate

Z Coordinate

vertex/edge/face selection tools:

Theory

The Detonation analysis method used is Indirect Path detonation. Detonation paths are computed by

finding either a direct path through explosive regions or by following straight line segments connecting

centers of cells containing explosives. Either:

Detonation paths will be computed as the shortest route through cells that contain explosive.

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Apply Loads and Supports

Or...

Detonation paths are computed by finding the shortest path obtained by following straight line

segments connecting the centers of cells containing explosive.

The correct detonation paths will automatically be computed around wave-shapers, obstacles, corners,

etc.

Detonation points must lie within the grid. Paths cannot be computed through multiple Parts. If a det-

onation point is placed in one Part, the detonation from this point cannot propagate to another Part.

If this is required, you must place one or more detonation points in the second Part with the appropriate

initiation times set to achieve the required detonation.

Chemical energy is released linearly from T1 to T2; burn fraction increases from 0.0 to 1.0 over this time

The result DET_INIT_TIME can be used to view the initiation times of the explosive material. For example,

in the image below, the body on the left side has a detonation point with instantaneous burn defined,

and so the entire material has a detonation initiation time of 1x10-6 ms. The second body has a deton-

ation point defined in the lower X, lower Y, lower Z corner, and the detonation time can be seen to

vary from 0 ms (in other words, instantaneous detonation) to a value of 0.19555 ms in the corner of

the body furthest away from the detonation point. Once detonation is initiated in an element, a value

of zero is shown for DET_INIT_TIME.

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Explicit Dynamics Workflow

The result ALPHA can be used to view the progress of the detonation wave through the material. This

corresponds to the burn fraction, which will be a value between zero (no detonation) and one (deton-

ation complete). For the same example, looking at values of alpha at a later stage in the calculation,

the detonation wave can clearly be seen in the body on the right as the spherical band of contours

showing the value of alpha changing from zero to one. The body on the left has a value of one for the

entire body, as it detonated instantaneously.

2.13. Solve

For general information about solving, see Solve in the ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide

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Solve

Solving from Time = 0, which is from Cycle=0, is the typical way to start an analysis. This cycle value is

the default setting in the Resume From Cycle field located in the Step Controls (p. 34) section of the

Analysis Settings (p. 29). The analysis will run until either the user-defined Maximum Number of Cycles

or End Time is reached.

An Explicit Dynamics solve can only be performed if the model contains at least one Initial Condition

(Translational or Rotational velocity), a non-zero constraint (displacement or velocity), or a valid load.

The Explicit Dynamics system always uses RSM in the background. As such the Remote Solve Manager

can be used to monitor the analysis and obtain any solution related output.

Another way of monitoring the progress of the solve is to view the Solution Information (p. 63) while

the solve is running, where you can view the estimated run time remaining.

A running analysis can be interrupted; for example, to review results part way through the analysis. An

interrupted analysis can be resumed (p. 61) to continue to the end. Similarly, a successfully ended

analysis can be extended beyond its current end time or cycle.

If an Explicit Dynamics analysis has partially or totally completed, you can resume the analysis from a

non-zero time step (cycle). You may want to do this in order to:

Extend an analysis that has successfully completed beyond its current end time or cycle.

Complete an analysis that has been interrupted. For example you may wish to interrupt an analysis in order

to review results part way through a longer simulation.

Continue an analysis that has stopped part way through. For example, if an analysis has terminated prema-

turely due to the time-step size being too small, you can make adjustments to mass scaling, and restart the

calculation.

Adjust the frequency of restart file, result file or other output information. For example, you may wish to re-

solve part of an analysis that is of interest with more frequent results.

You may resume an analysis from any cycle that has a restart file by first selecting the cycle in the Resume

From Cycle field located in the Step Controls (p. 34) section of the Analysis Settings (p. 33), then

making any other required analysis changes and selecting Solve. The frequency of restart file output

is controlled in the Analysis Settings Output Controls (p. 45). There is no limit to the number of times

an analysis may be resumed.

Changes made to any feature of the model outside of the Analysis Settings will prevent a resume from

taking place.

Changes made to any of the (Analysis Settings) Solver Controls, except for Minimum Velocity, Maximum

Velocity and Radius Cutoff, will prevent a resume from taking place.

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Changes made to the Retain Inertia of Eroded Material field will prevent a resume from taking place.

Changes to all other Erosion Controls, Damping Controls, and Output Controls are valid and will not

prevent a resume from taking place.

To use Automatic Mass Scaling under Analysis Settings, Step Controls), it must be enabled from the start

of the calculation. You cannot change the Automatic Mass Scaling property for a restart calculation. If

Automatic Mass Scaling is active, the other Mass Scaling properties may be changed part way through a

calculation.

2.13.2.1. Load and Constraint Behavior when Extending Analysis End Time

For a model with loads and constraint, when using the resume capability to extend the end time of an

analysis, the following points should be considered.

If an analysis end time has been increased, then it is possible that the analysis time may fall outside the

defined region of a time-dependent load or constraint. If this is the case, no load or constraint will be applied.

Time-dependent data for loads and supports can be defined for times greater than the end time of the

analysis, and these will become valid if the end time is then extended for a resumed analysis.

The solver representation of loads and constraints may be verified by looking at admodel.prt in the

Solver Files directory.

For general information about solving in parallel with the Mechanical Application see Understanding

Solving in the ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide

Explicit Dynamics 3D solutions default to using up to two cores with shared-memory parallelism. MPI

parallel processing support for 3D Explicit Dynamics models is described in the following table.

Windows Linux

Local Parallel Distributed Windows HPC Local Distributed Parallel

Parallel Jobscheduler Parallel Parallel Jobschedulers

IBM Platform IBM Platform N/A IBM IBM Platform N/A

MPI, INTEL MPI, MPI, INTEL MPI Platform MPI

Microsoft MPI MPI

You can use the additional command line arguments field as described in Using Solve Process Settings

in the ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide to specify the information necessary to run an Explicit Dynamics

solution in parallel.

The MPI software used in a distributed parallel simulation can be specified using the -mpi option. The

available options are: ibmmpi (IBM), intelmpi (Intel), and msmpi (Microsoft). The default option is IBM

MPI (ibmmpi) and will be used if the -mpi option is not specified in the additional command line options.

IBM MPI is the only mpi option that is supported for Linux machines.

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The machines used in a distributed parallel analysis can be specified using the -machines option. The

machines argument should be specified as:

-machines machineName1:N1,MachineName2:N2

where machineName1 will be started with N1 slave executables and MachineName2 will be started

with N2 slave executables. The machine name and number of slaves should be separated by a colon

and each pair of machine name\number of slaves should be separated by a comma. If spaces are added

then the -machines argument should be enclosed in double quotes:

-machines "machineName1 : N1 , MachineName2 : N2"

Note

When running Explicit Dynamics using IBM MPI, the MPI files used are the IBM MPI files in-

cluded with the ANSYS installation. It is possible to specify a different location for the MPI

files by setting the environment variable EXD_MPI_ROOT; for example:

The following capabilities of the explicit solver are not supported for a parallel environment:

Line body to line body contact using Proximity Based interaction in combination with the Edge on Edge

option.

Note

When a model contains a capability that is not supported for a parallel environment, the

analysis will automatically run in serial mode.

2.14. Postprocessing

You can review the Solution Information object and the Result Trackers to analyze your solution quality.

Result trackers must be defined before you start the solution.

The Solution Information object provides a summary of the solution time increments and progress is

continuously updated in the solution output. For distributed analyses, the parallel load balancing is also

displayed. This is calculated for each slave as the CPU time taken on the slave divided by the average

CPU time taken on all the slaves. For a perfectly balanced solution, all slaves will have a load balancing

of one.

Histograms of time step, energy and momentum are also available for real time monitoring of solution

progress.

You can monitor the quality of the solution by reviewing momentum and energy conservation graphs

in the solution output. Low energy errors (<10% of initial energy) are indicative of good quality solutions.

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Choose Tools> Solve Process Settings to solve in the background either locally or remotely. This allows

you to retrieve results while the analysis is running to get immediate feedback on the progress and

accuracy of the solution.

Note

If you choose the My Computer, Background setting, it is necessary that you also click the

Advanced... button and check Use Shared License, if possible, to obtain a successful

solution.

General information about Result Trackers can be found in Result Trackers in the ANSYS Mechanical

User's Guide

You can view the full transient time history data after the insertion of Result Tracker objects. Body

averaged data such as momentum and energy can be selected for display. Data at a specific location

(position, velocity, stress etc.) can also be displayed.

The frequency at which Result Tracker information is provided is defined in the Save Result Tracker

Data On option of the analysis settings (p. 33).

The following topics are related specifically to result trackers in Explicit Dynamics analyses:

2.14.2.1. Point Scoped Result Trackers for Explicit Dynamics

2.14.2.2. Body Scoped Result Trackers for Explicit Dynamics

2.14.2.3. Spring Result Trackers for Explicit Dynamics

2.14.2.4. Viewing and Filtering Result Tracker Graphs for Explicit Dynamics

2.14.2.5. Force Reaction Result Trackers for Explicit Dynamics

A point scoped result tracker is either associated with a node or element center, depending on the

variable selected.

Note

The point scoped trackers are only available for an Explicit Dynamics analysis. Point scoped

trackers may only be inserted prior to the analysis being solved.

You can use one of two Location Methods to specify the location of point scoped Explicit Dynamics

result trackers:

Geometry Selection

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For nodal results, the results tracker will record the results of the variable at the node or the vertex

the tracker is scoped to. For elemental results, the results tracker will record the results of the variable

in an element attached to the node or vertex the tracker is scoped to.

2. Specify the coordinates in the X, Y, Z Coordinate fields. You can do this in one of two ways:

c. Move the cursor across the model and notice that the coordinates display and update as you re-

position the cursor.

d. Click the desired location. A small crosshair appears at this location. You can click again on another

location, which changes the crosshair location.

e. Click Apply in the Location field. The location coordinates display in the X, Y, Z Coordinate fields.

You can change the location by repositioning the cursor, clicking at the new location, then clicking

Click to Change and Apply, or by editing the X, Y, Z Coordinate fields in the Details view.

Note

This method does not specify a vertex or node to track as in the Geometry Selection

method, but is purely a method of selecting x, y, and z coordinates in the X, Y, Z

Coordinate fields.

Type the coordinates into the X, Y, Z Coordinate fields in the Details view.

For trackers that record element results, the tracker will record the results of an element in which the

specified coordinates reside. If the coordinates entered do not correspond to an element location, the

result tracker will not record any data.

For trackers that record nodal results, the tracker will record the results of the node that is closest to

the specified coordinates provided the node is within half an element's dimension of the coordinates.

If no such node is found, the tracker will not record any data.

If the coordinates specified lie on the boundary of multiple elements or are coincident with multiple

nodes, the tracker will record the results of the first element/node it finds. The only way to ensure a

particular node is tracked is to use the geometry selection option.

The directional and non-directional point scoped result trackers available for Explicit Dynamics analyses

are shown in the tables below. The Details view properties for each are shown.

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The properties available in the Details view for Deformation, Position, Velocity, Acceleration, Strain,

or Stress are described in the following table.

Category Fields/Options/Description

Scope Geometry Select vertex.

Definition Location Method Select geometry or a user defined location.

Orientation X, Y, or Z direction.

Suppressed Prior to solving, you can include or exclude the result from

the analysis. The default is value is No.

Results Minimum Read-only indication of the minimum value of the result

tracker type.

tracker type.

Filter Type Specify low-pass filtering (p. 69) opton.

Note

The properties available in the Details view for Internal Energy, Temperature, Pressure or Density

are described in the following table.

Category Fields/Options/Description

Scope Geometry Select vertex.

Definition Type Read only.

Suppressed Prior to solving, you can include or exclude the result from

the analysis. The default is value is No.

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Category Fields/Options/Description

Results Minimum Read-only indication of the minimum value of the result

tracker type.

tracker type.

Filter Type Specify low-pass filtering (p. 69) option.

Note

Density results trackers are not available for surface and line bodies and beam elements.

Choosing Result Trackers From File from the Result Tracker drop down menu in the toolbar enables

you to import point scoped result trackers from a file. The format of the file should be as in the following

example:

cm

1;2;3;velx;velocity;x

1.4;2.5;3.745;My Deformation;Deformation;Total

10;20;30;prin max strain;strain;principal1

10;20;30;middle strain;strain;principal2

The first line specifies the units of the values in the file. Acceptable inputs for this are: "m", "cm", "mm",

"in", "ft", or "um".

The subsequent lines contain the data for each tracker to be inserted. The first three numbers are the

x,y,z location values. The fourth entry is the user-given namethe one that will be seen in the tree.

The 5th and 6th entries are type and subtype.

type = "stress" or "strain" with subtypes of "xx", "yy", "zz", "xy", "yz", "zx", "principal1", "principal2",

"principal3", "equivalent"

All values in each line should be separated by a semicolon. Any lines that are not properly formatted

will be skipped; no tracker will be inserted for them.

The directional and non-directional body scoped result trackers available for Explicit Dynamics analyses

are shown in the tables below. The Details view properties for each are shown.

The properties available in the Details view for Momentum, Total Mass Average Velocity, Contact

Force, or External Force are described in the following table.

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Category Fields/Options/Description

Scope Geometry Select bodies.

Definition Type Read only.

Orientation X, Y, or Z direction.

Suppressed Prior to solving, you can include or exclude the result from

the analysis. The default is value is No.

Results Minimum Read-only indication of the minimum value of the result

tracker type.

tracker type.

Filter Type Specify low-pass filtering (p. 69) opton.

Note

Contact Force and External Force results trackers are not available for Euler bodies.

The properties available in the Details view for Kinetic Energy, Internal Energy, Total Energy, or

Plastic Work are described in the following table.

Category Fields/Options/Description

Scope Geometry Select bodies.

Definition Type Read only.

energy only).

only).

only).

Suppressed Prior to solving, you can include or exclude the result from

the analysis. The default is value is No.

Results Minimum Read-only indication of the minimum value of the result

tracker type.

tracker type.

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Category Fields/Options/Description

Filter Type Specify low-pass filtering (p. 69) option.

Note

Internal Energy and Plastic Work results trackers are not available for rigid bodies.

You can use a spring tracker to display the following longitudinal result items from a spring in an Explicit

Dynamics analysis:

Elongation Elongation is the relative displacement between the two ends of the springs. The elongation

could be positive (stretching the spring) or negative (compressing the spring).

Elastic Force Elastic force is calculated as (Spring Stiffness * Elongation). The force acts along the length

of the spring.

Damping Force Damping force is calculated as (Damping Factor * velocity) and acts to resist motion.

2.14.2.4. Viewing and Filtering Result Tracker Graphs for Explicit Dynamics

Explicit dynamics analyses typically involve a large number of time history samples, sometimes in the

order of hundreds of thousands, and the results tend to include high frequency noise that can obscure

slow rate phenomena. A low-pass filtering option is available that allows you to separate slow-rate

trends from high frequency noise in signals. This feature can be controlled from the Details view of a

Result Tracker object.

The filtered results are displayed by default in the Graph window after the solve. By setting Display

Filter During Solve to Yes in the Details view of the Solution Information object, the filtered results

can also be displayed in the Worksheet at each refresh interval of the Result Tracker.

Butterworth: Applies a four-channel low-pass Butterworth filter to the data. Two channels are passed

twice, once in the forward direction and once in the reverse direction, to prevent phase shifts.

Cut Frequency (displayed if Type is set to Butterworth): Set to the desired cut frequency in Hz or MHz

depending on the current unit system. The default is 0, which implies no filtering.

Notes

A time history data is composed of a limited number of frequency signals that bound the range

of meaningful cut frequencies to use for filtering. If the cut frequency is too low, most signals will

be lost. On the other hand, if the cut frequency is too high, the signal may remain unaltered.

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In determining a good cut frequency, sampling frequency plays a role. The sampling frequency

can be obtained by dividing the number of samples by the sampling duration. The cut frequency

should not exceed a quarter of this value. For example, if 15,000 samples occur in 0.015 seconds,

the sampling frequency will be 15,000/(0.015 s) = 1,000,000 Hz = 1 MHz. Consequently, the cut

frequency should not exceed 0.25 MHz.

The process of filtering pads the original signal with extrapolated data. This may produce unexpected

shapes in the filtered signal near the margins. The data away from the margins should reflect,

however, the proper trends and slow rate phenomena.

Under Filter, if Type is set to Butterworth, there are also read only indications for the Minimum

and Maximum values of the filtered data.

Result trackers that can be scoped to boundary conditions and geometry are available for Explicit Dy-

namics analyses.

The Details view settings are presented as sub-bulleted items under the tracker bullet.

Location Method Select the scoping method for this tracker. Options are Boundary Condition and

Geometry Selection.

Boundary Condition When Boundary Condition is selected as the Location Method, select the defined

boundary condition that is to be used for scoping. At this time, the boundary conditions that are available

are: Velocity and Displacement.

Geometry When Geometry Selection is selected as the Location Method, select the vertex, edge, face,

or body where the tracker will be located.

Force Component When Geometry Selection is selected as the Location Method, select the Force

Component (Support, Euler/Lagrange Coupling, Contact, All) for which reaction force results will be shown.

Euler/Lagrange Coupling specifies that the tracker show results for the forces exerted by any

material in bodies assigned with an Eulerian reference frame that interact with the scoped region.

These trackers can only be scoped to geometry that has a Lagrangian reference frame. See Explicit

Fluid Structure Interaction (Euler-Lagrange Coupling) (p. 126) for more information about Euler

Lagrange interactions.

Support specifies that the tracker show results for the forces that will be generated due to supports

that are acting on the scoped area.

Contact specifies that the tracker show results for the total force resulting from the contact forces

acting on the scoped area.

All specifies that the tracker show results for the sum of all three components.

Orientation Select X, Y, or Z axis, or Total, which is the resultant force of its X, Y, and Z components.

The Filter option in the Details view is defined in the same manner as any other result tracker (see Viewing

and Filtering Result Tracker Graphs for Explicit Dynamics (p. 69)).

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The reaction force will be shown varying over time in the Graph window, and a table is displayed that

shows the data. The magnitude of the reaction force is calculated by summing the reaction forces on

each of the nodes selected by the scoping. For example, if you have scoped the tracker by Geometry

Selection to a face using the Contact Force Component, the magnitude of the reaction force is the sum

of all reaction forces due to contact at the nodes on the selected face. If you scope by Boundary Condi-

tion, the magnitude will be the sum of all of the reaction forces due to Support on the nodes scoped

to the selected boundary condition.

Note

The Force Reaction trackers are only available for an Explicit Dynamics analysis.

If you right-click a Force Reaction tracker and select Rename Based on Definition, the tracker is

renamed based on its type, the direction it shows results for, and the object it is scoped to. For

example, if a Force Reaction tracker is selected to show results in the Y direction and is scoped

to a Velocity constraint boundary condition named "Velocity Fix", by selecting Name Based on

Definition it will be renamed to "Y Force Reaction at Velocity Fix". See Renaming a Result Tracker

for more information on this renaming behavior.

General information about Result can be found in Review Results in the ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide

The following structural result types are available as results of an explicit dynamic analysis:

Deformation

Stress Tools

Structural Probes - Limited to: Deformation, Strain, Stress, Position, Velocity, Acceleration.

Once a solution is available you can display contour results or animate them to review the response of

the structure through time.

Note

For an Explicit Dynamics analysis, there is no results interpolation between the results sets.

Specifying a time in the GUI will display results for the closest results set.

Eroded nodes (p. 201) can be toggled on or off in the graphics display.

Probes can be used to display the variation in specific results over the saved time points in the analysis.

The frequency at which data is available is defined in the Save Results On option of the analysis set-

tings (p. 33). This data should be specified prior to a solve.

You can use a Solution Information object to track, monitor, or diagnose problems that arise during

a solution.

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The display of shells may become distorted if they experience large deformations or rotations. A work-

around for this is to disable Shell Thickness by toggling View>Thick Shells and Beams. Or, set the

Workbench variable UsePseudoShellDisp = 1 through Tools> Variable Manager. It may be necessary

to toggle the deformation scaling from True Scale to Undeformed to True Scale again (see Scaling

Deformed Shape under Context Toolbar). Note that this option requires True Scaling to work properly.

Additional results specific to an Explicit Dynamics analysis are available via user defined results (p. 76).

Workbench LS-DYNA supports the ability to review the results of a simulation using the LS-DYNA solver.

Additionally, results can be viewed with the lsprepost.exe application available at the ANSYS in-

stallation folder under ANSYS Inc\v181\ansys\bin\.

During Explicit Dynamics analyses, highly distorted elements may be automatically removed (eroded)

from the model. As elements erode, nodes may become free (not connected to any element). These

nodes have mass and inertia and can impact other structures. By default, eroded nodes are plotted as

red dots (see below).

The View> Eroded Nodes toggle from the Main Menu allows you to remove the eroded nodes from

the display, as shown below.

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In an Explicit Dynamics Analysis, if any bodies have a reference frame set to Eulerian (Virtual), an Euler

domain is created that encloses all bodies in the model. The Euler domain is a structured hexahedral

mesh. The exact size and resolution of the Eulerian domain can be controlled in the Euler Domain

Controls section of the Analysis Settings (p. 33) Details view.

Bodies with a reference frame set to Eulerian (Virtual) are used to initialize material into the Euler domain.

After the initialization of the solve, the mesh associated with such bodies is discarded. The surfaces of

the Eulerian bodies are not tracked exactly; the location of materials in the Euler domain is stored as a

material (volume) fraction for each of the Euler cells. A representation of the material surface can be

displayed as an isosurface for a material fraction value of 50%.

A comparison of Lagrangian (left) and Eulerian (right) representations of the same body is shown below.

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Results cannot therefore be displayed on the original mesh applied to the Euler bodies. Instead, a mesh

is reconstructed for each material associated with the original body to which the result object is scoped.

The reconstruction of the mesh is approximate and includes:

Finding the exterior surface of each material in its current location in the Euler domain. This is achieved by

forming an isosurface on the volume fraction of each material in a cell (at 50%).

Filling the interior of the material with cells from the Euler domain that are completely inside the material.

Reconstructing an unstructured mesh for any gaps between the exterior surface and interior cells.

The example below illustrates a typical mesh displayed for a Results object scoped to a Body with Eu-

lerian (Virtual) reference frame:

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When the Show Undeformed Wireframe option is selected for a results object scoped to Euler bodies,

the wireframe of the background Euler domain is displayed. Only the Euler domain cells that contain

material at a given point in time are used to construct the wireframe (cells that only contain void are

not displayed). An example is given below:

If the Euler Tracking By Body option is selected in the Analysis Settings Details view, results may be

scoped to Eulerian bodies in the same way as for Lagrangian bodies, and body trackers are available

for Eulerian parts.

Additional considerations:

Displacement, strain, and BOND_STATUS results are not available for scoped results.

Probes and path plots are not supported for Eulerian bodies.

External Force and Contact Force trackers will return zero for Eulerian bodies.

Deformation scaling (i.e. Undeformed, .5 Auto, AutoScaling, 2x Auto, 5x Auto ) is not available for Eulerian

bodies.

Although it is not possible to view the Eulerian domain directly within the Mechanical application, the size

and resolution of the domain are indicated in the graphics window when Analysis Settings are selected in

the outline view; if required, the model may be transferred to an Autodyn component system where the

Euler mesh can be displayed.

There may be issues with solver efficiency for analyses containing more than ten Eulerian bodies.

When attempting to use the Euler capabilities in the Explicit Dynamics analysis system, the following license

restrictions are observed:

Set-up and solve of Euler capabilities in the Explicit Dynamics system are supported for the full ANSYS

Autodyn (acdi_ad3dfull) license.

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Set-up but not solve of Euler capabilities in the Explicit Dynamics system are supported for the pre-post

ANSYS Autodyn (acdi_prepost) license.

Set-up and solve of Euler capabilities in the Explicit Dynamics system are supported for the ANSYS

Mechanical Enterprise licenses.

Further discussion of the Eulerian solver used by Explicit Dynamics analyses, including a description of

the theory, can be found in Key Concepts of Euler (Virtual) Solutions (p. 124).

For general information about User Defined Results, see User Defined Results in the ANSYS Mechanical

User's Guide

Shown here are the User Defined Results that are specific to an Explicit Dynamics analysis. These User

Defined results are not available for analyses using Workbench LS-DYNA.

BEAM_LEN Beam length Element

Nodal

BOND_STATUS The number of nodes bonded to the faces on an element Elemental

during the analysis. A value of -1 is shown where all the

bonds for the face have broken.

C_S_AREA Beam cross section area. Element

Nodal

COMPRESS Material compression: Element

Nodal

Compression, = /0 .

CROSS_SECTION Beam cross section number. Elemental

DAMAGE Material Damage: Element

Nodal

0 intact material.

1- fully fractured.

DENSITY Material Density. Element

Nodal

EFF_STN Effective Geometric Strain of a cell. Element

Nodal

EFF_PL_STN Effective Plastic Strain. Note: This is calculated Element

incrementally, unlike the equivalent plastic strain Nodal

(EPPLEQV), which is calculated as an instantaneous value.

ENERGY_DAM Energy resulting from fracture for the Johnson-Holmquist Element

brittle strength model. Nodal

EROSION Erosion Status: Elemental

0 - no erosion.

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EPS_RATE Effective Plastic Strain Rate. Element

Nodal

F_AXIAL Beam axial force. Element

Nodal

INT_ENERGY Internal energy of the material. Element

Nodal

MASS Mass of material in an element. Element

Nodal

MATERIAL Material index. The material index as defined in the Elemental

Explicit solver. There is not always a direct one-to-one

correlation with materials defined in Engineering Data

and those used in the Explicit solver.

layers can be shown by using the Layer property in

the results details view.

MOM_TOR Beam rotation inertia. Element

Nodal

POROSITY Material Porosity: Elemental

Porosity, = Solid/

PRESSURE Pressure. Element

Nodal

PRES_BULK Dilation pressure for the Johnson-Holmquist brittle Elemental

strength model.

SOUNDSPEED Material soundspeed. Element

Nodal

STATUS Material Status: Elemental

1 elastic.

direction 12.

direction 23.

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10 failed due to shear stress/strain in principal

direction 31.

layers can be shown by selecting the Layer number

in the results details view.

STOCH_FACT Stochastic factor applied when the stochastic property as Elemental

defined in the material failure model.

STRAIN_XX Total strain XX. Element

Nodal

STRAIN_YY Total strain YY. Element

Nodal

STRAIN_ZZ Total strain ZZ. Element

Nodal

STRAIN_XY Total strain XY. These are tensor shear strains, and not Element

engineering shear strains. Nodal

STRAIN_YZ Total strain YZ. These are tensor shear strains, and not Element

engineering shear strains. Nodal

STRAIN_ZX Total strain ZX. These are tensor shear strains, and not Element

engineering shear strains. Nodal

SUB_STN_X_SHELL_LAYER__# Shell total strain XX, sub-layer #. These are tensor shear Element

strains, and not engineering shear strains. Nodal

SUB_STN_Y_SHELL_LAYER__# Shell total strain YY, sub-layer #. These are tensor shear Element

strains, and not engineering shear strains. Nodal

SUB_STN_Z_SHELL_LAYER__# Shell total strain ZZ, sub-layer #. These are tensor shear Element

strains, and not engineering shear strains. Nodal

SUB_STN_XY_SHELL_LAYER__# Shell total strain XY, sub-layer #. These are tensor shear Element

strains, and not engineering shear strains. Nodal

SUB_STN_YZ_SHELL_LAYER__# Shell total strain YZ, sub-layer #. These are tensor shear Element

strains, and not engineering shear strains. Nodal

SUB_STN_ZX_SHELL_LAYER__# Shell total strain ZX, sub-layer #. These are tensor shear Element

strains, and not engineering shear strains. Nodal

SUBL_EPS_SHELL_LAYER_# Effective plastic strain, sub-layer number. Element

Nodal

TEMPERATURE Material Temperature. Element

Nodal

THICKNESS Shell Thickness. Element

Nodal

TYPE Element category (element number returned): Elemental

HEX: 100-101.

PENTA: 102.

TET: 103-104,106.

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PYRAMID: 105.

QUAD: 107.

TRI: 108.

BEAM: 203.

VISC_PRES Viscous pressure due to artificial viscosity. No results will Element

display for an Eulerian part. Nodal

VTXX Viscoelastic stress XX. Element

Nodal

VTYY Viscoelastic stress YY. Element

Nodal

VTZZ Viscoelastic stress ZZ. Element

Nodal

VTXY Viscoelastic stress XY. Element

Nodal

VTYZ Viscoelastic stress YZ. Element

Nodal

VTZX Viscoelastic stress ZX. Element

Nodal

The following results are multi-material variables:

EFF_PL_STN

INT_ENERGY

MASS

COMPRESS

DET_INIT_TIME

ALPHA

DAMAGE

TEMPERATURE

For each Eulerian (Virtual) body in the analysis, a separate component will be available, which will allow

the user to plot the result for the particular material associated with that body. The component name

will be derived from the body name. There will also be an ALL component, which will displays results

for all materials. Results for Lagrangian bodies can be viewed by selecting this ALL component. For

a purely Lagrangian analysis, only the ALL component will be available to the user.

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Explicit Dynamics Workflow

For example, an analysis has two Eulerian (Virtual) bodies (Solid, Solid) and a Lagrangian Body (Surface

Body), as shown in the image of the Outline View below.

In the User Defined Result Expression Worksheet, there are three components available for the multi-

material results named SOLID, SOLID_2, and ALL.

Note

It may be necessary to delete and reinsert multi-material results in order to view result for

databases created prior to Release 13.0

The element variables listed below can be used to visualize the variable values at the nodes. The variable

values presented in the element are a volume weighted average of those at the nodes.

TEMPERATURE

SOUNDSPEED

DENSITY

COMPRESS

EFF_PL_STN

TIMESTEP

INT_ENERGY

The following variables are available as calculated directly from the solver in the element:

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Postprocessing

EFF_STN

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Chapter 3: Transforming an Implicit Model to run in Explicit

Dynamics

3.1. When Implicit Models Can be Run in Explicit

Implicit and Explicit finite element solvers use different methods to evaluate the underlying equations.

A simple high level overview is given in the figure below. There is an overlap in the "Quasi-Static" ap-

plication area, where both Implicit and Explicit methods can be used to solve a model. Implicit methods

are typically bounded by the amount of deformation and contact nonlinearity that is taking place, where

Explicit methods are typically bounded by the problem's time scale, which would lead to excessive run

times.

Figure 3.1: Different applications of the two solvers with respect to velocity

Problems that are in this "Quasi-Static" range have a good chance of being solved by either method

until the limitations of a particular solver are reached. At that point, it can be beneficial to consider the

use of the alternative solver.

This chapter describes the steps necessary to transform a model that was initially set up for simulation

in the Implicit solver to a model setup for simulation in the Explicit solver. Typically, you would want

to consider doing this when the degree of nonlinearity in the model is starting to pose problems for

Implicit methods. Because of the nature of the two methods, the explicit solver is more suitable for

nonlinear problems, working with less computationally heavy but a much larger number of iterations

that can follow the physical parameter changes at a much higher frequency. The implicit solver works

with much more complex calculations for each iteration but has a lot fewer of them.

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Transforming an Implicit Model to run in Explicit Dynamics

There are numerous reasons why an implicit methods fails to solve properly. This section tries to give

realistic guidelines for when to switch to an Explicit method.

3.2.1. Incorrect Model Setup

3.2.2. Large Deformations

3.2.3. Large Contact Models

3.2.4. Rigid Body Deformations

A model may fail when the Implicit method is used simply due to poor model setup, in which case Ex-

plicit methods will fail also. However, an incorrect model setup may be easier to detect with an Explicit

analysis because the solution progresses with very small timesteps, and results can be visualized during

the solution (by using result trackers (p. 102), or using the Autodyn component system). Once the

problem is identified using the explicit dynamics analysis, it can be corrected and solved using implicit

methods.

The explicit dynamics solver is very useful when working with complex interacting mechanisms and

geometries. The solver can be used to quickly check for fit and how the parts are positioned with respect

to each other at the end of the simulation.

The example model shown in Figure 3.2: Example Model Run with Explicit Dynamics Showing Problem

Area (right) (p. 85) does not converge when run with the Static Structural (Implicit) solver. The output

messages recommend checking for an 'insufficiently constrained model'. The geometry has multiple

angles and edge lengths so the problematic area is not obvious. This is a good example of where explicit

dynamics methods can be used to quickly identify model problems.

The displacement of the interacting bodies is known and final body fit and alignment can be investigated.

The Explicit analysis uses the same geometry and model setup as was used for the Static Structural

analysis and the model is meshed using the Explicit meshing defaults. The endtime is chosen to obtain

a fast solution in order to observe the relative movement of the parts and their final position at the

end of the displacement. As a general guideline the endtime,Tend, should be chosen such that the av-

erage velocity of the parts, uavg, is in the order of 10 m/s during the displacement, d, of the parts:

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When to Consider an Explicit Analysis

Figure 3.2: Example Model Run with Explicit Dynamics Showing Problem Area (right)

The Explicit analysis takes about a minute, and the model solves with all options being left to their

defaults. The problematic area is obvious as can be seen above: the left notch of the upper part does

not follow the bottom part geometry. This quickly points to where a change of the geometry is necessary.

Many models require the simulation of rubber-like highly deformable materials. This is associated with

the use of hyperelastic material models in the setup. The implicit solver makes a strong effort to solve

these models with options like Large Deflection and Nonlinear Adaptivity, which are recommended

when such materials are used. Nevertheless these solutions may not converge.

This would be a suitable situation in which to use explicit dynamics. You do need to specify all the input

for the hyperelastic materials as opposed to the implicit solver, where the density and the incompress-

ibility parameter can have zero values (see Materials (p. 89)), but the Explicit solver will provide a solution

in most cases where the implicit solver cannot. Important things to look out for in the Explicit solver

when using hyperelastic material models are the energy error/hourglassing and excessive mesh element

distortion requiring the use of erosion (p. 98). Models with high nonlinear deformations are also a good

candidate for mass scaling (p. 97). The following example demonstrates how the same setup works

with the two different solvers. Figure 3.3: Comparison between the implicit (left) and the explicit (right)

solvers for maximum deformation values (p. 86) shows the largest displacement achieved by the disc

relative to a hyperelastic material complex part.

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Transforming an Implicit Model to run in Explicit Dynamics

Figure 3.3: Comparison between the implicit (left) and the explicit (right) solvers for maximum

deformation values

The implicit solver has trouble converging at around half of the total displacement but the explicit

solver manages to complete the run, simulating the high deformations.

Handling a large number of contacts can be problematic for the implicit solver. This is especially the

case when the contact is not bonded but is sliding and moving. The explicit dynamics solver has

standard out-of-the-box automatic contact options (trajectory contact) which work very well. Contact

will be detected in the model automatically at any point without requiring the user to define specific

contact regions. On top of that, the user can specify contacts manually (or generate them automatically)

separate from the trajectory contact, which is done similarly to the Contacts feature in the implicit

solver.

Figure 3.4: Model Setup Showing Contact (left) and Boundary Conditions (right)

The model shown in Figure 3.4: Model Setup Showing Contact (left) and Boundary Conditions

(right) (p. 86) demonstrates this contact issue. The implicit setup has a manually defined frictionless

contact consisting of 40 contact and 38 target faces between the two parts. The explicit dynamics

model simply has the default frictionless trajectory contact enabled. All other boundary conditions are

the same for both analyses: a fixed support and a displacement boundary condition. Both models have

the same mesh type and mesh density (the implicit setup does not make use of midside nodes in order

to achieve maximum similarity in comparison, since the explicit solver cannot use midside nodes). The

implicit model has problems converging while the explicit solve completes without issues. This model

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When to Consider an Explicit Analysis

exemplifies the possible problematic contact handling in the implicit solver. The model will converge

when using a denser mesh; however the differences are clear for comparable mesh size (the implicit

solver using midside nodes with the standard mesh size also does not converge). The final stress results

can be seen in Figure 3.5: Final Stress Values Comparison Between the Explicit (left, 3.4E10 Pa) and Im-

plicit (right, 3.7E10 Pa) Solvers (p. 87).

Figure 3.5: Final Stress Values Comparison Between the Explicit (left, 3.4E10 Pa) and Implicit

(right, 3.7E10 Pa) Solvers

A common analysis in the quasi-static range is the simulation of physical mechanisms. This means that

rigid body movements are included in the analysis. A common simulation is a rigid or much stiffer body

that snaps over a soft and flexible one. Some examples include: rubber seals for waterproofing, snapping

of softer metal elements to ensure a tight fit or snapping through a notch to prevent backward move-

ment. In these situations the implicit solver can encounter problems modeling the high deformations

right before the snap, or the release of the high deformations after the snap. These problems are inher-

ently unstable for the implicit solver and can be a challenge to solve successfully. Figure 3.6: The Clip

Model Setup in the Implicit Solver with Final Deformation Values (right) (p. 87) shows an example of a

clip snap through model where a metal clip has to pass over a rubber step.

Figure 3.6: The Clip Model Setup in the Implicit Solver with Final Deformation Values (right)

The solution does not converge unless the mesh is much coarser - this means the initial clip to rubber

step contact is missed (without any special settings). Also there is a problem of missed contact between

the clip and the hinge, which you can solve in the implicit solver by applying a cylindrical support. This

same model with the same setup for boundary conditions and less constraints (no cylindrical support

or equivalent), can be successfully solved by the explicit solver, as seen in Figure 3.7: The Clip Model

Setup in Explicit Dynamics with Final Deformation Values (right) (p. 88). The setup uses mostly default

settings apart from a Static Damping value which is added because of the hyperelastic material (see

Damping (p. 99)). The model will run successfully without damping, but due to the nature of the ma-

terials, strong oscillations will be introduced. This means the maximum stress on the clip will spike at

a much larger value than in the damped solution and then gradually converge on a similar final value

when the vibrations decrease.

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Transforming an Implicit Model to run in Explicit Dynamics

Figure 3.7: The Clip Model Setup in Explicit Dynamics with Final Deformation Values (right)

This section will take you through the steps necessary to perform the implicit analysis using the explicit

solver.

System

In general, you should use the Implicit analysis to set up the Explicit Dynamics analysis. When you

identify the need to use the Explicit Dynamics solver, you must attach an Explicit Dynamics system to

the existing Implicit one. You do this in the same way that you would attach systems in any other

Workbench project schematic operation - by drag and drop. You have four choices of what to include

in the component system information transfer (see the following figure).

Figure 3.8: Choices for information sharing between cells of implicit and explicit systems

If you drop the Explicit Dynamics system on the Engineering Data cell, only the material data would be

transferred. This is not what you want to do. Dragging and dropping on the cell Geometry or Model

cell should be used when you want to transfer the model from Implicit to Explicit. Dropping the system

on the Solution cell transfers all of the end results, deformation, and stress from the Implicit solution,

so that should only be done in prestressing cases.

If you drop the system on the Geometry cell, all of the Implicit setup has to be recreated manually for

the Explicit solver. This is the better choice when dealing with very simple models with very few options

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Setting up the Explicit Dynamics Analysis

for the mesh, virtual topology, contacts, and boundary conditions. This connects the two systems, but

the model is launched in two separate Mechanical instances, only sharing the material and geometry

data.

If you drop the system on the Model cell, the models are much more connected. They share a single

Mechanical instance and the same meshing and contact options. Due to the large variation in boundary

conditions, they are not transferred automatically.

Note

Changing some options for meshing, materials, or others to make the Explicit analysis work

might interfere with the Implicit solver and make the model not solve properly. These options

are discussed in the next sections. If you want to create an Explicit simulation using the

Model cell transfer, it is recommended that you do this in a duplicate project file.

3.3.2. Materials

There are some material models that are not available for both solvers. Whenever a question mark

symbol is observed next to the Engineering Data cell, it must be properly addressed. By inspecting the

materials, it should be clear where the problem is. For example, it might be a missing density value or

a parameter which has not been set; something which might be required for the Explicit solver but not

for the Implicit one. This is the case with hyperelastic materials using the Mooney-Rivlin material model.

To get a value for the incompressibility parameter, the user must either have the experimental data

and use curve fitting, use a value from another material specification, or just use the rubber model in

the Explicit material database.

Another issue you might encounter is where a parameter that is required for the Explicit simulation can

interfere with the Implicit solution and make it unable to solve. This often occurs since both systems

share the same material data, and can be fixed by using different material assignments (if you are using

the Geometry cell data transfer and have separate Mechanical instances). A problem with unsupported

material model types is usually seen as an error message in the solver.log file or the Solution In-

formation when a solve is attempted.

Another common example of a problem is having tabular data input for a material property in Implicit

with, for example, 12 stress strain pairs. This would trigger an error in the explicit solver, which only

supports 10 or less stress strain pairs. An easy workaround for this would be to take the curve formed

by the 12 points and delete two points, relocating the others so that the curve shape remains the same.

3.3.3. Meshing

Before running the simulation, the meshing has to be thoroughly checked to ensure all requirements

are met. The Explicit and Implicit solvers require different types of meshes. The simplest way to differ-

entiate is to switch the Physics Preference option between Explicit and Mechanical. However, if the

Model cell connection is used, the models are going to make use of the same mesh; this might mean

that when the mesh is made to work with the Explicit solver it might not solve anymore with the Implicit

solver. Generally, with a complex geometry we do not want to use the same mesh for both solvers.

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Transforming an Implicit Model to run in Explicit Dynamics

The Implicit solver works well when the areas of interest have much denser meshes. This is not the case

for the Explicit solver. First, the time step (the time increment at which the Explicit solver advances) is

controlled by the smallest mesh element - thus the size of the smallest elements in the interest area

will control the solve for the whole model, increasing the run times. Second, the nature of the Explicit

Dynamics solver is such that it works best with cuboid, evenly distributed mesh elements throughout

the model. Lastly, this element size difference will skew the results much more than with the Implicit

solver, because of the use of each individual element mass, deformation, and velocity for the calculations.

To ensure a good Explicit solve, you need to look at the mesh maximum and minimum element size

in the mesh statistics. The smaller the spread of element sizes, the better.

The implicit solver can create midside nodes in the elements to aid the accuracy of the solution. This

is not possible with the Explicit solver. If you want to use the same mesh for both solvers, set Element

Order to Linear in the Defaults section of the Mesh settings. If this is not set, the error Higher order

elements detected. Element Order must be Linear for Explicit Dynamics analyses. will be generated.

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Setting up the Explicit Dynamics Analysis

Note

It is important when there are regions of the geometry which are relatively thin and will encounter

bending, that they are meshed with at least two mesh elements across their thickness to ensure

the Explicit solver models the bending correctly. Because of this, you may want to use shell bodies

where more appropriate; the two elements across recommendation can lead to a very small time

step overall.

Even though more complex geometry is quite difficult to mesh with hex elements, they are the most

suitable type for the simulation. If you are familiar with the Implicit solver, you should understand the

various ways to control how the mesher approaches the geometry. The geometry should be swept

meshed wherever possible. Shell bodies should be face meshed to ensure only rectangular elements

are used.

3.3.4. Contact/Connections

The contact options in Explicit Dynamics are very similar to the ones in the Implicit solver. When the

two are connected via the Model cell, all of the options for the contacts are the same as for Implicit

(apart from the addition of the Body Interactions option). Differences in the Contacts tab are only

visible when looking at a standalone explicit dynamics system or a system only sharing material and

geometry data. Unlike with meshing, the Explicit solver can use contacts defined for the Implicit solver

without any problems, although some of the options do not directly affect the Explicit solution.

In the Explicit Dynamics system, the contact region options lack the Advanced and Geometric Modi-

fication expandable tabs. These tabs offer features which help the Implicit solver deal with actions like

impact and sliding which are easily simulated with the Explicit solver, making the tabs unnecessary.

The scoping mechanism and the contact types are the same for both solvers. When using Bonded

contact with the Explicit solver, one of the most important settings is the Maximum Offset. This should

be set to a value greater than the maximum estimated distance between the scoped geometries expected

during the simulation to allow the contact to function as it should. Setting a very large value will increase

the computational load so a good estimate is preferable.

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Transforming an Implicit Model to run in Explicit Dynamics

The Shell Thickness Effect option in Implicit does not affect the Explicit solve and the desired value

should be set to the Shell Thickness Factor in the Body Interactions options. Rather than on or off, the

thickness can be set to a specific portion of the shell - from 0 to 1.

By default, the Body Interactions object is always present for the Explicit Dynamics system. This is an

automated contact detection feature which perfectly suits the nature of the solver. It can be very useful

since Explicit Dynamics mostly models impacts and crashes, where which bodies will be in contact is

usually unknown. There are general options in the main Body Interactions object and different specified

contacts can be added. Contact types include primary types such as Frictionless, Frictional, and Bonded,

but also a specific Explicit Dynamics type, Reinforcement. It is used to model reinforced structures like

steel reinforced concrete columns, for example. The default trajectory contact settings allow you to

understand where the contact points are in the simulation after an initial coarse mesh run and then

refine the contact options and scoping.

Even though both solvers model structural problems, the boundary conditions have a number of differ-

ences. Unlike the Explicit dynamic structural solver, the Implicit static structural solver has no real de-

pendency on inertia. That is why the load cases in Implicit are usually 1 second per step, which is an

arbitrary amount. Altering this value does not really have any effect on the solution. The Explicit Dynamics

solver, on the other hand, uses time as its main reference for the calculations since the duration of the

events in an Explicit problem are extremely short, and it is one of the most important aspects of the

solve. When the two systems are connected and use the same Mechanical instance, boundary conditions

can be copied by dragging and dropping from the Implicit to the Explicit system. This is the initial step

in transferring the boundary conditions, but before the Explicit solve, adjustments to the boundary

condition definitions must be made.

Unlike the Explicit solver, the Implicit solver has no real dependency on inertia (in the static structural

solver). That is why the load cases in Implicit are usually 1 second per step, which is an arbitrary amount.

Altering this value does not really have any effect on the solution. The Explicit Dynamics solver, on the

other hand, uses time as its main reference for the calculations since the duration of the events in an

Explicit problem are extremely short, and it is one of the most important aspects of the solve (see

Timestep Controls (p. 95)).

As a starting point, a time scale factor of 100 or 1000 should be used; that is, 1 second in the implicit

solver becomes 1E-2 or 1E-3 seconds in the explicit solver. The main thing to monitor are the velocities

in the model. A good velocity to aim for is 5 m/s; it is not too low going into the static setup realm and

it is not too high which would introduce significant inertial effects.

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Setting up the Explicit Dynamics Analysis

There are a few Mechanical boundary conditions that do not exist in Explicit Dynamics. Some of them

can be simulated by using other boundary conditions. These include cylindrical support, frictionless

support, bolt pretension and others. Refer to the table below for ways to simulate some of the missing

boundary conditions.

solver

Frictionless support Available Available/

(rigid behavior) or by creating displacement with fixed

components to provide the desired constraint.

Bolt pretension Available Simulated using a fixed support and displacement

(previously evaluated required deformation) to achieve the

stress values in the bolt.

Cylindrical support Available Simulated using remote displacement to restrict rotation.

Displacement (step Available Simulated using different boundary conditions to give the

applied) same movement - force, velocity etc.

Pressure (tabular variable Available Simulated using the Magnitude - Function setting to create

value) a function giving the same values across the scoped

geometry.

Boundary conditions in the Implicit solver can be applied through simulation steps. A step can also be

used to suppress a boundary condition. This means a displacement can be applied up to a certain point,

after which the scoped geometry is released and it can deform freely. This behavior is not straightforward

to model using the Explicit solver. If the displacement value is set to 0 this just means that the geometry

will return to its original position. To achieve the same results in an explicit solve, a different boundary

condition has to be applied to model the step-applied displacement. For example, in the explicit solver:

use force to deform a body and then set the force to 0 at a point in the simulation in order to simulate

a step-applied displacement in the implicit solver. This difference in approach stems from the time de-

pendant nature of the explicit solver, which means boundary conditions like velocity or force can be

modeled exactly like their step applied counterparts in the implicit solver but the displacement cannot.

When the scoping of two boundary conditions is done on two intersecting planes, the shared edge can

trigger an error: Could not transfer loads and constraints to the solver and/or

The combination of supports is causing some nodes to be over-constrained.

The Explicit solver will only allow more than one boundary condition to be applied to the same node

if they are not conflicting (for example, two different forces scoped to adjacent faces). The shared edge

will experience the vector sum of the forces. A common example of conflicting boundary conditions

would be a fixed support applied to one plane and displacement on an intersecting plane.

The Initial Conditions object in the Explicit Dynamics system can be helpful when certain aspects of

the Implicit model cannot be directly recreated. It is a simple initial velocity, angular or directional, that

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Transforming an Implicit Model to run in Explicit Dynamics

is scoped to a body and is assigned at the initial cycle. This can be altered freely by different boundary

conditions and events during the solve; its value is not constrained or limited. Another use for Initial

Conditions is adding a pre-stress, usually from an Implicit solve. This is useful when an extensive

complex combined simulation is required, and is not intended for situations where you need to run

the same model setup with the two different solvers.

The final step before running the Explicit simulation is checking the options in the Analysis Settings.

They are very different compared those used for the Implicit solver, and there are many more options.

Most of them have defaults that work fine for quasi-static models but there are a few important options

to focus on.

This setting has various options, but for quasi static simulations the two to use are Quasi Static and

Low Velocity. The default Program Controlled option should be used initially; it automatically detects

the best default options for the simulation settings. Both preference options require an input for the

mass scaling (discussed later) and apply changes to various parts of the setup to suit the velocity mode.

When using the Explicit solver to investigate a problem that was originally solved using the Implicit

solver, you should set up the analysis to take advantage of the features unique to the Explicit solver.

As discussed earlier, the Explicit simulation takes into account the inertial forces and one of its most

important parameters is the solve time (not to be mistaken with the actual run time it takes for the

model to solve). The Explicit simulation can be seen as a chunk of the real time of an event that is

slowed down as if using a high speed camera. The time values that the Explicit solver usually works

with are much smaller than 1 second. For these quasi-static Implicit to Explicit simulations, we are

working with a total time of around one millisecond to 1 second.

As stated earlier, one of the main parameters governing the solution is the time. The End Time defines

the time frame which the solver simulates, starting from zero going up to the End Time value. The End

Time should match the last entry in any of the boundary conditions tabular data time setting. This is

a good place to estimate the maximum velocity in the modelif there are any displacements or de-

formations, dividing the distance covered by the end time gives a good estimate for the initial run. An

end time target would be between 0.001 seconds and 1 second for the quasi-static simulations. Typically

the explicit models are constrained by the end time so the Maximum Number of Cycles should be

left at the default value or set to a very large number (for example, 1E7).

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Analysis Settings

Each cycle is a piece of the solution time with the length of the current timestep and it is the constraint

for a single iteration. It has a variable time value depending on the settings and the events during the

solve so it is by no means guaranteed to be consistent. The maximum cycle number is rarely used to

control the solution in explicit dynamics. Its most common use is when you need to do a short solution

to check something in the setup and the Maximum Number of Cycles is set to a very small value

(10,100,1000 etc). Even if we calculate the exact number of cycles we need and we have set a time step

value, it is always better to use the end time to determine when the solve will terminate.

The timestep is the time increment at which the solve advances, and the solve time between two cal-

culation cycles. The smaller the timestep is and the more complex the calculations per cycle are (dense

mesh, material models etc.) the longer run time the solution will take. Having control over the timestep

is crucial for achieving an effective simulation. There are numerous ways to keep track of and control

the timestep. The governing factor for the timestep value is the smallest mesh element size and its

mass. The timestep is calculated based on sound speed (which depends on density and material prop-

erties) and it needs to have a small enough value to accurately simulate the stress waves traveling

through the body.

where is the timestep safety factor (usually not changed from default value), is the element charac-

teristic dimension (determined by smallest element size) and is the sound speed in the material (de-

pending on density and elasticity).

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Transforming an Implicit Model to run in Explicit Dynamics

The initial, minimum, and maximum time step values usually should be left as default (Program Con-

trolled), except in a few cases. The Minimum Time Step value is sometimes set to a very small number

to allow the solve to continue to run and not abort with the message: Time step too small. You

would set the Minimum Time Step like this when the time step is expected to become much smaller

than its initial value during the solve due to large deformations or complex contact. When you set the

value, this overrides the minimum time step conditions determined by the solver, based on the initial

setup. This user-defined minimum time step value might lead to a much longer analysis run time.

Another case where user input might be required is when the analysis time step is determined by an

element of a rigid body. A reasonably smaller time step should be used to prevent the simulation going

forward using too large steps and becoming unstable. This can be achieved by a user defined Maximum

Time Step value.

Figure 3.14: Default Solution Information display during solve with the estimated time remaining

highlighted in yellow

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Analysis Settings

When you view the Solution Information while the solve is running, the Est. Clock Time Remaining

can be observed. This is an new concept if you've only previously used the Implicit solver. This value

gives an estimate of the remaining time needed to finish the solution. After the initial few cycles, and

providing there are no abnormal deformations and unexpected events in the model during the solve,

this value is quite accurate. It is based upon the time needed to calculate each cycle and the expected

remaining number of cycles.

Usually when dealing with hyperelastic materials with a lot of deformation or other special cases, this

remaining time will get a lot higher once the part of the simulation dealing with the large deformations

is reached. This estimated time is also a good way to judge how changes to the mesh and setup will

affect the solution time. After each change the model can be solved until a certain cycle number then

interrupted, and the estimated time can be compared. This gives a rough estimate since it does not

take into account any possible difficulties which might arise, but it is a useful tool for comparison.

As discussed earlier, the simulation will create a number of restart files that can be used to resume the

solve following an interruption. There are a few things to consider when restarting a simulation. First,

you have to make sure that the run will restart from the correct point. Set the Resume From Cycle

value, which is based on the cycle number rather than simulation time. Another thing to note is that

the boundary conditions cannot be altered before restarting and if, for example, the end time is extended

and the user wants to continue the run, all of boundary conditions will assume they are kept constant

at the last value of the normal solve time (before the time extension). Any change made to the setup

while the solve is interrupted will mean that the restart is no longer possible. You must be careful when

examining the interrupted solve results.

Although, there are no convergence criteria and stability requirements in the Explicit solver, there are

tools to ensure the user gets a good solution. These mainly control the time step, excessive deformations,

and unwanted oscillations. These tools are discussed in this section.

The use of mass scaling can be very helpful, especially in these quasi static simulations. It is useful in

cases where we need an area of interest to be more densely meshed, as is commonly seen in the Implicit

solver's mesh. Automatic Mass Scaling increases the mass of the smallest elements which in turn increases

the required time step. Mass scaling is automatically switched on when the Quasi Static or Low Velocity

analysis types are chosen.

When using Mass Scaling, there are several parameters to consider, but the primary one is the Minimum

CFL Time Step. This should be set to the minimum desired value of the time step, but this has to be

based on the standard time step that the model would use without scaling. Usually the mass scaling

is set up after the initial run. This minimum time step is usually within the region of 5-10 times larger

than the normal time step. The larger the increase that's required, the more scaling must be put in.

Sometimes the default maximum scaling values have to be increased to achieve the minimum time

step, but when this is done, emphasis has to be put on ensuring that the mass values are still realistic

and do not interfere with the results. It is recommended that the default maximum scaling values are

not changed.

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Transforming an Implicit Model to run in Explicit Dynamics

3.4.3.2. Erosion

Another important tool is erosion. This allows for elements from the mesh to be removed and separated

from the rest of the mesh in certain cases. There are three criteria that can be enabled to cause element

erosionmaximum strain, minimum time step, and material failure. The most commonly used is the

On Geometric Strain Limit erosion. It is used when excessive deformations are expected, and prevents

the solution from stopping because of nodes displaced an abnormal distance away from the rest of the

element or heavy deformation. Once the solve with erosion is completed, you can see where the eroded

elements are and decide how the solution can be improved.

The erosion criteria On Material Failure is commonly used to realistically simulate the failure of mater-

ials based on their definitions. This can be due to stress, strain, shear or any other mode of failure that

is defined in the material data.

The last criterion is the On Minimum Element Time Step erosion. This is a very crude way of controlling

the minimum time step by simply removing the elements which would otherwise yield a smaller com-

putational time step than desired. By default, the Retain Inertia of Eroded Material is set to Yes. This

allows you to examine the erosion process and follow the debris distribution (the defaults are different

for Low Velocity and Quasi Static simulation types). An example of eroded material can be seen in the

following figure.

Figure 3.15: Example of Eroded Material in a Model Simulating a Bullet going Through a Vase

(eroded elements colored red)

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Analysis Settings

3.4.3.3. Damping

Sometimes, especially when highly flexible materials are present, constant frequency oscillations can

arise in the Explicit simulation. This can be avoided by the use of Static Damping. A damping value is

calculated by dividing double the time step by the longest period of oscillation in the system. In other

words, this value should be aimed at damping the slowest vibration in the analysis. When you are not

sure of the value that should be used, it is best to start from the smallest damping valude to prevent

overdamping. If the simulation is underdamped there will still be vibration visible, but when the simu-

lation is overdamped it can lead to longer end time requirement and skewing of results. The other

damping controls should be left at their defaults.

The Output Controls section in an Explicit Dynamics system is important for the results visualization

and post processing. There are three types of output controls for saving results, restart points, and

results tracker data. The Result Number of Points controls how the visualization of the chosen solution

tools will look. This determines how many and how frequent the evaluation points will be; these will

later become frames in the post-processing animation. Having a lot of points that are tightly packed

will increase the total solution run time. The Restart Number of Points are useful when the simulated

model goes through complex actions and it is important for you to be able to rerun the simulation

from a certain point. The evaluation points are usually much less dense than the results points and one

restart file is created at the end of the solve, or at a solve interruption. The results trackers save very

specific information from small, localized areas and are important for monitoring places of interest.

Depending on the setup, they can be computationally heavy, so they are usually only used in the initial

runs to aid in setting up the model as desired.

The defaults are Equally Spaced Points for the results and the restart files, and saving is based on Cycles

for the result trackers. In general, these defaults are fine for the initial Explicit run. Since the number of

cycles is initially unknown, if any changes are made to the defaults they should generally use the Equally

Spaced Points options which will automatically distribute the points.

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Transforming an Implicit Model to run in Explicit Dynamics

Once the solve has been initiated, there are a number of ways to monitor how well it is performing.

Different data and values can give clues as to which parts of the simulation are going well and which

aren't. You can also see what might be the reason for a slowdown in the simulation.

The main monitoring tool is the Solver Output viewed from the Solution Information object. Solution

output is constantly updated, providing information for each cycle - the cycle number, the simulation

time, the time step (time increment), the progress (in percent) and the estimated run time remaining.

An indication of an issue here would be inconsistency in the estimated time remaining or a decrease

of the time increment. This can be more precisely monitored by viewing the Time Increment graph of

the time step value with respect to simulation time. There are also a number of graphs available under

the Solver Output to help you determine the health of your solve.

Energy error can also indicate problems in the simulation. You can keep track of it with the Energy

Conservation graph (seen in Figure 3.17: Graph of Energy Conservation for an Explicit Simulation (p. 101))

which also shows the total energy and work done in the solve. The default threshold is 10%; any error

above this will terminate the solve. The reference value for the energy is usually the zero cycle. These

values can be altered in the Analysis Settings. Sometimes it is useful to see what is happening in the

simulation even though there is a large energy error. There are two ways this can be achieved - either

increasing the reference cycle so that its value is higher than or equal to the maximum number of

cycles, or increasing the Maximum Energy Error value. This should only be done to observe what is

happening during the solve that gives rise to the error. The results of a simulation completed with high

energy errors should not be considered accurate.

The Momentum Summary graph is also useful for monitoring the dynamics of the simulation, and it

can give some indication of a stability problem. The last monitoring tool is the Energy Summary graph.

High values of hourglass energy here usually indicate problems with the mesh. This graph also shows

the kinetic energy during the solve. The value should be insignificant with respect to the model in the

quasi static simulations to ensure that inertial effects are not altering the results.

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Postprocessing

Another way to monitor the solve is through Results Trackers. These update in real time, giving inform-

ation about their values for each cycle, or at whatever frequency is set in the Output Controls (p. 99)

in the Analysis Settings. These trackers have to be defined before the start of a solve, and in order to

suppress or remove them they have to be cleared from the data. They cannot be added at a restart

point or at the end of a solve. The other results tools can only be examined after the solve stops (see

Result Sets (p. 102)). If a live picture of what is happening during the solve is required, the Autodyn

component system can be used. It can refresh the visualization of the solution as often as each cycle

and can show various details about whole bodies like velocity vectors, stresses, other data values, and

more.

When the solve is initiated, the checks done before the first cycle can find problems and produce

warning or error messages. These are usually related to the material models, the boundary conditions

setup, or the restart options. When a General failure error is seen, this usually means there are

possible problems with the licensing or the remote solve manager, but it can also signify other problems.

Errors or warnings can also be seen during or after the solve. The two primary reasons for a terminated

solve are the Energy error exceeded and Time step too small errors. Both of them can

mean a variety of problems - meshing, high deformation, incorrectly applied forces, etc. Usually observing

the results up to that point or using the erosion or error options to bypass the termination should give

an indication of what the problem might be.

3.6. Postprocessing

Evaluating the results is the most crucial point of any simulation. The explicit dynamics solver offers

many tools for efficient post processing. This gives not only quantifiable results but also, through ob-

serving animations and graphs, indication of what went on during the simulation and how well it rep-

resents the real experimental situation.

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Transforming an Implicit Model to run in Explicit Dynamics

As stated in the previous section, the result trackers can be a useful tool for initial evaluation of the

setup. They are usually scoped to strategic locations to give detailed information on the physical para-

meters. The trackers are the most suitable tool to use to evaluate the oscillations and vibrations in a

simulation, and are used for calculating the required damping coefficient. Because of their dense data

points, the graphs created are very smooth and accurate, suitable for even very small amplitude oscil-

lations. Depending on the type, they can be scoped to different geometry entities and evaluate a variety

of parameters. The trackers are also useful for evaluating contact forces and local energy values.

One of the main tools used for post processing are the result sets. They can help you evaluate stress,

strain, deformation, etc. They work in a similar way as in the Implicit simulation, with all of the controls

and settings being the same. All of the scoping, scaling, and contouring options should also be familiar.

Generally, there are a fewer number of result sets and tools than available for the Implicit solver, similarly

to the boundary conditions. The sets can be added before or after the simulation and then evaluated.

Apart from the standard sets of results, you can also include User Defined Result (p. 76) objects. As the

name suggests, this result can be customized to suit your needs, and can use a variety of variables (seen

by clicking the Worksheet button when the Solution tab is highlighted). It can also evaluate expressions

using any of the variables. These results are useful in situations where you want to evaluate something

in a similar way as the results trackers but scoped to whole parts or the whole model. It can also be

used to compare manually calculated values from an equation expression (using the simple variables),

which does not have an equivalent in the standard results.

Animating the results is done using the same tools as the Implicit solver, but because of the nature of

the Explicit solver, this gives much more detailed and valuable information about the solution. It is im-

portant to keep track of the results point density and restart points in order to have an animation which

best represents the solution behavior. The animations are very useful because they are based on the

simulation time, unlike the implicit simulations. This can be helpful to adjust the setup and the

boundary conditions following the initial run. Furthermore, the animation can give an indication of

which parts are oscillating and need damping; you can scope trackers to them to determine the fre-

quency. The graph of a deformation result set can be seen in the following figure.

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Postprocessing

Figure 3.18: Deformation Graph (with respect to simulation time) and Results Table

Note

If the Implicit solver has the result scaling setting at anything other than True Scale (default)

this will not be transferred to the Explicit solver results. This may be the reason if you observe

very different deformations at first glance.

There are many parameters you can check to ensure the simulation has achieved the desired output.

Most of them are indicators that something went wrong rather than that something is working as it

should. Start with the stability of the time step, the energy errors, and unexpected erosion. These should

be examined and the reasons behind any unexpected results should be investigated. Using the animations

to determine the eroding areas can show a number of issues either with the mesh, the setup, or the

geometry. Missed contact is also something to watch out for in the animations, especially because the

Explicit solver does not have a specific contact tool like the Implicit simulation. Such problems can be

addressed by increasing the mesh density or examining the overlap of the parts. It is also useful to ex-

amine parts of the model using a section plane. This might give insight to some problems which are

not obvious at first glance.

It is important for these quasi-static simulations that the velocity values in the model are in the range

of 1 to 10 m/s. If they are too low, it means that the Explicit solver might not be modeling the activity

correctly because it is out of range of its normal velocity modes. If they are too high, this means that

higher stresses and strains may have been introduced due to inertial and shock effects. Evaluating the

velocity also gives indication of how close the simulation is to the real, experimental expectations.

Ideally, the solver should simulate the velocities that are desired for the actual mechanism at work. This

is not always possible but it is the target to aim for. Increasing the end time while keeping the same

displacement values, for example, will decrease the velocities in the simulation but will also increase

the run time required.

The solution output includes files that also hold information, though more technical and not as easy

to understand as the details in the graphical interface. One example is the .prt file which gives extensive

information about the setup and the solve, including which operations took more CPU time, the energy

and momentum balance, and errors. After careful examination of the results, you can start working on

model improvements. Optimization may include: stabilization (damping), modifying the mesh to give

more consistent results, modifying displacement boundary conditions, adding or removing constraints,

and so on. The Explicit solver has extensive capabilities for postprocessing, allowing you to get the in-

formation you need for making necessary adjustments.

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Chapter 4: Applying Pre-Stress Effects for Explicit Analysis

Because an Explicit Dynamics analysis is better suited for short duration events, preceding it with an

Implicit analysis may produce a more efficient simulation, especially for cases in which a generally slower

(or rate-independent) phenomenon is followed by a much faster event, such as the collision of a pres-

surized container. To produce this combination, you can define pre-stress as an initial condition in an

Explicit Dynamics system, specifying the transfer of either displacements only or the more complete

Material State (displacements, velocities, stresses, and strains), from a static or transient structural ana-

lysis to an Explicit Dynamics analysis.

The Material State mode, for mapping stresses, plastic strains, displacements, and velocities is valid for solid

models only.

The displacements only mode is valid for solid, shell, and beam models.

The same mesh is required for both Implicit and Explicit analyses and only low order elements are allowed.

If high order elements are used, the solve will be blocked and an error message will be issued.

For a nonlinear Implicit analysis, the Strain Details view property in the Output Controls category under

the Analysis Settings object must be set to Yes because plastic strains are needed for the correct results.

The following guidelines are recommended when using pre-stress with an Explicit Dynamics analysis:

Lower order elements must be used in the static or transient structural analysis used to pre-stress the Explicit

Dynamics analysis. To do so, set the Mesh object property, Element Order (Defaults category), to Linear.

On the Brick Integration Scheme of all relevant bodies, use the Reduced option, to provide the most

consistent results between the Static Structural or Transient Structural system and the Explicit Dynamics

system. Such a selection amounts to a single integration point per lower order solid element.

For models containing Line or Surface bodies, the data transfer is limited to displacements only.

In this mode, under Analysis Settings, the Static Damping option (under Damping) should be used

to remove any dynamic oscillations in the stress state due to the imposed static displacements.

The temperature state is also transferred to the Explicit Dynamics analysis. The Unit System is taken care of

automatically, and Internal Energy due to difference in temperature will be added to each element based

on:

Where:

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Applying Pre-Stress Effects for Explicit Analysis

Note that stresses may still dissipate because the thermal expansion coefficient is not taken into ac-

count in the Explicit Dynamics analysis.

Pre-stress condition:

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Pre-Stress Object Properties

Mode

Displacement

Node-based displacements from a static analysis are used to initialize the Explicit node positions. These

displacements are converted to constant node-based velocities and applied for a pre-defined time in

order to obtain the required displaced coordinates. During this times, element stresses and strains are

calculated as normal by the Explicit solver. Once the displaced node positions are achieved, all node-

based velocities are set to 0 and the solution is completely initialized. This option is applicable to un-

structured solids (hexahedral and tetrahedral), shells, and beams.

The initial time step from the explicit solution is multiplied by the time step factor. The resulting

time is used with the nodal displacements from the ANSYS Mechanical analysis to calculate constant

nodal velocities. These nodal velocities are applied to theExplicit model over the resulting time in

order to initialize the Explicit nodes to the correct positions.

Material State

Node-based displacements, element stresses and strains, and plastic strains and velocities from an

Implicit solution are used to initialize an Explicit analysis at cycle 0. This option is applicable to results

from a linear static structural, nonlinear static structural, or transient dynamic Mechanical system. The

ANSYS solution may be preceded with a steady-state thermal solution in order to introduce temperature

differences into the solution. In this case, the accompanying thermal stresses due to the thermal ex-

pansion coefficient will be transferred but may dissipate since the thermal expansion coefficient is not

considered in an Explicit analysis. This option is only applicable to unstructured solid elements (hexa-

hedral and tetrahedral).

Pressure Initialization

The pressure for an element is calculated from its compression, which is determined by the

initial displacement of the element's nodes. This is the default option and should be used for

almost all Implicit-Explicit analyses.

The pressure for an element is calculated from the direct stresses imported from the implicit

solution. This option is only available for materials with a linear equation of state. If the pressure

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Applying Pre-Stress Effects for Explicit Analysis

for an element is already initialized, this calculation will be ignored. This is for a pre-stress

analysis from an Implicit solution that has been initialized from an INISTATE command and

has an .rst file with all degrees of freedom fixed.

Time

The time at which results are extracted from the Implicit analysis.

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Chapter 5: Using Explicit Dynamics to Define Initial Conditions for

Implicit Analyses

5.1. Transfering Explicit Results to MAPDL

It is possible to initialize a Mechanical APDL implicit analysis from the results of an Explicit Dynamics

analysis by using features of the Mechanical APDL command language. You can obtain results from the

Explicit analysis by using an Explicit Dynamics Workbench system followed by a Design Assessment

system that uses a python script to extract the results and write the additional Mechanical APDL com-

mands to a file. A Commands object can be added to the Transient or Static Structural system to include

the execution of the Mechanical APDL commands from the file. A full description of the process follows,

and an example has been detailed in the Design Assessment documentation.

Note

This method is currently limited to cases where there is no change in mesh topology between

the start of both the Explicit and Implicit analyses.

2. Add a Design Assessment system to the Explicit Dynamics system in the Project Schematic. You will create

an XML Definition File for the Design Assessment system that specifies a python script to be run on solve.

Set your Design Assessment type to be User Defined, and choose the XML Definition File that you created.

3. Create the python script to write to a file the necessary Mechanical APDL commands to initialize the implicit

model. The script should:

a. Get nodal deformations, stresses, and plastic strains from the end of the Explicit Dynamics analysis using

the Design Assessment API.

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Using Explicit Dynamics to Define Initial Conditions for Implicit Analyses

Command(s): /PREP7

iii. Redefine Implicit elements to the deformed configuration by adding values from steps 3(a) and

3(b)(ii).

Command(s): N, and so on

iv. Specify reduced element integration if using solid elements. Workbench automatically converts

explicit elements to Implicit elements. However, due to Explicit elements having only one integration

point per element, it is necessary to specify this manually for the Implicit elements in order that

results can be transferred between the two analyses.

Note

Explicit uses SHELL163 for shells and SOLID164 for solids. These get automatically

converted to SHELL181 and SOLID185 respectively.

Command(s): /SOLU

vi. Set any necessary constraints on the model by modifying or adding to the boundary conditions

defined during the Explicit analysis (for example, in a metal forming analysis, you need to constrain

the blank).

Command(s): D, and so on

vii. Import stresses from the Explicit Dynamics analysis. For solids, this will be one set of values per

element. For shells, this will be one set of values for every layer within each element.

viii.Import plastic strains and accumulated equivalent plastic strain from Explicit Dynamics analysis

Command(s): SOLVE

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Transfering Explicit Results to MAPDL

4. Add an Implicit system, either Static Structural or Transient Structural. In this system include the file that

was created with the Design Assessment script by adding a Commands object that reads in the file that

was created by the python script.

5. When post processing, view results by issuing Mechanical APDL commands in order to view results with

the initial deformed mesh. When post processing in the standard Workbench view, results will appear to

deform in the opposite direction to the Explicit Dynamics analysis because it has not taken into account

the redefined deformed mesh. To create graphic files showing the correctly deformed mesh, add a new

Commands object under the Solution branch of the Implicit analysis.

6. When using shell elements, another step must be included in order to view the results. Shells only accept

INISTATE in the element coordinate system, and so when the stresses are initialized they are not in the

global coordinate system. Therefore, in order to view the results correctly, you must first change the solution

to plot the results in the solution coordinate system.

Command(s): /VIEW, , , -1

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Chapter 6: Explicit Dynamics Theory Guide

This chapter describes the theoretical basis of the Explicit Dynamics system available in Workbench.

The following topics are covered in this chapter:

6.1. Why use Explicit Dynamics?

6.2. What is Explicit Dynamics?

6.3. Analysis Settings

6.4. Model Size Limitations in Explicit Dynamics

6.5. References

The Explicit Dynamics system is designed to enable you to simulate nonlinear structural mechanics

applications involving one or more of the following:

Failure of bonds/welds/fasteners

Explicit Dynamics is most suited to events which take place over short periods of time, a few milliseconds

or less. Events which last more than 1 second can be modeled; however, long run times can be expected.

Techniques such as mass scaling and dynamic relaxation are available to improve the efficiency of

simulations with long durations.

An overview of the solution methodology used in an Explicit Dynamics simulation is provided in this

section.

6.2.1.The Solution Strategy

6.2.2. Basic Formulations

6.2.3.Time Integration

6.2.4. Wave Propagation

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Explicit Dynamics Theory Guide

6.2.6. Explicit Fluid Structure Interaction (Euler-Lagrange Coupling)

In an Explicit Dynamics solution, we start with a discretized domain (mesh) with assigned material

properties, loads, constraints and initial conditions. This initial state, when integrated in time, will produce

motion at the node points in the mesh.

The motion of the node points produces deformation in the elements of the mesh

The deformation results in a change in volume (hence density) of the material in each element

The rate of deformation is used to derive material strain rates using various element formulations

Constitutive laws take the material strain rates and derive resultant material stresses

The material stresses are transformed back into nodal forces using various element formulations

External nodal forces are computed from boundary conditions, loads and contact (body interaction)

The nodal forces are divided by nodal mass to produce nodal accelerations

The accelerations are integrated Explicitly in time to produce new nodal velocities

The nodal velocities are integrated Explicitly in time to produce new nodal positions

The solution process (Cycle) is repeated until a user defined time is reached

An introduction to the basic equations which are solved in Explicit Dynamics is provided in this section.

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What is Explicit Dynamics?

6.2.2.2. Explicit Transient Dynamics

The basic equation of motion solved by an implicit transient dynamic analysis is

(6.1)

Where:

m = mass matrix

c = damping matrix

k = stiffness matrix

At any given time, t, these equations can be thought of as a set of "static" equilibrium equations that

also take into account inertia forces and damping forces. The Newmark time integration method (or an

improved method called HHT) is used to solve these equations at discrete time points. The time increment

between successive time points is called the integration time step.

The partial differential equations to be solved in an Explicit Dynamics analysis express the conservation

of mass, momentum, and energy in Lagrangian coordinates. These, together with a material model and

a set of initial and boundary conditions, define the complete solution of the problem.

For the Lagrangian formulations currently available in the Explicit Dynamics system, the mesh moves

and distorts with the material it models and conservation of mass is automatically satisfied. The density

at any time can be determined from the current volume of the zone and its initial mass

(6.2)

The partial differential equations that express the conservation of momentum relate the acceleration

to the stress tensor ij .

(6.3)

(6.4)

These equations are solved explicitly for each element in the model, based on input values at the end

of the previous time step. Small time increments are used to ensure stability and accuracy of the solution.

Note that in Explicit Dynamics we do not seek any form of equilibrium; we simply take results from the

previous time point to predict results at the next time point. There is no requirement for iteration.

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Explicit Dynamics Theory Guide

In a well-posed Explicit Dynamics simulation, mass, momentum, and energy should be conserved. Only

mass and momentum conservation is enforced. Energy is accumulated over time and conservation is

monitored during the solution. Feedback on the quality of the solution is provided via summaries of

momentum and energy conservation (as opposed to convergent tolerances in implicit transient dynamics).

In this section, the Explicit Dynamics time integration scheme is described and compared with an implicit

formulation.

6.2.3.1. Implicit Time Integration

6.2.3.2. Explicit Time Integration

6.2.3.3. Mass Scaling

For implicit time integration, ANSYS solves the transient dynamic equilibrium equation using the Newmark

approximation (or an improved method known as HHT). For more information, see Transient Analysis.

For linear problems, the implicit time integration is unconditionally stable for certain integration para-

meters. The time step size will vary to satisfy accuracy requirements.

The solution is obtained using a series of linear approximations (Newton-Raphson method), so each time

step may have many equilibrium iterations.

The solution requires inversion of the nonlinear dynamic equivalent stiffness matrix.

Convergence tools are provided, but convergence is not guaranteed for highly nonlinear problems.

The Explicit Dynamic solver uses a central difference time integration scheme (often referred to as the

Leapfrog method).

After forces have been computed at the nodes of the mesh (resulting from internal stress, contact, or

boundary conditions), the nodal accelerations are derived by equating acceleration to force divided by

mass.

(6.5)

Where:

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What is Explicit Dynamics?

With the accelerations at time n determined, the velocities at time are found from

(6.6)

and finally the positions are updated to time n+1 by integrating the velocities

(6.7)

The advantages of using this method for time integration for nonlinear problems are:

The equations become uncoupled and can be solved directly (explicitly). There is no requirement for iteration

during time integration.

No inversion of the stiffness matrix is required. All nonlinearities (including contact) are included in the in-

ternal force vector.

To ensure stability and accuracy of the solution, the size of the timestep used in Explicit time integration

is limited by the CFL (Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy [1]) condition. This condition implies that the timestep

be limited such that a disturbance (stress wave) cannot travel farther than the smallest characteristic

element dimension in the mesh, in a single timestep. Thus the timestep criteria for solution stability is

(6.8)

Where

Hexahedral/Pentahedral The volume of the element divided by the square of the longest diagonal

of the zone and scaled by

Tetrahedral The minimum distance of any element node to its opposing element face

Quad Shell The square root of the shell area

Tri Shell The minimum distance of any element node to its opposing element edge

Beam The length of the element

The time steps used in Explicit time integration will generally be smaller than those used in Implicit

time integration.

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Explicit Dynamics Theory Guide

For example, for a mesh with a characteristic dimension of 1mm and a material soundspeed of 5000m/s.

The resulting stability time step would be 0.18 seconds. To solve this simulation to a termination time

of 0.1 seconds will require 555,556 time increments.

Note

The minimum value of h/c for all elements in the model is used to calculate the time step

that will be used for all elements in the model. This implies that the number of time incre-

ments required to solve the simulation is dictated by the smallest element in the model.

Care should therefore be taken when generating meshes for Explicit Dynamics simulations

to ensure that one or two very small elements do not control the timestep. The patch-inde-

pendent meshing methods available in Workbench will generally produce a more uniform

mesh with a higher timestep than patch-dependent meshing methods.

The maximum timestep that can be used in Explicit time integration is inversely proportional to the

soundspeed of the material, hence directionally proportional to the square root of the mass of material

in an element

(6.9)

Where

By artificially increasing the mass of an element, one can increase the maximum allowable stability

timestep, and reduce the number of time increments required to complete a solution. When mass

scaling is applied in an Explicit Dynamics system, it is applied only to those elements which have a

stability timestep less than a specified value. If the model contains a relatively small number of small

elements, this can be a useful mechanism for reducing the number of time steps required to complete

an Explicit simulation.

Note

Mass scaling changes the inertial properties of the portions of the mesh to which scaling is

applied. The user is responsible for ensuring that the model remains representative for the

physical problem being solved.

The Explicit Dynamics systems are particularly well suited to capturing various types of wave propagation

phenomena in solid and liquid materials.

6.2.4.1. Elastic Waves

6.2.4.2. Plastic Waves

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Different types of elastic waves can propagate in solids depending on how the motion of points in the

solid material is related to the direction of propagation of the waves (Meyers [2]). The primary elastic

wave is usually referred to as the longitudinal wave. Under uniaxial stress conditions (i.e. an elastic wave

traveling down a long slender rod), the wave propagation speed is given by

(6.10)

For the more general three-dimensional case, the additional components of stress lead to the more

general expression for the primary longitudinal elastic wave speed

(6.11)

The secondary elastic wave is usually referred to as the distortional/shear wave and its propagation

speed can be calculated as

(6.12)

Other forms of elastic waves include surface (Rayleigh) waves, Interfacial waves and bending (or flexural)

waves in bars/plates. Further details are provided by Meyers [2].

Plastic (inelastic) deformation takes place in a ductile metal when the stress in the material exceeds the

elastic limit. Under dynamic loading conditions the resulting wave propagation can be decomposed

into elastic and plastic regions (Meyers [2]). Under uniaxial strain conditions, the elastic portion of the

wave travels at the primary longitudinal wave speed whilst the plastic wave front travels at a local ve-

locity

(6.13)

For an elastic perfectly plastic material, it can be shown [3] that the plastic wave travels at a slower

velocity than the primary elastic wave

(6.14)

Typical stress strain curves for a ductile metal under uniaxial stress and uniaxial strain conditions are

given below.

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a) Uniaxial b) Uniaxial

stress strain

Under uniaxial stress conditions, the tangent modulus of the stress strain curve decreases with strain.

The plastic wave speed therefore decreases as the applied jump in stress associated with the stress

wave increases shock waves are unlikely to form under these conditions.

Under uniaxial strain conditions the plastic modulus (AB) increases with the magnitude of the applied

jump in stress. If the stress jump associated with the wave is greater than the gradient (OZ), the plastic

wave will travel at a higher speed than the elastic wave. Since the plastic deformation must be preceded

by the elastic deformation, the elastic and plastic waves coalesce and propagate as a single plastic

shock wave.

A shock wave can be considered to be a discontinuity in material state (density(), energy(e), stress(),

particle velocity(u)) which propagates through a medium at a velocity equal to the shock velocity (Us

).

Relationships between the material state across a shock discontinuity can be derived using the principals

of conservation of mass, momentum and energy. The resulting Hugoniot equations are given by

(6.15)

(6.16)

(6.17)

You can define the reference frame for bodies in an explicit dynamics analysis to be either Lagrangian

or Eulerian. The following sections describe the two reference frames and how their use affects the

analysis.

6.2.5.1. Lagrangian and Eulerian Reference Frames

6.2.5.2. Eulerian (Virtual) Reference Frame in Explicit Dynamics

6.2.5.3. Key Concepts of Euler (Virtual) Solutions

By default, all bodies in an Explicit Dynamics analysis system are discretized and solved in a Lagrangian

reference frame: The material associated with each body is discretized in the form of a body-fitted mesh.

Each element of the mesh is used to represent a volume of material. The same amount of material mass

remains associated with each element throughout the simulation. The mesh deforms with the material

deformation. Solving using a Lagrangian reference frame is the most efficient and accurate method to

use for the majority of structural models. However, in simulations where the material undergoes extreme

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What is Explicit Dynamics?

deformations, such as in a fluid or gas flowing around an obstacle, the elements will become highly

distorted as the deformation of the material increases. Eventually the elements may become so distorted

that the elements become inverted (negative volumes) and the simulation cannot proceed without re-

sorting to numerical erosion of highly distorted elements.

In an Eulerian reference frame, the grid remains stationary throughout the simulation. Material flows

through the mesh. The mesh does not therefore suffer from distortion problems and large deformations

of the material can be represented. If the material you are going to model is likely to experience very

large deformations, using an Eulerian reference frame is therefore preferable.

Solving using an Eulerian reference frame is generally computationally more expensive than using a

Lagrangian reference frame. The additional cost comes from the need to transport material from one

cell to the next and also to track in which cells each material exists. Each cell in the grid can contain

one or more materials (to a maximum of 5 in the Explicit Dynamics system). The location and interface

of each material is tracked only approximately (to first order accuracy).

The representative example below shows a block of material impacting a rigid wall. First the block is

represented in the Lagrangian reference frame. During the impact process the nodes of the mesh follow

the deformation of the material. The same problem can be modelled in an Eulerian reference frame;

here the nodes of the mesh are fixed in space, they do not move. Instead the material is tracked as it

moves through the mesh.

Solid, Liquid and Gaseous materials can be used with an Eulerian (Virtual) reference frame in the Explicit

Dynamics system. Because of the computational cost and approximate tracking of material interfaces,

the Eulerian reference frame should be used only when very large deformation or flow of the material

is expected.

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Switching the reference frame of a solid body in Explicit Dynamics systems from Lagrangian to Eulerian

will result in that body being mapped into an Eulerian background grid at solve time and the material

associated with the body will be solved in an Eulerian reference frame.

If one or more solid bodies have a reference frame set to Eulerian (Virtual), the following process is used

on initialization to map the Euler bodies to a background Eulerian domain:

A background Eulerian (Virtual) domain is automatically generated to enclose all bodies in the model. By

default, the domain size is set to 1.2 times the size of the bounding box of all bodies in the model. The

domain is always aligned with the global Cartesian X, Y, and Z axes. Additional options to control the size

of the domain are provided in the Analysis Settings.

The background Euler domain is discretized with a mesh of uniform cell size. The cell size is defined

to give approximately 500,000 cells in total. Additional options to control the cell size are provided

in the Analysis Settings. The entire Euler domain is initialized as void; the cells contain no material.

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The standard mesh generated on bodies marked with Eulerian (Virtual) reference frame is only used to

represent the geometry of the body during initialization of the model for the solver. The material and initial

conditions defined on bodies marked as Eulerian reference frame are mapped to the Euler domain. The

mesh associated with the original body is then deleted, prior to the solve. A unique material is created for

each body that is mapped into the Euler domain for the purposes of post processing

If multiple bodies marked as Eulerian (Virtual) overlap, the body higher in the Outline view will take

precedence. Therefore, the material assigned to the region of overlap will correspond to that assigned

to the first Eulerian body.

The exterior faces of the Euler domain can each have one of three types of boundary condition

applied. The type of boundary condition for each face is controlled in the Analysis Settings (p. 33):

Flow-out (Default)

This condition will allow any material reaching the boundary of the Euler domain to flow out of the

domain at constant velocity.

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Rigid Wall

This condition makes the external boundaries of the domain act as a rigid wall.

Impedance

This condition acts the same as a Flow-out condition and allows any material reaching the boundary of

the Euler domain to flow out of the domain at constant velocity.

The conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy are solved on a block structured background

mesh using a 2nd order accurate multi-material Godunov numerical scheme[17] with the second order

upwind method by Van Leer [19, 20]. The computational cycle for bodies represented in an Eulerian

reference frame is outlined below:

In comparison to a traditional Lagrangian numerical scheme, note the points in the following sections.

6.2.5.3.1. Multiple Material Stress States

6.2.5.3.2. Multiple Material Transport

6.2.5.3.3. Supported Material Properties

6.2.5.3.4. Known Limitations of Euler Solutions

During the simulation, material can flow from one cell to another. At some stage in the computation

a given cell is likely to contain more than one material. Note that void (free space) is also considered

as a material in this sense; a cell containing one material and void is typical at any free surface of the

material. In the example below we can see two solid materials (green and yellow) and free surfaces

(white, void material) represented in an Eulerian reference frame.

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A volume of fluid (VOF) method is used track the amount of material in each cell. Each material has a

volume fraction and the sum of the volume fraction of each material, plus the volume fraction of void,

will equate to unity.

(6.18)

Nearly all isotropic material properties can be used in an Eulerian reference frame to represent solids,

liquids or gases. Special treatment is required to allow calculation of the strain rates, pressure and

stresses in each material in a cell, and also to calculate a resultant stress tensor which is then used to

calculate cell face impulses, momentum and mass transport. Two algorithms are used for this purpose:

1. A cell containing two different gases; here we use an iterative procedure to establish an Equilibrium state

(a density and energy of each gas which results in a uniform pressure across both gases).

2. A cell containing two or more non-gaseous materials; here we use a stiffness weighted averaging technique

to distribute strain rates and establish the resultant pressure and deviatoric stress in each cell.

The choice of the above algorithms is automatic and local to each cell in the model.

Important

At any point in time during the solution, only the volume fraction of each material in each

cell is recorded and stored. The location of the material within the cell is not known. During

post-processing of the model you will see an outline of the material displayed, this outline

is an approximation derived from the volume fraction distribution in the cells. It is only ac-

curate to within one cell dimension.

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To move the solution through the mesh from one timestep to another, material must be transported

across cell faces. If a cell contains only one material then we have a trivial solution and a volume fraction

of that material will be transported across the face. If however we have multiple materials in a cell we

need to employ an algorithm to decide which materials to transport and how much of each material

to transport across each cell face. We are using the SLIC (Single Line Interface Construction) method

[18] to calculate the order and quantity of material to transport across a cell face. This method takes

information from both the upstream and downstream cells to make decisions on material transport.

The supported material properties are Density, Specific Heat, Isotropic Elasticity, Bilinear Isotropic

Hardening, Multilinear Isotropic Hardening, Johnson Cook Strength, Cowper Symonds Strength, Steinberg

Guinan Strength, Zerilli Armstrong Strength, Drucker-Prager Strength Linear, Drucker-Prager Strength

Stassi, Drucker-Prager Strength Piecewise, Johnson-Holmquist Strength Continuous, Johnson-Holmquist

Strength Segmented, RHT Concrete, MO Granular, Ideal Gas EOS, Bulk Modulus, Shear Modulus, Polyno-

mial EOS, Shock EOS Linear, Shock EOS Bilinear, Explosive JWL, Explosive JWL Miller, Compaction EOS

Linear, Compaction EOS Non-Linear, P-alpha EOS, Plastic Strain Failure, Tensile Pressure Failure, Johnson

Cook Failure, Grady Spall Failure.

Sometimes the multimaterial Euler solver exhibits so called checkerboarding where the face values of

Euler elements are correct, but the Euler element values (for example, pressure) are switching between

positive and negative values from element to element. This can be seen when the smoothing of the

contour values is switched offthe plot will show a checkerboard pattern. This introduces incorrect

pressure (and other) values which will, for example, result in wrong coupling forces on a Lagrangian

flexible or rigid body.

The magnitude of the effect of this limitation on the solution may be large and easy to observe: for

example, when the flow or distortion of the material in Euler shows overall incorrect behavior. Or it

may be small and difficult to recognize: for example, in cases where the pressure switches locally, but

the overall average pressure is still correct.

A refinement of the mesh, with possibly some grading (smaller elements near the area of interest) to reduce

runtimes

In the Explicit Dynamics system, solid bodies can be assigned either a Lagrangian reference frame or

an Eulerian (Virtual) reference frame. The reference frames can be combined in the simulation to allow

the best solution technique to be applied to each type of material being modelled. During the simulation,

bodies represented in the two reference frames will automatically interact with each other. For example,

if one body is filled with steel using a Lagrangian reference frame, and another body filled with water

using an Eulerian reference frame, the two bodies will automatically interact with each other if they

come into contact. The interaction between Eulerian and Lagrangian bodies provides a capability for

tightly coupled two way fluid structure interaction in the Explicit Dynamics system.

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In the simple example below, a body with Lagrangian reference frame (grey) is moving from left to

right over a body with Eulerian reference frame. As the body moves, it acts as a moving boundary in

the Euler domain by progressively covering volumes and faces in the Euler cells. This induces flow of

material in the Euler Domain. At the same time, a stress field will develop in the Euler domain which

results in external forces being applied on the moving Lagrangian body. These forces will feedback into

the motion and deformation (and stress) of the Lagrangian body.

In more detail, the Lagrangian body covers regions of the Euler domain. The intersection between the

Lagrangian and Eulerian bodies results in an updated control volume on which the conservation

equation of mass, momentum and energy are solved.

At the same time, the normal stress in the intersected Euler cell will act on the intersected area of the

Lagrangian surface.

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This provides a two-way closely coupled fluid-structure (or more generally Eulerian-Lagrangian) interac-

tion. During a simulation, the Lagrangian structure can move and deform. Large deformations may also

result in erosion of the elements from the Lagrangian body. The coupling interfaces are automatically

updated in such cases.

For accurate results when coupling Lagrangian and Eulerian bodies in Explicit Dynamics it is necessary

to ensure that the size of the cells of the Euler domain are smaller than the minimum distance across

the thickness of the Lagrangian bodies. If this is not the case, you may see leakage of material in the

Euler domain through the Lagrange structure.

In the case of coupling to thin bodies (typically modelled with shells), an equivalent solid body is gen-

erated to enable intersection calculations to be performed between a Lagrangian volume and the Euler

domain. The thickness of the equivalent solid body is automatically calculated based on the Euler Domain

cell size to ensure that at least one Euler element is fully covered over the thickness and no leakage

occurs across the coupling surface. Note this 'artificial' thickness is only used for volume intersection

calculations for the purposes of coupling and is independent of the physical thickness of the shell/surface

body.

6.2.6.2. Sub-cycling

The Lagrangian reference frame is most frequently used to model solid structures with materials which

have soundspeeds in the order of several thousand meters/second. The Eulerian reference is most fre-

quently used to represent fluids or gases which typically have soundspeeds in the order of hundreds

of meters/second. In Explicit Dynamics simulations the maximum timestep that can be used is inversely

proportional to the soundspeed of the material. The timestep required to model structures is therefore

often significantly smaller than the timestep required to accurately model a gas. To enable the Lagrangian

and Eulerian parts of a coupled simulation proceed at the optimum timestep (for efficiency and accuracy)

a sub-cycling technique is used where possible. The Lagrangian domain uses its critical timestep. The

Euler domain uses its critical timestep. Coupling information is exchanged at the end of each Euler

domain timestep.

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Analysis Settings

In the following sections you find theoretical background for specific controls available in the Explicit

Dynamics system.

6.3.1. Step Controls

6.3.2. Damping Controls

6.3.3. Solver Controls

6.3.4. Erosion Controls

Maximum Energy Error

Energy conservation is a measure of the quality of an explicit dynamic simulation. Bad energy conser-

vation usually implies a less than optimal model definition. This parameter allows you to automatically

stop the solution if the energy conservation becomes poor. Enter a fraction of the total system energy

at the reference cycle at which you want the simulation to stop. For example, the default value of 0.1

will cause the simulation to stop if the energy error exceeds 10% of the energy at the reference cycle.

Reference Energy = [Internal Energy + Kinetic Energy + Hourglass Energy] at the reference cycle

Current Energy = [Internal Energy + Kinetic Energy + Hourglass Energy] at the current cycle

Work Done = Work done by constraints + Work done by loads + Work done by body forces + Energy

removed from system by element erosion + Work done by contact penalty forces

Figure 6.2: Example energy conservation graph for model with symmetry plane and erosion

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Treatment of Shock Discontinuities

Strong impacts on solid bodies can give rise to the formation of shock waves in the material. Because

of the nonlinearity of the equations being solved, shocks can form even though the initial conditions

are smooth.

In order to handle the discontinuities in the flow variables associated with such shocks, viscous terms

are introduced into the solutions. These additional terms have the effect of spreading out the shock

discontinuities over several elements and thus allow the simulation to continue to compute a smooth

solution, even after shock formation and growth.

Figure 6.3: Comparison of pressure solution at a shock wave discontinuity a) using no artificial

viscosity b) using the default artificial viscosity

The viscous terms used in the Explicit Dynamics system is based on the work of von Neumann and

Richtmeyer [4] and Wilkins [5].

(6.19)

Where

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Analysis Settings

The quadratic term smooths out shock discontinuities while the linear term acts to damp out oscillations

which may occur in the solution behind the shock discontinuity.

noise

Note

The pseudo-viscous term is usually added only when the flow is compressing. The Linear Viscosity

in Expansion option can be used to apply the pseudo-viscous term in both compression and

expansion. This can lead to excessive dispersion in the solution.

The inclusion of the pseudo-viscous pressure imposes further restrictions on the time step in

order to ensure stability:

The pseudo-viscous pressure is stored for each element and can be contoured using the custom

variable VISC_PRESSURE

Hourglass Damping

The reduced integration eight node hexahedral elements, or 4 node quadrilateral elements, used in

Explicit Dynamics can exhibit hourglass modes of deformation.

Since the expressions for strain rates and forces involve only differences in velocities and/or coordinates

of diagonally opposite nodes of the cuboidal element, if the element distorts in such a way that these

differences remain unchanged there will be no strain increase in the element and therefore no resistance

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to this distortion. Hourglass modes of deformation occur with no change in energy (also called zero

energy modes) and are unphysical.

An example of such a distortion in two dimensions is illustrated below where the two diagonals remain

the same length even though the cell distorts.

Visualization in three dimensions is much more difficult but if such distortions occur in a region of many

elements, patterns such as that shown below occur and the reason for the name of hourglass instability

is more easily understood.

To avoid these zero energy modes of deformation from occurring, corrective forces (Hourglass forces)

are added to the solution to resist the hourglass modes of deformation.

Hexahedral Elements

Two formulations for calculating the Hourglass forces are available for Hexahedral elements:

The Standard formulation is based on the work of Kosloff and Frazier [6] and generates hourglass forces

proportional to nodal velocity differences. This is often referred to as a viscous formulation.

(6.20)

Where

is a vector function of the element nodal velocities aligned with the hourglass shape vector

The standard formulation is the most efficient formulation in terms of CPU and is therefore the default

option. It is not however invariant under rigid body rotation (i.e. under rigid body rotation the hourglass

forces may not sum to zero)

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Analysis Settings

The Flanagan Belytschko [7] formulation is invariant under rigid body rotation and is therefore recom-

mended for simulations in which large rotations of hexahedral elements are expected. The Flanagan

Belytschko formulation is similar to the standard form.

(6.21)

The difference lies in the construction of the vector function of element nodal velocities, . These

are constructed to be orthogonal to both linear velocity field and the rigid body field.

Note

The Viscous Coefficient for hourglass forces usually varies between 0.05 and 0.15. The default

value is 0.1.

The sum of the hourglass forces applied to an element is normally zero. The momentum of the

system is therefore unaffected by hourglass forces.

The hourglass forces do however do work on the nodes of the elements. The energy associated

with hourglass forces is a) stored locally in the specific internal energy of the element b) recorded

globally over the entire model and available to review via the Solution Output, Energy Summary.

Static Damping

The Explicit Dynamics system is primarily designed for solving transient dynamic events. Using the

static damping option, a static equilibrium solution can also be obtained.

The procedure is to introduce a damping force which is proportional to the nodal velocities and which

is aimed to critically damp the lowest mode of oscillation of the static system. The solution is then

computed in time in the normal manner until it converges to an equilibrium state. The user is required

to judge when the equilibrium state is achieved. If the lowest mode of the system has period T then

we may expect the solution to converge to the static equilibrium state in a time roughly 3T if the value

of T is that for critical damping.

When the dynamic relaxation option is used the velocity update is modified to

(6.22)

where the Static Damping Coefficient, Rd , is input by the user. The value of Rd for critical damping of

the lowest mode is

(6.23)

where T is the period of the lowest mode of vibration of the system (or a close approximation to it).

Usually

(6.24)

A reasonable estimate of T must be used to ensure convergence to an equilibrium state but if the value

of T is not known accurately then is it recommended that the user overestimates it, rather than under-

estimating it. Approximate values of t and T can usually be obtained by first performing a dynamic

analysis without static damping.

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A static damping coefficient may be defined, or removed, at any point during an Explicit Dynamic

simulation. Typical examples of its use would be:

To establish an initial stress distribution in a structure, prior to solving a transient dynamic event. For example

applying gravity to a structure.

To establish the final static equilibrium position of a structure after it has experienced a transient dynamic

event. For example finding the equilibrium position of structure after it has undergone large plastic deform-

ation during a dynamic event.

Hexahedral Elements

The preferred element for solid bodies in Explicit Dynamics systems is the eight node reduced integration

hexahedral. These elements are well suited to transient dynamic applications including large deformations,

large strains, large rotations and complex contact conditions. The basic element characteristics are

Connectivity 8 Node

Mass (lumped mass matrix)

Other material state variables

Material Support All available materials

Reduced integration, constant strain element

Requires hourglass damping to stabilize zero energy

hourglass modes (see section Damping Controls,

Hourglass Damping)

The default Integration Type for hexahedral elements is the Exact option. Here the element formulation

based upon the work of Wilkins [8] results in an exact volume calculation even for distorted elements.

This formulation is therefore the most accurate option, especially if the faces of the hex elements become

warped. This is also computationally the most expensive formulation.

It is possible to speed-up simulations by using the 1pt Gaussian quadrature integrated hexahedral ele-

ment. This uses the element formulation described by Hallquist [9]. There will be some loss in accuracy

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Analysis Settings

when using this formulation with warped element faces which are common place in large deformation

analysis.

Tetrahedral Elements

Linear 4 noded tetrahedron elements are available for use in Explicit Dynamic analysis.

Connectivity 4 Node

Mass (lumped mass matrix)

Additionally ANP formulation: Volume, Pressure,

Energy

Additionally NBS: Volume, Density, Strain, Stress,

Energy, Pressure and other material state variables

Element Quantities Volume, Density, Strain, Stress, Energy

Other material state variables

Additionally NBS: If PUSO stability coefficient is set

to a non-zero value, there is an additional variable

set for all variables for the PUSO solver

Material Support SCP: All available materials

Only Isotropic materials can be used with the ANP

formulation

Only ductile materials can be used with the NBS

formulation

Points to Note Only the ANP and NBS are recommended for use

in majority tetrahedral meshes

For NBS models exhibiting zero energy modes, the

Puso coefficient can be set to a non-zero value. A

value of 0.1 is recommended.

Reduced integration, constant strain element

The four noded linear tetrahedron is available with three forms of Pressure Integration

Average Nodal Pressure (ANP) integration, based around the work of Burton [11].

Nodal Based Strain (NBS) integration, based on work of (Bonet [21] and Puso [22]).

The SCP tetrahedral element is a basic, constant strain element and can be used with all the material

models. The element is intended as a filler element in meshes dominated by hexahedral elements.

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The element is known to exhibit locking behavior under both bending and constant volumetric straining

(that is, plastic flow). If possible the element should therefore not be used in such cases.

The ANP tetrahedral formulation used here is an extension of the advanced tetrahedral element (Burton

[11]) and can be used as a majority element in the mesh. The ANP tetrahedral overcomes problems of

volumetric locking.

The NBS tetrahedral formulation based on the work of (Bonet [21] and Puso [22]) is a further extension

of the ANP tetrahedral element and can also be used as a majority element in the mesh. The NBS tetra-

hedral overcomes both problems of volumetric and shear locking, therefore is recommended over the

other two tetrahedral formulations for models involving bending.

Supported material types in the NBS tetrahedral element are currently limited to ductile materials. The

following is a list of supported material properties for NBS tetrahedral elements:

Isotropic Elasticity

Bulk Modulus

Shear Modulus

Polynomial EOS

Shock EOS

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Analysis Settings

Stochastic Failure

Note

Both flexible and rigid bodies are supported for NBS tetrahedral elements.

If a model containing NBS tetrahedral elements exhibits zero-energy modes (Puso, 2006 [22]), the PUSO

stability coefficient can be set to a non-zero value. The recommended value is 0.1. Stabilization is

achieved by taking a contribution to the nodal stresses from the SCP solution. Therefore, for models

with a non-zero Puso stability coefficient, the solution is computed on both the nodes and the elements.

NBS tetrahedral elements cannot share nodes with ANP tetrahedral elements, SCP tetrahedral elements,

shell elements, or beam elements. Also note that the use of NBS tetrahedral elements with joins or

spotwelds is not supported.

Figure 6.5: Comparison of results of a Taylor test solved using SCP, ANP and NBS Tetrahedral

elements. Results using NBS and ANP tetrahedral elements compare more favorably with

experimental results than results using SCP (see table below).

Table 6.3: Comparison of the performance of SCP, ANP, NBS and hex elements in a model involving

bending. The displacement of the beam with NBS tetrahedral elements is the most similar to the

beam meshed with hexahedral elements as it does not exhibit shear locking as is seen in the

beams solved using SCP and ANP tetrahedral elements.

Cylinder length 31.84 30.98 30.97 31.29

(mm)

Impact diameter 12.0 10.66 11.32 11.28

(mm)

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Explicit Dynamics Theory Guide

Figure 6.6: Example bending test using SCP (1), ANP (2), NBS tetrahedral (3), and hex (4) elements.

The displacement of the beam with NBS tetrahedral elements is the most similar to the beam

meshed with hexahedral elements as it does not exhibit shear locking.

Figure 6.7: Taylor test: Iron cylinder impacting rigid wall at 221m/s. Good correlation between

ANP and Hex element results is obtained

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Analysis Settings

Figure 6.8: Example pull out test simulated using both hexahedral elements and ANP tetrahedral

elements. Similar plastic strains and material fracture are predicted for both element formulations

used.

Pentahedral Elements

Linear 6 noded pentahedral elements are available for use in Explicit Dynamics analysis.

Connectivity 6 Node

Mass (lumped mass matrix)

Element Quantities All available materials

Other material state variables

Material Support All available materials

The pentahedral element is a basic constant strain element and is intended as a filler element in meshes

dominated by hexahedral elements.

Pyramid Elements

Pyramid elements are not recommended for Explicit Dynamic simulations. Any pyramid elements present

in the mesh will be converted to 2 tetrahedral elements in the solver initialization phase. Results are

mapped back onto the Pyramid element for postprocessing purposes.

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Explicit Dynamics Theory Guide

Bilinear 4 noded quadrilateral shell elements are available for use in Explicit Dynamics analysis.

Connectivity 4 Node

Force, Moment

Mass (lumped mass matrix)

Element Quantities Strain, Stress, Energy

Other material state variables

Data stored per layer

Material Support Linear elasticity must be used

Equations of state and porosity are not applicable

to shell elements

Pressure dependant material strength is not

applicable to shell elements

Points to Note Reduced integration, constant strain element

Based on Mindlin plate theory, transverse shear

deformable

Shells have zero through thickness stress and are

therefore not suitable for modelling wave

propagation through the thickness of the surface

body

The bilinear 4 noded quadrilateral shell element is based on the corotational formulation presented by

Belytschko-Tsay [13]. The element has one quadrature point per layer and is stabilized using hourglass

control. By default, additional curvature terms are added for warped elements in accordance with

Belytschko [14]. This option can be deactivated using the Shell BWC Warp Correction setting in the

Solver Controls.

The number of through thickness integration points (sublayers) is controlled through the analysis settings

option Solver Controls, Shell Sublayers. The default value is 3.

The thickness of the shell element is updated during the simulation in accordance with the material

response. The update is carried out at the shell nodes by default.

The principal inertia of the shell nodes is recalculated every time increment (cycle) by default. This is

the most robust method. It is more efficient to rotate the principal inertias rather than recalculate (al-

though less robust for certain applications). The Shell Thickness Update option can be used to select

this more efficient inertial update method.

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Analysis Settings

Linear 3 noded triangular shell elements are available for use in Explicit Dynamics analysis.

Connectivity 3 Node

Force, Moment

Mass (lumped mass matrix)

Element Quantities Volume, Density, Stress, Energy

Other material state variables

Data stored per layer

Material Support Linear elasticity must be used

Equations of state and porosity are not applicable

to shell elements

Pressure dependant material strength is not

applicable to shell elements

Points to Note Reduced integration, constant strain element

This element is only recommended for use as a

filler element in quad dominant shell meshes

Shells have zero through thickness stress and are

therefore not suitable for modelling wave

propagation through the thickness of the surface

body

The bilinear 3 noded, C0, triangular shell element is based on the formulation presented by Belytschko

et al. [15]. The number of through thickness integration points (sublayers) is controlled through the

analysis settings option Solver Controls, Shell Sublayers. The default value is 3.

The thickness of the shell element is updated during the simulation in accordance with the material

response. The update is carried out at the shell nodes by default.

Beam Elements

Linear 2 noded beam elements are available for use in Explicit Dynamics analysis.

Connectivity 2 Node

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Explicit Dynamics Theory Guide

Force, Moment

Mass (lumped mass matrix)

Element Quantities Resultant Strain/Stress, Energy

Other material state variables

Material Support Linear elasticity must be used

Equations of state and porosity are not applicable

to beam elements

Pressure dependant material strength is not

applicable to beam elements

Points to Note Supports symmetrical circular, square, rectangular,

I-Beam and general cross sections

Beams have zero transverse stress and are therefore

not suitable for modelling wave propagation across

the cross section

The 2 noded beam element is based on the resultant beam formulation of Belytschko [16] and allows

for large displacements and resultant elasto-plastic response.

Erosion is a numerical mechanism for the automatic removal (deletion) of elements during a simulation.

The primary reason for using erosion is to remove very distorted elements from a simulation before the

elements become inverted (degenerate). This ensures that the stability timestep remains at a reasonable

level and solutions can continue to the desired termination time. Erosion can also be used to allow the

simulation of material fracture, cutting and penetration.

There are a number of mechanisms available to initiate erosion of elements. The erosion options can

be used in any combination. Elements will erode if any of the criteria are met.

Geometric Strain

Geometric strain is a measure of the distortion of an element and is calculated from the global strain

components as

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Model Size Limitations in Explicit Dynamics

(6.25)

This erosion option allows removal of elements when the local element geometric strain exceeds the

specified value. Typical values range from 0.5 to 2.0. The default value of 1.5 can be used in most cases.

Custom result EFF_STN can be used to review the distribution of effective strain in the model.

Timestep

This erosion option allows removal of elements when the local element timestep, multiplied by the

time step safety factor falls below the specified value.

Custom result TIMESTEP can be used to review the time step for each element.

Material Failure

Using this option, elements will automatically erode if a material failure property is defined in the ma-

terial used in the elements, and the failure criteria has been reached. Elements with materials including

a damage model will also erode if damage reaches a value of 1.0.

Retained Inertia

If all elements that are connected to a node in the mesh are eroded, the inertia of the resulting free

node can be retained. The mass and momentum of the free node is retained and can be involved in

subsequent impact events to transfer momentum in the system. If this option is set to No, all free nodes

will be automatically removed from the simulation.

Note

The internal energy of elements which are eroded is always removed from the system. This energy

is accumulated in the work done term for global energy conservation purposes.

Exceedingly large (number of elements/nodes) models may not be able to complete an Explicit Dynamics

solution in a reasonable amount of time for the following reasons:

As in any Mechanical application, you will start out with a coarse mesh and investigate convergence beha-

vior while refining the mesh. This will typically lead to a satisfactory number of elements for a certain elapsed

time. You may reduce the CPU time by distributing the model over multiple processors in parallel. With

larger model sizes the initialization time (which is typically a small fraction of the total run time) may increase

significantly because the initialization is not running in parallel.

When doing convergence studies you may run into hardware limitations. An Explicit Dynamics solution

takes place in core memory, which means that RAM is the most limiting factor. Most modern workstations

typically contain large amounts of RAM and will be able to cope with large models. Note that disk space is

not generally a problem since result files are typically not exceedingly large.

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Explicit Dynamics Theory Guide

Although modern workstation hardware may allow large models to be meshed, the Explicit solver may not

be able to handle some large models because most integer numbers are still allocated on a 32 bit based

definition, and if a single internal array needs to be allocated with larger than 2e9 entries the solution will

fail.

The current limitations can be summarized as follows, although these numbers are only a guideline as

to what to expect:

Although Workbench can mesh a single part up to a maximum of 100 million solid elements, or 10 million

shell elements, the Explicit solver may not be able to calculate a solution in a reasonable amount of time

with a mesh of this size. Each element and node has a number of associated variables. The number typically

depends on the type of solver chosen along with material models used and the number of options activated;

for example, Failure models or the type of Interaction.

The AUTODYN component system can be used to generate structured meshes, which in turn can be converted

to unstructured. The limit for the number of elements that can be converted lies between 50 million and

60 million.

The number of objects that can be created in the AUTODYN component system is limited to 99 in 3D.

If the Explicit solver detects that more than 500,000 nodes are packed in an SPH object a warning will be

given, since it will impact CPU and RAM resources.

Please note that these limitations are approximate and serve as a guideline when modeling for Explicit

Dynamics and AUTODYN component systems. To reduce the solution time, you should try using a

coarser mesh or use Mass Scaling in your model.

6.5. References

The following references are cited in this appendix:

1. R. Courant, K. Friedrichs and H. Lewy, "On the partial difference equations of mathematical physics", IBM

Journal, March 1967, pp. 215-234

2. Meyers, M. A., (1994) Dynamic behaviour of Materials, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 0-471-58262-X.

3. Zukas, J. A., (1990) High velocity impact dynamics, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 0-471-51444-6

4. von Neumann, J., Richtmeyer, R. D. (1950).,A Method for the Numerical Calculation of Hydrodynamic

Shocks, J. App. Phys., 21, pp 232-237, 1950

5. Wilkins, M. L., (1980). Use of Artificial Viscosity in Multidimensional Fluid Dynamic Calculations, J. Comp.

Phys., 36, pp 281-303, 1980

6. Kosloff D., Frazier G. A., (1978) Treatment of hourglass patterns in low order finite element codes, Int. J.

Num. Anal. Meth. Geomech. 2, 57-72

7. Flanagan D. P., Belytschko T., (1981) A uniform strain hexahedron and Quadrilateral and Orthogonal

Hourglass Control, Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng. 17, 679-706.

8. Wilkins, M. L., Blum, R. E., Cronshagen, E. & Grantham, P. (1974). A Method for Computer Simulation of

Problems in Solid Mechanics and Gas Dynamics in Three Dimensions and Time. Lawrence Livermore

Laboratory Report UCRL-51574, 1974

9. Hallquist, J. O., (1982) "A theoretical manual for DYNA3D, LLNL Report UCID-19401.

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References

10. Zienkiewicz, O. C., Taylor, R. L., "The finite element method, Volume 1", ISBN 0-07-084174-8

11. Burton, A..J.. (1996) 'Explicit, Large Strain, Dynamic Finite Element Analysis with Applications to Human

Body Impact Problems', PhD Thesis, University of Wales.

12. Wilkins, M. L., Blum, R. E., Cronshagen, E., & Grantham, P. (1974). A Method for Computer Simulation of

Problems in Solid Mechanics and Gas Dynamics in Three Dimensions and Time. Lawrence Livermore

Laboratory Report UCRL-51574, 1974

13. Belytschko, T., et al. (1984),Explicit algorithms for the nonlinear dynamics of shells, Comp. Meth. Appl.

Mech Eng., 42, 225-251.

14. Belytschko, T., et al. (1992),Advances in one-point quadrature shell elements, Comp. Meth. Appl. Mech

Eng., 1992, 93-107.

15. Belytschko, T., et al. (1984),A C0 Triangular Plate Element with One-point Quadrature, Int. J. Num. Meth.

Engng., 20, 787-802, 1984.

16. Belytschko, T. et al., 1977,Large Displacement Analysis of Space Frames, Int. J. Num. Meth. And Anal.

Mech. Engng., 11, 65-84, 1977.

17. Godunov, S. K. (1959), "A Difference Scheme for Numerical Solution of Discontinuous Solution of Hydro-

dynamic Equations", Math. Sbornik, 47, 271-306, translated US Joint Publ. Res. Service, JPRS 7226, 1969.

18. Noh, W. F. and Woodward, P.,SLIC (Simple line interface calculation), in Lecture Notes in Physics (A. I. van

der Vooren and P. J. Zandbergen, eds.), pp. 330340, Springer-Verlag, 1976.

19. Van Leer, B (1977).Towards the Ultimate Conservative Difference Scheme. IV. A new Approach to Numer-

ical Convection, J. Comp. Phys. 23, pp 276-299, 1977.

20. Van Leer, B (1979).Towards the Ultimate Conservative Difference Scheme. V. A Second Order Sequel to

Godunovs Method, J. Comp. Phys. 32, pp 101-136, 1979.

21. Bonet J., Marriott H., Hassan O.An averaged nodal deformation gradient linear tetrahedral element for

large strain explicit dynamics applications. Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering 2001; 17,

551-561.

22. Puso M. A.,Solberg J.A stabilized nodally integrated tetrahedral. International Journal for Numerical

Methods in Engineering 2006; 67, 841-867.

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Chapter 7: Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis

This chapter discusses the following:

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Explicit Material Library

7.3. Density

7.4. Linear Elastic

7.5.Test Data

7.6. Hyperelasticity

7.7. Plasticity

7.8. Brittle/Granular

7.9. Equations of State

7.10. Porosity

7.11. Failure

7.12. Strength

7.13.Thermal Specific Heat

7.14. Rigid Materials

7.15. References

7.1. Introduction

In general, materials have a complex response to dynamic loading and the following phenomena may

need to be modeled.

Strain hardening

Pressure hardening

Thermal softening

Tensile failure

The modeling of such phenomena can generally be broken down into three components:

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Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis

Equation of State

An equation of state describes the hydrodynamic response of a material.

This is the primary response for gases and liquids, which can sustain no shear. Their response to dynamic

loading is assumed hydrodynamic, with pressure varying as a function of density and internal energy.

This is also the primary response for solids at high deformation rates, when the hydrodynamic pressure

is far greater than the yield stress of the material.

Solid materials may initially respond elastically, but under highly dynamic loadings, they can reach stress

states that exceed their yield stress and deform plastically. Material strength laws describe this non-

linear elastic-plastic response.

Solids usually fail under extreme loading conditions, resulting in crushed or cracked material. Material

failure models simulate the various ways in which materials fail. Liquids will also fail in tension, a phe-

nomenon usually referred to as cavitation.

Engineering Data properties for explicit analysis in the Mechanical application cover a wide range of

materials and material behaviors. Some examples are provided below:

Metals Elasticity

Shock Effects

Plasticity

Ductile Fracture

Concrete/Rock Elasticity

Shock Effects

Porous Compaction

Plasticity

Strain Hardening

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Explicit Material Library

Strain Rate Hardening in Compression

Shear Damage/Fracture

Tensile Damage/Fracture

Solid/Sand Elasticity

Shock Effects

Porous Compaction

Plasticity

Shear Damage/Fracture

Tensile Damage/Fracture

Rubbers/Polymers Elasticity

Viscoelasticity

Hyperelasticity

Orthotropic Orthotropic Elasticity

The Engineering Data properties supported by explicit analysis are described below. Please note that

additional material modeling options, particularly in the areas of composite materials and reactive ma-

terials, are available in the ANSYS Autodyn product.

An extensive set of material data is provided in the Engineering Data Explicit library.

We strongly recommend that you review the material data before using it in production applications.

In particular, some of the materials only contain a partial definition of the material. This data may need

to be complemented with additional properties to give the full definition required for the simulation.

Plastics-

ADIPRENE

LUCITE

NEOPRENE

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Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis

POLYCARB

POLYRUBBER

POLYRUBBERH

POLYSTYRENE

RUBBER1

RUBBER2

RUBBER3

EPOXY RES

EPOXY RES2

PHENOXY

PLEXIGLAS

POLYURETH

NYLONS

POLYETHYL

TEFLON

TEFLONH

Sand/Concrete-

CONC 140MPA

CONC 35 MPA

CONCRETEL

INCENDPOWD

PERICLASE

SAND

Mineral/Element-

ANTIMONY

BARIUM

BISMUTH

CALCIUM

GERMANIUM

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Explicit Material Library

POTASSIUM

QUARTZ

SODIUM CHLORIDE

SODIUM

SULFUR

VANADIUM

VANADIUM2

Glass/Ceramics-

BORON CARBIDE

FLOATGLASB

FLOATGLASS

Liquid-

Parafin

WATER

WATER2

WATER3

Metals/Alloys-

AL 1100O

AL 2024

AL 2024T4

AL 6061T6

AL 7039

AL 7075T6

AL 921T

AL 2024T351

AL 20399.5

AL 20399.7

AL203 CERA

AL5083H116

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Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis

ALUMINUM

BERYLLIUM

BERYLLIUM2

BRASS

CADMIUM

CART BRASS

CHROMIUM

COBALT

COPPER

COPPER2

CU OFHC

CU OFHC

CU OFHC2

CU-OFHC-F

DU-.75TI

GOLD

GOLD 5%CU

GOLD2

HAFNIUM

HAFNIUM2

INDIUM

IRIDIUM

IRON

IRON-ARMCO

IRON-ARMCO2

IRON-C.E.

LEAD

LEAD2

LEAD3

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Explicit Material Library

LITHIUIM

LITHIUM F

LITH-MAGN

MAG AZ-31B

MAGNESIUM

MAGNESIUM2

MERCURY

MOLYBDENUM

NICKEL

NICKEL ALL

NICKEL Z

NICKEL-200

NICKEL 3

NIOBIUM

NIOBIUM AL

NIOBIUM 2

PALLADIUM

PLATE 20% IR

PLATINUM

PLATINUM2

RHA

RHENIUM

RHODIUM

RUBIDIUM

SILVER

SILVER2

SIS 25413

SS 2169

SS 304

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Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis

SS-304

STEEL 1006

STEEL 4340

STEEL S-7

STEEL V250

STNL. STEEL

STRONTIUM

TANT 10%W

TANTALUM

TANTALLUM2

TANTALLUM3

THALLIUM

THORIUM

THORIUM2

TI 6% AL 4% V

TIN

TIN2

TITANIUM

TITANIUM2

TITANIUM-2

TUNG.ALLOY

TUNGSTEN

TUNGSTEN2

TUNGSTEN3

U 0.75% TI

U 5% MO

U 8% NB3 %ZR

U 0.75% TI

U3 WT %MD

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Linear Elastic

URANIUM

URANIUM2

URANIUM3

W 4% Ni 2%FE

ZINC

ZIRCONIUM

ZIRCONIUM2

7.3. Density

Density is the initial mass per unit volume of a material at time = 0.0.

Note

The temperature dependence of the linear elastic properties is not available for explicit dy-

namics systems. Only a single value can be used. The first defined values in temperature

dependent data will be used in the solver.

Young's Modulus

Poisson's Ratio

Note

The temperature dependence of the linear elastic properties is not available for explicit dy-

namics systems. Only a single value can be used. The first defined values in temperature

dependent data will be used in the solver.

Define isotropic linear elastic material behavior by specifying

Young's Modulus

Poisson's ratio

Note

The temperature dependence of the linear elastic properties is not available for explicit

dynamics systems. Only a single value can be used. The first defined values in temper-

ature dependent data will be used in the solver.

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Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis

Define orthotropic linear elastic material behavior by specifying:

Poisson's ratio XY

Poisson's ratio YZ

Poisson's ratio XZ

Shear Modulus XY

Shear Modulus YZ

Shear Modulus XZ

Note

The coordinate system X, Y, Z relates to the local coordinate system assigned to the

body.

7.4.3. Viscoelastic

To represent strain rate dependent elastic behavior, a linear viscoelastic model can be used. The long

term behavior of the model is described by the long term or elastic shear modulus G. Viscoelastic

behavior is introduced via an instantaneous shear modulus and a viscoelastic decay constant . The

viscoelastic deviatoric stress at time increment n+1 is calculated from the viscoelastic stress at time in-

crement n and the deviatoric strain increments at time increment n via

where

is the instantaneous shear modulus of the material. This value is derived from linear elastic

properties or defined directly using the equation of state, shear modulus property

is the viscoelastic decay constant

The deviatoric viscoelastic stress is added to the elastic stress to give the total stress at the end of each

cycle.

Note

The model must be combined with either the linear elastic property or an equation of state

property (including shear modulus).

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Hyperelasticity

Instantaneous Shear Stress

Modulus (High rate)

Viscoelastic Decay 1/ time

Constant

VTXX Viscoelastic stress XX Yes No No

VTYY Viscoelastic stress YY Yes No No

VTZZ Viscoelastic stress ZZ Yes No No

VTXY Viscoelastic stress XY Yes No No

VTYZ Viscoelastic stress YZ Yes No No

VTZX Viscoelastic stress ZX Yes No No

Uniaxial Test Data

7.6. Hyperelasticity

Following are several forms of strain energy potential () provided for the simulation of nearly incom-

pressible hyperelastic materials. The different models are generally applicable over different ranges of

strain as illustrated in the table below, however these numbers are not definitive and users should

verify the applicability of the model chosen prior to use.

Currently hyperelastic materials may only be used in solid elements for explicit dynamics simulations.

Neo-Hookean 30%

Mooney-Rivlin 30%-200% depending on order

Polynomial

Ogden Up to 700%

Neo-Hookean

The strain energy function for the Neo-Hookean hyperelastic model is,

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Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis

where is the deviatoric first principal invariant, J is the Jacobian and the required input parameters

are defined as:

d= incompressibility parameter.

K = 2/d

Mooney-Rivlin

The strain energy function of a hyperelastic material can be expanded as an infinite series in terms of

the first and second deviatoric principal invariants and , as follows,

The 2, 3, 5 and 9 parameter Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic material models have been implemented and

are described in turn below.

The strain energy function for the 2parameter model is,

where:

d = material incompressibility parameter.

K = 2/d

The strain energy function for the 3parameter model is,

C 10 ,C 01 ,C 11 = material constants

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Hyperelasticity

The bulk and shear modulus are as defined for the 2parameter Mooney-Rivlin model.

The strain energy function for the 5parameter model is,

(7.1)

C 10 ,C 01 ,C 20 ,C 11 ,C 02 = material constants

d = material incompressibility parameter.

The bulk and shear modulus are as defined for the 2parameter Mooney-Rivlin model.

The strain energy function for the 9parameter hyperelastic model is,

(7.2)

C 10 ,C 01 ,C 20 ,C 11 , C 02 , C 30 , C 21 , C 12 ,C 03 = material constants

d = material incompressibility parameter.

The bulk and shear modulus are as defined for the 2parameter Mooney-Rivlin model.

Polynomial

The strain energy function of a hyperelastic material can be expanded as an infinite series of the first

and second deviatoric principal invariants l 1 and l 2. The polynomial form of strain energy function is

given below:

1st, 2nd, and 3rd order polynomial hyperelastic material models have been implemented in the solver

where N is 1, 2 or 3 respectively.

dk = material incompressibility parameters.

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Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis

K = 2/d1

Yeoh

The Yeoh hyperelastic strain energy function is similar to the Mooney-Rivlin models described above

except that it is only based on the first deviatoric strain invariant. It has the general form,

The strain energy function for the first order Yeoh model is,

where:

N=1

C10 = material constant

d1 = incompressibility parameter

= 2c10

K = 2/d1

The strain energy function for the second order Yeoh hyperelastic model is

N = 2.

C10, C20 = material constants

d1, d2 = incompressibility parameters

See 1st order Yeoh model for definitions of the initial shear and bulk modulus.

The strain energy function for the third order Yeoh hyperelastic model is,

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Hyperelasticity

N = 3.

C10, C20, C30 = material constants

d1, d2, d3 = incompressibility parameters

See 1st order Yeoh model for definitions of the initial shear and bulk modulus.

Ogden

The Ogden form of the strain energy function is based on the deviatoric principal stretches of the left-

Cauchy-Green tensor and has the form,

The strain energy function for the first order Ogden hyperelastic model is,

where:

J = determinant of the elastic deformation gradient

p, p and dp = material constants

The strain energy function for the first order Ogden hyperelastic model is,

where:

J = determinant of the elastic deformation gradient

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Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis

The strain energy function for the first order Ogden hyperelastic model is,

where:

J = determinant of the elastic deformation gradient

p, p and dp = material constants

7.7. Plasticity

All stress-strain input should be in terms of true stress and true (or logarithmic) strain and result in all

output as also true stress and true strain. For small-strain regions of response, true stress-strain and

engineering stress-strain are approximately equal. If your stress-strain data is in the form of engineering

stress and engineering strain you can convert:

Note

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Plasticity

7.7.1. Bilinear Isotropic Hardening

7.7.2. Multilinear Isotropic Hardening

7.7.3. Bilinear Kinematic Hardening

7.7.4. Multilinear Kinematic Hardening

7.7.5. Johnson-Cook Strength

7.7.6. Cowper-Symonds Strength

7.7.7. Steinberg-Guinan Strength

7.7.8. Zerilli-Armstrong Strength

This plasticity material model is often used in large strain analyses. A bilinear stress-strain curve requires

that you input the Yield Strength and Tangent Modulus. The slope of the first segment in the curve

is equivalent to the Young's modulus of the material while the slope of the second segment is the

tangent modulus.

EFF_PL_STN Effective Plastic Strain Yes Yes* Yes*

SUBL_EPS Effective sublayer plastic strain No Yes No

This plasticity material model is often used in large strain analyses. Do not use this model for cyclic or

highly nonproportional load histories in small-strain analyses.

You must supply the data in the form of plastic strain vs. stress. The first point of the curve must be

the yield point, that is, zero plastic strain and yield stress. The slope of the stress-strain curve is assumed

to be zero beyond the last user-defined stress-strain data point. No segment of the curve can have a

slope of less than zero.

Note

You can define up to 10 stress strain pairs using this model in explicit dynamics systems.

Temperature dependence of the curves is not directly supported. Temperature dependent

plasticity can be represented using the Johnson-Cook plasticity model.

EFF_PL_STN Effective Plastic Strain Yes Yes* Yes*

SUBL_EPS Effective sublayer plastic strain No Yes No

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Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis

This plasticity material model assumes that the total stress range is equal to twice the yield stress, to

include the Bauschinger effect. This model may be used for materials that obey Von Mises yield criteria

(includes most metals). The tangent modulus cannot be less than zero or greater than the elastic

modulus.

EFF_PL_STN Effective Plastic Strain Yes Yes* Yes*

SUBL_EPS Effective sublayer plastic strain No Yes No

This plasticity model simulates metal plasticity behavior under cyclic loading. You must supply the data

in the form of plastic strain vs. stress. The first point of the curve must be the yield point, that is, zero

plastic strain and yield stress. No segment can have a slope of less than zero. The slope of the stress-

strain curve is assumed to be zero beyond the last user-defined stress-strain data point. No segment

of the curve can have a slope of less than zero.

Note

You can define up to 10 stress strain pairs using this model in explicit dynamics systems.

Temperature dependence of the curves is not directly supported. Temperature dependent

plasticity can be represented using the Johnson-Cook plasticity model.

EFF_PL_STN Effective Plastic Strain Yes No No

SUBL_EPS Effective sub layer plastic strain No No No

Note

Use this model to represent the strength behavior of materials, typically metals, subjected to large

strains, high strain rates and high temperatures. Such behavior might arise in problems of intense im-

pulsive loading due to high velocity impact.

With this model, the yield stress varies depending on strain, strain rate and temperature.

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Plasticity

where

= normalized effective plastic strain rate

TH = homologous temperature = (T-Troom)/(Tmelt -Troom)

The expression in the first set of brackets gives the stress as a function of strain when = 1.0 sec-1 and

TH = 0 (i.e. for laboratory experiments at room temperature). The constant A is the basic yield stress at

low strains while B and n represent the effect of strain hardening.

The expressions in the second set of brackets represent the effects of strain rate on the yield strength

of the material. The reference strain rate against which the material data was measured is used to nor-

malize the plastic strain rate enhancement. 1.0/second is used by default.

The expression in the third set of brackets represents thermal softening such that the yield stress drops

to zero at the melting temperature Tmelt.

The plastic flow algorithm used in this model has an option to reduce high frequency oscillations that

are sometimes observed in the yield surface under high strain rates. A first order strain rate correction

is applied by default. An additional implicit strain rate correction is available that can be used in cases

where the first order strain rate correction doesnt suffice, although at the cost of extra CPU time usage.

The Johnson-Cook strength model can be used in all element types and in combination with all equations

of state and failure properties.

Note

A specific heat capacity property should be defined to enable the calculation of temperature

hence thermal softening effects.

Initial Yield Stress A Stress

Hardening Constant B Stress

Hardening Exponent n None

Strain Rate Constant C None

Thermal Softening m None

Exponent

Melting Temperature Tmelt Temperature

Reference Strain Rate None Units fixed at 1/sec

Default = 1.0

Strain Rate Correction None Option List:

None

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Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis

1st Order (Default)

Implicit

EFF_PL_STN Effective Plastic Strain Yes Yes* Yes*

EFF_PL_STN_RATE Effective Plastic Strain Rate Yes Yes* Yes*

TEMP Temperature** Yes Yes* Yes*

SUBL_EPS Effective sublayer plastic strain No Yes No

The Cowper-Symonds strength model lets you define the yield strength of isotropic strain hardening,

strain rate dependent materials. The yield surface is defined as

where

B is the strain hardening coefficient

n is the strain hardening exponent

D and q are the strain rate hardening coefficients

It should be noted that, in the implementation within the Explicit Dynamics solver, the plastic strain

rate ( ) used in the Cowper Symonds model has a minimum value of unity to allow for compatibility

with the linear strain rate correction method. The consequence of this is that for plastic strain rates less

than unity, the material will exhibit a strain rate hardening effect equal to that for a strain rate of unity.

The plastic flow algorithm used in this model has an option to reduce high frequency oscillations that

are sometimes observed in the yield surface under high strain rates. A first order strain rate correction

is applied by default. An additional implicit strain rate correction is available that can be used in cases

where the first order strain rate correction doesnt suffice, although at the cost of extra CPU time usage.

Note that the strain rate constants should be input assuming that the units of strain rate are 1/second.

The Cowper-Symonds strength model can be used in all element types and in combination with all

equations of state and failure properties.

Initial Yield Stress A Stress

Hardening Constant B Stress

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Plasticity

Hardening Exponent n None

Strain Rate Constant D None Assumed 1/second in all cases

Strain Rate Constant q None

Strain Rate Correction - None Option List:

None

Implicit

EFF_PL_STN Effective Plastic Strain Yes Yes* Yes*

EFF_PL_STN_RATE Effective Plastic Strain Rate Yes Yes* Yes*

SUBL_EPS Effective sublayer plastic strain No Yes No

In this formulation the authors have assumed that while yield stress initially increases with strain rate,

experimental data on shock-induced free surface velocity versus time records indicate that at high strain

rates (greater than 105sec-1) strain rate effects become insignificant compared to other effects and that

the yield stress reaches a maximum value which is subsequently strain rate independent.

They have also postulated that the shear modulus increases with increasing pressure and decreases

with increasing temperature and in doing this they have attempted to include modeling of the

Bauschinger effect into their calculations. They have therefore produced expressions for the shear

modulus and yield strength as functions of effective plastic strain, pressure and internal energy (tem-

perature).

The constitutive relations for shear modulus G and yield stress Y for high strain rates are :

subject to

where

T = temperature (degrees K)

= compression = 0/

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Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis

and the primed parameters with the subscripts p and T are derivatives of that parameter with respect

to pressure and temperature at the reference state (T = 300 K, p= 0, = 0).

The subscript zero also refers to values of G and Y at the reference state.

If the temperature of the material exceeds the specified melting temperature the shear modulus and

yield strength are set to zero.

Note

A specific heat capacity property should be defined to enable the calculation of temperature

hence the melting effect.

Initial Yield Stress Y Stress

Maximum Yield Stress Ymax Stress

Hardening Constant None

Hardening Exponent n None

Derivative dG/dP G'P None

Derivative dG/dT G'T Stress/Temperature

Derivative dY/dP Y'P None

Melting Temperature Tmelt Temperature

EFF_PL_STN Effective Plastic Strain Yes Yes* Yes*

EFF_PL_STN_RATE Effective Plastic Strain Rate Yes Yes* Yes*

TEMP Temperature** Yes Yes* Yes*

SUBL_EPS Effective sublayer plastic strain No Yes No

While the Johnson-Cook model predicted the behavior of most materials in the Taylor tests, the model's

prediction and test results for OFHC (oxygen free high conductivity) copper did not agree well.

In an approach seeking to improve on Johnson-Cook, Zerilli and Armstrong proposed a more sophistic-

ated constitutive relation obtained through the use of dislocation dynamics.

The effects of strain hardening, strain-rate hardening and thermal softening (based on thermal activation

analysis) have been incorporated into the formulation. The effect of grain size has also been included.

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Plasticity

The relation has a relatively simple expression and should be applicable to a wide range of fcc (face

centered cubic) materials.

A relation for iron has also been developed and is also applicable to other bcc (body centered cubic)

materials.

An important point made by Zerilli and Armstrong is that each material structure type (fcc, bcc, hcp)

will have its own constitutive behavior, dependent on the dislocation characteristics for that particular

structure. For example, a stronger dependence of the plastic yield stress on temperature and strain rate

is known to result for bcc metals as compared with fcc metals.

With this model, the yield stress varies depending on strain, strain rate and temperature.

where

= normalized effective plastic strain rate

T = temperature (degrees K)

The parameters Y0, C1, C2, C3, C4, C5 and n are material constants.

The plastic flow algorithm used in this model has an implicit strain rate correction option to reduce

high frequency oscillations that are sometimes observed in the yield surface under high strain rates.

The strain rate correction algorithm will be at the expense of increased CPU usage.

Note

A specific heat capacity property should be defined to enable the calculation of temperature

hence the melting effect.

Initial Yield Stress Y0 Stress

Hardening Constant #1 C1 Stress

Hardening Constant #2 C2 Stress

Hardening Constant #3 C3 None

Hardening Constant #4 C4 None

Hardening Constant #5 C5 Stress

Hardening Constant n n None

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Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis

Reference Strain Rate None Units fixed at 1/sec

Default = 1.0

Strain Rate Correction None Option List:

None (Default)

Implicit

EFF_PL_STN Effective Plastic Strain Yes Yes* Yes*

EFF_PL_STN_RATE Effective Plastic Strain Rate Yes Yes* Yes*

TEMP Temperature** Yes Yes* Yes*

SUBL_EPS Effective sublayer plastic strain No Yes No

7.8. Brittle/Granular

A number of properties are available to allow modeling of brittle/granular materials such as concrete,

rock, soil, glass and ceramics.

7.8.1. Drucker-Prager Strength Linear

7.8.2. Drucker-Prager Strength Stassi

7.8.3. Drucker-Prager Strength Piecewise

7.8.4. Johnson-Holmquist Strength Continuous

7.8.5. Johnson-Holmquist Strength Segmented

7.8.6. RHT Concrete Strength

7.8.7. MO Granular

This model is used to represent the behavior of dry soils, rocks, concrete and ceramics where the cohesion

and compaction behavior of the materials result in an increasing resistance to shear up to a limiting

value of yield strength as the loading increases. The yield strength of these materials is highly dependent

on pressure.

There are three forms available for this model; linear, stassi and piecewise.

Although the yield stress is pressure dependent in each case, the flow rule is volume independent, i.e.,

a Prandtl-Reuss type.

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Brittle/Granular

Y

The yield stress is a linear function of pressure (the original Drucker-Prager model)

Note

Yield Stress (at zero pressure) Stress

Slope (degrees) None Slope in degrees

EFF_PL_STN Effective Plastic Yes No No

Strain

Pressure Material Pressure Yes No No

Note

Figure 7.2: Drucker-Prager Strength Stassi

Y

where

Y0 is the yield strength in simple tension

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Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis

p is the pressure

Note

Yield Stress Uniaxial Tension Y0 Stress Measure under uniaxial stress

conditions

Yield Stress Uniaxial Stress Measure under uniaxial stress

Compression conditions

EFF_PL_STN Effective Plastic Strain Yes No No

Pressure Pressure Yes No No

Figure 7.3: Drucker-Prager Strength Piecewise

Yield stress Y varies with pressure as a piecewise linear

function. Constant shear modulus G

Yield

Stress Y

Ymax

Piecewise Linear

Pressure P

In tension (negative values of pressure), such materials have little tensile strength and this is modeled

by dropping the yield stress rapidly to zero as pressure goes negative to give a realistic value for the

limited tensile strength.

Note

You can use up to 10 pressure-yield points to define the material strength curve.

Yield Stress vs Pressure Y vs P Stress

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Brittle/Granular

EFF_PL_STN Effective Plastic Strain Yes No No

Pressure Material Pressure Yes No No

This model is used for modeling brittle materials such as glass and ceramics (Johnson & Holmquist

1993) [1] subjected to large pressures, shear strain and high strain rates. Two forms of this model are

found in the literature and are available in explicit dynamics systems; continuous (JH2), segmented

(JH1).

Both these forms can be used with a linear or energy dependent polynomial equation of state.

The strength of the brittle material is described as a smoothly varying function of intact strength, fractured

strength, strain rate and damage via a dimensionless analytic function as described below. P* is the

pressure normalized by the pressure at the Hugoniot Elastic Limit (PHELL) and T* is the maximum tensile

hydrostatic pressure normalized by PHELL. The effective plastic strain rate, , is normalized by a reference

strain rate of 1.0/second.

Intact Surface,

Damage,

Fractured,

As the material undergoes inelastic deformation, damage is assumed to accumulate which degrades

the overall load carrying capacity of the materials. The Johnson-Holmquist Damage model was developed

for the simulation of the compressive and shear induced strength and failure of brittle materials. Damage

is accumulated as the ratio of incremental plastic strain over the current estimated fracture strain. The

effective fracture strain is pressure dependent as described below.

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Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis

There are two methods for the application of damage to the material strength. The default Gradual

failure type results in damage being incrementally applied to the material strength as it accumulates.

If the Instantaneous failure type is selected, damage accumulates over time, however it is only applied

to the failure surface when its value reaches unity. The material strength instantaneously transitions

from intact to fully failed in this case.

The model includes an option to represent volumetric dilation of the material due to shear deformation

(Bulking). The work done in deforming the material inelastically in shear can be converted into a pressure

increase, hence volumetric dilation (if unconstrained). The amount of work which is converted into

dilation pressure is controlled through the Bulking constant, B. This can have values ranging from 0.0

(representing no shear induced dilatancy) to 1.0 (producing maximum dilatancy effects).

Note

If the Bulking constant, B is greater than zero then the Johnson-Holmquist model should be

used in conjunction with a polynomial equation of state or linear elasticity.

Hugoniot Elastic Limit HEL Stress Elastic limit under dynamic

compressive uniaxial strain

conditions

Intact Strength Constant A None

A

Intact Strength Exponent n None

n

Strain Rate Constant C C None

Fracture Strength B None

Constant B

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Brittle/Granular

Fracture Strength m None

Exponent m

Maximum Fracture F Max None Maximum fracture strength as

Strength Ratio fraction of intact strength

Damage Constant D1 D1 None

Damage Constant D2 D2 None

Bulking Constant B None

Hydrodynamic Tensile T Stress

Limit

Failure Type Option list:

Gradual (Default)

Instantaneous

EFF_Pl_STN Effective Plastic Strain Yes No No

EFF_Pl_STN_RATE Effective Plastic Strain Rate Yes No No

PRESSURE Pressure Yes No No

DAMAGE Damage Yes No No

STATUS Material Status** Yes No No

PRES_BULK Dilation pressure Yes No No

ENERGY_DAM Damage energy contributing Yes No No

to bulking

**Material status indicators (1= elastic, 2= plastic, 3 = bulk failure, 4 = bulk failure, 5 = failed principal

direction 1, 6 = failed principal direction 2, 7 = failed direction 3)

Recent studies (Holmquist and Johnson 2002) have showed that gradual softening in the JH2 model

has not been supported by available experimental data yet while there are some indications that an

early variant of the model, known as JH1, may be more accurate. In the JH1 material model, material

strength is described by linear segments and the damage is always applied instantaneously.

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Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis

Note

If the Bulking constant, B is greater than zero then the Johnson-Holmquist model should be

used in conjunction with a polynomial equation of state or linear elasticity.

Holmquist, T.J. & Johnson, G.R. (2002). Response of silicon carbide to high velocity impact.

Journal of Applied Physics, pp 5858-5866, Vol 91, No. 9, May 1, 2002.

Hugoniot Elastic Limit HEL Stress Elastic limit under

dynamic compressive

uniaxial strain conditions

Intact Strength Constant S1 S1 Stress

1

Intact Strength Constant P1 P Stress

Intact Strength Constant S2 S2 Stress

2

Intact Strength Constant P2 P Stress

Strain Rate Constant C C None

FMax

Maximum Fracture Strength S Stress

Failed Strength Constant None

Damage Constant D1 None

Damage Constant D2 None

Bulking Constant B None

Hydrodynamic Tensile Limit T Stress

EFF_PL_STN Effective Plastic Strain Yes No No

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Brittle/Granular

EFF_PL_STN_RATE Effective Plastic Strain Rate Yes No No

PRESSURE Pressure Yes No No

DAMAGE Damage Yes No No

STATUS Material Status** Yes No No

PRES_BULK Dilation pressure Yes No No

ENERGY_DAM Damage energy contributing Yes No No

to bulking

**Material status indicators (1 = elastic, 2 = plastic, 3 = bulk failure, 4 = bulk failure, 5 = failed principal

direction 1, 6 = failed principal direction 2, 7 = failed principal direction 3)

The RHT concrete model is an advanced plasticity model for brittle materials developed by Riedal et al

[2], [3], [4]. It is particularly useful for modeling the dynamic loading of concrete. It can also be used for

other brittle materials such as rock and ceramic.

The RHT constitutive model is a combined plasticity and shear damage model in which the deviatoric

stress in the material is limited by a generalized failure surface of the form:

(7.3)

This failure surface can be used to represent the following aspects of the response of geological mater-

ials

Pressure hardening

Strain hardening

The model is modular in nature and is designed such that individual aspects of the material behavior

can be turned on and off. This gives the model significant practical usefulness. Further details of how

the model represents the various aspects of the material behavior are now presented.

Fracture surface

The fracture surface is represented through the expression

(7.4)

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Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis

Pspall* is the normalized hydrodynamic tensile limit

FRATE is a rate dependent enhancement factor

Additionally, there is an option to truncate the fracture surface to fit through the characteristic points

that can be observed experimentally at low pressures, while retaining the flexibility to match data at

high pressures. This feature is described in the figure below.

The RHT model can represent the difference between the compressive and tensile meridian in terms

of material strength using the third invariant dependence term (R3). This can be utilized to represent

the observed reduction in strength of concrete under triaxial extension, compared with triaxial compres-

sion. The third invariant dependence term is formulated using the expression

(7.5)

The input parameter Q2.0 defines the ratio of strength at zero pressure and the coefficient BQ defines

the rate at which the fracture surface transitions from approximately triangular in form to a circular

form with increasing pressure (Figure 7.8: Third invariant dependence (p. 179)).

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Brittle/Granular

Te nsile

meridian

Q 2 = 1.0

Compressive

meridian

Q 2 = 0.5

Strain Hardening

Strain hardening is represented in the model through the definition of an elastic limit surface and a

hardening slope. The elastic limit surface is scaled down from the fracture surface by user defined

ratios; (elastic strength/fc) and (elastic strength/ft). The pre-peak fracture surface is subsequently defined

through interpolation between the elastic and fracture surfaces using the hardening slope, .

This is shown in Figure 7.9: Bi-linear strain hardening function (p. 179) for the case of uniaxial compression.

where

Shear Damage

Damage is assumed to accumulate due to inelastic deviatoric straining (shear induced cracking) using

the relationships

(7.6)

where D1 and D2 are material constants used to describe the effective strain to fracture as a function

of pressure. Damage accumulation can have two effects in the model

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Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis

The current fracture surface (for a given level of damage) is scaled down from the intact surface using

the expression

(7.7)

where

(7.8)

The term Y XTC*SFMAX is used to limit the maximum residual shear strength (for completely damaged

material) to be a fraction (SFMAX) of the current fracture strength.

(7.9)

The model includes the option to include a cap to limit the elastic deviatoric stress under large com-

pressions. This effectively leads to the assumption that porous compaction results in a reduction in

deviatoric strength.

The final combination of elastic, fracture and residual failure surfaces is shown schematically below in

Figure 7.10: RHT Elastic, Fracture and Residual Failure Surfaces (p. 180).

Strain rate effects are represented through increases in fracture strength with plastic strain rate. Two

different terms can be used for compression and tension with linear interpolation being used in the

intermediate pressure regime.

where

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Brittle/Granular

Tensile Failure

By default, tensile failure is achieved using a hydrodynamic tensile limit. The maximum tensile pressure

in the material is limited to

(7.10)

Using this option, no additional user input is required since the value of Pmin is derived from ft, which

forms part of the input for the strength model.

Note that the principal tensile stress and crack softening failure properties may also be used in conjunc-

tion with this model.

Data for concrete with cube strengths of 35MPa and 140MPa are included in the distributed material

library.

The model is formulated such that input can be scaled with the cube strength, fc i.e. you can retrieve

one of the two concretes in the library, change its cube strength to match the concrete you want to

model and the remaining terms will automatically scale proportionately. The resulting data set will be

approximate and we recommend validation of the material data against experimental characterization

tests in all cases.

Note

Compressive Strength fc Stress

Tensile Strength ft/fc None

Shear Strength fs/fc None

Intact failure surface AFAIL None

constant A

Intact failure surface NFAIL None

exponent N

Tens./Comp. Meridian Q2.0 None

ratio

Brittle to Ductile BQ None

Transition

Hardening Slope None Gel/(Gel-Gpl)

Elastic Strength/ft None

Elastic Strength/fc None

Fracture Strength B None

Constant

Fracture Strength m None

Exponent

Compressive strain rate None

exponent

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Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis

Tensile strain rate None

exponent

Maximum fracture SFMAX None

strength ratio

Use cap on elastic None Option:

surface

Yes (default)

No

Damage constant D1 D1 None

Damage constant D2 D2 None

Minimum strain to None

failure

Residual Shear modulus None

fraction

EFF_PL_STN Effective Plastic Strain Yes No No

EFF_PL_STN_RATE Effective Plastic Strain Yes No No

Rate

PRESSURE Pressure Yes No No

DAMAGE Damage Yes No No

STATUS Material Status** Yes No No

**Material status indicators (1=elastic, 2= plastic, 3 = bulk failure, 4 = bulk failure, 5= failed principal

direction 1, 6= failed principal direction 2, 7 = failed principal direction 3)

7.8.7. MO Granular

This model is an extension of the Drucker-Prager model that takes into account effects associated with

granular materials such as powders, soil and sand. In addition to pressure hardening, the model also

represents density hardening and variations in the shear modulus with density.

The yield stress is made up of two components, one dependent on the density and one dependent on

the pressure,

where y, p and denote the total yield stress, the pressure yield stress and the density yield stress

respectively.

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Equations of State

The unload/reload slope is defined by the shear modulus which is defined as a function of the zero

pressure density of the material.

Note

The yield stress is defined by a yield stress - pressure and a yield stress - density curve with

up to 10 points in each curve.

The shear modulus is defined by a shear modulus - density curve with up to 10 points.

Yield Stress vs Pressure Stress Tabular data

Yield Stress vs Density Stress and Density Tabular data

Shear Modulus vs Density Stress and Density Tabular data

EFF_PL_STN Effective Plastic Strain Yes No No

PRESSURE Pressure Yes No No

DENSITY Density Yes No No

Background information is discussed in this section along with available EOS models:

7.9.1. Background

7.9.2. Bulk Modulus

7.9.3. Shear Modulus

7.9.4. Ideal Gas EOS

7.9.5. Polynomial EOS

7.9.6. Shock EOS Linear

7.9.7. Shock EOS Bilinear

7.9.8. JWL EOS

7.9.1. Background

A general material model requires equations that relate stress to deformation and internal energy (or

temperature). In most cases, the stress tensor may be separated into a uniform hydrostatic pressure (all

three normal stresses equal) and a stress deviatoric tensor associated with the resistance of the material

to shear distortion.

Then the relation between the hydrostatic pressure, the local density (or specific volume) and local

specific energy (or temperature) is known as an equation of state.

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Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis

Hooke's law is the simplest form of an equation of state and is implicitly assumed when you use linear

elastic material properties. Hooke's law is energy independent and is only valid if the material being

modeled undergoes relatively small changes in volume (less than approximately 2%). One of the altern-

ative equation of state properties should be used if the material is expected to experience high volume

changes during an analysis.

Before looking at the various equations of state available, it is good to understand some of the funda-

mental physics behind their formulations. Details are provided in Explicit Dynamics Analysis Guide (to

be published).

Bulk Modulus A bulk modulus can be used to define a linear, energy independent equation of state.

Combined with a shear modulus property, this material definition is equivalent to using linear elasticity

i.e., Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio.

Shear Modulus A shear modulus must be used when a solid or porous equation of state is selected

to fully define the elastic stiffness of a material. To represent fluids, specify a small value.

One of the simplest forms of equation of state is that for an ideal polytropic gas which may be used in

many applications involving the motion of gases. This may be derived from the laws of Boyle and Gay-

Lussac and expressed in the form

This form of equation is known as the Ideal Gas equation of state and only the value of the adiabatic

exponent needs to be supplied.

In order to avoid complications with problems with multiple materials where initial small pressures in

the gas would generate small unwanted velocities the equation is modified for use in these cases

where pshift is a small initial pressure defined to give a zero starting pressure.

The definition of a non-zero adiabatic constant, c, will turn the energy dependent ideal gas equation

of state into the following energy independent adiabatic equation of state

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Equations of State

Note

This equation of state can only be applied to solid bodies. A specific heat capacity should

be defined with this property to allow the calculation of temperature.

Adiabatic None

exponent

Adiabatic c None

constant

Pressure shift Pshift Pressure

This equation of state can only be used with solid elements. Custom results variables available for this

model:

PRESSURE Pressure Yes No No

DENSITY Density Yes No No

COMPRESSION Compression Yes No No

INT_ENERGY Internal Energy Yes No No

TEMPERATURE Temperature Yes No No

This is a general form of the Mie-Gruneisen form of the equation of state and it has different analytic

forms for states of compression and tension.

> 0 (compression):

< 0 (tension)

where

= compression = /0-1

0 = solid, zero pressure density

e = internal energy per unit mass

A1, A2, A3, B0,, B1, T1 and T2 are material constants

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Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis

The validity of this equation depends upon the ability to represent the variation of pressure at e = 0

(or some other reference curve) as a simple polynomial in of no more than three terms. This is probably

true as long as the range in density variation (and hence range in ) is not too large.

Note

A specific heat capacity should be defined with this property to allow the calculation of

temperature.

Parameter A1 A1 Stress Often equivalent to the

material bulk modulus

Parameter A2 A2 Stress

Parameter A3 A3 Stress

Parameter B0 B0 None

Parameter B1 B1 None

Parameter T1 T1 Stress This value will be

automatically set to the

material bulk modulus

if entered as zero.

Parameter T2 T2 Stress

PRESSURE Pressure Yes No No

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Equations of State

DENSITY Density Yes No No

COMPRESSION Compression Yes No No

VISC_PRESSURE Viscous Pressure Yes No No

INT_ENERGY Internal Energy Yes No No

TEMPERATURE Temperature Yes No No

The Rankine-Hugoniot equations for the shock jump conditions can be regarded as defining a relation

between any pair of the variables (density), P (pressure), e (energy), up (particle velocity) and U (shock

velocity).

In many dynamic experiments making measurements of up and U it has been found that for most solids

and many liquids over a wide range of pressure there is an empirical linear relationship between these

two variables:

It is then convenient to establish a Mie-Gruneisen form of the equation of state based on the shock

Hugoniot:

Note that for s>1 this formulation gives a limiting value of the compression as the pressure tends to

infinity. The denominator of the first equation above becomes zero and the pressure therefore becomes

infinite for

1 (s-1)= 0

giving a maximum density of = s 0 (s-1). However, long before this regime is approached, the assump-

tion of constant is probably not valid. Furthermore, the assumption of linear variation between the

shock velocity U and the particle velocity up does not hold for too large a compression.

is known as the Gruneisen coefficient and is often approximated to ~2s-1 in the literature.

The Shock EOS linear model lets you optionally include a quadratic shock velocity, particle velocity re-

lation of the form:

The input parameter, S2, can be set to a non-zero value to better fit highly non-linear Us - up material

data.

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Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis

Data for this equation of state can be found in various references and many of the materials in the ex-

plicit material library.

Note

A specific heat capacity should be defined with this property to allow the calculation of

temperature.

Gruneisen coefficient None

Parameter C1 C1 Velocity

Parameter S1 S1 None

Parameter Quadratic S2 S2 1/Velocity

PRESSURE Pressure Yes No No

DENSITY Density Yes No No

COMPRESSION Compression Yes No No

VISC_PRESSURE Viscous Pressure Yes No No

INT_ENERGY Internal Energy Yes No No

TEMPERATURE Temperature Yes No No

This is an extension of the Shock EOS Linear property. At high shock strengths nonlinearity in the shock

velocity - particle velocity relationship is apparent, particularly for non-metallic materials. To account

for this nonlinearity, the input calls for the definition of two linear fits to the shock velocity - particle

velocity relationship; one at low shock compressions defined by Up > VB and one at high shock com-

pressions defined by Up < VE.

The region between VE and VB is covered by a smooth interpolation between the two linear relationships

as shown below.

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Equations of State

In the input you are prompted for values of the parameters c1, c2, s1, s2, VE/Vo, VB/Vo, o and o. Then

Note

A specific heat capacity should be defined with this property to allow the calculation of

temperature.

Gruneisen coefficient None

Parameter C1 C1 Velocity

Parameter S1 S1 None

Parameter C2 C2 Velocity

Parameter S2 S2 None

Relative Volume VB/V0 VB/V0 None

Relative Volume VE/V0 VE/V0 None

PRESSURE Pressure Yes No No

DENSITY Density Yes No No

COMPRESSION Compression Yes No No

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Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis

VISC_PRESSURE Viscous Pressure Yes No No

INT_ENERGY Internal Energy Yes No No

TEMPERATURE Temperature Yes No No

The JWL equation of state describes the detonation product expansion down to a pressure of 1 kbar

for high energy explosive materials and has been proposed by Jones, Wilkins and Lee according to the

following equation

The values of the constants A, B, R1, R2 and for many common explosives have been determined

from dynamic experiments.

Figure 7.12: Pressure as function of density for the JWL equation of state

The standard JWL equation of state can be used in combination with an energy release extension

whereby additional energy is deposited over a user-defined time interval. Thermobaric explosives show

this behavior and produce more explosive energy than conventional high energy explosives through

combustion of inclusions, like aluminum, with atmospheric oxygen after detonation.

This option is activated when the additional specific energy is specified different from zero.

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Equations of State

Burn on Compression

In this process the detonation wave is not predefined but the unburned explosive is initially treated

similarly to any other inert material. However, as an initiating shock travels through the unburned ex-

plosive and traverses elements within the explosive the compression of all explosive elements is mon-

itored. If and when the compression in a cell reaches a predefined value the chemical energy is allowed

to be released at a controlled rate.

Pre-burn bulk modulus KBK is zero. The elements start to release their energy when the element compression

exceeds a specified fraction of the Chapman-Jouguet compression:

Pre-burn bulk modulus KBK is non zero. The elements start to release their energy when the element pressure

exceeds a specified fraction of the Chapman-Jouguet pressure:

The critical threshold compression and the release rate are parameters that must be chosen with care

in order to obtain realistic results. The burn on compression option may give unrealistic results for un-

confined regions of explosive since the material is free to expand at the time of initial shock arrival and

may not achieve sufficient compression to initiate energy release in a realistic time scale.

Typically, a burn logic based upon compression is more successful in Lagrangian computations rather

than Eulerian.

Note

and one constant cannot be changed unilaterally without considering the effect of this

change on the other parameters.

temperature.

Parameter A A Stress

Parameter B B Stress

Parameter R1 R1 None

Parameter R2 R2 None

Parameter None

C-J Detonation Velocity DCJ Velocity

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Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis

C-J Energy/unit mass Energy/mass

C-J Pressure PCJ Stress Burn on compression logic

Burn on compression BCJ None Burn on compression logic

fraction

Pre-burn bulk modulus KBK Stress Burn on compression logic

Adiabatic constant None

Additional specific Energy/mass Additional energy release

internal energy/unit

mass

Begin Time Time Start time of additional energy

release

End Time Time End time of additional energy

release

PRESSURE Pressure Yes No No

DENSITY Density Yes No No

COMPRESSION Compression Yes No No

INT_ENERGY Internal Energy Yes No No

TEMPERATURE Temperature Yes No No

BURN_FRAC Burn Fraction Yes No No

7.10. Porosity

The following Porosity models are discussed in this section:

7.10.1. Porosity-Crushable Foam

7.10.2. Compaction EOS Linear

7.10.3. Compaction EOS Non-Linear

7.10.4. P-alpha EOS

This is a relatively simple strength model designed to represent the crush characteristics of foam mater-

ials under impact loading conditions (non-cyclic loading).

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Porosity

The strength model must be used with isotropic elasticity and the following incremental elastic update

of pressure and stress deviators is used.

where

The magnitude of the resulting principal stresses is compared against the allowable principal compaction

stress, for the current volumetric strain. If the principal stress exceeds the maximum allowable, it is re-

duced to the allowable value. If the tentative principal stress (denoted by an asterisk) exceeds the

maximum allowable principal compaction stress, it is scaled down to this limit. A negative tentative

principal stress exceeding the maximum is scaled down to the negative value of the limit.

After scaling back of the principal stresses they are transformed back to the global system to give the

final stress update. Note that the return of the principal stress back to the compaction stress is performed

independently in each of the principal directions, implying zero plastic Poisson's ratio.

The compaction curve can be defined as a piecewise linear principal stress vs volumetric strain curve.

The volumetric strain is defined as the natural log of the volume ratio, where V0 is the original volume

and V is the current volume.

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Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis

In tension, the model additionally includes the possibility to apply a tension cut-off to the maximum

allowable principal tensile stress. If the tensile stress exceeds this value, it is maintained at this value.

The model cannot currently be used with other failure properties.

Note

Note that the plastic strain variable is used to store the inelastic volumetric strain for this

porosity model.

Maximum Principal Stress vs Stress and strain Tabular data

Volumetric Strain

Maximum Tensile Stress Stress

EFF_PL_STN Effective Plastic Strain Yes No No

PRESSURE Pressure Yes No No

DENSITY Density Yes No No

Porous Materials

Porous materials are extremely effective in attenuating shocks and mitigating impact pressures. The

material compacts to its solid density at relatively low stress levels but, because the volume change is

relatively large, a large amount of energy is irreversibly absorbed thereby attenuating shocks by

lengthening the wave in time and reducing it in amplitude as more material is compacted.

Cellular porous materials contain a population of microscopic cells separated by cell walls. When stressed

the initial elastic compression is assumed to be due to elastic buckling of the cell walls and the plastic

flow to be due to plastic deformation of these cell walls. Materials with low initial porosity has fewer

cells and thicker cell walls so that the stress required to cause buckling and subsequent deformation

of the cell walls will be greater.

Once some plastic flow has taken place, even if the fully compacted density hasn't been reached, un-

loading to zero stress and reloading to the elastic limit will be elastic. This phenomenological behavior

is illustrated in the following figure.

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Porosity

pressure

Plastic compaction

Elastic Fully

loading compacted

Elastic

unloading

(variable slope)

density

The response of porous materials is represented via

A plastic compaction path defined as a piecewise linear function of pressure versus density

The elastic unloading/reloading path defined via a piecewise linear function of sound speed versus density.

The use of a fixed compaction path (which may be derived from static compression data, either in its

original state or arbitrarily enhanced to model dynamic data) is equivalent to using a Mie-Gruneisen

equation of state with an assumed value of zero for the Gruneisen Gamma. This ignores the pressure

enhancement due to the energy absorption.

The elastic bulk stiffness of the material is defined as a piecewise linear curve of sound speed (c) versus

density (o). The bulk stiffness of the material is given by

Initially, o will be equal to the value defined in the density property of the material. Material property

s is the solid zero pressure density of the material and corresponds to the fully compacted material

density. For a porous material the initial density will be less than the solid density hence the value of

will be greater than 1.0. As compaction takes place, will reduce to a value of 1.0 for the fully com-

pacted state.

Note

It is important when using the model to ensure that the input data is such that the elastic

loading line from the initial porous density intersects the plastic compaction curve at the

intended position.

This property must be used in combination with a shear modulus to define the total elastic

stiffness of the material.

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Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis

Solid Density s Density at zero pressure for fully compacted

material

Compaction Curve Tabular data of compaction pressure against

density

Linear Unloading Curve Tabular data of sound speed against density

PRESSURE Pressure Yes No No

DENSITY Density Yes No No

COMPRESSION Compression Yes No No

VISC_PRESSURE Viscous Pressure Yes No No

INT_ENERGY Internal Energy Yes No No

ALPHA Porosity (Alpha) Yes No No

This property is an extension of the Compaction EOS linear property and can provide a more accurate

representation of non-linearity when unloading a porous material.

A plastic compaction path defined as a piecewise linear function of pressure versus density

The non-linear unloading defined by means of a piecewise curve of bulk modulus versus density

For the non-linear unloading, if the current pressure is less than the current compaction pressure, the

pressure is defined by

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Porosity

Note

It is important when using the model to ensure that the input data is such that the elastic

loading line from the initial porous density intersects the plastic compaction curve at the

intended position.

This property must be used in combination with a shear modulus to define the total elastic

stiffness of the material.

Solid Density s Density at zero pressure for fully compacted

material

Compaction Curve Tabular data of compaction pressure against density

Nonlinear Unloading Tabular data of bulk modulus against density

Curve

PRESSURE Pressure Yes No No

DENSITY Density Yes No No

COMPRESSION Compression Yes No No

VISC_PRESSURE Viscous Pressure Yes No No

INT_ENERGY Internal Energy Yes No No

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Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis

ALPHA Porosity (Alpha) Yes No No

Although the compaction models give good results for low stress levels and low materials, it is very

desirable to obtain a single formulation for the modeling of a porous material which gives a good

representation over a wide stress range and variety of materials.

Such a model has been derived by Hermann (1969) [5] and this is available in explicit dynamics.

Hermann's P-alpha model uses a phenomenological approach to devising a representation which gives

the correct behavior at high stresses but at the same time provides a reasonably detailed description

of the compaction process at low stress levels.

The principal assumption is that the specific internal energy is the same for a porous material as for

the same material at solid density at identical conditions of pressure and temperature. Then the

porosity, , is given by

(7.11)

where v is the specific volume of the porous material and vs is the specific volume of the material in

the solid state and at the same pressure and temperature (note that vs is only equal to 1/solid at zero

pressure). becomes unity when the material compacts to a solid. If the equation of state of the solid

material, neglecting shear strength effects, is given by

(7.12)

(7.13)

This function can be any of the equations of state which describe the compressed state of material, i.e.,

Linear, Polynomial and Shock, but not those describing the expanded state.

In order to complete the material description the porosity must be specified as a function of the

thermodynamic state of the material, say,

(7.14)

There is not enough data usually available to determine the function g(p,e) completely but fortunately

most problems of interest involve shock compaction of the porous material, i.e. the region of interest

lies on or near the Hugoniot. On the Hugoniot, pressure and internal energy are related by the Rankine-

Hugoniot conditions so therefore along the Hugoniot equation Equation 7.14 (p. 198) can be expressed

as

(7.15)

with the variation with energy implicitly assumed. It is assumed this equation Equation 7.15 (p. 198) re-

mains valid in the neighborhood of the Hugoniot (tacitly assuming that the compaction strength is in-

sensitive to the small changes in temperature in extrapolating small distances from the Hugoniot).

The general behavior of the compacting porous material has been described earlier and the P- model

is constructed to reproduce this behavior. The P- variation to provide this performance is shown

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Porosity

schematically in the figure below. The material deforms elastically up to onset of plastic compaction,

p, and subsequent deformation is plastic until the material is fully compacted at a pressure ps.

The choice of a suitable function g(p) is somewhat arbitrary as long as it satisfies certain simple analytic

properties enumerated by Herrmann in his original paper, and several forms have been used by different

researchers. A simple form (Butcher & Karnes 1968) [6] found adequate for porous iron is a quadratic

form, but cubic and exponential forms have also been proposed and the parameters adjusted to fit

experimental data.

The following choices for the plastic compaction curve are available:

Standard

This is the default option, whereby the plastic compaction curve is defined by the solid compaction

pressure, ps, at full compaction, the initial compaction pressure, pe, at porous compaction, i, and the

compaction exponent n.

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Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis

The plastic compaction curve is defined by the solid compaction pressure, ps, at full compaction, the

initial compaction pressure, pe, at the onset of plastic compaction, p, and the compaction exponent

n.

Carroll & Holt (1972) [7] modified the equation of state of the porous material to give

(7.16)

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Failure

where the factor 1/ was included to allow for their argument that the pressure in the porous material

is more nearly 1/ times the average pressure in the matrix material. It is this form of the model that

is available in explicit dynamics.

Note

The solid equation of state must be defined using one of the following properties

Bulk modulus

Polynomial EOS

Shock EOS Linear

Shock EOS Bilinear

This property must be used in combination with a shear modulus to define the total elastic

stiffness of the material.

Solid Density solid Density

Porous Soundspeed Velocity

Initial Compaction Pressure Pe Stress

Solid Compaction Pressure Ps Stress

Compaction Exponent n None

PRESSURE Pressure Yes No No

DENSITY Density Yes No No

COMPRESSION Compression Yes No No

VISC_PRESSURE Viscous Pressure Yes No No

INT_ENERGY Internal Energy Yes No No

ALPHA Porosity (Alpha) Yes No No

7.11. Failure

Background

Materials are not able to withstand tensile stresses which exceed the material's local tensile strength.

The computation of the dynamic motion of materials assuming that they always remain continuous,

even if the predicted local stresses reach very large values, will lead to unphysical solutions.

A model has to be constructed to recognize when tensile limits are reached to modify the computation

to deal with this and to describe the properties of the material after this formulation has been applied.

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Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis

Several different modes of failure initiation can be represented in the explicit dynamics system.

Failure initiation

A number of mechanisms are available to initiate failure in a material (see properties Plastic Strain

Failure, Principal Stress Failure, Principal Strain Failure, Tensile Pressure Failure, Johnson-Cook Failure,

Grady Spall Failure). When specified criteria are met within an element, a post failure response is activated.

Failure initiation can be identified in the model via the custom result MAT_STATUS. The following key

is used.

MAT_STATUS Meaning

1 Material is currently undergoing elastic deformation, or no deformation

2 The plastic strain in the material increased during the last time increment

3 The material has failed due to isotropic (bulk) criteria

4 The material has failed due to isotropic (bulk) criteria

5 The material has failed in tension due to principal value 1

6 The material has failed in tension due to principal value 2

7 The material has failed in tension due to principal value 3

After failure initiation in an element, the subsequent strength characteristics of the element will change

depending on the type of failure model

Instantaneous Failure

Upon failure initiation, the element deviatoric stress will be immediately set to zero and retained at

this level. Subsequently, the element will only be able to support compressive pressures.

After failure initiation, the element stress is limited by a damage evolution law. Usually this results

in a gradual reduction in an elements capability to carry deviatoric and/or pressure stresses.

By default, tensile failure models will produce an instantaneous post failure response. Inserting the crack

softening failure property, in addition to other failure initiation properties results in a gradual failure

response.

7.11.1. Plastic Strain Failure

7.11.2. Principal Stress Failure

7.11.3. Principal Strain Failure

7.11.4. Stochastic Failure

7.11.5.Tensile Pressure Failure

7.11.6. Crack Softening Failure

7.11.7. Johnson-Cook Failure

7.11.8. Grady Spall Failure

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Failure

Plastic strain failure can be used to model ductile failure in materials. Failure initiation is based on the

effective plastic strain in the material. The user inputs a maximum plastic strain value.

If the material effective plastic strain is greater than the user defined maximum, failure initiation occurs.

The material instantaneously fails.

Note

This failure model must be used in conjunction with a plasticity or brittle strength model.

max

Maximum Equivalent Plastic Strain Epl None Input data > zero

EFF_PL_STN Effective Plastic Strain Yes Yes Yes

STATUS Material Status** Yes No No

**Material status indicators (1 = elastic, 2 = plastic, 3 = bulk failure, 4= bulk failure, 5 = failed principal

direction1, 6 = failed principal direction 2, 7 = failed principal direction 3)

Principal stress failure can be used to represent brittle failure in materials.

Maximum shear stress (derived from the maximum difference in the principal stresses)

Failure is initiated when either of the above criteria is met. The material instantaneously fails.

If this model is used in conjunction with a plasticity model, it is often recommended to deactivate the

Maximum Shear stress criteria by specifying a large value. In this case the shear response will be handled

by the plasticity model.

Note

The crack softening failure property can be combined with this property to invoke fracture

energy based softening.

Maximum Tensile Stress Stress User must input a

positive value.

Default = +1e+20

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Maximum Shear Stress Stress User must input a

positive value.

Default = +1e+20

STATUS Material Status** Yes No No

**Material status indicators (1 = elastic, 2 = plastic, 3 = bulk failure, 4= bulk failure, 5 = failed principal

direction1, 6 = failed principal direction 2, 7 = failed principal direction 3)

Principal strain failure can be used to represent brittle or ductile failure in materials.

Maximum shear strain (derived from the maximum difference in the principal strains)

Failure is initiated when either of the above criteria is met. The material instantaneously fails.

If this model is used in conjunction with a plasticity model, it is often recommended to deactivate the

maximum shear strain criteria by specifying a large value. In this case the shear response will be treated

by the plasticity model.

Note

The crack softening failure property can be combined with this property to invoke fracture

energy based softening.

Maximum Principal Strain None User must input a

positive value. Default =

+1e+20

Maximum Shear Strain None User must input a

positive value. Default =

+1e+20

STATUS Material Status** Yes No No

**Material status indicators (1 = elastic, 2 = plastic, 3 = bulk failure, 4= bulk failure, 5 = failed principal

direction1, 6 = failed principal direction 2, 7 = failed principal direction 3)

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Failure

To model fragmentation for symmetric loading and geometry it is necessary to impose some material

heterogeneity. Real materials have inherent microscopic flaws, which cause failures and cracking to

initiate. An approach to reproducing this numerically is to randomize the failure stress or strain for the

material. Using this property, a Mott distribution is used to define the variance in failure stress or strain.

Each element is allocated a value, determined by the Mott distribution, where a value of one is equivalent

to the failure stress or strain of the material.

where

is the strain

C and are material constants

For the implementation in explicit dynamics, the fracture value of 1 is forced to be at a probability of

50%, therefore the user needs only specify a gamma value and the constant C is derived from this.

The stochastic failure option may be used in conjunction with many of the failure properties, including

hydro (Pmin), plastic strain, principal stress and/or strain. It can also be used in conjunction with the

RHT concrete model.

You must specify a value of the stochastic variance, , and also the distribution seed type. If the random

option is selected every time a simulation is performed a new distribution will be calculated. If the

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Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis

fixed option is selected the same distribution will be used for each solve. However, this fixed distribution

may also change when the model is run in one release compared to when it is run in a later release

Distribution Type Option List:

Random

Fixed (default)

Stochastic Variance None

Minimum Fail Fraction None Default = 0.1

STATUS Material Status** Yes No No

STOCH_FACT Stochastic Factor Yes No No

direction1, 6 = failed principal direction 2, 7 = failed principal direction 3)

The tensile pressure failure model allows a maximum hydrodynamic tensile limit to be specified. This

is used to represent a dynamic spall (or cavitation) strength of the material. The algorithm simply limits

the maximum tensile pressure in the material as

If the material pressure P becomes less than the defined maximum tensile pressure, failure initiation

occurs. The material instantaneously fails.

If the material definition contains a damage evolution law, the user defined maximum tensile pressure

is scaled down as the damage increases from 0.0 to 1.0.

Note

The crack softening failure property can be combined with this property to invoke fracture

energy based softening.

Maximum Tensile Pressure Stress User must input a

negative value. Default =

1e+20

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Failure

PRESSURE Pressure Yes No No

STATUS Material Status** Yes No No

direction1, 6 = failed principal direction 2, 7 = failed principal direction 3)

The tensile crack softening model is fracture energy based damage model which can be used with

many different types of failure initiation models to provide a gradual reduction in the ability of an element

to carry tensile stress. The model is primarily used for investigating failure of brittle materials, but has

been applied to other materials to reduce mesh dependency effects.

Failure initiation is based on any of the standard tensile failure models. e.g., Hydro, Principal Stress/Strain

On failure initiation, the current maximum principal tensile stress in the element is stored (custom result

FAIL.STRES)

A linear softening slope (custom result SOFT.SLOPE) is then defined to reduce the maximum possible prin-

cipal tensile stress in the material as a function of crack strain. This softening slope is defined as a function

of the local element size and a material parameter, the fracture energy Gf.

Lf t2

Slope =

2G f

Area = G f /L

The extent of damage in a material can be inspected by using the custom result DAMAGE. The

damage is defined to be 0.0 for an intact element and 1.0 for a fully failed element.

After failure initiation, a maximum principal tensile stress failure surface is defined to limit the maximum

principal tensile stress in the element and a flow rule is used to return to this surface and accumulate the

crack strain

There are currently three options in relation to the crack softening plastic return algorithm:

The default setting has been selected based on practical experiences of using the model to simulate

impacts onto brittle materials such as glass, ceramics, and concrete.

The recompression behavior after crack softening and failure can be modified. When one of the failure cri-

teria (for instance principal stress, hydro (Pmin), or RHT concrete) has been set and Crack Softening is set

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to Yes, the Onset Compression after failure option can be used to change the compression criterion at

which pressure can build up again in failed elements.

Onset compression = 0.0 (default) Pressure can only build up if the material is in compression.

Onset compression < 0 For large negative values, the material will be able to immediately build up

pressure after tensional failure when fractured material resists compression. For real-world applications,

you should determine a value for this field which is less than or equal to zero and appropriate for the

material in the analysis.

The crack softening algorithm can only be used with solid elements. It can be used in combination with

any solid equation of state, plasticity model or brittle strength model.

When used in conjunction with a plasticity/brittle strength model, the return algorithm will return to

the surface giving the minimum resulting effective stress, J2.

Meridian Plane

Trial Elastic Stresses

Rankine Failure

Surface

J2

Associate flow

in Meridional Yield Surface (Strength Model)

Plane(Option)

Non-associative flow-in

Meridional Plane (Default)

Pressure

(Te nsile Cracking)

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Failure

- space

Note

Fracture Energy Gf Energy/Area

Flow rule Option List:

Radial Return

No Bulking (Default)

Bulking (Associative)

DAMAGE Current damage level Yes No No

FAIL.STRES Principal tensile failure Yes No No

stress

SOFT.SLOPE Softening slope Yes No No

The Johnson-Cook failure model can be used to model ductile failure of materials experiencing large

pressures, strain rates and temperatures.

This model is constructed in a similar way to the Johnson-Cook plasticity model in that it consists of

three independent terms that define the dynamic fracture strain as a function of pressure, strain rate

and temperature:

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Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis

The ratio of the incremental effective plastic strain and effective fracture strain for the element conditions

is incremented and stored in custom results variable, DAMAGE. The material is assumed to be intact

until DAMAGE = 1.0. At this point failure is initiated in the element. An instantaneous post failure response

is used.

Note

Damage Constant D1 D1 None

Damage Constant D2 D2 None

Damage Constant D3 D3 None

Damage Constant D4 D4 None

Damage Constant D5 D5 None

Melting Temperature Temperature

DAMAGE Damage Yes No No

direction1, 6 = failed principal direction 2, 7 = failed principal direction 3)

The Grady Spall model can be used to model dynamic spallation of metals under shock loading. The

critical spall stress for a ductile material can be calculated according to:

where:

is the density

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Strength

This critical spall stress is calculated for each element in the model at each time step and compared

with local maximum principal tensile stress. If the maximum element principal tensile stress exceeds

the critical spall stress, instantaneous failure of the element is initiated.

Note

Critical Strain c None

Value

STATUS Material Status Yes No No

direction1, 6 = failed principal direction 2, 7 = failed principal direction 3)

7.12. Strength

The following table summarizes the applicable strength-limit constants for each failure criterion:

Constant Stress Limit Strain Limit Constants

Tensile Y Y Y

X-Direction

Tensile Y Y Y

Y-Direction

Tensile Y Y

Z-Direction

Compressive X Y

Compressive Y Y

Compressive Z

Shear XY Y Y Y

Shear YZ Y Y

Shear XZ Y Y

Coupling

Coefficient XY

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Material Models Used in Explicit Dynamics Analysis

Coupling

Coefficient YZ

Coupling

Coefficient XZ

Tsai-Wu Constants must be used in conjunction with Orthotropic Stress Limit. Tsai-Wu Constants used

in conjunction with Orthotropic Strain Limit are not supported.

The TSai-Wu coefficients are always reset to -1 in an Explicit solve. The Tsai-Wu Constants property

changes how the Explicit Dynamics solver uses the data from the Orthotropic Stress Limit property.

Without the Tsai-Wu Constants property, the Explicit Dynamics solver uses all three tensile stress and

all three shear stress constants from the Orthotropic Stress Limit. With the Tsai-Wu Constants property,

the Explicit Dynamics solver uses the tensile and compressive stress constants in the X and Y direction

only (not Z) and the XY shear stress constant (not YZ and XZ shears).

Specific heat is the amount of heat per mass required to raise the temperature of a material.

TEMPERATURE Temperature Yes Yes Yes

direction1, 6 = failed principal direction 2, 7 = failed principal direction 3)

Rigid materials can be modeled in an explicit dynamics system by selecting geometry, Stiffness beha-

vior = rigid on a body. In such cases only the density property of the material associated with the body

will be used.

For explicit dynamics systems all rigid bodies must be discretized with a full mesh. This will be specified

by default for the explicit meshing physics preference.

The mass and inertia of the rigid body will be derived from the elements and material density for each

body.

By default, a kinematic rigid body is defined in explicit dynamics and its motion will depend on the

resultant forces and moments applied to it through interaction with other parts of the model. Elements

filled with rigid materials can interact with other regions via contact.

Constraints can only be applied to an entire rigid body. For example, a fixed displacement cannot be

applied to one edge of a rigid body; it must be applied to the whole body.

7.15. References

The following references are cited in this appendix:

1. Johnson G. R. & Holmquist T. J. (1993). An Improved Computational Constitutive Model for Brittle Materials,

Joint AIRA/APS Conference, Colorado Springs, Colorado, June 1993.

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References

2. Riedel W., Thoma K., Hiermaier S., Schmolinske E.: Penetration of Reinforced Concrete by BETA-B-500, Nu-

merical Analysis using a New Macroscopic Concrete Model for Hydrocodes. Proc. (CD-ROM) 9. Internationales

Symposium, Interaction of the Effects of Munitions with Structures, Berlin Strausberg, 03.-07. Mai 1999, pp

315 - 322

3. W. Riedel, Beton unter dynamischen Lasten: Meso- und makromechanische Modelle und ihre Parameter,

Ed.: Fraunhofer-Institut fr Kurzzeitdynamik, Ernst-Mach-Institut EMI, Freiburg/Brsg., Fraunhofer IRB Verlag

2004, ISBN 3-8167-6340-5, http://www.irbdirekt.de/irbbuch/

4. Werner Riedel, Nobuaki Kawai and Ken-ichi Kondo, Numerical Assessment for Impact Strength Measurements

in Concrete Materials, International Journal of Impact Engineering 36 (2009), pp. 283-293 DOI information:

10.1016/j.ijimpeng.2007.12.012

5. Herrmann, W (1969).Constitutive Equation for the Dynamic Compaction of Ductile Porous Materials, J.

Appl. Phys., 40, 6, pp 2490-2499, May 1969

6. Butcher, B M, & Karnes, C H (1968). Sandia Labs. Res Rep. SC-RR-67-3040, Sandia Laboratory, Albuquerque,

NM, April 1968

7. Carroll, M M, & Holt, A C (1972).Static and Dynamic Pore Collapse Relations for Ductile Porous Materials.

J. Appl.Phys., 43, 4, pp1626 et seq., 1972

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Chapter 8: Using Workbench LS-DYNA for an Explicit Dynamics

Analysis

The Workbench LS-DYNA ACT extension allows you to run an explicit dynamics analysis for your model

using the LS-DYNA solver.

8.1. How to Load Workbench LS-DYNA

8.2. How to use Workbench LS-DYNA

8.3. LS-DYNA Keywords used by Workbench LS-DYNA

8.4. Supported LS-DYNA Keywords

8.5. LS-DYNA General Descriptions

The Workbench LS-DYNA ACT extension is included in the ANSYS product but must be loaded into

Workbench. To do so:

1. Start Workbench.

3. In the Extensions Manager window, select the check box next to LSDYNA, then click Close.

Once you load the extension, a Workbench LS-DYNA section appears in the project Toolbox. To run

an LS-DYNA analysis, expand the Workbench LS-DYNA section in the toolbox. You will see the Workbench

LS-DYNA template. You can now drag the template into a project and set up and run your model as

usual. The Workbench LS-DYNA extension will create an LS-DYNA "keyword" (.k) file that contains all

the necessary information to carry out the analysis, and will run the LS-DYNA solver using that file.

Please see the following documents for more information about setting up and running a Workbench

LS-DYNA analysis:

The created keyword file follows the same format as the one exported by the respective Mechanical

APDL application. All the LS-DYNA keywords are implemented according to the LS_DYNA Keyword Users

Manual version 971.

All the LS-DYNA keywords that can currently be exported are described in detail in Supported LS-DYNA

Keywords (p. 216). Any parameters that are not shown for a card are not used, and their default values

will be assigned for them by the LS-DYNA solver. Some descriptions of Workbench features that do not

relate directly to keywords are given in LS-DYNA General Descriptions (p. 245).

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When using Commands objects with Workbench LS-DYNA, be aware of the following:

Keyword cards read from Commands object content (renamed to Keyword Snippets for Workbench LS-

DYNA) should not have any trailing empty lines if they are not intentional. This is because some keywords

have more than one mandatory card that can be entered as blank lines, in which case the default values for

the card will be used. Therefore, trailing blank lines should be used only if intended; otherwise they may

cause solver execution errors.

The first entry in the Commands object content must be a command name which is preceded by the *

symbol.

Refer to LS-DYNA General Descriptions (p. 245) for information about ID numbers entered in Commands

object content.

Documentation describing the set of LS-DYNA keywords used by Workbench LS-DYNA can be found

on the ANSYS Workbench LS-DYNA Documentation page.

This section shows all LS-DYNA supported keywords and their syntax. This applies to supported keywords

for resumed projects that used the LS-DYNA (Export) system. The keyword file follows the same format

as the corresponding Mechanical APDL application. Keywords conform to the "LS_DYNA Keyword User's

Manual" versions 970 and 971 (version 971 has particular features for the handling of beam cross section

and integration options).

Each keyword consists of one or more cards, each with one of more parameters. If a parameter is not

shown, it will be assigned default values by the LS-DYNA solver. In addition some descriptions to

Workbench features that do not relate directly to keywords are given at the end of this section, entitled

General Descriptions.

*BOUNDARY_NON_REFLECTING

Specifies impedance boundaries. Impedance boundaries can only be applied on solid elements in LS-

DYNA.

Card

SSID = ID of segment on whose nodes the boundary is applied (see *SET_SEGMENT bellow).

AD = 0.0 (default) for setting the activation flag for dilatational waves to on.

AS = 0.0 (default) for setting the activation flag for shear waves to on.

*BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_NODE_ID

See *BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_SET

*BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_RIGID_ID

See *BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_SET

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Supported LS-DYNA Keywords

*BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_SET_ID

Specifies velocity and displacement boundary conditions.

ID = ID of the prescribed motion keyword. This parameter is optional and does not have to be unique. An

index number is added.

HEADING = Name of the specific boundary condition data. The name is taken from the caption of the applied

velocity or displacement in the tree outline of the Mechanical application.

Card1

ID = ID of set of nodes or part (for rigid bodies) to which the boundary condition is applied.

DOF = 1, 2 or 3 depending whether the boundary condition is in the x, y or z direction respectively. Setting

4 is used if the boundary is applied according to a local coordinate system.

LCID = ID of the curve prescribing the magnitude of the boundary condition. Constant values of velocity

are applied as a step function from time = 0. Constant values of displacement are ramped from zero at time

= 0 to the constant value at termination time. This is done to make sure that displacements are applied in

a transient fashion.

VID = 0 (default). ID of vector that defines the local coordinate system the boundary condition is applied

with.

*BOUNDARY_SPC_SET

Specifies Fixed Support, Simple Support and Fixed Rotation constraints.

Card

CID = ID of the associated coordinate system. 0 specifies the global coordinate system.

DOFX = 0 or 1 for free or fixed translation, respectively, along the x direction. It is set to 0 for Fixed Rotation

and to 1 otherwise.

DOFY = 0 or 1 for free or fixed translation, respectively, along the y direction. It is set to 0 for Fixed Rotation

and to 1 otherwise.

DOFZ = 0 or 1 for free or fixed translation, respectively, along the z direction. It is set to 0 for Fixed Rotation

and to 1 otherwise.

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Using Workbench LS-DYNA for an Explicit Dynamics Analysis

DOFRX = 0 or 1 for free or fixed translation, respectively, along the x direction. It is set to 0 for Simple Support

and to 1 otherwise.

DOFRY = 0 or 1 for free or fixed translation, respectively, along the y direction. It is set to 0 for Simple Support

and to 1 otherwise.

DOFRZ = 0 or 1 for free or fixed translation, respectively, along the z direction. It is set to 0 for Simple Support

and to 1 otherwise.

*CONSTRAINED_RIGID_BODIES

Specifies rigid bodies to be merged into one part. The resulting Part ID matches the ID of the rigid body

designated as the master.

This keyword is created for rigid bodies which belong to the same multibody part. By constraining the

rigid bodies together using a single multibody part you avoid specifying conflicting motion on the

nodes shared among the rigid bodies. All boundary conditions applied to the master body will also be

applied to all the slaves. Any boundary conditions that were applied to the slaves will be ignored.

The body that is selected to be master is the first one that appears in the multibody-part list.

Card

*CONSTRAINED_SPOTWELD

Specifies spot welds between non-contiguous nodal pairs of shell elements. This keyword is created

when a spot weld contact is defined in the Mechanical application.

Card

*CONTACT_AUTOMATIC_GENERAL

Specifies friction or frictionless contacts between line bodies (beams). This keyword is created if the

contact is specified using Body Interactions and the geometry contains line bodies.

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Supported LS-DYNA Keywords

*CONTACT_AUTOMATIC_NODES_TO_SURFACE

Specifies nodes-to-surface friction or frictionless contacts. This keyword is created if the contact is specified

using a Contact Region and the Behavior is set to Asymmetric.

Card1 - mandatory

*CONTACT_AUTOMATIC_SINGLE_SURFACE

Specifies friction or frictionless contacts between parts. This keyword is created if the contact is specified

using Body Interactions.

Card1 - mandatory

SSID = ID for the set of parts created for the bodies in the Body Interaction. If the contact is applied to all

the bodies in the geometry then this parameter is set to 0.

MSID = 0.

SSTYP =2, the slave entities are parts. If the contact is applied to all the bodies in the geometry then this

parameter is set to 5.

MSTYP = 2, the master entities are parts. If the contact is applied to all the bodies in the geometry then this

parameter is set to 0.

SPR = 1 (constant) requests that forces on the slave side of the contact be included in the results files NCFORC

(ASCII) and INTFOR (binary). These two results files are not currently specified in the exported K file and are

not created. The user will need to manually specify the *DATABASE_NCFORC and *DATABASE_BINARY_INTFOR

keywords to obtain them.

MPR = 1 (constant) requests that forces on the master side of the contact be included in the results files

NCFORC (ASCII) and INTFOR (binary). These two results files are not currently specified in the exported K file

and are not created. The user will need to manually specify the *DATABASE_NCFORC and *DATABASE_BIN-

ARY_INTFOR keywords to obtain them.

Card2 - mandatory

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Using Workbench LS-DYNA for an Explicit Dynamics Analysis

VC = 0 (LS-DYNA default).

VDC = 10 (constant). This parameter specifies the percentage of the critical viscous damping coefficient to

be used in order to avoid undesirable oscillation in the contact.

*CONTACT_AUTOMATIC_SURFACE_TO_SURFACE

Defines specific surface-to-surface friction or frictionless contacts. This keyword is created if the contact

is specified using a Contact Region and the Behavior is set to Symmetric.

Card1 - mandatory

Card A

SOFT = 2 except for asymmetric contacts like NODES_TO_SURFACE and unbreakable bonded contacts for

which it is set to 1.

SOFSCL = left blank, the default value of 0.1 will be used. This scale factor is used to determine the stiffness

of the interface when SOFT is set to 1. For SOFT = 2 scale factor SLSFAC (see *CONTROL_CONTACT) is used

instead.

SBOPT = 3.

DEPTH = 5.

*CONTACT_AUTOMATIC_SURFACE_TO_SURFACE_TIEBREAK

Specifies breakable symmetric bonded contacts. This keyword is created for Bonded contact when the

Breakable option is set to Stress Criteria and the contact Behavior is set to Symmetric.

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Supported LS-DYNA Keywords

Card2 - mandatory

*CONTACT_ONEWAY_AUTOMATIC_SURFACE_TO_SURFACE_TIEBREAK

Specifies breakable asymmetric bonded contacts. This keyword is created for Bonded contact when

the Breakable option is set to Stress Criteria and the contact Behavior is set to Asymmetric.

*CONTACT_TIED_NODES_TO_SURFACE_OFFSET

Specifies non breakable asymmetric bonded contacts. This keyword is created for Bonded contacts that

are not designated as Breakable whose Behavior is set to Asymmetric. This keyword is not used for

Body Interactions as these types of contacts are always symmetric.

Card1 - mandatory

MSID = ID for the set of master segment or for the set of parts involved in the contact.

Card 3

SFS = left blank, the default value of 1.0 will be used. Default slave penalty stiffness scale factor for SLSFAC

(see *CONTROL_CONTACT).

SFM= left blank, the default value of 1.0 will be used. Default master penalty stiffness scale factor for SLSFAC

(see *CONTROL_CONTACT).

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"Maximum Offset" is the Definition parameter available for bonded contacts and body interactions.

"Maximum Offset" is obtained from the inputs of the Contact Region of Bonded type.

MST = SST.

*CONTACT_TIED_SURFACE_TO_SURFACE_OFFSET

Specifies general non-breakable bonded contacts that are symmetric. This keyword is created for Bonded

and non-breakable contacts which are defined by Contact Regions that are Bonded, non-breakable

and whose Behavior is set to Symmetric.

Card1 - mandatory

SSID = ID for a set of slave segments or a set of parts involved in the contact.

MSID = ID for the set of master segments or the set of parts involved in the contact.

SSTYP = specifies whether the ID used in SSID represents parts or segments. It is set to 0 if SSID represents

a set of segments and 2 if it represents a set of parts.

MSTYP = SSTYP.

*CONTROL_ACCURACY

Specifies control parameters that can improve the accuracy of the calculation.

Card

OSU = 1. Global flag for objective stress updates. Required for parts that undergo large rotations. When set

to 1 the flag is on.

INN = 4. Invariant node numbering for shell and solid elements. When set to 4 the flag is on for both shell

and solid elements.

*CONTROL_BULK_VISCOSITY

Sets the bulk viscosity coefficients globally.

Card

Q1 = Quadratic Artificial Viscosity from the "Damping Controls" in the Analysis Settings.

Q2 = Linear Artificial Viscosity from the "Damping Controls" in the Analysis settings.

TYPE = -2. Internal energy dissipated by the viscosity in the shell elements is computed and included in the

overall energy balance.

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Supported LS-DYNA Keywords

*CONTROL_CONTACT

Specifies the defaults for computations of contact surfaces.

Card 1

SLSFAC = 0 (default). Scale factor for sliding interface penalties. When set to 0 the value used is 0.1. This

scale factor together with the SFS and SFM parameters of the individual contact keyword (see Card 3 of

*CONTACT_TIED_NODES_TO_SURFACE_OFFSET) is used to determine the stiffness of the interface when

SOFT is set to 2 (see Card A of *CONTACT_AUTOMATIC_SURFACE_TO_SURFACE).

RWPNAL = 0 (there is no default value). Scale factor for rigid wall penalties. When equal to 0 the constrain

method is used and nodal points which belong to rigid bodies are not considered.

ISLCHK = 1 (default). Initial penetration check in contact surfaces. When set to 1 there is no checking.

SHLTHK = 1 (default). Shell thickness considered in surface to surface and node to surface contact types.

When set to 1, thickness is considered but rigid bodies are excluded.

THKCHG = 0 (default).

ORIEN = 2. Automatic reorientation for contact segments during initialization. When set to 2 it is active for

manual (segment) and automated (part) input.

ENMASS = 0 if the Retain Inertia Of Eroded Material option of the Erosion Controls in the Details window

of the analysis settings is set to No.

= 2 (default) if Retain Inertia Of Eroded Material option of the Erosion Controls in the Details view

of the analysis settings is set to Yes.

This parameter regulates the treatment of the mass for eroded nodes in contact. When set to 0

eroding nodes are removed from the calculation.

Card 2

USRSTR = 0. Storage per contact interface for user supplied interface control subroutine. When set to 0 no

input data is read and no interface storage is permitted in the user subroutine.

Card3

Card4

IGNORE = 2. Specifies whether to ignore initial penetrations in the *CONTACT_AUTOMATIC options. When

set to 2 initial penetrations are allowed to exist by tracking them. Also warning messages are printed with

the original and the recommended coordinates of each slave node.

FRCENG = 0 (default).

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SKIPRWG = 0 (default).

OUTSEG = 1. Yes, output each beam spot weld slave node and its master segment for *CONTACT_SPOTWELD

into D3HSP file.

SPOTSTP = 0 (default).

SPOTDEL = 1.Yes, delete the attached spot weld element if the nodes of a spot weld beam or solid element

are attached to a shell element that fails and the nodes are deleted.

SPOTHIN = 0.5. This factor can be used to scale the thickness of parts within the vicinity of the spot weld.

This factor helps avert premature weld failures due to contact of the welded parts with the weld itself. Should

be greater than zero and less than one.

*CONTROL_ENERGY

Specifies the controls for energy dissipation options.

Card

HGEN = 2. Hourglass energy is computed and included in the energy balance. Results are reported in ASCII

files GLSTAT and MATSUM.

RWEN = 2 (default).

SLNTEN = 2. Sliding interface energy dissipation is computed and included in the energy balance. Results

are reported in ASCII files GLSTAT and SLEOUT.

RYLEN = 2. Rayleigh energy dissipation is computed and included in the energy balance. Results are reported

in ASCII file GLSTAT.

*CONTROL_HOURGLASS

Specifies the global hourglass parameters.

Card

IHQ = 1 if Hourglass Damping of type Standard is selected in the Analysis Settings. Also this parameter

is equal to 1 if the Flanagan Belytschko option is selected but both the coefficients are zero.

= 5 if the Flanagan Belytschko option is selected and the Stiffness Coefficient is non-zero.

= 3 if the Flanagan Belytschko option is selected, the Stiffness Coefficient is zero and the Hex In-

tegration Type of the Solver Controls is set to Exact.

= 2 if the Flanagan Belytschko option is selected, the Stiffness Coefficient is zero and the Hex In-

tegration Type of the Solver Controls is set to 1pt Gauss.

QH = Viscous Coefficient of the Hourglass Damping section of the Analysis Settings if IHQ is equal to 1,

2, or 3.

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Supported LS-DYNA Keywords

*CONTROL_SHELL

Specifies global parameters for shell element types.

Card

WRPANG = 20 (default).

ESORT = 1, full automatic sorting of triangular shell elements to treat degenerate quadrilateral shell elements

as C0 triangular shells.

IRNXX = -2, shell normal update option. When set to -2 unique nodal fibers are incrementally updated based

on the nodal rotation at the location of the fiber.

ISTUPD = 4, shell thickness update option for deformable shells. Membrane strains cause changes in thickness

in 3 and 4 node shell elements, however elastic strains are neglected. This option is very important in sheet

metal forming or whenever membrane stretching is important. For crash analysis, setting 4 may improve

energy conservation and stability.

BWC = 1 if Shell BWC Warp Correction option is set to Yes in the Solver Controls section of the Analysis

Settings. For this setting, Belytschko-Wong-Chiang warping stiffness is added.

PROJ = 1, the full projection method is used for the warping stiffness in the Belytschko-Tsay and Belytschko-

Wong-Chiang shell elements. This option is required for explicit calculations.

*CONTROL_SOLID

Specifies global parameters for solid element types.

Card

ESORT = 1, full automatic sorting of tetrahedron and pentahedron elements to treat degeneracies. Degen-

erate tetrahedrons will be treated as ELFORM = 10 and pentahedron as ELFORM = 15 solids respectively

(see *SECTION_SOLID).

*CONTROL_TERMINATION

Specifies the termination criteria for the solver.

Card

ENDTIM = End Time in the Step Controls section of the Analysis Settings.

ENDCYC = Maximum Time Steps of the Step Controls section of the Analysis Settings.

ENDENG = Maximum Energy Error from the Step Controls section of the Analysis Settings.

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ENDMAS = Maximum Part Scaling from the Step Controls section of the Analysis Settings, if Automatic

Mass Scaling is set to Yes. If Automatic Mass Scaling is set to No, the default value of 0.0 is used.

*CONTROL_TIMESTEP

Specifies conditions for determining the computational time step.

Card

DTINIT = Initial Time Step from the Step Controls section of the Analysis Settings.

TSSFAC = Time Step Safety Factor from the Step Controls section of the Analysis Settings.

ISDO = 0 (default). Basis of time size calculation for 4-node shell elements.

TSLIMT = Minimum Element Timestep from the Erosion Controls section of the Analysis Settings, if On

Minimum Element Timestep is set to Yes. If On Minimum Element Timestep is set to No the default value

of 0.0 is used.

DT2MS = the negative value of Minimum CFL Timestep specified in the Step Controls section of the

Analysis Settings, if Automatic Mass Scaling is set to Yes. If Automatic Mass Scaling is set to No the

default value of 0.0 is used.

LCTM = ID of the load curve which uses Maximum Time Step from the Step Controls section of the Ana-

lysis Settings.

ERODE = 1 (constant).

MS1ST = 0 (default).

*DAMPING_GLOBAL

Specifies the mass weighted nodal damping applied globally to the nodes of deformable bodies and

the center of mass of rigid bodies.

Card

VALDMP = Static Damping from the Damping Controls section of the Analysis Settings.

*DATABASE_BINARY_D3PLOT

Specifies the sampling parameters for the binary D3PLOT results plotting file.

Card

DT = Time from the Output Controls section of the Analysis Settings if Save Results on is set to Time.

= End Time divided by the Number of Points if Save Results On is set to Equally Spaced Points.

*DATABASE_BINARY_RUNRSF

Specifies the sampling parameters for the RUNRSF restart file.

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Supported LS-DYNA Keywords

Card

CYCL = Time Steps from the Output Controls section of the Analysis Settings if Save Restart Files on is

set to Time Steps.

= Maximum Time Steps divided by the Number of Points if Save Results On is set to Equally

Spaced Time Points.

*DATABASE_ELOUT

Specifies the sampling parameters for the ELOUT results file (stores stress and strain results).

Card

DT = (see *DATABASE_BINARY_D3PLOT).

*DATABASE_FORMAT

Specifies the format in which to write binary results files like D3PLOT and D3THDT.

Card

*DATABASE_GLSTAT

Specifies the sampling parameters for the GLSTAT results file (stores general energy results).

Card

DT = (see *DATABASE_BINARY_D3PLOT).

*DATABASE_MATSUM

Specifies the sampling parameters for the MATSUM results file (stores general energy and velocity results

as the GLSTAT file but it stores them per body. It is necessary for rigid bodies).

Card

DT = (see *DATABASE_BINARY_D3PLOT).

*DATABASE_NODOUT

Specifies the sampling parameters for the NODOUT results file (stores displacement and velocity results).

Card

DT = (see *DATABASE_BINARY_D3PLOT).

*DEFINE_COORDINATE_SYSTEM

Specifies a local coordinate system with three points: one at the local origin, one on the local x-axis

and one on the local x-y plane.

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Card1

Card2

*DEFINE_CURVE

Specifies magnitudes that are given in tabular format. Some keywords require magnitudes to be specified

as a load curve. Should a constant be needed, it may be represented as a curve by repeating its value

for time steps 0 and 1.

Card1

LCID = ID for load curve, is incremented every time a new load curve is defined.

Card2, 3, 4...

*DEFINE_VECTOR

Specifies a vector by defining the coordinates of two points. This keyword defines the local coordinate

system with respect to which a *BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION is prescribed. The ID of this coordinate

system is specified with parameter CID.

Card

XT = 0, the local x-coordinate of the origin of the coordinate system specified with CID below.

YT = 0, the local y-coordinate of the origin of the coordinate system specified with CID below.

ZT = 0, the local z-coordinate of the origin of the coordinate system specified with CID below.

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Supported LS-DYNA Keywords

XH = 1 if the vector has a component in the x direction of the coordinate system specified with CID. Otherwise,

this is set to 0.

YH = 1 if the vector has a component in the x direction of the coordinate system specified with CID. Otherwise,

this is set to 0.

ZH = 1 if the vector has a component in the x direction of the coordinate system specified with CID. Otherwise,

this is set to 0.

CID = ID of the coordinate system used to define the vector. If no coordinate system is specified this para-

meter is set to 0 to specify the global coordinate system.

*ELEMENT_BEAM

Specifies beam elements.

Card

N1 = ID of nodal point 1.

N2 = ID of nodal point 2.

*ELEMENT_SHELL

Specifies three, four, six and eight noded shell elements.

Card

N1 = ID of nodal point 1.

N2 = ID of nodal point 2.

N3 = ID of nodal point 3.

N4 = ID of nodal point 4.

N5-8 = ID of mid side nodes for six and eight noded shells.

*ELEMENT_SHELL_THICKNESS_OFFSET

This keyword is the same as *ELEMENT_SHELL above with two additional cards for specifying thicknesses

per node and the offset of the shell.

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Card2

BETA or MCID = 0 (Default). These parameters specify the base offset angle for Orthotropic materials.

Card3

OFFSET = offset distance from the nodal points plane to the reference surface of the shell. This is specified

in the direction of the normal vector of the shell.

*ELEMENT_SOLID

Specifies 3D solid elements including 10-noded tetrahedrons (second order). Apart from the second

order case the two cards are combined into one.

Card1

Card2

N1 = ID of nodal point 1.

N2 = ID of nodal point 2.

N3 = ID of nodal point 3.

N4 = ID of nodal point 4.

*END

Terminates the keyword file. It has no parameter cards.

The following are descriptions for *EOS keywords natively supported by resumed projects that used

the LS-DYNA (Export) system. More generally, any *EOS keyword may be introduced into the export file

with the help of Commands objects in the Mechanical application (termed Keyword Snippet when

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Supported LS-DYNA Keywords

referring to the LS-DYNA solver). To use it, insert a Keyword Snippet under a Geometry body in the

Tree Outline. The program will automatically substitute the EOSID parameter, in accordance with the

*PART keyword (see below) of the associated body. All other parameters in the Keyword Snippet are

transcribed literally, overriding any values that would otherwise derive from the Engineering Data

workspace.

If the *EOS keyword is entered in a Keyword Snippet anywhere else in the Tree Outline, it will be ex-

ported literally and the Engineering Data EOS information will also be exported, if present. This practice

is not recommended, however, and a warning is provided in the header of Keyword Snippet objects

when detected.

*EOS_GRUNEISEN

Specifies a shock equation of state. This keyword is created when a Shock EOS linear equation of state

is present in the properties of a material that is used in the simulation and the Johnson Cook plasticity

model is also present. The bilinear version of this equation of state is not currently supported.

Card1

S3 = 0.

A = 0.

*EOS_LINEAR_POLYNOMIAL

Specifies the coefficients for a linear polynomial elastic EOS. The *EOS_LINEAR_POLYNOMIAL keyword

is only created when the Johnson Cook strength property is added to the material model (which requires

an EOS), but no other EOS has been specified. It is not directly available from the Engineering Data

workspace, however.

Card1

C0 = 0.

C2 = 0.

C3 = 0.

C4 = 0.

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C5 = 0.

C6 = 0.

*HOURGLASS

Defines hourglass and bulk viscosity properties that are referenced in the *PART keyword via its HGID

parameter (see *PART keyword bellow).

This keyword can only be created directly with the Keyword Snippet(also, Commands objects) for the

LS-DYNA solver. To use it, insert a Keyword Snippet under a Geometry body in the Tree Outline. The

program will automatically substitute the HGID parameter in accordance with the *PART keyword (see

below) of the associated body. All other parameters in the Keyword Snippet are transcribed literally.

If the keyword is entered in a Keyword Snippet anywhere else in the Tree Outline, it will be exported

literally. This practice is not recommended, however, and a warning is provided in the header of Keyword

Snippet objects when detected.

*INITIAL_VELOCITY_GENERATION

Specifies initial translational and rotational velocities.

Card1

STYP = 2, the velocity is applied to a whole part. In Workbench initial velocities can only be applied to whole

parts.

IVATN = 0 (default) slave bodies of a multibody part are not assigned the initial velocities of the master part.

Card2

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Supported LS-DYNA Keywords

*INITIAL_VELOCITY_RIGID_BODY

Specifies initial translational and rotational velocities at the center of gravity for rigid bodies.

Card

*INTEGRATION_BEAM

Specifies the particulars of the integration method required for complex or user-defined cross sections

of beam elements.

Card1

NIP = 0, number of integration points are not specified, instead ICST is used below to choose a standard

cross sectional area.

RA = 0, number of integration points are not specified, instead ICST is used below to choose a standard

cross sectional area.

ICST = 1-21 depending on the cross sectional area specified in the GUI for the beam geometry.

Card2

*KEYWORD

Marks the beginning of a keyword file.

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*LOAD_BODY_X

Specifies gravitational or other acceleration loads in the x direction. The load is applied to all nodes in

the model.

Card

LCID = ID of the load curve that represents the magnitude of the load (see *DEFINE_CURVE).

CID = ID of local coordinate system used. Set to 0 for the global coordinate system.

*LOAD_BODY_Y

Specifies gravitational or other acceleration loads in the y direction. The load is applied to all nodes in

the model.

Card

(see *LOAD_BODY_X).

*LOAD_BODY_Z

Specifies gravitational or other acceleration loads in the z direction. The load is applied to all nodes in

the model.

Card

(see *LOAD_BODY_X).

*LOAD_NODE_POINT

Applies a concentrated force to a node.

Card

LCID = ID of the load curve that describes the magnitude of the force (see *DEFINE_CURVE).

CID = ID of local coordinate system used. Set to 0 for the global coordinate system.

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Supported LS-DYNA Keywords

*LOAD_NODE_SET

Applies a concentrated nodal force to a set of nodes.

Card

(see *LOAD_NODE_POINT. Note that parameter NODE here is replaced by NSID which is the ID of the

set of nodes where the force is applied).

*LOAD_RIGID_BODY

Applies a concentrated nodal force to a rigid body. The force is applied at the center of mass.

Card

(see *LOAD_NODE_POINT. Note that parameter NODE here is replaced by PID which is the ID of the

part the force is applied on).

*LOAD_SEGMENT

Applies a distributed pressure load over a triangular or quadrilateral face defined by three, four, six

(second order triangles) or eight (second order quadrilateral) nodes.

Card

LCID = ID of the load curve that describes the magnitude of the pressure (see *DEFINE_CURVE).

AT = arrival time for pressure is assigned the time at load step 1 if pressure is given in tabular form or 0 if

constant pressure.

N1-N4 = IDs of nodes that define the face. For triangles N4 = N3.

Materials keywords

The following are descriptions for *MAT keywords natively supported by resumed projects that used

the LS-DYNA (Export) system. More generally, any *MAT keyword may be introduced into the export

file with the help of Commands objects in the Mechanical application (termed Keyword Snippet when

referring to the LS-DYNA solver). To use it, insert a Keyword Snippet under a Geometry body in the

Tree Outline. The program will automatically substitute the MID parameter in accordance with the *PART

keyword (see below) of the associated body. All other parameters in the Keyword Snippet are transcribed

literally, overriding any values that would otherwise derive from the Engineering Data workspace.

If the *MAT keyword is entered in a Keyword Snippet anywhere else in the Tree Outline, it will be ex-

ported literally and Engineering Data EOS information will also be exported, if present. This practice is

not recommended, however, and a warning is provided in the header of Keyword Snippet objects

when detected.

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Specifies isotropic elastic materials. It is available for beam, shell and solid elements. This keyword is

used if the selected material includes the Isotropic Elasticity strength model and the Stiffness Behavior

is set to Deformable in the Definition section of the body.

Card

MID = ID of material type. Must be unique between the material keyword definitions.

E = Young's modulus of the material from the Engineering Data workspace, either specified directly or cal-

culated from Bulk and Shear moduli.

PR = Poisson's ratio of the material from the Engineering Data workspace, either specified directly or calculated

from Bulk and Shear moduli.

Specifies a general hyperelastic rubber model, optionally combined with viscoelasticity. This keyword

is used if the material includes the Mooney-Rivlin, Polynomial or Yeoh hyperelastic strength model and

the Stiffness Behavior is set to Deformable in the Definition section of the body.

Card1

MID = ID of material type, must be unique between the material keyword definitions.

PR = Poisson's ratio of the material from the Engineering Data workspace. Values higher than 0.49 are re-

commended. Smaller values may not work and should not be used.

Card2

C01 = constant C01 from the material properties in the Engineering Data. Set to zero for Yeoh models.

C11 = constant C11 from the Engineering Data workspace. Set to zero for Yeoh models.

C02 = constant C02 from the Engineering Data workspace. Set to zero for Yeoh models.

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Supported LS-DYNA Keywords

Defines a Johnson - Cook type of material. Such materials are useful for problems with large variations

in strain rates where adiabatic temperature increases due to plastic heating cause material softening.

This keyword is used if the material specified includes a Johnson Cook strength model.

Card1

MID = ID of material type, must be unique between the material keyword definitions.

RO = density of material.

Card2

EPSO = Reference Strain Rate from the Johnson Cook strength parameters.

Card3

PC = 0 (LS-DYNA default).

IT = 0 (LS-DYNA default).

Card4

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C2/P = "Reference Strain Rate (/sec)" parameter of the Johnson Cook failure model definition, if present.

Otherwise it is 0.

Specifies the Ogden rubber model, optionally combined with viscoelasticity. This keyword is used if the

material includes the Ogden hyperelastic strength model and the Stiffness Behavior is set to Deformable

in the Definition section of the body.

Card2

MU4 = 0.

MU5 = 0.

MU6 = 0.

MU7 = 0.

MU8 = 0.

Card3

ALPHA1 = 0.

ALPHA1 = 0.

ALPHA1 = 0.

ALPHA1 = 0.

ALPHA8 = 0.

Specifies the model for an elastic-orthotropic behavior of solids, shells and thick shells. This keyword is

created when the Orthotropic Elasticity property is present in a material that is used. The Poisson's ratios

required with this keyword must be in their minor version, however Workbench requires their major

versions hence they are converted by multiplying them by the relevant Young's modulus ratios.

Card1

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Supported LS-DYNA Keywords

MID = ID of material type, must be unique between the material keyword definitions.

RO = density of material.

PRBA = Poisson's Ratio XY from the Orthotropic Elasticity model multiplied by Young's Modulus Y / Young's

Modulus X.

PRCA = Poisson's Ratio YZ from the Orthotropic Elasticity model multiplied by Young's Modulus Z / Young's

Modulus X.

PRCB = Poisson's Ratio XZ from the Orthotropic Elasticity model multiplied by Young's Modulus Z / Young's

Modulus Y.

Card2

AOPT = 0 (default). When this parameter is set to zero the locally orthotropic material axes are determined

from three element nodes. The first node specifies the local origin, the second specifies one of the axes and

the third specifies the plane on which the axis rests.

= - ID of local coordinate system assigned to the body with this material model.

Defines elasto-plastic materials with arbitrary stress-strain curve and arbitrary strain rate dependency.

This keyword is used if the material specified includes a Bilinear or Multilinear Isotropic Hardening (BISO

or MISO) strength model. Cards 3 and 4 bellow, are only used if the strength model is MISO.

Card1

MID = ID of material type, must be unique between the material keyword definitions.

RO = density of material.

SIGY = Yield Strength from the BISO strength model. It is not required for MISO models.

ETAN = Tangent Modulus from the BISO strength model. It is not required for MISO models.

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FAIL = Maximum Equivalent Plastic Strain EPS parameter of the Plastic Strain failure model, if present.

Otherwise it is set to 10E+20.

Card2

C = 0.

P = 0.

LCSS = 0.

EPS1 = Plastic Strain data from the MISO strength model. If the strength model contains more than 8 data

points, the extra data set is ignored.

EPS2 =

EPS3 =

...

EPS8 =

ES1 = Yield Stress data that correspond to the above plastic strain data. If the strength model contains more

than 8 data points, the extra data set is ignored.

ES2 =

ES3 =

...

ES8 =

Specifies isotropic and kinematic hardening plastic behavior in materials. This keyword is created when

the Bilinear Kinematic Hardening (BKIN) strength model is present in a material.

Card1

MID = ID of material type, must be unique between the material keyword definitions.

RO = density of material.

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Supported LS-DYNA Keywords

BETA = 0.

Card2

FS = Maximum Equivalent Plastic Strain EPS parameter of the Plastic Strain failure model, if present.

Otherwise it is left blank.

Specifies materials for rigid bodies. This keyword is created when the Stiffness Behavior is set to Rigid

under the Definition section of the body. Any strength or EOS material properties defined are ignored.

Card1

MID = ID of material type, must be unique between the material keyword definitions.

RO = density of material.

Card2

= 111111 if the body is constrained with a fixed support or with a combination of a simple support

and a fixed rotation.

Card3

*NODE

Defines nodes. All the parameters are obtained from mesh definitions of the model.

Card

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X = x coordinate.

Y = y coordinate.

Z = z coordinate.

*PART

Defines geometry bodies.

Card1

Card2

PID = ID of the part. It is set in the LS-DYNA solver and does not reflect the ID specified in the mesh definition

of the model.

SECID = ID of the section keyword associated with the part (see *SECTION).

MID = ID of the material keyword associated with the part (see *MAT).

EOSID = ID of the equation of state associated with the material of this part (*EOS and *MAT). If there is no

EOS keyword associated with this part then this parameter is set to 0.

HGID = ID of the hourglass keyword associated with the part (see *HOURGLASS). If there is no hourglass

keyword associated with this part then this parameter is set to 0.

*SECTION_BEAM

Defines cross sectional properties for beam, truss, spot weld and cable elements.

Card1

ELFORM = 1. The element formulation option is changed to 3 if the Beam Solution Type option of the

Analysis Settings is set to Truss.

SHRF = 1.0 (default). If the cross sectional shape is rectangular or complex (see CST bellow) then SHRF is set

to 0.833.

QR = 2 (default), quadrature rule is 2x2 Gauss. If the cross sectional area of the beam is complex or user-

defined, this parameter becomes IRID and is assigned the negative value of the IRID parameter in the cor-

responding *INTEGRATION_BEAM keyword (see above for details).

= 2 for complex or user defined cross sections. Such cross sections include: hollow rectangular, I, C,

L, T, Z, trapezoidal, U and hat shapes.

Card2

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Supported LS-DYNA Keywords

TT1 = height of beam. This refers specifically to the dimension at node 1. Set to zero circular solids.

TT2 = TT1. This refers specifically to the dimension at node 2. Set to zero circular solids.

TS1 = outer diameter of beam. This refers specifically to the dimension at node 1.

TT1 = inner diameter of beam. This refers specifically to the dimension at node 1.

A = cross-sectional area.

A = cross-sectional area.

*SECTION_SHELL

Defines section properties for shell elements.

Card1

ELFORM = 2, if the Full Shell Integration option of the Solver Controls of the Analysis Settings is set to

No.

= 16 (default) if the Full Shell Integration option of the Solver Controls of the Analysis Settings is

set to Yes.

SHRF = Shell Shear Correction Factor option of the Solver Controls of the Analysis Settings. The default

value is set to 0.8333.

NIP = Shell Sublayers option of the Solver Controls of the Analysis Settings. The default value is 3.

Card2

T1 = thickness of body.

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*SECTION_SOLID

Defines section properties for solid elements.

Card

ELFORM = 1 (default). Also, used for first-order hexahedral elements, 5-noded pyramids, 6-noded wedges

or bodies with mixed element types that include tetrahedrons together with hexahedrons, pyramids or

wedges.

= 10 if elements are first-order tetrahedrons and Tet Pressure Integration option of the Solver

Controls of the Analysis Settings is set to Constant.

= 13 if elements are first-order tetrahedrons and Tet Pressure Integration option of the Solver

Controls of the Analysis Settings is set to Average Nodal.

*SET_NODE_LIST

Defines a set of nodes. Card2 is repeated as many times as required to specify all the node IDs in the

set.

Card1

Card2

*SET_PART_LIST

Defines a set of parts. Card2 is repeated as many times as required to specify all the part IDs in the set.

Card1

Card2

*SET_SEGMENT

Defines triangular and quadrilateral segments. Card2 is repeated as many times as required to specify

all the segments in the set.

Card1

Card2

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LS-DYNA General Descriptions

N1-N4 = IDs of nodes that define one of the segments. For triangular segments N4=N3.

*TITLE

Defines a job title.

Card

TITLE = a user input. This can only be entered manually after the .k file is exported.

All the exported keywords are grouped into their respective sections in the .k file. These sections are

the same as the ones used by the Mechanical APDL application exporting facility apart from the

"KEYWORD SNIPPETS" section. The section titles and their order is the following:

NODE DEFINITIONS

SECTION DEFINITIONS

MATERIAL DEFINITIONS

PARTS DEFINITIONS

ELEMENT DEFINITIONS

LOAD DEFINITIONS

CONTACT DEFINITIONS

CONTROL OPTIONS

TIME HISTORY

LIST SETS

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

KEYWORD SNIPPETS

Keyword-snippets are supported for geometry bodies, for Connections and the Explicit Dynamics ana-

lysis section.

For geometry bodies, you can enter LS-DYNA specific material and equation of state types together

with the *HOURGLASS keyword. These keywords should always have a non zero value entered for their

ID. This is usually the first parameter of the keyword and can be any integer that fits within the 10

character field-width of the parameter. The same number can be entered for all of these keywords as

the software will replace it with an appropriate unique value. The IDs of these keywords will be assigned

to the *PART keyword associated with the body that the keyword-snippet belongs to. You will be in-

formed with a comment shown at the beginning of the text editor of the snippet, about the keywords

that should be entered.

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Using Workbench LS-DYNA for an Explicit Dynamics Analysis

For the Connections, you can enter LS-DYNA contact keywords which are not available for definition

from the GUI. These keywords can be assigned to the geometry by using the names of pre-defined

Named Selections. When the keywords are exported, these names will be replaced with IDs from the

*SET keywords created for the relevant Named Selections. If the contact region associated with the

Keyword Snippet has its scoping defined, by entering "contact" and "target" for the master and slave

entries of the contact keyword, the IDs of the *SET keywords for the Contact Region scoping will be

used instead. One contact keyword should be entered per snippet, which can be followed by as many

other keywords as required. The latter will not be processed and will be exported as entered.

For the analysis, you will be asked to enter global parameters with keywords like *CONTROL and

*DATABASE. As these parameters are global they do not need to be associated with any other keywords

so their contents will only be transferred to the .k file and will not be utilized in any other way.

Other project tree entries apart from the ones mentioned above, where keyword snippets could be

useful can be implemented at a later date if requested, or proved to be necessary.

Keywords that are entered with the keyword-snippet facility are grouped under a common section

called "KEYWORD SNIPPETS" at the end of the .k file.

Named selections whether having anything assigned to them or not, like for example a load or constrain,

will be exported as a set of IDs. This set can then be used in LS-PREPOST or by editing the .k file

manually to assign LS-DYNA specific keywords which are not represented in Workbench.

Due to the restriction of the field widths specified for each keyword, if the number to be used has more

characters than the field width allows, the following process is followed to make sure the number fits

within the field:

If the scientific format is still larger than the required field width then digits are removed from the decimal

part. This is done by cleaning first the exponential number from any leading zeroes.

If all the decimals are removed and the number is still larger then digits from the mantissa are removed and

the exponent increased by 1 for every digit removed.

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D

Index decay coefficient for body interaction object, 17

density, 155

Symbols detonation point, 57

2parameter mooney-rivlin model, 158 display options for result tracker graphs, 69

3parameter mooney-rivlin model, 158 dynamic coefficient for body interaction object, 17

5parameter mooney-rivlin model, 159

9parameter mooney-rivlin model, 159 E

edge on edge contact for body interactions, 16

A element self contact for body interactions, 15

analysis settings Equation of state, 148

for explicit dynamics analyses, 33 equations of state, 183

analysis types ideal gas, 184

explicit dynamics, 3 eroded nodes, 72

applying pre-stress effects, 105 Explicit Dynamics

detonation point, 57

B impedance boundary, 54

body interaction types, 17 explicit dynamics analysis

bonded, 18 LSDYNA commands, 215

frictional, 17 explicit dynamics analysis settings, 33

frictionless, 17 explicit dynamics analysis type, 3

reinforcement, 22 Explicit Dynamics system

body interactions folder properties analysis settings, 129

body self contact, 15 body scoped result tracker, 67

contact detection, 11 boundary scoped result tracker, 70

edge on edge contact, 16 elastic waves, 119

element self contact, 15 erosion controls, 142

formulation, 13 Euler (Virtual) solutions, 124

limiting time step velocity, 16 Euler-Lagrange Coupling, 126

listing, 11 Eulerian reference frame, 120

pinball factor, 16 explicit time integration, 116

shell thickness, 14 force reaction result tracker, 70

time step safety factor, 16 implicit time integration, 116

tolerance, 15 Lagrangian reference frame, 120

body interactions in explicit dynamics analyses mass scaling, 118

connections, 9 material properties, 126

body scoped result tracker, 67 moment reaction result tracker, 70

body self contact for body interactions, 15 multiple material transport, 126

bonded body interaction type, 18 operation of , 114

boundary scoped result tracker, 70 plastic waves, 119

breakable setting for body interaction object, 18 point scoped result tracker, 64, 70

brittle strength, 170 shell coupling, 128

shock waves, 119

C solver controls, 134

compaction EOS linear, 195 sub-cycling, 128

compaction EOS nonlinear, 196 theory, 113

contact detection for body interactions, 11 wave propagation, 118

contact scoped result tracker, 70 Explicit Material Library, 149

cowper symonds strength, 166 explicit transient dynamic analysis, 115

crack softening, 207

crushable foam, 192 F

failure, 201

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Index

Johnson cook, 209 ogden, 161

plastic strain, 203 orthotropic elasticity, 156

post, 202

principal strain, 204 P

principal stress, 203

p-alpha EOS, 198

stochastic, 205

pinball factor for body interactions, 16

tensile pressure, 206

plasticity, 162

filtering result tracker graphs, 69

point scoped result tracker, 64

formulation for body interactions, 13

polynomial, 159

friction coefficient for body interaction object, 17

polynomial EOS, 185

frictional body interaction type, 17

porous collapse damage, 180

frictionless body interaction type, 17

porous materials, 194

I R

impedance boundary

reinforcement body interaction type, 22

description, 54

result tracker

implicit transient dynamic analysis, 115

explicit dynamics, 64

isotropic elasticity, 155

resume capability for explicit dynamics, 61

RHT concrete strength, 177

J rigid materials, 212

Johnson cook strength, 164

Johnson-holmquist strength, 173 S

shear damage, 179

L shear stress exponent for body interaction object, 18

Library shear stress limit for body interaction object, 18

Explicit Material, 149 shell thickness for body interactions, 14

limiting time step velocity for body interactions, 16 shock EOS linear, 187

Linear Elastic, 155 State

ls-dyna analyses , 3 Equation of, 148

LSDYNA commands, 215 steinberg guinan strength, 167

strain hardening, 179

M strain rate effects, 180

material properties symmetry

nonlinear, 157 defining in explicit dynamics, 23

maximum offset for body interaction object , 18

MO granular strength, 182 T

Model tensile failure, 181

Material failure, 148 test data, 157

Material strength, 148 thermal specific heat, 212

mooney-rivlin model, 158 time step safety factor for body interactions, 16

2parameter, 158 tolerance for body interactions, 15

3parameter, 158

5parameter, 159 V

9parameter, 159

Viscoelastic, 156

multilinear kinematic hardening, 164

Y

N yeoh, 160

neo-hookean, 157

normal stress exponent for body interaction object, 18

normal stress limit for body interaction object, 18

Z

zerilli armstrong, 168

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