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Revista Realidad 118, 2008

El (no) lugar de la losofa en la sociedad


YAMAND ACOSTA
Universidad de la Repblica, Montevideo, Uruguay

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El (no) lugar de la losofa en la sociedad 677


Revista Realidad 118, 2008
Tales: la losofa como contemplacin

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1. Parmnides: la identidad entre el pensar y el ser y el


develamiento de la verdad

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678 El (no) lugar de la losofa en la sociedad


HJ\LYKV H SH HUtJKV[H KL;HSLZ SH \UTVKVVU[VS}NPJHTLU[LHWYPVYP

Revista Realidad 118, 2008


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2. Platn: el lsofo y el poltico. El mundo de las ideas


y la caverna (la academia y el gora).

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El (no) lugar de la losofa en la sociedad 679


Revista Realidad 118, 2008
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3. Descartes y Kant: del yo pensante al sujeto trascendental

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680 El (no) lugar de la losofa en la sociedad


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Revista Realidad 118, 2008


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El (no) lugar de la losofa en la sociedad 681


Revista Realidad 118, 2008
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WLUZHTPLU[VYHJPVUHSX\LL_JLKLSHZ Z\QL[V LTWxYPJV L OPZ[}YPJV KLZKL
WVZPIPSPKHKLZKLJVUVJPTPLU[VKLSH LZHZJVUKPJPVULZ

4. Hegel: la losofa es la poca puesta en pensamiento

-
YLU[L H SH HIZ[YHJJP}U TL[HMx KLZ\[PLTWV,Z[VPTWSPJHJVSVJHY
ZPJH KLS Z\QL[V JHY[LZPHUV ` SH HSHSVZVMxHLUSH[LTWVYHSPKHKLU
HIZ[YHJJP}ULWPZ[LTVS}NPJHKLS J\HU[V WLUZHTPLU[V YLSH[P]V H SH
Z\QL[V RHU[PHUV /LNLS KLZHYYVSSH tWVJH LU LS J\HS ZL L_WYLZH WLYV
\UH JVUZ[Y\JJP}U JVUJLW[\HS KLS [HTIPtUJVTVWLUZHTPLU[VH[YH]tZ
Z\QL[V WYLRHU[PHUV LU Z\ JVZ[HKV KLSJ\HSLZHtWVJHZLL_WYLZHLULS
VU[VS}NPJV ` WVZRHU[PHUV LU Z\ UP]LS KLS JVUJLW[V HSJHUaHUKV SH
[LUZPVUHSTLU[L JVTWSLTLU[HYPV TH`VYH\[VJVUJPLUJPHWVZPISL7LYV
JVZ[HKVOPZ[}YPJV SH [LTWVYHSPKHK X\L PTWYLZPVUH
/LNLSYL[VYUHHSHTL[HMxZPJH` JVTVSHOPZ[VYPJPKHKKLSVZZ\QL[VZ
SHPUJS\`LLUSH/PZ[VYPH<UVKLSVZ HJ[\HU[LZ ` WLUZHU[LZ X\L WHYLJLU
[x[\SVZKLSHZ3LJJPVULZKLSHOPZ[V HSJHUaHY KLZKL Zx TPZTVZ ` WVY Zx
YPHKLSHSVZVMxHKL/LNLSZLYLLYL TPZTVZ LZL UP]LS SVZ}JV KL SH
H SH SVZVMxH JVTV WLUZHTPLU[V H\[VJVUJPLUJPHX\LKPJLHJLYJHKLS

682 El (no) lugar de la losofa en la sociedad


S\NHYKLSHSVZVMxHLUSHZVJPLKHK` TLU[VS[PTVLULSLZWxYP[\HIZVS\

Revista Realidad 118, 2008


KLZ\WYV[HNVUPZTVWHYLJLYLZWVU [V SV J\HS PTWSPJH \UH YHKPJHS L_
KLYHSHS[PTHPUZ[HUJPHKLSLZWxYP[\ [LYPVYPKHK`H\[VUVTxHYLZWLJ[VKL
HIZVS\[V X\L JVTV M\UKHTLU[V J\HSX\PLY S\NHY ZVJPHS LU [tYTPUVZ
VU[VS}NPJVLUJ\LU[YHLUSVZHNLU[LZ OPZ[}YPJVZ ` LTWxYPJVZ 3H SVZVMxH
O\THUVZ ` Z\ OPZ[VYPJPKHK TLYHZ KLZKL LZ[L UV S\NHY ZVJPHS ]PLUL
TLKPHJPVULZWHYHWYLZLU[HY`YLWYL HKLTmZ KLZW\tZ X\L LS [PLTWV OH
ZLU[HY JVTV WVZPIPSPKHK SV X\L UV [YHUZJ\YYPKV WHYH L_WSPJHYSLNP[PTHY
OHKLQHKVKLZLYTL[HMxZPJHULJLZP SV HJVU[LJPKV KLZKL \U WYLZLU[L
KHK3HSVZVMxHJVTVWLUZHTPLU[V LU X\L SH H\[VJVUJPLUJPH PTWSPJH
KLZ\[PLTWVUVVIZ[HU[LHWHYLJL YLJVUJPSPHJP}U KLS LZWxYP[\ JVUZPNV
LU SH ZVJPLKHK ` WHYLJL [LULY \U TPZTV LU Z\ S[PTH N\YH X\L ZL
S\NHY LU LSSH LU SVZ WHYmTL[YVZ KL L_WYLZH LU SH TPZTxZPTH SVZVMxH
Z\OPZ[VYPJPKHKYLZPKLLUZ\M\UKH KL/LNLS

5. Marx: el lugar estructural de la losofa

(
SSx KVUKL /LNLS WVZ[\S} LS PU[LYWYL[H[P]VUVYTH[P]HWHYHLSJVU
LZWxYP[\ HIZVS\[V JVTV M\U Q\U[VKLSHZVJPLKHKX\LZL[YHK\JL
KHTLU[V VU[VS}NPJV Z\I`H LU S[PTH PUZ[HUJPH JVTV M\UJP}U
JLU[L KLS HJHLJLY OPZ[}YPJV 4HY_ KLSLNP[PTHJP}U
HYN\TLU[}LU[tYTPUVZKLSHLZ[Y\J 3H MPSVZVMxH ZL LUJ\LU[YH LU
[\YHVIHZLYLHSLUZ\JVUKPJP}UKL LZ[L S\NHY KL SH Z\WLYLZ[Y\J[\YH!
WYVK\J[VKLSHZYLSHJPVULZVIQL[P]HZ SH PKLVSVNxH ` LZ[V OHJL X\L KL
`UV]VS\U[HYPHZX\LSVZZLYLZO\TH HJ\LYKVHSHS}NPJHKLYLWYVK\JJP}U
UVZJVU[YHLULU[YLZxWHYHWYVK\JPY KL SH [V[HSPKHK LZ[Y\J[\YHSPUZ[P[\
TH[LYPHSTLU[LZ\ZTLKPVZKL]PKH` JPVUHSPKLVS}NPJH J\TWSH LU LS
KL LZ[H THULYH YLWYVK\JPY Z\ ]PKH UP]LS KLS JVUJLW[V HX\LSSH M\UJP}U
TPZTH(LZHLZ[Y\J[\YHVIHZLYLHS L_WSPJH[P]VPU[LYWYL[H[P]VUVYTH[P]H
TH[LYPHS JVUZ[P[\PKH WVY SHZ YL ` WVY SV [HU[V LU WYPUJPWPV SLNP
SHJPVULZ KL WYVK\JJP}U LU [LUZP}U [PTH[VYPH KL SH [V[HSPKHK JVUJYL[H
JVU SHZ M\LYaHZ WYVK\J[P]HZ TH[L LU J\YZV M\UJP}U X\L J\TWSLU LU
YPHSLZ YLZWLJ[V KL SHZ X\L ZVU Z\Z V[YVZ UP]LSLZ ` KL V[YHZ THULYHZ
JVUKPJPVULZ KL WVZPIPSPKHKPTWV V[YHZ HJ[P]PKHKLZ Z\WLYLZ[Y\J[\YHSLZ
ZPIPSPKHK ZL JVYYLZWVUKL \UH Z\ ZVJPHSLZ,ULZ[HSLJ[\YHSH[YHUZMVY
WLYLZ[Y\J[\YHPUZ[P[\JPVUHSX\L[PLUL THJP}U KLS T\UKV H X\L JVU]VJH
X\L]LYJVUMVYTHZKLVYNHUPaHJP}U SH[LZPZ?0KL4HY_ZVIYL-L\LYIHJO
ZVJPHSZVSPKHYPHZJVULZHIHZLYLHS` JVU]VJH[VYPHKL\UHYHKPJHSTV
\UH Z\WLYLZ[Y\J[\YH PKLVS}NPJH LU KLYUPKHK WVY SV X\L KPJL HJLYJH
WYPUJPWPV [HTIPtU ZVSPKHYPH JVU SH KLS WYV[HNVUPZTV KL SVZ HNLU[LZ
LZ[Y\J[\YH ` SHZ PUZ[P[\JPVULZ JVU O\THUVZ LU LZH [YHUZMVYTHJP}U
M\UJP}U KL VYPLU[HJP}U L_WSPJH[P]V KL Z\Z JVUKPJPVULZ LZ[Y\J[\YHSLZ

El (no) lugar de la losofa en la sociedad 683


Revista Realidad 118, 2008
L PUZ[P[\JPVUHSLZ KL ]PKH ` WVY SV QL[VKLSHOPZ[VYPHZPUVKLSHWYH_PZ
[HU[VKLZxTPZTVZJVTVZVJPLKHK YL]VS\JPVUHYPH LU SH X\L ]HU LU
O\THUH JVTV ZVJPLKHK KL JSHZLZ Q\LNVSHZ[YHUZMVYTHJPVULZOPZ[}YPJHZ
`JVTVPUKP]PK\VZWHYLJLKLQHYH `WVYSV[HU[VKL[VKVZSVZHNLU[LZ
SHSVZVMxHZPUWHWLS`WVYSV[HU[V O\THUVZPUJS\PKVLSTPZTVZ\QL[V
ZPUS\NHYLULZLL]LU[\HSWYVJLZVKL KLSHWYH_PZ
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,U LZ[H SLJ[\YH KL 4HY_ SH  KL 4HY_ LMLJ[H .YHTZJP WLYTP[L
SVZVMxHHSPN\HSX\LLU/LNLSWLYV OHIPSP[HY \UH [YHUZMVYTHJP}U KL SH
ZVIYL V[YVZ M\UKHTLU[VZ X\LKH SVZVMxH`OHJLYS\NHYH\UHSVZVMxH
PKLU[PJHKH JVTV ZHILY KL SLNP[P KL [YHUZMVYTHJP}U! SH SVZVMxH KL SH
THJP}UKLSVKHKV`YLZ\S[HKLZJH WYH_PZX\LZ\WVULSHKVISLKPYLJJP}U
SPJHKH JVTV ZHILY KL [YHUZMVYTH X\LPTWSPJHWV[LUJPHJP}U[HU[VKLSH
JP}U,Z[H[YHUZMVYTHJP}UZVSHTLU[L SVZVMxHJVTVKLSHWYH_PZSHX\L]H
W\LKLLZWLYHYZLKLSHWYH_PZKL\U KLSHWYH_PZHSHSVZVMxH`SHX\LSV
Z\QL[VYL]VS\JPVUHYPVX\LUVLZZ\ OHJLKLZKLSHSVZVMxHHSHWYH_PZ

6. El lugar social de la losofa desde algunas claves


aportadas por el pensamiento losco en Amrica
Latina: Ardao, Roig y Hinkelammert

3
HSVZVMxHHJ[\HSLU(Tt X\L PKLU[PJH JLU[YHSTLU[L JVTV
YPJH3H[PUHM\L\UVKLSVZ J\LZ[P}UWLKHN}NPJH`SHSVZVMxH
[LTHZ [YH[HKVZ LU LS 7YP JVTV WLUZHY SVZ}JV ` WVY SV
TLY*VSVX\PV5HJPVUHSKL-PSVZVMxH [HU[V JVTV JYLHJP}U X\L LZ[PTH
YLHSPaHKV LU 4VYLSPH 4PJOVHJmU TmZ WYVWPHTLU[L JVTV J\LZ[P}U
4t_PJV LU   ,U[VUJLZ (Y[\YV SVZ}JH7VULLUYLSHJP}ULSJVU
(YKHV JVU[YPI\`} HS KLIH[L JVU Z\ JLW[VKLM\UJP}UJVULSJVUJLW[V
WVULUJPH-\UJP}UHJ[\HSKLSHSV KLLZ[Y\J[\YHWHYHPUKPJHYX\LSH
ZVMxHLU3H[PUVHTtYPJH SVZVMxHUVW\LKLTLUVZX\LVWLYHY
,U KPJOV [YHIHQV (YKHV KPZ[PU JVTVMLU}TLUVZVJPHSJVUKPJPVUH
N\L LU[YL SH SVZVMxH JVTV ZHILY KV HS TPZTV [PLTWV X\L JVUKPJPV
MPSVZ}MPJV ` Z\ [YHUZTPZP}U SH UHU[LKLTHULYHX\L!

LU[HU[VJVUKPJPVUHKHSHSVZVMxHYLJLWJPVUH`HZ\TL
WYVJLZVZX\LZLYLTVU[HUKLZKLSHPUMYHLZ[Y\J[\YHTH[LYPHS
IPVLJVU}TPJH" ` LU [HU[V JVUKPJPVUHU[L [YHZTP[L ` YPNL
WYVJLZVZX\LKLZJPLUKLUKLZKLSHZ\WLYLZ[Y\J[\YHPU[LSLJ
[\HS JPLU[xJVPKLVS}NPJH ,U \UV ` V[YV JHZV [HTIPtU LS
LU[YLJY\aHTPLU[VZVJPHSTLU[LTmZZPNUPJH[P]VZLWYVK\JL
J\HSX\PLYHX\LZLHSHKPYLJJP}UVLSZLU[PKVKLSVZWYVJLZVZ

684 El (no) lugar de la losofa en la sociedad


LUSVZJHTWVZKLSHLK\JHJP}U`SHWVSx[PJH,U\UV`V[YV

Revista Realidad 118, 2008


JHZVLUUSHZYLSHJPVULZKLKVTPUPVVKLKLWLUKLUJPH
ZLNUZLSHZTPYLLU[YLSVZZLJ[VYLZVNY\WVZX\LMVYTHU
WHY[LKLSVZZPZ[LTHZVLZ[Y\J[\YHZZL]\LS]LUKLJPZP]HZLU
LS Q\LNV KL SVZ JVUKPJPVUHTPLU[VZ ;HU[V X\L ZVU LSSHZ
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JVUZLJ\LUJPHLSWYVWPVSVZVMHYYLZ\S[H[PYVULHKVKLZKLSVZ
VW\LZ[VZL_[YLTVZWHYHZLY]PYJVUTH`VYVTLUVYLJHJPH
KLHNLU[LPU[LSLJ[\HSKLKVTPUHJP}UVKLLTHUJPWHJP}U

+PZ[PUN\PLUKV KVZ LQLZ KL JVU SHJVTWYLUZP}UKLX\LSHS}NPJHKL


KPJPVUHTPLU[VZX\LZLLU[YLJY\aHU` SVZJVUKPJPVUHTPLU[VZLZSH[LUZPV
ZVIYLKL[LYTPUHULS]LY[PJHSYLSH[P UHSPKHK KVTPUHJP}ULTHUJPWHJP}U
]VHYLSHJPVULZKLJSHZLZZVJPHSLZ` ZL ZPN\L X\L LZ[Y\J[\YHSTLU[L OH
LSOVYPaVU[HSX\LOHJLHSHZYLSH ISHUKVSHSVZVMxHUVW\LKLLZJHWHY
JPVULZLU[YLUHJPVULZ`YLNPVULZ`LU HJ\TWSPY\UH\V[YHM\UJP}U!

<UTVTLU[VOPZ[}YPJVSSLNHLU[VUJLZLUSHZmYLHZKVTP
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JPKHHSHYHKPJHSPaHJP}UZVJPHS`O\THUH`WVYLUKLHSH
\UP]LYZHSPKHKKLSHLTHUJPWHJP}UTPZTH

*VTV WHYH 4HY_ LS S\NHY KL JPH KL SH WYPTLYH SLJ[\YH KL 4HY_
SH SVZVMxH LZ \U S\NHY LZ[Y\J[\YHS X\L WYVW\ZPTVZ JVTV WSH\ZPISL
` WVY SV [HU[V WHYH (YKHV M\U LS S\NHY LZ[Y\J[\YHS KL SH SVZVMxH
JPVUHS 7VY LS S\NHY X\L VJ\WH LU UV SH KL[LYTPUH JVTV ZHILY KL
SH LZ[Y\J[\YH LZ JVUKPJPVUHKH WVY SLNP[PTHJP}U ` WVY SV [HU[V UV SH
JPLY[VZWYVJLZVZ`JVUKPJPVUHU[LKL OHJL JVUZ[P[\[P]HTLU[L M\UJPVUHS H
V[YVZ`JVTV[VKVZSVZMLU}TLUVZ SHKVTPUHJP}U3HHKZJYPWJP}UHSH
ZVJPHSLZ X\L OHJLU H SH KPUmTPJH M\UJP}U KL KVTPUHJP}U V H SH KL
LZ[Y\J[\YHS LZ[m [LUZPVUHKH WVY SH LTHUJPWHJP}ULZ\UHHS[LYUH[P]HX\L
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WHJP}UX\LSHJVUZ[P[\`L(KPMLYLU ZPLSZLU[PKVS[PTVKLSHSVZVMxHLZ

El (no) lugar de la losofa en la sociedad 685


Revista Realidad 118, 2008
LS KPZJLYUPTPLU[V KL SH \UP]LYZHSP M\UJP}U KL SH SVZVMxH JVUZ[P[\`LU
KHKLULSWSHUV[L}YPJV`Z\JVUZ THUPMLZ[HJPVULZ KL H\[VHYTHJP}U
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JVTVLU[tYTPUVZSVZ}JVZWVYSH SVJ\HSSHSVZVMxH[PLUL\US\NHYLU
HKZJYPWJP}U H SH M\UJP}U KL LTHU LSJVSLJ[P]VZVJPHSZP[\HKVZPUULNHY
JPWHJP}UX\LWVYZ\YHKPJHSPaHJP}U LSWHWLSKLSS}ZVMVPUKP]PK\HSTLU[L
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,S LQLYJPJPV KL SH PU[LSPNLUJPH OPZ[}YPJV`JVSLJ[P]VX\LLULSLQLY
SVZ}JHLZYL]LSHKVYKL\UHH\[V JPJPV KLS H WYPVYP HU[YVWVS}NPJV
UVTxHLZWPYP[\HSX\LLZJVUKPJP}U OHJL S\NHY ZLH HS JVTPLUaV ZLH HS
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SHH\[VUVTxH[tJUPJHUVPTWSPX\L ZHILY UVYTH[P]V KL H\[VJVUZ[Y\J
ZVTL[PTPLU[V ZPUV KPZJLYUPTPLU[V JP}U KL Zx TPZTV UV JVSPKL  H
KL SH YHa}U OLYLKHKH KL SH [YH U\LZ[YV Q\PJPV JVU SH PKLH KL
KPJP}U 0U[LSPNLUJPH SVZ}JH ` Z\QL[V [YHZJLUKLU[HS [HS JVTV SH
H\[VUVTxH LZWPYP[\HS LU SH HYN\ M\UKHTLU[H -YHUa /PURLSHTTLY[ 
TLU[HJP}UKL(Y[\YV(YKHVZVIYLSH ZPUV X\L SH Z\WVUL ,U SH WLYZWLJ

686 El (no) lugar de la losofa en la sociedad


[P]H KL /PURLSHTTLY[ LS Z\QL[V LZ ZLU[PKVKL/PURLSHTTLY[LZX\LLS

Revista Realidad 118, 2008


PKLU[PJHKV JVTV SH [YHZJLUKLU[H Z\QL[VLTWxYPJVOPZ[}YPJVPUKP]PK\HS
SPKHKPUTHULU[LHSHZPUZ[P[\JPVULZ ` JVSLJ[P]V LU LS ZLU[PKV KL 9VPN
LZ[Y\J[\YHZ ` ZPZ[LTHZ LU [LUZP}U W\LKL HYTHYZL ` Z\WLYHY SVZ LMLJ
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HW\U[HHZ\HYTHJP}UH[YH]tZKL LZ[H HYTHJP}U WVY SH WLYZWLJ[P]H
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LMLJ[VZ KL ULNHJP}U KLYP]HKVZ KL JPVULZ ` WVY SV [HU[V KL [V[HSPKHK
SH [V[HSPaHJP}U KL SHZ TPZTHZ +LZ JVUKPJP}U KL YHJPVUHSPKHK JYx[PJH
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[YHZJLUKLU[HSPKHKPUTHULU[LLULS [HYPHZ`Z\ZLMLJ[VZKL[V[HSPaHJP}U

7. El (no) lugar de la losofa en la sociedad: campo


intelectual, campo cultural y campo del poder

,
S JHTWV PU[LSLJ[\HS LU LZ[mUPU]VS\JYHKVZSVZPU[LSLJ[\HSLZ
J\HU[V JVUZ[P[\[P]V KLS (KLTmZKL\UJHTWVKLM\LYaHZLU
JHTWV J\S[\YHS ` H Z\ LSZLU[PKVKLSHSLNHSPKHKTLJmUPJH
]La PU[LNYHU[L KLS JHTWV KLS WV KL SH MxZPJH LU SH X\L UV J\LU[H SH
KLY OH ]LUPKV NHUHUKV [LYYLUV KPTLUZP}UPU[LUJPVUHSKLSHHJJP}U
MYLU[L H SH [YHKPJPVUHS YLMLYLUJPH HS KL SVZ Z\QL[VZ ZL [YH[H [HTIPtU KL
PU[LSLJ[\HS V H SH PU[LSPNLUJPH \UJHTWVKLS\JOHZLUX\LJ\LU[H
`HZ\WYV[HNVUPZTVLUSHJ\S[\YH SH PU[LUJPVUHSPKHK KL THULYH X\L
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Z\Z PU[LUJPVULZ HZWPYHJPVULZ KL
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El (no) lugar de la losofa en la sociedad 687


Revista Realidad 118, 2008
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NOTAS
4

 Texto correspondiente a la po- Ibid. P. 14.
nencia presentada en el Coloquio 5
Ibid. P. 15.
Crisis-Crtica-Espacio. La losofa
6
en el contexto actual, Facultad de Arturo Andrs Roig, Teora y crtica
Humanidades y Ciencias de la Edu- del pensamiento latinoamericano,
cacin, Universidad de la Repblica, FCE, Mxico, 1981, p. 11.
Montevideo, 17-20 de octubre de 7
Franz J. Hinkelammert, Crtica a la
2006. razn utpica, DEI, Costa Rica, 2
1
Autores varios, La losofa actual en ed., 1990.
Amrica Latina, Grijalbo, Mxico, 8
Pierre Bourdieu y Jean Claude Pas-
1976. seron, La reproduccin, Editorial
2
Ibid, pp. 9-20. Laia, Barcelona, 1977, p. 44.
9
3
Ibid. P. 14. ngel Rama, La ciudad letrada, Edi-
ciones del Norte, Hanover, 1984.

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