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Engine Room Ventilation

Prof. Dr. Ali Hammoud


BAU-2015

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Generator Room

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Whydesign??

TheupcomingdataandimagessourceistheBeirutFireDepartment
Fire
Fourthings mustbepresentatthesame
time inordertoproduceFire:

Fuel
Oxygen
Heat
SustainingChemicalReaction
InBeirut

100 91
83
76
80
64 2006
60 2007
2008
40
2009
20

0
Num.ofFire
Yearlyaverage:78.5peryearFIRESCAUSEDBYbadofgeneratorrooms&ElectricalPanels

NotethatBeirutregionhasthesmallestelectricitycutoffperiodinLebanon.

Stillthenumberoffireaccidentscausedbygeneratorsisdramaticallyhigh.
Causes of Fire in Generator Rooms

1 Notfollowingthesafetyregulation,codes&standards
2 Badventilation(Overheating)&Oilleakageoftheenginecan
causeburning
3 NoautomaticorManualfirefightingsystem
4 PresenceofElectricalpanelsinthegeneratorroom
5 BadMaintenanceetc..

OurmainconcernistheBadventilation(Overheating)inclosed
area

9
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Gemmayzeh 26/10/2008
Videoshowing
NaturalVentilationofelectricalgeneratorsinadditiontounsafecabling
DieselTankrightontopofthegenerator!
Controlpanelrightnexttogenerator!
Damagedareanearly4mradius
05032011
Smokeextractionfans
Dieseltanksclosetowatertanksandelectriccables
Msaytbeh 3172009
Thatswhyitisobviouslyimportanttosetuprules,standards
andregulationsforgeneratorroomsinthecountry.
ElectricalPanel

AliHammoud,PhD
AliHammoud,PhD
AliHammoud,PhD
AliHammoud,PhD
Controlpanelrightnexttogenerator!
AliHammoud,PhD
Engine room ventilation
(Heat removal by air).
Objectives:
To provide a suitable environment that permits
1. The Generator to operate properly during its
servicelife.
2. The operators to work comfortably and
effectively.
3. Prevent Engine Overheat and Shut Down of
System.
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Outlines
Factors that should be considered in designing the room
ventilation.
1. The heat dissipated from the engine & alternator in the
room.
2. The amount of air required to remove the dissipated
heat from engine to maintain a suitable room
temperature not to exceeding 120F.
3- The amount of air needed for engine combustion.
4- Fan size to supply the total amount of air required.
5- The total area of louvers & grilles.
6- Engine back pressure calculation.
Hot air out
from the
room

Fresh air for


cooling the
radiator

Cold air
entering the
room
Thisarrangementisnotatypicalone.Usually,theRadiatorFanmountedontheEngine
dischargesthewholeairquantityrequiredtoventilatetheroom.Butduetobadlocationofthe
engineandthesuddenchangeinthedirectionoftheductattheoutletoftheaxialfan,itmay
resultinreductioninflowrateduetoincreasesinductresistance.Thereductioninflowrate
mayleadtooverheatingtheengineandalsotoshutdowntheengine.Anadditionalfanin
seriesmightbeinstalledtoassisttheRadiatorFaninovercomingthepressurelossesintheair
path.Careshouldbetakenwheninstallationthesecondfaninthepathorattheendofthe
duct.Thismethodis satisfactory as long as the designer understands its strengths
and weaknesses . It is recommended to use identical axial fan having the same
performance .Anothersmallfaninstalledintheroomtoremovetheheatfromthegenerator
room.

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21,168Cfm
H.EX

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Remote Mounted Radiator Cooling
The radiator can be mounted remotely (not mounted directly at
the engine). The remote/close system uses the same radiator type
except it is mounted outside the building, but within close
proximity to the Generator set.
The remote radiator may be mounted either vertically or
horizontally. In general, the radiator will have an electric fan to
provide cooling air and a heat exchanger to transfer the heat to
radiator . It is also possible to utilize the engine mounted coolant
pump to provide coolant water flow if the head of the pump deliver
enough pressure to overcome losses.
If a new pump is installed the water flow rate should not exceed
the capacity of the engine pump.
Thepipingsystemfrictionlossbetweenengineandradiator
mustbecalculated.

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43
RoutingConsiderations&types
(GeneratorSetwithRemoteRadiator)
Maintainingrecommendedairtemperaturesin
theengineroomisimpossiblewithoutproper
routingoftheventilationair.Thefollowing
principlesshouldbeconsideredwhendesigning
anengineroomventilationsystem:
Ventilationairshouldbeexhaustedfromthe
engineroomatthehighestpointpossible,
preferablydirectlyovertheengine.
Avoidshortcircuitingbetweenairinletsand
outlets.
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RoutingConsiderations&types

Avoidventilationairsupplyductsthatblowcoolairdirectly
towardhotenginecomponents.Thismixesthehottestair
intheengineroomwithincomingcoolair,raisingthe
averageengineroomtemperature.Thisalsoleavesareasof
theengineroomwithnoappreciableventilation.
Forenginesthatdrawcombustionairdirectlyfromthe
engineroom,theroutingshouldprovidethecoolest
possibleairtoengine/turbochargerinlet.
ProvideSoundAttenuatorsatAirIntake&Dischargepathto
maintainacceptablenoiseleveloutsidetheGenerator
Room.
SupplyAirtotheRoomshallbefromtheAlternatorSide.

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VentilationType1

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VentilationType2

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VentilationType3

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VentilationType4

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Shortcut

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MultipleEngines

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Incorrectairflowdistribution

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Engine Room Ventilation
Notes

1. Roompressureshouldbeslightlyhigherthan
atmosphericpressuretoensurecomplete
combustion.
2. Considertheheatgeneratedbyotherequipments
installedintheengineroom.
3. Considerthehighestsafe temperaturethatother
temperaturesensitiveequipmentscanbesubjected
to,suchaselectricequipments.
4. Engineroomtemperatureshouldnotexceed48C
(120F). 53
Required Ventilation Airflow in
engine room EngineisOn

P
QV ( Combustion air ) F
Cp T
Qv = Volume Flow Rate in m3/hr
P = Heat To Be Extracted in KW
= Air Density in Kg/m3 at air temperature
38C (100F). The density is equal to 1.099
kg/m3 (0.071 lb/ft3)
T = Temperature Difference Between Desired
Indoor & The Design Outdoor Dry Bulb in oK.
Cp = Air Specific Heat Capacity (0.017 kW x
min/kg x C), (0.24 Btu/LBS/F) 54
Engineisoff

P(Kw)
QV ( F
Cp T
32 1 3
Qv 155.7 m /min
1.099 0.017 11
1820
Qv 5340 CFM
0.071 0.24 20

Therequiredheattoremoveheatdissipationfromengine(shut)

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Combustion air quantity &
Factor

Approximateconsumptionofcombustionairforadiesel
engineis0.1m3/brakekW.min(2.5ft3/bhp.min).(
Manufacturercatalogue)
F=Routingfactorbasedontheventilationtype
discussedpreviously.

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EngineRoomVentilationExample
Fora400KVAtypeFGWilsongenerator. Perkins
(RadiatorMountedType).
Tocalculatetherequiredairflowratefor
coolingthegeneratorroom,assumeaType1
routingconfiguration.
Fromthecatalogue,Theheatrejectionis1820
Btu/min (32kW ), andthepermissiblerisein
engineroomtemperatureis20F(11C).
Note:Maxengineroomtemperatureis120F(48C)

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Generator Data
FG Wilson catalogue :400 KVA (320 kW),
a) Airflowrequiredforcoolingthegeneratorradiatoris:
21168 CFM (599.4 m3/min).
b)Airflowrequiredforcombustion,is:
833 CFM (23.6 m3/min)
c)Theheatrejectedbyradiationfromeachgenerator(engineplus
alternator)is1820 Btu/min ( 32 kW)
d)ThegeneratordimensionLxwxh(inmeters)is:
3.5 m X 2.7 m X 2.15 m
Now,basedonthesedata(a&b)wecansizetheintakegrille&(c)is
usedtocalculatetherequiredairflowforcoolingthegeneratorroom
andfansizing.
Perkins2206AE13TAG2/5 60
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Notes
Itistobeclarifiedthatthe21,168cfm
indicatedintheCataloguehasseveral
components:
Ventilationtoremoveheatrejectedintothe
Room(6,173cfm)+Ventilationrequiredto
removeheatrejectedfrotheRadiator
mountedontheEngine+miscellaneous
requirements.

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RemoteRadiator
Solution:
The estimated ventilation flow rate
required to remove the Heat Rejected
from Engine into the Room, including
combustion air.
P ( Kw)
QV ( Combustion air ) 1
Cp T
32
Qv 23.6 180 m /min
3

1.099 0.017 11
1820
Qv 833 6173 CFM
0.071 0.24 20 63
Engineisoff

P ( Kw)
QV ( 1
Cp T
32
Qv 155.7 m /min
3

1.099 0.017 11
1820
Qv 5340 CFM
0.071 0.24 20

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65
Heat radiated by the generator
Ifnodataisavailablefromcatalogue:

HRG ( kW ) P (1 )
In US Units :
HRG ( Btu/min ) P (1 ) 56 . 9

HRG = Heat Radiated by the Generator (kW), (Btu/min)


P = Generator Output at Maximum Engine Rating (kW)
= Generator Efficiency .

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Example
320 kW standby generator set has a generator
efficiency of 92%. The generator radiant heat
for this generator can be estimated as follows.

HRG (kW ) P (1 ) 320 (1 0.92) 25 .6 kW

HRG (Btu/min ) 25 56.9 1456 But / min

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Remote Mounted Radiator Cooling
& Energy
gy saving
g

Theheatrejectedfromwaterradiatorisusedtoheatthewaterheateras
canbeseeninthefollowingfigures

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2
GeneratorRoomLouversize

Q
A
V
1SuctionFacevelocityVs=275ft/min
2TheDeliveryFlowVelocityVd=500ft/min

Openingswithlouversshouldbetwicetheareaofan
unobstructed openingtoprovideproperairflow.

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Fanselection&size
Theselectionoffansizeisusuallydeterminedby
ventilationairvolume,pressurerequirementsandspace
limitationswithintheengineroom.
InrealityFansizinginvolvesmuchmorethanjustselecting
afanthatwilldelivertheairflowvolumeneededtomeet
thecoolingairandcombustionairrequirements.
Itrequiresabasicunderstandingoffanperformance
characteristicsandventilationsystemdesignparameters
.i.e pressuredropinductandfittingstoselectafanoperate
atBEF ornearlyso.
Refertolecturechapter7(Fanselection)Dr.Hammoud

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Program

Ventilation Requirements to
prevent temperature rise above
recommended limit

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Backpressureofanexhaustpipesystem

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I. Formula:

Thefollowingformulaisusedtocalculatethebackpressureofanexhaustsystem

P=CLRQ2 /D5
P=backpressure(inHg)
C=0.00059forenginecombustionairflowof100to400cfm
=0.00056forenginecombustionairflowof400to700cfm
=0.00049forenginecombustionairflowof700to2000cfm
=0.00044forenginecombustionairflowof2000to5400cfm

L=lengthofexhaustpipinginft

forelbowstheequivalentlengthofstraightpipeiscalculatedasfollows:

Length(ft)45elbow=0.75xdiameter(inches)
Length(ft)90elbow=1.33xdiameter(inches)
R= Exhaust density in pounds per cubic foot

R= 41.1/(exhaust temp F + 460 F)

Q=exhaust gas flow in cfm

D=inside diameter of exhaust pipe in inches


Perkins2206AE13TAG2/5

Thedatashownintheaccompanied
tableisforthesamegenerator.
Nowsupposeweneedtocheckifthe
4inchespipediameterisusedfor
exhaustgaswillbesatisfactory?
Thelengthofthepipeis100ftwith2,
(45degelbows)&4(90degelbows).

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II- Example Back pressure calculation for MF 100 KVA

1) Engine technical data: From the corresponding catalogue


Max . Allowable back pressure =3 in Hg
Exhaust gas flow =2281cfm
Combustion air flow =833 Cfm
Exhaust gas temperature = 1166 F (630 C)

2) Total length for 4 exhaust pipe:


No of 90 elbows =4
N of 45 elbows
o =2
Equivalent length in ft(4) =2x0.625x4+ 4x1.33x4 =22ft
Length of straight pipe (4) =60 m inside shaft
=5m horizontal (as quantified on drawings)
=216ft
Total EFFECTIVE length (4) =238.6 ft

3) Back pressure calculation:


R =41.1/(1166+460) =0.025
Q =2281 cfm
C =0.00049
Total Effective length =238.6 ft
(Pressure drop 4) =0.00049x238.6x0.025x[2281)]2 /(4)5
= 14.5 in Hg
P total = 14.5 3 in Hg (rejected,a larger diameter shall be
selected)
Le/D

Example:for6diameterpipe,ThePressuredropinftfor90
Elbow=16in/12=1.33ftx4=5.32ft

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Transformer
room
ventilation

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ExamplecalculationofTransformerroomventilationinbasement
DesignParameters:
Roomarea = 147.0m Transformerroomventilation
Roomheight = 4.2m
Roomvolume = 617.4m
TemperaturedifferenceT = 7C(55C 48C)
Numberoftransformer(1500kVA) = 6Nos.
Heatdissipationforeachtransformer = 19.0kW
Totalheatdissipation = 114.0kW

Forcedmechanicalventilationshallbeproposedasfollows:

Fanairflow(INLPS) =

=3Nos.makeupairfans(2duty+1standby)areprovidedeachhavingcapacityof14000
cfm.
AlltheaboveextractandmakeupairfansshallbecontrolledthroughBMS.
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Numberof
airchange
forsome
practical
Application
82
Fire Pump Room Ventilation
Ventilation rate for Fire Pump Room shall be minimum 10
ACH during fire mode and individual air conditioning
during standby mode.
Generator Room Ventilation
Ventilation rate for Generator Room shall be minimum 6
ACH during fire mode.
Fire Command Center Ventilation
Ventilation rate for Fire Command Center Room shall be
minimum 10 ACH during fire mode and individual air
conditioning during standby mode.
Testrig

2011
87
Collector
Circulatorpumpslocation
Circulatorpumpsset+accessories
Heatexchanger
Heatexchanger
Heatexchangers
Supply&returnspipes
THANKS

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