Está en la página 1de 20


Number 2




Source: Source:



Puente EL

Vol. 31 No. 1, 2017


Pages 4-7
Message from the Director 3 Source:

Fourth Round of Every Day Counts Drives

Fourth Round of Every Day Counts Drives Adoption of Pavement Preservation
Adoption of Pavement Preservation Initiatives

ISO/DIS 45001 Aligning with ISO 9001-2015/


Pages 8-11
New Results from Latin NCAP: Renault Captur
Attains Four Stars for Adult Driver Safety Source:

ISO/DIS 45001 Aligning With

ISO 9001-2015/ISO 14001-2015
Puerto Rico ITE Section
Drives Complete Streets Forward

Vehicle Technology Innovation for Traffic Safety 14-17

Pages 14-17
Know your Trainer: Dr. Daniel Rodrguez-Roman 18

Decade of Action for Road Safety Pledge 19
Vehicle Technology Innovation for Traffic Safety

Vol. 31 No. 2, 2017

The Puerto Rico Transportation Technology Transfer Center, PRLTAP/T2, is part of a network of 58 Centers
throughout the United States that comprises of the Local Technical Assistance Program (LTAP) and Tribal
Technical Assistance Program (TTAP). The mission of the PRLTAP/T2 Center is to provide training and technical
assistance to local transportation officials of the 78 municipalities that comprises the Government of Puerto Rico,
and the Department of Transportation and Public Works of Puerto Rico, with emphasis on promoting a highway
safety culture and in the implementation of the USDOT FHWA Every Day Counts (EDC) initiatives. EL PUENTE NEWSLETTER VOL.31 NO.2, 2017 3

Message from the Director

W elcome! Best
regards to all our
readers in the second edition
Surveyors of Puerto Rico (CIAPR, by its Spanish
initials). The conferences theme was Safety,
Mobility, and Health in Transportation:
of the 31st Anniversary of the Guidelines for the Design of Complete Streets.
Newsletter El Puente!
Our fourth article, denominated V ehicle
The feature article of this edition is dedicated to Technology Innovation for Traffic Safety, is about
FHWAs pavement preservation initiative. This incorporation of safety technologies for drivers.
initiative, which is part of the EDC-4 projects, These advancements have become a priority for
consists of the adoption and informed government agencies and the auto industry. This
implementation of treatments for preventive article highlights the technological innovations the
maintenance of pavements at a lower cost to National Highway and Transportation Safety
restore and/or maintain the physical condition of Administration (NHTSA) is interested in and for
the highway network. The article explains the which it has created awareness campaigns.
purpose of the initiative, preservation strategies and
treatments for both flexible and rigid pavements, as Finally, in the Know your Trainer section, the
well as a section of useful references for pavement PRLTAP-T2 Center is proud to recognize Dr.
professionals. Daniel Rodrguez-Romn, Assistant Professor of
the UPRM at the Department of Civil Engineering
The second article, provided as a contribution from and Surveying and expert in transportation
Fernando Corts-Castro, Safety and Health engineering. Dr. Rodrguez-Romn has presented
Manager of Ferrovial Agroman of Puerto Rico, courses pertinent to transportation, titled Practical
where he presents the alignment process of the first Methods to Improve Safety of Pedestrians on
international standard for safety and health Highways and Improving Public Health Using
management in work environments, ISO/DIS Urban and Transportation Planning Strategies.
45001 with the quality management standard ISO
9001-2015 and the environmental management I hope the articles presented in this edition will be
standard 14001:2015. These standards were last of benefit to our local collaborators in
updated and published in 2015. transportation in Puerto Rico. It is our intent to
share and continually update innovative
In the practical safety tips we describe the latest transportation research initiatives, especially Every
results from Latin NCA P. These results highlight Day Counts (EDC), in our mission to promote
auto manufacturer Renault and their model Captur, highway safety, workforce development and the
which achieved a four star score for adult safety. management of transportation infrastructure.
Our third article is about the Puerto Rico Section of
the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE-PR)
and its celebration of its traditional Spring
Meeting. It was held on Friday, April 28, 2017, at
the headquarters of the College of Engineers and Benjamn Colucci Ros


Fourth Round of Every Day Counts Drives

Adoption of Pavement Preservation Initiatives

W ith the launch of the fourth round of the Every Day Counts
(EDC) program, the Puerto Rico Highway and
Transportation Authority (PRHTA) adopted four innovation
initiatives. This edition of El Puente Newsletter highlights the pavement
preservation initiative: where, when and how.
This initiative consists of the adoption and informed implementation of
treatments intended to achieve preventive maintenance of pavements at
a lower cost, with the goal of restoring and/or maintaining the physical
condition of the highway network, thus improving its operation, safety
and useful life. Puerto Rico currently is in early stages: in terms of the
pavement management process (where and when) a formal
implementation is under way, with the intention of reaching the
development stage by the end of the EDC round. As for the
development of the how, the goal is to reach the demonstration stage for
preservation methods.
At present, pavement maintenance practices in Puerto Rico is, on the
ordinary, of reactive nature, in which interventions are made to correct
advanced deterioration problems or to reconstruct the facility. This
contrasts with the approach of preventive maintenance, this other kind
of treatments are applied prior to the development of observable
distresses, or at latest when they still experience low severity levels.
Different organizations representing the industry, such as the American
Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO),
the National Asphalt Pavement Association (NAPA), the National
Center for Pavement Preservation (NCPP), the Foundation for
Pavement Preservation (FP2), among other professional organizations
and state departments of transportation, have developed initiatives and
partnerships fostering the development and adoption of treatments.
The selection of these treatments must be subject to investigating the
history and contributing factors of any observed or anticipated distress,
thus achieving an optimum performance adapted to the intervened
segments. Likewise, the success of these treatments requires the proper
usage of materials and construction methods to ensure project quality. EL PUENTE NEWSLETTER VOL.31 NO.2, 2017 5

The life cycle cost depends on the frequency and type of strategy
used. Preventive maintenance reduces costs in the long term Microsurfacing restores friction, forms a protective barrier
Source: against humidity and fills cracks and minor deformations.

Flexible Pavement Strategies Chip Seal: application of asphalt followed by an

At the time of this publication, PRHTA has section 409 of aggregate cover, in one or more layers.
the Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Cold recycling: r emoval of sur face layer , mater ial is
Construction, Bituminous Surface Treatment, intended then mixed with additives and is re-applied as new
for preservation purposes. It also has specifications 402 for pavement.
Rehabilitation of Bituminous Concrete Pavement and
403 for Cold Milling of Bituminous Concrete Pavement, Hot recycling: r emoval and subsequent heating of
as rehabilitation practices. surface layer, this material is then mixed with new
asphalt to create a new mix re-applied as a new
Flexible pavement preservation treatments include: pavement.
Crack sealing and filling: application of asphalt on Thin asphalt overlay: application of asphalt
cracks, serves as a preparation for future treatments and pavement wearing course between 7/8 and 1.5 of
prevents water infiltration to lower layers. thickness
Whitetopping: application of hydr aulic cement
overlay for minor rehabilitation purposes
Geotextile fabric interlayer: geofabr ic layer placed
between a repaired pavement and a surface treatment,
for protection against humidity and crack development

Crack sealing allows for the preparation of deteriorated

pavements to receive Surface treatments.
Fog seal: water -based asphalt emulsion containing no
aggregates, seals cracks and low severity imperfections.
Slurry seal: thin layer consisting of an asphalt
emulsion, well-graded fine aggregate (nominal sizes
from 1/8 to 3/8) and mineral filler.
Microsurfacing: application of polymer -modified Geotextile interlayers increase durability of preventive
asphalt emulsion, aggregates, mineral filler, water and treatments by counteracting humidity and crack formation.
emulsifiers. Source:

Joint and crack sealing in Portland cement concrete

pavement (Specification 507): r emoval of
deteriorated sealing material and/or debris, followed by
replacement with new sealing material
Jacking Portland cement concrete pavement
(Specification 508): gr out injection to lift settled
slabs along a highway segment, for sites facing
geotechnical problems
Cracking, reseating and resurfacing of Portland
cement concrete pavement (Specification 509):
Ride quality and slab durability depends on maintaining load controlled cracking is applied to concrete slabs,
transfer, the replacement of dowel bars enables its restoration. resulting pieces are reseated, cleaned and patched to be
Source: covered by an asphalt pavement overlay
Rigid Pavement Strategies
PRHTA applies preventative pavement treatments, in
accordance to Series 500 of the Standard Specifications
for Road and Bridge Construction, known in the industry
as Concrete Pavement Restoration (CPR). A brief
description of these CPR methods are shown:
Undersealing Portland Cement Concrete Pavement
(Specification 502): gr out injection to fill voids
below individual slabs
Removal and replacement of Portland cement
concrete, full depth (Specification 503): slab
Using pre-cast concrete slabs eliminates repair delays resulting
removal, repairs for base layer and replacement with
from the curing of concrete on the road.
cast in-place slab Source:
Partial depth patching for Portland cement concrete
pavement (Specification 504): r emoval of Other applicable strategies for the maintenance of rigid
deteriorated pavement areas and replaced with cast in- pavements include drainage rehabilitation and slab
place concrete patch replacement using pre-cast concrete pieces. The for mer
addresses one of the main factors contributing to distress,
water; the second allows for quick repairs within a work
shift without sacrificing quality.

Pavement Management: the Where and When

The application of these treatments must be subject to
monitoring, this allows for optimal scheduling of
interventions, monitoring of effectiveness and maintenance
budgeting. Preservation strategies bring benefits such as:
Extending service life by delaying the onset of distress
Diamond grinding corrects for faulting, reduces noise, increases Restoration of functional characteristics by
friction and enables safer braking.
rejuvenating or replacing surfaces
Installation of new dowels in Portland cement Structural capacity loss reduction
concrete pavement (Specification 505): r estor ation Reduction of life cycle costs by avoiding reconstruction
of load transfer between Portland cement concrete slabs and minimizing rehabilitations
by installation of new dowel bars on transverse joints
Increasing ride quality for users
Grinding Portland cement concrete pavement
(Specification 506): r estor ation of fr iction, r emoval Reduction of operational costs
of irregularities, correction of faulting and noise Reduction of environmental impacts by diminishing
reduction by forming longitudinal grooves with emissions, material consumption and energy use
diamond saw blades EL PUENTE NEWSLETTER VOL.31 NO.2, 2017 7

The optimum selection of each treatment, as well as their Pavement preservation treatment checklists by FHWA,
combinations, depends on the interaction of contributing NCPP, FP2 and other organizations, available free of
factors of distress, including: cost. Refer to
Average daily traffic (ADT)
Average daily truck traffic (ADTT)
Climate and weather, in particular temperature changes
and humidity levels
Time and space restrictions for temporary traffic
Price and availability of materials
Specific characteristics of the site context (urban vs. Pavement preservation treatment checklists published by
rural, coast vs. mountain, land use, among others) FHWA, FP2 and other organizations.

Pavement Design, Construction, and Management: A

Digital Handbook, published by AASHTO, is a digital
book intended to aid pavement professionals in the
main aspects of highway network component.
Available as a digital lifetime subscription at the
AASHTO Bookstore, starting at $160.00.

Preservation treatments keep the pavement in good condition,

avoiding the development of the accelerated deterioration stage.
Source: counts
Pavement management should also be coordinated with
other problems of the highway network, allowing the Relevant digital documents for pavement preservation
correlation of distress with other phenomena. This way, published by SHRP-2, AASHTO and NAPA.
pavement preservation contributes to goals such as traffic The Transportation System Preservation Technical
safety, sustainability and efficient operations. Services Program (TSP2) has free of cost online
resources for preservation, management, research and
Useful Resources sustainability of pavements. Refer to https://
Different government agencies and industry organizations
have published videos, books, data sheets and checklists as For more information on these and other EDC initiatives,
resources for this initiative. readers can visit
Publications from the National Cooperative Highway
Research Program (NCHRP), including reports and
synthesis for each treatment, available free of cost.
Refer to
Publications of the Second Strategic Highway Research
Program (SHRP-2), in particular the Pavement
Preservation Guidelines for High-Volume Roads
(Report S2-R26-RR-2) available free of cost. Refer to
NAPA has provided a free-of-cost digital book named
thin Asphalt Overlays for Pavement Preservation as The Transportation System Preservation Program has a
multimedia library addressing pavement preservation.
one of its pavement-related publications. Source:


ISO/DIS 45001 Aligning with ISO 9001-2015/ISO14001-2015

T his article summarizes how the first international ISO/DIS 45001 standard for safety management and
occupational safety will be harmonized with ISO 9001/ISO 14001-2015, standards for quality management and
environment, respectively, which were updated and published in 2015. The ISO/PC 283 Committee continues
working on the final definition of the final ISO/DIS 45001 document, and it is very likely to be available by the end of
2017 or the start of 2018, being an evolutionary step of the OHSAS 18001:2007 standards (OHSAS stands for
Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series), which represents a reference standard for safety and health
management for organizations globally.
Brief history of OSHAS 18001
OHSAS 18001 is a global standard for the design and implementation of a safety and health management system,
however it isnt an ISO standard as are ISO 9001 / ISO 14001, for which OHSAS 18001 has experienced a difficult path
to immersion within the environment of ISO management standards. The trajectory of the current OHSAS 18001:2007
has had a long trek of evolution and modifications.
OHSAS 18001 is an Occupational Health & Safety Assessment Series. Its evolution can be summarized below:
BS 8800:1999, is a guide for implementation of safety management and occupational safety, where BS stands for
British Standards
BSI OHSAS 18001:1999, these are specifications for safety management and occupational safety, where BSI
stands for British Standards Institution
BSI OHSAS 18001:1999, was not developed nor published in accordance to the standard mechanisms used to create
BSI OHSAS 18001:2007, is a series of policy specifications for the evaluation of safety management and
occupational safety systems
BSI OHSAS18002, these are directions or guidelines for implementation of the BSI OHSAS 18001
Structure of ISO/DIS 45001
The ISO/DIS 45001 safety and health management standard is the first global standard for safety and health
management. This standard will be an evolutionary step of the OHSAS 18001-2007 standards series, which has been a
major reference standard for numerous organizations worldwide.
At present, the new ISO/DIS 45001 is at its final stage, which will replace the other safety and occupational health
(S&OH) management standards. The ISO/DIS 45001, when published in its final edition, will close a gap, facilitating its
integration with the new version of ISO 9001:2015 for quality management and the new version of ISO 14001:2015. EL PUENTE NEWSLETTER VOL.31 NO.2, 2017 9

This will aid organizations to integrate ISO/DIS 45001 A common, related and standardized language, to
in a harmonious way with the high level structure (HLS) help organizations integrate multiple management
defined by ISO, which will allow a 100% alignment with systems and enjoy side benefits, such as elimination
ISO 9001:2015 and ISO 14001:2015. of redundant documents
High-Level Structure Appendix SL Harmonization of different standards (ISO 14001,
ISO 9001, ISO 27001, ISO 45001, etc.)
The high level structure (see Table No. 1) has been
developed as a model to generate directions for different Relationship between OHSAS 18001:2007 with ISO
ISO management standards, be it for Quality 45001
(9001:2015), Environment (14001:2015) or for ISO
45001 in its final published form. This structure is In the new ISO standards, the High Level Structure
defined in Appendix SL of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part consists of a common and general organization, with
1. This document possesses a common denominator, their respective titles per chapter, identical, and with the
established by the ISO Committee, whose purpose is to same number of clause. In addition, Annex SL
ensure all new management standards respect a share a establishes:
common objective: attaining uniformity of management
standards. Introductory text for identical clauses

This model, in Annex SL, should not be visualized as a Identical statements for identical requirements
simple change, as it will impact all management systems
Common terms and principal definitions
under ISO. This organization and its committees aspire
to a common and more far-reaching objective, including:

ISO/DIS 45001
Deming Cycle
ID Contents (PDCA)
1. Scope

2. Normative references

3. Terms and definitions

Context of the
5.1 Leadership and commitment
Leadership and Workers 5.2 OSH Policy
Participation 5.3 Organizational roles, responsibilities, accountabilities and authorities
5.4 Participation and consultation
6.1 Actions to address risks and opportunities
6. Planning
6.2 OH&S objectives and planning to achieve them
7.1 Resources
7.2 Competence Plan
7. Support 7.3 Awareness
7.4 Information and communication
7.5 Documented information
8.1 Operational planning and control
8.2 Management of change
8.3 Outsourcing
8. Operation Do
8.4 Procurement
8.5 Contractors
8.6 Emergency preparedness and response
9.1 Monitoring, measurement, analysis and evaluation
9. Performance evaluation 9.2 Internal audit Check
9.3 Management review
10.1 Incident, nonconformity and corrective action
10. Improvement Act
10.2 Continual improvement
Table No 1: Alignment of ISO/DIS 45001 with the Deming Cycle (Sour ce: Edwar d Deming)

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Models of Improvement OHSAS 18001: 2007 and
has sought to ensure quality of its standards with this ISO / DIS 45001
High Level Structure, in order for its publications to be
consistent, have a long service life, for all kinds of It is clear that the new ISO 45001 standard will be much
organizations, regardless of size, sector and context. broader and more business oriented, based on a structure
that allows the system to be better contextualized with the
The High Level Structure is developed as shown: organizations strategic plan.
1. Scope Both standards have their model of improvement,
2. Normative References according to their objective that they have wanted to
encompass. Figures No. 1 and 2 show the OHSAS 18001:
3. Terms and definitions 2007 and ISO / DIS 45001 models, respectively.
4. Context of the organization The Edward Deming cycle abbreviated as PDCA ("Plan,
5. Leadership Do, Check, and Act") is well known as a core element of
ISO 9001 and ISO 14001, but it is also a distinctive
6. Planning feature of the series of evaluation standards OHSAS
7. Support 18001: 2007 and therefore within the system of
management of occupational health and safety. The
8. Operation PDCA cycle can simply be described as follows:
9. Performance Evaluation
Plan (P): Deter mine the objectives and pr ocesses
10. Improvement required to achieve the results according to the client's
requirements and the OH & S policy of the
The content and design of the standard follow the ISO organization.
protocol agreed upon, just as described in Annex SL. The
sections or key clauses are those numbered from 4 to 10, Do (D): Implement pr ocesses to achieve the
summarized as follows: objectives.
4. Context of the organization: includes the Check (C): Follow up and measur e pr ocesses and
organizational understanding, needs of employees and products in connection with the policies, objectives and
other stakeholders; and reach of the HSO requirements, indicating the results achieved.
management system
Act (A): Car r y out actions that pr omote the
5. Leadership and workers participation: includes improvement of the performance of the necessary
the commitment, OH&S policy, roles, responsibilities, processes.
accountabilities and authorities in the organization,
participation and consultation,
6. Planning: actions to addr ess r isks and
opportunities, legal requirements, action planning,
OH&S objectives and their achievement
7. Support: includes the r esour ces, competence,
awareness, communication, documented information,
and the creation and updating process
8. Operation: includes the planning and contr ol,
control hierarchy, management of change,
procurement, outsourcing, contractors and the
preparation and response for emergencies
9. Performance Evaluation: includes the monitor ing,
evaluation of attainment, internal auditing and
management review
10. Improvement: includes data on incidents,
nonconformity and management of continual
Figure No 1: Model of Impr ovement OHSAS 18001:2007 EL PUENTE NEWSLETTER VOL.31 NO.2, 2017 11

New Latin NCAP Results:

Renault Captur, Attains Four Stars
for Adult Safety

The New Car Assessment Program for Latin America and
the Caribbean (Latin NCAP) published this month the most
recent results for the Renault Captur vehicle. These results
were published concurrently with the 25th International
Conference Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV) held in
Detroit, MI, USA. The Renault Captur vehicle, obtained a
result of four stars for protection of adult occupant,
obtaining a score of 30.27 out of a total of 34.00 points and
three stars for protection of infant occupant, obtaining a
score of 33.68 out of a total of 49.00 points.
In the tests for adult occupant protection, the following
components were taken into account for the Renault Captur
vehicle: four airbags (two on the front and two on the side
Figure No 2: Model of Impr ovement for Pr oject ISO 45001 head-thorax) and an Electronic Stability Control (ESC)
Conclusions PHASE VIIIJUNE 2017
The process in which ISO / DIS 45001 was reached, is an
evolution, not a revolution, since the standard provides a
model that focuses on the positive aspects of effective Source:
business management, such as: Leadership; Planning;
Mechanisms of Support; Operational Management; "The Captur shows the potential of local industry to produce
Evaluation of Performance and Continuous Improvement. and offer safer cars that exceed governmental requirements
In Table No. 1, the structure ISI / DIS 45001 and the and that perform good with todays tougher protocol.
Deming Cycle (PDCA) are related. Renault should be proud to show their consumers the crash
test result of the Captur. We encourage Renault and other
The PDCA cycle and the goodness of fit between manufacturers to keep improving their model ranges to
management systems and a general model of business achieve four and five stars, said Alejandro Furas, General
excellence (High Level Structure) stand out in ISO / DIS Secretary of Latin NCAP.
45001. The implementation of ISO / DIS 45001 in
organizations will not only improve organizational Latin NCAP was launched in 2010 to develop an
management, but also improve and promote business independent regional vehicle crash testing and security
management towards excellence, that is to say the best rating system in the region. Latin NCAP is supported by the
practices in which organizations carry out their Global New Car Assessment Program, International
operations. Companies accredited to ISO 45001 will have Consumer Research and Testing, FIA Foundation, among
others. He is also an associate member of the United Nations
an advantage over their competitors, which in turn will
Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011-2020.
have results towards business excellence, through
effective controls of their operations and reduction of
risks for their workers, and thus foster a preventive This article is an adaptation of:
This article was written by Fernando Corts-Castro, noticia/85937f55a6baf2/renault-captura-la-atencion-con-
Health and Environmental Safety Manager from Ferovial cuatro-estrellas-para-la-seguridad-de-adultos
Agroman of Puerto Rico.

Source: Wilfredo Cordero Cruz

Puerto Rico ITE Section Drives Complete Streets Forward

T he Puerto Rico Section of the Institute of Transportation

Engineers (ITE-PR) celebrated its traditional Spring
Meeting on Friday, April 28, 2017, at the headquarters of
the College of Engineers and Surveyors of Puerto Rico at Hato
Rey, Puerto Rico. This year had Safety, Mobility and Health in
Transportation: Guidelines for the Design of Complete Streets as
its key topic.
Starting off the event was Eng. Miguel Pellot, an on behalf of the

Secretary of the Department of Transportation and Public Works,

Carlos M. Contreras-Aponte, whose speech was about the vision
and concept the agency holds concerning complete streets.
Topics such as legislation, key partnerships and expected
benefits were highlighted.
Representing the Puerto Rico Division of the Federal Highway
Administration (FHWA), Michael Figueroa contributed to the
even with his conference on Fixing A mericas Surface
Transportation (FAST) Act, its implications for Puerto Rico and
the requirements of this federal law for urban road projects,
including complete streets and freight.
The following exposition of the day was done by Jos Acarn,
director of the Puerto Rico office of the A merican A ssociation of
Retired Persons (AARP-PR) as his topic he brought the need and
goal of developing complete streets as an inclusion and social
justice strategy to counteract age-based discrimination and
accommodate functional diversity of users, denominated 8-80
cities. If streets are designed in such a way that both people of
ages 8 and 80 can walk on them.then its a good design..
Planner and architect Martha Bravo, a supervisor of the Strategic
Planning Office of the Puerto Rico Highway and Transportation EL PUENTE NEWSLETTER VOL.31 NO.2, 2017 13

Authority (PRHTA), echoed Pellots presentation with her

conference, named Sustainable Urban Mobility: Designing our
Complete Streets With People in Mind.
During the main session, architect Peter Piet, associate director
of the Steer Davies Gleave firm, brought to the public the
progress made with the development of the Guidelines for
Complete Streets of Puerto Rico, a consulting project for
which PRHTA hired this planning firm. In his exposition,
architect Piet explained how the use of good design principles
for urban spaces naturally results in the creation of complete
streets, successful examples in Puerto Rico and how to
harmonize the practices and design documents of Puerto Rico
with this philosophy. The guidelines are expected to be
officially published by August 2017.

The ITE-PR Spring Meeting was spearheaded by the slogan Safety,

Mobility and Health in transportation, with architect Peter Piet presenting
the development of the Complete Streets Guidelines of Puerto Rico.
Promotional flyer source: ITE-PR

Yanira Rivera, a recent graduate student transportation of the

University of Puerto Rico at Mayagez, was also in
representation of FHWA with her workshop, Traffic Safety
Analysis for Complete Streets. Here she explained basic
concepts of traffic safety analysis applied to the balance of
interest in traffic safety when allocating space between
different kinds of users coexisting in the urban environment.
David Petrucci, a traffic safety engineer from FHWA, made
the last exposition of the day, where he presented the sixth
edition of the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) as applied to
the complete streets context using multimodal traffic analysis.
The Transportation Technology Transfer Center thanks Mara
G. Torres and Wilfredo Cordero for their collaboration in the
writing of this article. For more information and news from Speakers of the ITE-PR Spring Meeting. From top to
bottom: Eng. Miguel Pellot (DTOP), Michael Figueroa
ITE-PR and its events, readers can visit their Facebook page (FHWA-PR), Jos Acarn (AARP), planner Martha
at, and their web Bravo (ACT), Yanira Rivera (FHWA) and Eng. David
page, Petrucci (FHWA).
Image source ITE-PR.


Technological Innovation for Vehicles in Traffic Safety

A s the years pass, vehicles have begun to provide another type

of safety, besides creating a structure of metal that is capable
of withstanding a collision. The incorporation of technology
for driver safety has become a priority for government agencies and
therefore the automotive industry. Some of this innovations are
beginning to be a requirement for all vehicles that are manufactured.
According to the Global Status Report on Road Safety 2015,
published by the W orld Health Organization (WHO), more than
1.25 million people die and about 50 million people are injured each
year on the highways around the world.
Meanwhile in the United States the
National Highway and
Transportation Safety Administration
(NHTSA), in the year 2015, reported
that 35,092 people die in traffic
crashes. While 3,477 people die due
to distraction and 9,557 people die in
high speed crashes. It was also
reported that 94% of fatal crashes
involved human error. These trends
have led the government agencies
such as the NHTSA, to request the
automotive industry to create
innovative systems based on user
safety and reduced road deaths.
The NHTSA has shown emphasis in
the following existing crash Source:
prevention technologies: automatic violence_injuryprevention/
emergency braking systems, lane road_safety_status/2015/
departure warning systems, blind GSRRS2015_Summary_EN_final2.pdf?
spot detection and automatic crash
notification systems. EL PUENTE NEWSLETTER VOL.31 NO.2, 2017 15

The A utomatic Emergency Braking System (AEB), The Lane Departure W arning (LDW) system serves
consists of sensors on the front of the vehicle that as a mechanism that alerts the driver when they make
detect possible collisions with a vehicle or a a lane change without using the necessary signals. It
pedestrian. The AEB system consist of three uses a camera that detects lane markings on the
mechanisms, the Forward Collision W arning (FCW) pavement.
system, the Dynamic Brake Support (DBS) system
and the Crash Imminent Braking (CIB). These
mechanisms are used when the vehicle detects that a
possible collision will occur, the FCW system is
activated. If the driver activates the brakes, but the
force employed is not enough, the DBS mechanism is
activated. Contrary to the previous one, if the driver
does not activate the brakes, the vehicle will activate
the CIB mechanism.

Alert that the LDW system would show on the dashboard .


There is another safety mechanism, which works in

conjunction with the LDW, called Lane Keeping
Support (LKS). Using the technology of the LDW,
when the driver departure from the lane and the
system detects that it surpassed the markings that the
vehicle transits without activating the lane change
signals, the system takes control of the steering wheel
and causes the vehicle to return to the originally
Vehicle to vehicle demonstration of the AEB system,
transit lane.
performed by NHTSA.

LKS system demonstration, performed by NHTSA.

Vehicle to pedestrian demonstration of the AEB system,
performed by NHTSA.
Source: Using sensors that detect the driver's blind spots, the
NHTSA in partnership with the Insurance Institute Blind Spot Detection (BSD) system launches an alert
for Highway Safety (IIHS) on March 17, 2016, on the dashboard. This alert is activated when a
communicate that twenty automobile manufacturers vehicle is moving though the driver's blind spot and
agreed to commit to applying the AEB system as a the driver proceeds to make a lane change.
standard in the manufacture of the vehicles. For light Although the NHTSA has not required automotive
vehicles and trucks weighing 8,500 pounds or less, industries stipulations pertaining to BSD systems.
the agreed date was September 1, 2022. As for trucks The agency looks to incorporate this technology into
weighing 8,501 pounds to 10,000 pounds, regulations the list of five-star safety ratings in the future.
will be in force by September 1, 2025.

The automotive company Toyota, developed a

campaign of road safety called Toyota Safety Sense
(TSS) that incorporates several technological
systems. An example is the Automatic High Light
(AHB) system. It automatically shifts the lights to
low and vice versa, depending on traffic levels,
decreasing the time the driver divides his or her
concentration between the changes of lights.

BSD system demonstration, performed by NHTSA.


The Automatic Crash Notification (ACN) mechanism

uses sensors that detect when an crash has occurred
and dispatches a notification to the emergency
authorities, along with the location of the crash. The
system will activate, in case the air bags are activated
AHB system demonstration, performed by Toyota.
or the system detects that there was a sudden Source:
deceleration of the vehicle.

Dispatch: Emergency Response Personal

Flow chart of the ACN system.

Source: EL PUENTE NEWSLETTER VOL.31 NO.2, 2017 17

Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) is one of the innovations in

which NHTSA has worked for more than a decade,
in partnership with the automotive industry and
academic institutions. The goal of this mechanism is
to collect data, with which the system can anticipate
possible shocks. V2V is possible by merging a
Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC)
protocol with Global Positioning System (GPS)
technology. This results in a 360 communication
system, which provides a visualization of nearby
vehicles with V2V technology. Among the safety
and mobility information that can be provided by Slippery Surface alert system demonstration.
this mechanism are the position and movement of Source:
the vehicle, the state of the mechanical systems and heritage/innovations

the vehicle's travel forecast.

The goal of government agencies and the automotive
industry is to reduce the consequences of human
error. That is why technologies have been adopted to
compensate in these situations. By 2020, new
innovations for road safety are expected to be
presented and thus getting closer to the goal of zero
road deaths.
This article was written by adaptation from the
following references:
Conceptual diagram of the V2V system, standard-on-new-vehicles
representing a crash alert at an intersection and
a sudden crash alert ahead in the lane.
Among the automotive companies that have begun to -vehicle-communications#basics
incorporate technology that incorporates the V2V
system, there is Volvo. The Slippery Road A lert
innovation was introduced by Volvo in 2016. This heritage/innovations
system provides drivers with alerts on road sections
with slippery surfaces by sharing this information
between vehicles through a network of servers For more information on new innovations and
(Cloud Computing). Volvo has been a pioneer in the technologies, readers can visit the NHTSA website
development of several road safety innovations. at:

Adapted from:

Know Your Trainer Dr. Daniel Rodrguez Romn

r. Daniel Rodrguez Romn was born in the city of Three months after finishing his doctoral studies, Dr.
Mayagez, Puerto Rico. In 2004, he began his Rodrguez-Romn returned to his alma mater as an assistant
studies in civil engineering at the University of professor in the Civil Engineering and Surveying Department,
Puerto Rico at Mayagez (UPRM). During his time at UPRM, where he teaches undergraduate and graduate courses related
he participated in the UPR-PUPR-ATI Professional to transportation engineering. His research work is currently
Development Program, which exposed him for the first time focused on three main areas: road pricing scheme design,
to the field of transportation engineering research. As part of paratransit demand forecasting, and transit network design.
the program he studied how different countries implemented Related to the first topic, Dr. Rodrguez-Romn is conducting
road pricing strategies, and how these international research on the design of sustainable area- and cordon-based
experiences could inform the implementation of pricing pricing strategies; this project is being conducted in
strategies in the San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA). Dr. collaboration with Dr. Mahdieh Allahviranloo of the City
Rodrguez-Romn also worked on transportation engineering College of New York and it is sponsored by the University
issues as a research assistant at the Puerto Rico Transportation Transportation Research Center.
Technology Transfer Center. After completing his bachelors Dr. Rodrguez-Romn also received a grant from the Puerto
degree Dr. Rodrguez Romn completed a Master of Science Rico Integrated Transit Authority (ATI) to, among other
in Transportation Engineering from the University of things, develop models to forecast the ridership of the Llame
California, Berkeley. He continued his doctoral studies in y Viaje program, the paratransit system of the Metropolitan
transportation systems engineering at the University of Bus Authority. This project motivated further research work
California, Irvine (UCI), which he completed in 2015. that will be presented this year at an event organized by the
While at UCI, Dr. Rodrguez-Romn was part of the research Transportation Research Board; Dr. Rodrguez is collaborating
group that developed the California Statewide Freight in this research with Dr. Sarah V. Hernandez, of the
Forecasting Model (CSFFM), a project sponsored by the University of Arkansas. The ATI project also motivated
California Department of Transportation (CALTRANS). He ongoing research with Dr. Jee Eun Kang, of the University of
created methods to impute missing demographic data relevant Buffalo, related to no-show and cancellation predictions in
to freight demand models and methods to disaggregate modal paratransit systems.
flow data from the Freight Analysis Framework. He also Lastly, Dr. Rodrguez-Romn is studying how to incorporate
participated in the development of the CSFFMs mode split equity objectives when budget cuts force the reduction of
models. His doctoral dissertation was focused on the design of transit services, a topic that is of great relevance to the current
environmentally oriented road pricing and traffic rationing situation in Puerto Rico. In addition to the previous research
schemes. For example, he proposed network design models to topics, Dr. Rodrguez is also interested in the development of
select tolling location and levels in order to reduce human methods models for the allocation of resources to improve
exposure to vehicle-generated pollutants, as well as the highway safety, strategies to manage parking demand, and the
resulting inequality in the distribution of these pollutants. use of evolutionary algorithms to solve transportation
Additionally, Dr. Rodrguez-Romn developed algorithms problems, among other topics.
aimed at finding solutions to the network design problems he
proposed. Congratulations and welcome to the PRLTAP-T2 Family! EL PUENTE NEWSLETTER VOL.31 NO.2, 2017 19

Together we can save millions of lives!

I, ___________________________, pledge to do my part to help save lives on the road.

I pledge to:
____ 1. Not text while driving.

____ 2. Obey the traffic laws applicable to drivers.

____ 3. Comply with the speed limits.

____ 4. Pass the key if I am under the influence of alcohol.

____ 5. Have no distractions while driving a motor vehicle.

____ 6. Share the road with pedestrians, cyclists, and motorcyclists.

____ 7. Always buckle my safety belt.

____ 8. Require my vehicle occupants to always buckle the safety belt.

____ 9. Always buckle my children with a safety belt.

____ 10. Use the protective safety devices while on a motorcycle,

bicycle or motor vehicle.

Mothers Against Drunk Driving Fundacin Lus A. Seeriz

Administration of Automobile Accident Compensation

PRLTAP/T2 Center Staff

Director & Editor

Benjamn Colucci-Ros
University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez Editor Assistants
Department of Civil Engineering and Surveying
Call Box 9000, Mayaguez, PR 00681 ngel Rivera-Ros

Alexander Molano-Santiago
787.834.6385 PHONE
787.265.5695 FAX
Administrative Staff

Puente EL
Irmal Franco-Ramrez

Grisel Villarubia-Echevarra

Nichole C. Romn-Vlez

Student Staff
Anne M. Mndez-Ramrez

Jaime Lpez-Martnez

El Puente Newsletter
Vol. 31, No. 2, 2017

EL PUENTE is published by the Puerto Rico Transportation Technology Transfer

Center located at the Department of Civil Engineering and Surveying.

The opinions, findings or recommendations expressed in this newsletter are those of the Center Director and Editors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the
Federal Highway Administration, the Puerto Rico Department of Transportation and Publics Works or the Puerto Rico Highway and Transportation Authority.

Puerto Rico LTAP