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ANALYSIS OF RESULTS:

In this experiment, the group performed the experiment that Osborne Reynold that proves the
theory and the mathematical formula he came up with that would enable engineers to distinguish the
type of flow the fluid undergoes. There are three kinds of flow, these are the laminar, transitional and
turbulent flow. In laminar flow, the fluids moves in linear paths or in layers. On the other hand, in
turbulent flow the fluid undergoes fluctuations and is continuously undergoes a change in speed at a
point, thus changing both its magnitude and direction. Also, laminar flow produces a parabolic graph
representation, where the maximum velocity is on the axis and the zero velocity is at the tube wall. On
the other hand, turbulent flow can be represented by a logarithmic graph. By calculating the Reynolds
number, the type of flow the fluid is undergoing could be determined.

Formula

Where : variables

And if :

RAnge

The group had done two trials, one for the laminar and the other for the turbulent flow. It can
be observed that in laminar flow, the dye used didnt mix well with water compared when the flow is
turbulent. In this experiment it can be seen based on the results that having a low fluid/ water velocity
causes a laminar flow and as the velocity increases it changes to transitional flow and later on as
turbulent flow. Also, it can be seen that Reynolds number is directly proportional to the velocity and
inversely proportional to the kinematic viscosity.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION:

After performing the experiment, it can be said that the objective was met, The group was able
to observe laminar and turbine pipe flow. The group was also able to observe that as the velocity
increases the greater its chance to have a turbulent flow and the slower the velocity the greater the
chance to have a laminar flow but still this could still be affected with the viscosity of the fluid and the
diameter of the pipe or channel where the fluid flows. Also, Reynolds number is directly proportional to
the velocity and inversely proportional to the kinematic viscosity.

An example of an application of the laminar flow is the normal condition for blood flow
throughout most of the circulatory system. And an example of an application of the turbulent flow is the
design of the sewage system, this is to avoid waste buildup and blockage. Oil transport in pipelines, lava
flow, atmosphere and ocean currents, the flow through pumps and turbines, are also application of
turbulent flow. It can be seen that turbulent flow is used more often than the laminar.

After performing the experiment, it is recommended that the group would be able to time the
water reaches the 5L mark accurately as this would affect the results. It would also help if the member
using the stopwatch has a good reaction time and lastly it is advisable to double check the
computations. Some errors could be on the conversion of units or other miscalculations.
REFERRENCES:

http://www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/CIVE/CIVE1400/Section4/laminar_turbulent.htm

https://www.britannica.com/science/turbulent-flow

http://www.engin.swarthmore.edu/~dluong1/E41/Lab2/applications.htm