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Chapter 7: Flow of Two Immiscible Fluids

7.1. Introduction
This tutorial examines the flow of two fluids in a single die. Two polymer melts with distinct physical
properties are fed through different channels into a die. The aim of the calculation is to predict the
location of the interface between the two fluids.

In this tutorial you will learn how to:

Define a moving interface problem.

Create multiple sub-tasks.

Set material properties and boundary conditions for a moving interface problem.

Select a remeshing method.

7.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the menu structure in Polydata and Workbench and
that you have solved or read 2.5D Axisymmetric Extrusion (p. ?). Some steps in the set up procedure
will not be shown explicitly.

7.3. Problem Description


This problem analyzes the flow of two immiscible Newtonian fluids (fluid 1 and fluid 2) through a die
of diameter 1 cm, as shown in Figure 7.1: A Schematic Diagram of the Two Fluids in the Die (p. 2). The
melts are fed into the die through boundaries 1 and 3 (see Figure 7.2: Boundary Sets and Subdomains
for the Problem (p. 3)). The flow rates for the two fluids are not equal. The fluids come into contact
in the die, creating an interface. The location of the interface is unknown and will be determined by
Polyflow. The location of the interface depends on the physical properties of the fluids, the flow rates
of the fluids, and the geometry of the die.

Incompressibility and momentum equations are solved in the fluid domains. To solve the fully coupled
problem, two sub-tasks are defined one each for fluid 1 (sub-task 1) and fluid 2 (sub-task 2). Each sub-
task will contain a particular model, domain of definition, material properties, and boundary conditions,
including the moving interface along the intersection of the two sub-tasks.

The domain of definition for the problem is divided into four subdomains: sub-task 1 is defined on
subdomain 1 and subdomain 2, and sub-task 2 is defined on subdomain 3 and subdomain 4 (see Fig-
ure 7.2: Boundary Sets and Subdomains for the Problem (p. 3)). Each sub-task is defined over two
subdomains to allow for the definition of the remeshing method only where it is necessary, (in the area
near the moving interface).

Fluid 1 has a viscosity of = 10000 poise, and fluid 2 has a viscosity of = 5000 poise.

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Flow of Two Immiscible Fluids

Figure 7.1: A Schematic Diagram of the Two Fluids in the Die

The boundary sets for the problem are shown in Figure 7.2: Boundary Sets and Subdomains for the
Problem (p. 3).

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Problem Description

Figure 7.2: Boundary Sets and Subdomains for the Problem

The conditions at the boundaries of the domains are:

boundary 1: flow inlet for fluid 1, volumetric flow rate = 3 cm3/s

boundary 2: outer wall common to subdomain 1 and subdomain 3: zero velocity

boundary 3: flow inlet for fluid 2, volumetric flow rate = 1 cm3/s

boundary 4: outer wall common to subdomain 3 and subdomain 4: zero velocity

boundary 5: flow exit for both fluids

boundary 6: outer wall common to subdomain 1 and subdomain 2: zero velocity

An interface is defined at the intersection of subdomain 2 and subdomain 4. In this problem, the interface
is a moving one, since the exact line of separation between the fluids is unknown.

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Flow of Two Immiscible Fluids

7.4. Preparation
To prepare for running this tutorial:

1. Prepare a working folder for your simulation.

2. Go to the ANSYS Customer Portal, https://support.ansys.com/training.

Note

If you do not have a User Name and Password, you can register by clicking Customer
Registration on the Log In page.

3. Enter the name of this tutorial into the search bar.

4. Narrow the results by using the filter on the left side of the page.

a. Click ANSYS Polyflow under Product.

b. Click 15.0 under Version.

5. Select this tutorial from the list.

6. Click Files to download the input and solution files.

7. Unzip the Two-Fluids_R150.zip file you have downloaded to your working folder.

The mesh file fluids.msh can be found in the unzipped folder.

8. Start Workbench from Start All Programs ANSYS 15.0 Workbench 15.0.

7.5. Step 1: Project and Mesh


1. Create a Fluid Flow (Polyflow) analysis system by drag and drop in Workbench.

2. Save the ANSYS Workbench project using File Save, entering two-fluids as the name of the
project.

3. Import the mesh file (fluids.msh).

4. Double-click the Setup cell to start Polydata.

When Polydata starts, the Create a new task menu item is highlighted, and the geometry for the
problem is displayed in the Graphics Display window.

7.6. Step 2: Models, Material Data, and Boundary Conditions


In this step, you will define a single task that represents the global problem. Since this tutorial deals
with two fluids, each with its own physical properties, you will need to define two different sub-tasks
(one for each fluid) in steps that follow.

Create a task for the model.

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Step 2a: Definition of Sub-Task 1

Create a new task

1. Select the following options:

F.E.M. task

Steady-state problem(s)

2D axisymmetric geometry

2. Click Accept the current setup.

The Create a sub-task menu item is highlighted.

7.7. Step 2a: Definition of Sub-Task 1


In this step, define the nature of the flow problem, identify the domain of definition, set the relevant material
properties for fluid 1, and define boundary conditions along its boundaries.

1. Create a sub-task for fluid 1.

Create a sub-task

a. Click Generalized Newtonian isothermal flow problem.

A small panel appears asking for the title of the problem.

b. Enter fluid 1 as the New value and click OK.

The Domain of the sub-task menu item is highlighted.

2. Define the domain where the sub-task applies.

Sub-task 1 is defined for SUBDOMAIN2 (the region of fluid 1 near the moving interface) and SUBDOMAIN1
(the rest of fluid 1), as shown in Figure 7.2: Boundary Sets and Subdomains for the Problem (p. 3).

Domain of the sub-task

a. Select SUBDOMAIN3 and click Remove.

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Flow of Two Immiscible Fluids

b. Select SUBDOMAIN4 and click Remove.

c. Click Upper level menu.

The Material data menu item is highlighted.

3. Specify the material data properties for fluid 1.

Material Data

Polydata indicates which material properties are relevant for your sub-task by graying out the irrelevant
properties. In this case, viscosity, density, inertia terms, and gravity are available for specification. For
this model, define only the viscosity of the material.

Click Shear-rate dependence of viscosity.

4. Click Constant viscosity.

5. Specify the value for .

Modify fac

Polydata prompts for a new value of .

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Step 2a: Definition of Sub-Task 1

Enter 10000 as the New value and click OK.

6. Click Upper level menu three times to return to the fluid 1 menu.

The Flow boundary conditions menu item is highlighted.

7. Specify the flow boundary conditions for fluid 1 (SUBDOMAIN1 and SUBDOMAIN2).

Flow boundary conditions

a. Set the conditions along the intersection of SUBDOMAIN2 and SUBDOMAIN4.

The boundary uses the interface condition, which is the standard boundary condition between two
adjacent fluids. This condition establishes the continuity of the velocity field and the contact forces
in the momentum equation.

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Flow of Two Immiscible Fluids

The position of the line separating the two fluids is unknown at the start of the problem and is
calculated as part of the solution, so the intersection will be defined as a moving interface. In
steady flows and problems involving immiscible fluids, the interface must be a streamline. To sat-
isfy this condition and to obtain the exact location of the line of separation, an additional equation,
the kinematic condition, ( = 0), is added to the system. This guarantees that the material points
do not cross the interface.

i. Select Zero wall velocity (vn=vs=0) along SUBDOMAIN4 click Modify.

ii. Click Interface.

iii. Select Switch to moving interface.

iv. Click Specify moving interface parameters.

v. Click Boundary conditions on the moving surface.

Polydata asks you to select the boundary or subdomain on which the position of the moving
surface is to be imposed.

vi. Select No condition along BOUNDARY2 and click Modify.

vii. Select Position imposed.

viii. Click Upper level menu twice to return to the Kinematic condition menu.

ix. Select Upwinding in the kinematic equation. Click Upper level menu.

x. Click Accept the current setup to return to the Flow boundary conditions menu.

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Step 2a: Definition of Sub-Task 1

b. Set the conditions at the flow inlet for fluid 1 (BOUNDARY1).

i. Select Zero wall velocity (vn=vs=0) along BOUNDARY1 and click Modify.

ii. Click Inflow.

iii. Click Modify volumetric flow rate.

Polydata prompts you for the volumetric flow rate.

iv. Enter 3 as the New value and click OK.

v. Select Automatic. Click Upper level menu.

When this option is selected, Polydata automatically chooses the most appropriate method
to compute the inflow condition.

vi. Retain the default condition Zero wall velocity (vn=vs=0) along BOUNDARY2 at the outer
wall of SUBDOMAIN1 (BOUNDARY2).

At a solid-liquid interface, the velocity of the liquid is that of the solid surface. Hence the fluid
is assumed to stick to the wall. This is known as the no-slip assumption because the liquid is
assumed to adhere to the wall, and so has no velocity relative to the wall.

By default, Polydata imposes Zero wall velocity ( = = 0) along all boundaries.

c. Set the conditions at the flow outlet (BOUNDARY5).

It is assumed that a fully developed velocity profile is reached at the exit, so the outflow condition
is most appropriate. This condition essentially imposes a zero normal force ( ) that includes a
pressure term, and zero tangential velocity ( ).

i. Select Zero wall velocity (vn=vs=0) along BOUNDARY5 and click Modify.

ii. Click Outflow.

d. Retain the default condition Zero wall velocity (vn=vs=0) along BOUNDARY6 at the outer wall
common to SUBDOMAIN1 and SUBDOMAIN2 (BOUNDARY6).

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Flow of Two Immiscible Fluids

The fluid is assumed to stick to the wall, since at a solid-liquid interface the velocity of the liquid
is that of the solid surface.

e. Click Upper level menu to return to the fluid 1 menu.

8. Define remeshing for SUBDOMAIN2.

This model involves a moving interface for which the position is unknown. A portion of the mesh is af-
fected by the relocation of this boundary. Hence a remeshing technique is applied on this part of the
mesh. The moving interface is entirely contained within SUBDOMAIN2, and hence only SUBDOMAIN2
will be affected by the relocation of the moving interface.

Global remeshing

a. Specify the region where the remeshing is to be performed (SUBDOMAIN2).

If you have a complex geometry, it may be necessary to split it into additional subdomains in order
to define a specific remeshing method on each of them.

For this purpose, Polydata allows you to create several local remeshings. For this problem, a single
local remeshing is sufficient.

1st local remeshing

i. Select SUBDOMAIN1 and click Remove.

ii. Click Upper level menu.

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Step 2a: Definition of Sub-Task 1

The Method of Spines menu item is highlighted.

b. Define the parameters for the system of spines.

The purpose of the remeshing technique is to relocate internal nodes according to the displacement
of boundary nodes due to the motion of the interface. Mesh nodes must be organized along lines
of remeshing (spines), which are collections of nodes logically arranged in a one-dimensional
manner. Polydata requires the specification of the first and last spines that the fluid encounters
(inlet of spines and outlet of spines, respectively). In this case, the inlet of spines is the intersection
of SUBDOMAIN2 with SUBDOMAIN1, and the outlet of spines is the intersection of SUBDOMAIN2
with the flow exit (BOUNDARY5).

Method of Spines

i. To specify the inlet for the system of spines, select Intersection with SUBDOMAIN1 and click
Confirm.

ii. Specify the outlet for the system of spines, select Intersection with BOUNDARY5 and click
Confirm.

iii. Click Upper level menu two times.

The F.E.M. Task 1 menu is displayed.

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Flow of Two Immiscible Fluids

7.8. Step 2b: Definition of Sub-Task 2


In this step, define the nature of the flow problem, identify the domain of definition, set the relevant material
properties for fluid 2, and define the boundary conditions along its boundaries.

1. Create a sub-task for fluid 2.

Create a sub-task

a. Polydata asks you if you want to copy data from an existing sub-task.

b. Click No, since this sub-task has different parameters associated with it.

c. Click Generalized Newtonian isothermal flow problem.

A small panel appears asking for the title of the problem.

d. Enter fluid 2 as the New value and click OK.

The Domain of the sub-task menu item is highlighted.

2. Define the domain where the sub-task applies.

Domain of the sub-task

a. Select SUBDOMAIN1 and click Remove.

b. Select SUBDOMAIN2 and click Remove.

c. Click Upper level menu.

The Material data menu item is highlighted.

3. Specify the material data properties for fluid 2.

Material Data

For this model, define only the viscosity of the material.

a. Click Shear-rate dependence of viscosity.

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Step 2b: Definition of Sub-Task 2

b. Click Constant viscosity.

c. Specify the value for .

Modify fac

Polydata prompts for a new value of .

Enter 5000 as the New value and click OK.

d. Click Upper level menu three times to return to the fluid 2 menu.

The Flow boundary conditions menu item is highlighted.

4. Specify the flow boundary conditions for fluid 2 (SUBDOMAIN3 and SUBDOMAIN4).

Flow boundary conditions

a. Set the conditions along the intersection of SUBDOMAIN2 and SUBDOMAIN4.

i. Select Zero wall velocity (vn=vs=0) along SUBDOMAIN2 and click Modify.

ii. Click Interface.

The interface condition was defined as a moving interface when setting the boundary condi-
tions for fluid 1. So further inputs are not required to define the moving interface for fluid 2.
Surface tension effects are neglected in this problem.

iii. Click Accept the current setup.

b. Retain the default condition Zero wall velocity (vn=vs=0) along BOUNDARY2 at the outer wall
of SUBDOMAIN3 (BOUNDARY2).

c. Set the conditions at the flow inlet for fluid 2 (BOUNDARY3).

i. Select Zero wall velocity (vn=vs=0) along BOUNDARY3 and click Modify.

ii. Click Inflow.

iii. Click Modify volumetric flow rate.

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Flow of Two Immiscible Fluids

Polydata prompts you for the volumetric flow rate.

iv. Accept the default value of 1 for the flow rate by clicking OK.

v. Select Automatic. Click Upper level menu.

d. Retain the default condition Zero wall velocity (vn=vs=0) along BOUNDARY4 at the outer wall
common to SUBDOMAIN3 and SUBDOMAIN4 (BOUNDARY4).

e. Set the conditions at the flow outlet for fluid 2 (BOUNDARY5).

i. Select Zero wall velocity (vn=vs=0) along BOUNDARY5 and click Modify.

ii. Click Outflow.

f. Click Upper level menu to return to the Flow boundary conditions menu.

The Global remeshing menu item is highlighted.

5. Define remeshing for SUBDOMAIN4.

Global remeshing

a. Specify the region where the remeshing is to be performed (SUBDOMAIN4).

1st local remeshing

i. Select SUBDOMAIN3 and click Remove.

ii. Click Upper level menu.

The Method of Spines menu item is highlighted.

b. Define the parameters for the system of spines.

In this case, the inlet of spines is the intersection of SUBDOMAIN3 with SUBDOMAIN4, and the
outlet of spines is the intersection of SUBDOMAIN4 with the flow exit (BOUNDARY5).

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Step 3: Save the Data and Exit Polydata

Method of Spines

i. Specify the inlet for the system of spines by selecting Intersection with SUBDOMAIN3 and
click Confirm.

ii. Specify the outlet for the system of spines by selecting Intersection with BOUNDARY5 and
click Confirm.

c. Click Upper level menu three times.

The top-level Polydata menu is displayed.

7.9. Step 3: Save the Data and Exit Polydata


After defining your model in Polydata, you need to save the data file. In the next step, you will have to read
this data file into Polyflow and calculate a solution.

Save and exit

Polydata asks you to confirm the current system units and fields that are to be saved to the results file for
postprocessing.

1. Specify the system of units for the simulation.

a. Click Modify system of units.

b. Select Set to metric_cm/g/s/A+Celsius.

c. Click Upper level menu twice.

2. Click Accept.

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Flow of Two Immiscible Fluids

This confirms that the default Current field(s) are correct.

3. Click Continue.

This accepts the default names for graphical output files (cfx.res) that are to be saved for postpro-
cessing, and for the Polyflow format results file (res).

7.10. Step 4: Solution


Run Polyflow to calculate a solution for the model you just defined using Polydata.

1. Run Polyflow by right-clicking the Solution cell of the simulation and selecting Update.

This executes Polyflow using the data file as standard input, and writes information about the problem
description, calculations, and convergence to a listing file (polyflow.lst).

2. Check for convergence in the listing file.

a. Right-click the Solution cell and select Listing Viewer....

Workbench opens the View listing file panel, which displays the listing file.

b. It is a common practice to confirm that the solution proceeded as expected by looking for the
following printed at the bottom of the listing file:
The computation succeeded.

7.11. Step 5: Postprocessing


Use CFD-Post to view the results of the Polyflow simulation.

1. Double-click the Results tab in the Workbench analysis and read the results files saved by Polyflow.

CFD-Post reads the solution fields that were saved to the results file.

2. Align the view.

a. In the graphical window, right-click, and select the option Predefined Camera.

b. Select View from +Z.

The central-mouse button allows you to zoom in and zoom out. The left-mouse button allows ro-
tating the image. The right-mouse button allows you to translate the image.

3. Display contours of velocity magnitude.

a. Click the Insert menu and select Contour or click the button.

b. Click OK to accept the default name (Contour 1) and display the details view below the Outline
tab.

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Step 5: Postprocessing

c. Perform the following steps in the details view:

i. In the Geometry tab, click the button next to Locations.

ii. In the Location Selector dialog box that opens, select SUBDOMAIN1_surf, SUBDOMAIN2_surf,
SUBDOMAIN3_surf, and SUBDOMAIN4_surf (use Ctrl for multiple selection) and then click
OK.

iii. Select VELOCITIES from the Variable drop-down list (or by clicking ).

iv. Click Apply.

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Flow of Two Immiscible Fluids

Figure 7.3: Contours of Velocity Magnitude

The velocity is much larger at the inlet of fluid 1 than at the inlet of fluid 2. There are two reasons for
this:

The flow rate is three times larger for fluid 1 than for fluid 2.

You are modeling an annular die. Hence the flow section is smaller for the interior channel than for the
exterior channel.

When the two fluids come into contact with each other, the interface between the two fluids is pushed
towards the exterior of the annular die.

There are three reasons for this:

The flow rate for fluid 1 is higher than for fluid 2.

The die is annular, so even identical flow rates cause the interface to move in order to equilibrate the flow
sections.

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Step 5: Postprocessing

The viscosity of fluid 1 is higher than the viscosity of fluid 2. In the process of giving more room to the
most viscous fluid, its shearing decreases. This leads to a smaller global dissipation.

4. Display velocity vectors for the two fluids.

a. Deselect the contour previously defined.

In the Outline tree tab, under User Locations and Plots deselect Contour 1.

b. Click the Insert menu and select Contour or click the button.

c. Click OK to accept the default name (Vector 1) and display the details view below the Outline
tab.

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Flow of Two Immiscible Fluids

d. Perform the following steps in the details view:

i. In the Geometry tab, click the button next to Locations.

ii. In the Location Selector dialog box that opens, select SUBDOMAIN1_surf, SUBDOMAIN2_surf,
SUBDOMAIN3_surf, and SUBDOMAIN4_surf (use Ctrl for multiple selection) and click OK.

iii. Ensure that VELOCITIES is selected as the Variable.

iv. In the Symbol tab, set Symbol to Arrow3D and increase the Symbol Size to 3.

v. Click Apply.

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Step 5: Postprocessing

Figure 7.4: Velocity Vectors

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Flow of Two Immiscible Fluids

Figure 7.5: Magnified View of Velocity Vectors

You can see that the velocity is continuous across the interface. As both the fluids are Newtonian, the
velocity profile is a parabola on both sides of the interface. Since the force must be continuous across
the interface, the shear stress generated within fluid 1 is equal to the shear stress generated within fluid
2 along the interface.

7.12. Summary
This tutorial introduced the concept of fluid layers owing in the same duct. In Polydata, you learned
how to set up a multiple-domain calculation, including the definition of a moving interface and associated
remeshing methods.

The location of the interface depends largely on the physical properties of the fluids involved, the
geometry of the channels, and the operating conditions (for example: flow rates of the fluids). A CFD
simulation with Polyflow allows you to test different setups (for example: in order to optimize the
feeding of a co-extrusion die).

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