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TIESIN ALGEBRA

Matricos

Matrica yra tam tikra tvarka surayt skaii staiakamp lentel

a11 a12 ... a1n



a 21 a 22 ... a 2 n
A= .
... ... ... ...

a ... a mn
m1 am 2

Lentelje surayti skaiiai vadinami matricos elementais. i matrica turi n


eilui ir m stulpeli. J vadinsime staiakampe matrica. Matrica vadinama kvadratine,
jei jos eilui skaiius lygus stulpeli skaiiui.Kvadratins matricos eilui skaiius
vadinamas matricos eile. Pavyzdiui, matrica
2 1
A = yra antros eils.
4 3
Matrica, kurios visi nariai lygs nuliui, vadinama nuline matrica.
Kvadratin matrica, kurios visi elementai ant pagrindins striains lygs
vienetui, o kiti lygs nuliui, vadinama vienetine matrica ir ymima raide E. Pavyzdiui,
1 0 0

E = 0 1 0 .
0 0 1

Matrica, gauta i matricos A sukeitus jos eilutes ir stulpelius vietomis, vadinama
transponuotja matrica ir ymima AT. Pavyzdiui,

2 3
2 4 6
jei A = 4 5 , tai AT = .
6 2 3 5 2

Matricos vadinamos vienarmis, jei jos turi vienod skaii eilui ir


stulpeli. Vienars matricos laikomos lygiomis, jeigu j atitinkami elementai lygs.

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Veiksmai su matricomis
Matric sudtis. Dviej vienari matric suma laikoma matrica, kuri sudaro
atitinkam matric element sumos. Pavyzdiui,
1 2 4 5 1 + 4 2 + (5) 5 3
+ = = .
3 4 3 0 3 + 3 4 + 0 0 4

Matric daugyba i skaiiaus. Skaiiaus k ir matricos A sandauga vadinama


matrica kA, kurioje kiekvienas matricos A elementas yra padaugintas i skaiiaus k.
Pavyzdiui, jei
3 1 5 3 5 1 15 5
A = ir k = 5, tai kA = = .
5 2 5 5 5 2 25 10

Matric sandauga. Matric A ir B sandauga vadinama matrica C, kurios


elementai cij yra lygs matricos A i-osios eiluts element ir matricos B j-ojo stulpelio
atitinkam element sandaug sumai. Pavyzdiui, jei
a11 a12
b b12 b13
A = a 21 a 22 , o B = 11 ,
a b21 b22 b23
31 a32
a11b11 + a12 b21 a11b12 + a12 b22 a11b13 + a12 b23

tai C = A B = a 21b11 + a 22 b21 a 21b12 + a 22 b22 a 21b13 + a 22 b23 .
a b + a b a 31b12 + a 32 b22 a31b13 + a32 b23
31 11 32 21

Pratimai

1. Atlikite veiksmus:

2 3 1 1 4 5 3 7 4

1) 4 2 0 + 2 1 0 ; Ats. : 6 3 0 .
5 3 4 5 3 1 10 0 3

1 3 4 5 3 2
2) ; Ats. : .
2 4 2 1 0 3

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1 2 3 2 1 3 0 2 1 3 1 5
3) + ; Ats. : .
4 1 5 5 1 4 3 2 5 6 0 4

5 4 10 8

4) 2 2 0 ; Ats. : 4 0 .
3 1 6 2

1 2 1 0 1 8
5) 4 3 ; Ats. : .
3 5 2 5 6 5

1 0 5 2 12 4
6) 2 + ; Ats. : .
1 4 3 4 4 0

2 1 0 1 3
1 0 1
7) 0 2 ; Ats. : 4 2 2 .
1 0 2 1 1 1 0 1

1 0
1 0 1 1 2
8) 2 1 ; Ats. : .
0 1 1 0 2 2 1

1 2 0 1 2 3
9) ; Ats. : .
1 3 1 2 3 7

1 0 0 1 3 1 1 3 1

10) 2 1 0 4 0 1; Ats. : 6 6 1 .
1 0 1 0 1 2 1 2 1

3 2 1 2 1

11) 1 0 4 6 ; Ats. : 30 .
0 3 5 7 17

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3 15 6 9

12) 4 (5 2 3); Ats. : 20 8 12 .
2 10 4 6

2 1 0 2 1
1 1 0
13) 1 0 ; Ats / : 1 1 0 .
1 2 2 0 1 3 1 2

2. Duotos matricos
1 2 2 1
A = ir B = ;
3 0 4 1
Apskaiiuokite: 1) 2A AB; 2) AB-3B;
8 1 12 0
Ats.: 1) ; 2) .
0 3 6 6

3. Duotos matricos
2 1 1 2
A = ir B = ;
3 0 3 1
Apskaiiuokite : 1) AB+2A; 2) 2B+AB.
5 7 1 9
Ats.: 1) ; 2) .
3 6 3 7

Determinantai

Determinantas tai kvadratins matricos skaitin reikm. Determinantus


ymsime
b11 b12 b13
a a12
D = 11 arba = b21 b22 b23 .
a 21 a 22
b31 b32 b33

Determinantas D yra antrosios eils, o determinantas yra treiosios eils.


Determinantai skaiiuojami pagal tam tikras taisykles. Antrosios eils
determinantas lygus striaini element sandaug skirtumui:

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a11 a12
D= 5 a11 a 22 a 21 a12 .
a 21 a 22
Pavyzdiui,
1 3
= 1 ( 5) 3 4 = 5 12 = 17.
4 5
Treiosios eils determinantas skaiiuojamas pagal taip vadinam Sariuso
taisykl:
a11 a12 a13
a 21 a 22 a 23 = a11 a 22 a 33 + a12 a 23 a 31 + a13 a 21 a32 a13 a 22 a 31 a12 a 21 a 33 a11 a 23 a 32.
a31 a 32 a33

i taisykl lengviau simenama geometrinje formoje:


o o o o o o o o o
o o o 5 o o o - o o o .
o o o o o o o o o
Pavyzdiui,
1 2 1
1 3 0 = 1 3 2 + 2 0 4 + ( 1) 0 1 1 3 4 2 ( 1) 2 1 0 0 = 6 + 0 + 0 12 + 4 0 =
4 0 2
= 2.

Bet Sariuso taisykl galima urayti ir kitaip


= (a11 a 22 a 33 a11 a 23 a 32 ) (a12 a 21 a33 a12 a 23 a 31 ) + (a13 a 21 a 32 a13 a 22 a 31 ) =
= a11 (a 22 a 33 a 23 a 32 ) a12 (a 21 a 33 a 23 a 31 ) + a13 (a 21 a 32 a 22 a31 ) =
a 22 a 23 a a 23 a a 22
= a11 a12 21 + a13 21 .
a32 a 33 a31 a 33 a31 a 32

Determinanto elemento minoras ir adjunktas

Ibrauk determinanto eilut ir stulpel, kurio sankirtoje yra elementas aij


gausime determinant, kuris vadinamas elemento a ij minoru ir ymimas Mij. Pavyzdiui,
a 21 a 23
elemento a12 minoras yra M12 5 . Sandauga (-1)i+j Mij 5 Aij vadinama
a31 a 33

elemento aij adjunktu. Taigi 5 a11A11+a12A12+a13A13.

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Determinantas lygus bet kurios jo eiluts (stulpelio) element ir j adjunkt


sandaug sumai. i formul vadinama determinanto skleidiniu eiluts (stulpelio)
elementais. Pavyzdiui,
2 5 3
1+1 3 1 1 1 1+3 1 3
1 3 1 = ( 1) 2 + ( 1) ( 5) + ( 1) 3
1+ 2
= 6 5 18 = 17.
0 1 2 1 2 0
2 0 1

Determinant savybs

1. Sukeitus determinanto eilutes ir stulpelius vietomis, jo reikm nepasikeis.


2. Determinantas, turintis nulin eilut (stulpel), lygus nuliui.
3. Sukeitus dvi eilutes (stulpelius) vietomis, pasikeiia tik determinanto
enklas.
4. Jeigu kurios nors determinanto eiluts (stulpelio) elementai turi bendr
daugikl, tai j galima ikelti prie determinanto enkl.
5. Prie vienos determinanto eiluts (stulpelio) pridjus kitos eiluts (stulpelio)
atitinkamus elementus , padaugintus i bet kurio skaiiaus, determinantas
nepasikeis.
6. Determinantas, turintis dvi vienodas eilutes (stulpelius), lygus nuliui.

Pavyzdiai

2 3
1. = 2 1 3 4 = 2 12 = 10.
4 1

1 2 4
2. 5 1 2 = 1 ( 1) 5 + 2 2 0 + 5 1 4 4 ( 1) 0 2 5 5 2 1 1 = 37.
0 1 5

1 5 6
1+1 2 1 1+ 2 0 1
3. 0 2 1 = 1 A11 + 5 A12 + 6 A13 = ( 1) + 5 ( 1) +
1 1 2 1
2 1 1

0 2
+ 6 ( 1)
1+3
= 3 + 10 24 = 11.
2 1

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5 10 15 1 2 3
2 3
0 = 5 1 0 0 = 5 ( 1) ( 1) = 5(2 3) = 5.
2 +1
4. 1 0
1 1
0 1 1 0 1 1

1 2 -1 /.(-2)/.(-1) 1 2 -1 1 2 -1
5. 2 0 1 5 2+1.(-2) 0+2.(-2) 1+(-1).(-2) 5 0 -4 3 5
1 -1 1 1+1.(-1) -1+2.(-1) 1+(-1).(-1) 0 -3 2
4 3
= = 1.
3 2

6 4 3 3 4 3
6. 4 0 2 = 2 2 0 2 = 2 0 = 0.
2 5 1 1 5 1

1 1 0 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
2 1 0 1 1+ 2 1 1
= 1 ( 1) 2 1 1 = 1 0 0 = 1 ( 1)
3+ 3
7. = 1.
1 3 1 2 0 1
1 0 1 1 0 1
1 0 0 1

Pratimai

1. Apskaiiuokite:
2 3 0 1
1) ; Ats. : 10. 2) ; Ats. : 3.
4 1 3 2

2 5 1 4
3) ; Ats. : 3. 4) 2 3 ; Ats. : 4.
1 4 6 8

0 2 1 4 1 5
5) 2 4 1 ; Ats. : 14. 6) 2 1 1 ; Ats. : 0.
2 1 2 5 6 1

6 2 1 2 1 5
7) 16 4 1 ; Ats. : 0. 8) 3 0 5 ; Ats. : 5.
13 1 2 1 2 0

21 1 5 3 3 1
9) 23 0 5 ; Ats. : 5. 10) 3 3 4 ; Ats. : 54.
3 2 0 2 4 1

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10 3 1 3 4 2
11) 22 3 4; Ats. : 0. 12) 0 4 4 ; Ats. : 28.
12 4 1 5 2 3

2 0 0 2 0 8
13) 4 4 3 ; Ats. : 6. 14) 4 4 19 ; Ats. : 2.
0 3 3 0 3 2

1 5 0 6 1 2 3 1
6 1 3 1 2 3 1 0
15) ; Ats. : 15. 16) ; Ats. : 20.
3 2 0 3 3 1 0 1
3 1 0 1 1 0 1 0

2 4 6 3 1 1 4 4
1 2 5 4 5 4 4 4
17) ; Ats. : 364. 18) ; Ats. : 6.
7 8 9 3 1 0 3 2
2 1 1 1 2 1 5 4
2. Isprskite lygtis:
x2 3 2
x 3
1) 2 1 2 10 = 0; Ats. : 0;2.
8 2
3 1 1

1 2 2
5 x
2) 1 3 1 + + 16 = 0; Ats. : 3;6.
2
3 4
3 x 2

x 2 3 5 5x 3 8 3
3) + 7x = 3; Ats. : 2;1.
4 1 4 2 5 2

3. Isprskite nelygybes:
5 1
1) x 2 + 0; Ats. : 4 x 5.
x 4

3 15 x 2 9 5
2) ; Ats. : x 4, x 5.
1 5 4 x

x2 2 2 9
3) + < 0; Ats. : 2 < x < 4.
x 1 2 5

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Atvirktin matrica

Matricos A atvirktine matrica vadinama tokia matrica B, kuri tenkina lygyb


AB5BA5E. Matricos A atvirktin matrica ymima A-1 ir skaiiuojama pagal formul
1 ~ ~
A-15 A, kur 0 matricos A determinantas, o A - transponuota adjunkt matrica.

a11 a12 a13 A11 A21 A31
1 1
Jei A = a 21 a 22 a 23 , tai B 5 A = A12 A22 A32 .
a
31 a 32 a 33 A13 A23 A33

Formuls rodymui reikt patikrinti lygyb AB5E. jeigu matricos


determinantas lygus nuliui, tai tokia matrica vadinama isigimusia. Isigimusi matrica
atvirktins matricos neturi.

Pavyzdiai
1 2 1 2
1) A5 . Apskaiiuojame = = 1 6 = 7;
3 1 3 1

1 1 2
A-15 . Patikriname
7 3 1

1 2 1 1 2 1 7 0 1 0
A.A-15 = = = E.
3 1 7 3 1 7 0 7 0 1

5 3 4 5 3 4

2) A5 2 1 1 , = 2 1 1 = 20 9 + 8 + 12 24 5 = 2;
3 1 4 3 1 4

A11 A21 A31


11
A = A12 A22 A32 . 5

A13 A23 A33

1 1 3 4 3 4

1 4 1 4 1 1
8 1 1,5 4 0,5
3
1 2 1 5 4 5 4 1
= = 11 32 3 = 5,5 16 1,5 .
2 3 4 3 4 2 1 2
2 1 5 3 5 3 5 14 1 2,5 7 0,5

3 1 3 1 2 1

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Pratimai
Raskite i matric atvirktines matricas:
1 4 1 9 4 1 2 1 1 2
1. ; Ats. : . 2. ; Ats. : .
3 9 21 3 1 3 1 5 3 1

2 3 1 7 11 5 1 3 4 3 13 9
1 1
3. 3 1 2 ; Ats. : 7 7 7 4. 2 0 3 ; Ats. : 0 5 5 .
1 2 42 5
3
7 1 11 2 1 3

2 7 6

3 4 5 8 29 11 1 2 3 1 2 7

5. 2 3 1 ; Ats. : 5 18 7 . 6. 0 1 2 ; Ats. : 0 1 2 .
3 5 1 1 3 1 0 0 1 0 0 1

2 3 4 1 3 5 1 0 1 1 1 2
1
7. 1 1 3 ; Ats. : 8 14 10 . 8. 0 2 3 ; Ats. : 0 2 3 .
3 0 10
1 3 9 5 0 1 2

0 1 2

1 2 7 1 2 3 1 1 2 1 0 1

9. 0 1 2 ; Ats. : 0 1 2 . 10. 0 2 3 ; Ats. : 0 2 3 .
0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 2 0 1 2

Tiesini lygi sistemos. Kramerio taisykl

Tiesins lygtys, suraytos viena po kitos sudaro, tiesini lygi sistem


a11 x1 + a12 x 2 + a13 x3 + ... + a1n x n = b1 ,
a x + a x + a x + ... + a x = b ,
21 1 22 2 23 3 2n n 2

.......... .................... .......... ....................
a m1 x1 + a m 2 x2 + a m 3 x3 + ... + a mn x n = bm;

ia a ij sistemos koeficientai, xj kintamieji, o bi - laisvieji nariai


(i 5 1;2;...;m; j 5 1;2;...;n).
Tiesini lygi sistema gali turti tik vien sprendin arba be galo daug
sprendini, tada ji laikoma suderinta. Sistema nesuderinta, jeigu neturi sprendini.
Yra keli tiesini lygi sistem sprendimo bdai. Vienas i j Kramerio
taisykl. ia pateikiamos Kramerio formuls be rodymo. Isprsime trij tiesini lygi
su trimis neinomaisiais sistem:

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a11 x1 + a12 x2 + a13 x3 = b1 ,



a 21 x1 + a 22 x2 + a 23 x3 = b2 ,
a x + a x + a x = b
31 1 32 2 33 3 3;

apskaiiuojame:
a11 a12 a13 b1 a12 a13 a11 b1 a13
= a 21 a 22 a 23 , x1 = b2 a 22 a 23 , x 2 = a 21 b2 a 23 ,
a 31 a32 a 33 b3 a 32 a 33 a31 b3 a33

a11 a12 b1
x1 x 2 x
x3 = a 21 a 22 b2 ; x1 = , x2 = , x3 = 3 .

a31 a 32 b3

ios formuls ir vadinamos Kramerio formulmis, o sprendimo bdas Kramerio


taisykle.
Jeigu 0 , lygi sistema turi vienintel sprendin;
jeigu = x1 = x2 = x3 = 0 , lygi sistema turi be galo daug sprendini;

jeigu = 0, o bent vienas x1 , x 2 ar x3 0 , tai sistema sprendini neturi.


Jeigu sistemoje kintamj nedaug, jie gali bti ymimi x, y, z ir t.t.

Pavyzdiai

Isprsime sistemas:
x + 3 y = 7, 1 3 7 3
1) = = 2 12 = 14, x = = 14,
4 x 2 y = 0; 4 2 0 2

1 7 x 14 y 28
y = = 28; x= = = 1, y= = = 2. Ats. : (1;2 ).
4 0 14 14

2 x + y = 1, 2 2 1 1
2) = = 0, x = = 2; Sistema sprendini neturi.
4 x + 2 y = 0; 4 1 0 2

Ats.:&.
2 x1 x 2 3 x3 = 4, 2 1 3
2 4 1 4
x1 + 2 x 2 + 4 x3 = 4, = 1 2 4 =2 ( 1)
1 2 3 2
3) 3x1 x 2 + 2 x3 = 1; 3 1 2
1 2
+ ( 3) = 16 10 + 21 = 27,
3 1

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4 1 3
x1 = 4 2 4 = 4 2 2 + ( 1) 4 1 + 4 ( 1) ( 3) ( 3) 2 1 ( 1) 4 2
1 1 2
4 ( 1) 4 = 16 4 + 12 + 6 + 8 + 16 = 58 4 = 54,

2 4 3 0 4 11
4 11
x 2 = 1 4 4 / ( 2 ) / ( 3) = 1 4 4 = 1 ( 1)
2 +1
=
11 10
3 1 2 0 11 10
= ( 40 121) = 81,

2 1 4 0 5 4
5 4
x3 = 1 2 4 / ( 2 ) / ( 3) = 1 2 4 = = 55 + 28 = 27;
7 11
3 1 1 0 7 11

x1 54 x 81 x 3 27
x1 = = = 2, x 2 = 2 = = 3, x3 = = = 1.
27 27 27
Ats.: (2;3;-1).
x y + 2 z = 3, 1 1 2 / 2 1 1 2

4) x + 2 y z = 0, = 1 2 1 = 1 2 1 = 0;
2 x + 2 y 4 z = 6; 2 2 4 0 0 0

nesunkiai gautume, kad ir x = y = z = 0 .
i sistema turi begalo daug sprendini. Juos gausime sprsdami pirmsias dvi
lygtis, nes pirma ir treia lygtys vienodos (padalinkite trei lygt i (2)):
x y + 2 z = 3, x y = 2t + 3,
paymkime z5t, tada gausime sistem
x + 2 y z = 0; x + 2 y = t;
j isprend gausime x = 2 t , y = t 1 . Ats.: (2-t;t-1), kur teR.

Pratimai

Isprskite lygi sistemas taikydami Kramerio formules:


x y = 1, 2 x y = 1,
1) Ats. : (2;1). 2) Ats. : &.
2 x + 3 y = 7; 4 x 2 y = 1;

3 x y = 5, y 3 x = 1,
3) Ats. : ( 1;2 ). 4) Ats. : (1;2 ).
4 x + 2 y = 0; 2 x + y = 4;

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x y + z = 6, 5 x 3 y z = 6,

5) 2 x + y + z = 3, Ats. : (1;2;3). 6) 4 x + y + 5 z = 1, Ats. : (1;0;1).
x + y + 2 z = 5; 2 x + 4 y + z = 1;

x 2 y = 3, 3 x 4 y + 4 z = 11,

7) 3 x 5 z = 23, Ats. : (1;1;4 ). 8) 5 x + 5 y + z = 11, Ats. : (1;3;1).
2 x + y 5 z = 21; 4 x + 2 y z = 1;

3 x + 2 y z = 9, 2 x y + 3 z = 1,

9) 2 x + y + z = 10, Ats. : ( 2;3;3). 10) x + y + z = 2, Ats. : &.
5 x 2 y 4 z = 8; 4 x 2 y + 6 z = 1;

x 2 y + z = 1, 3 x 3 y 4 z = 28,

11) y 2 z = 3, Ats. : (3t + 7;2t + 3; t ). 12) 3 x 3 y + 3 z = 0, Ats. : ( 2;2;4 ).
2 x 4 y + 2 z = 2; y = 2;

x + 2 y z = 3, 2 x y + z = 6,

13) 2 x y + 2 z = 2, Ats. : (1;0;2 ). 14) 3 x + z = 7, Ats. : (2;1;1).
3 x + y 4 z = 11; y + 2 z = 1;

2 x y z = 6, x 2 y 2 z = 3,

15) x 2 y + z = 3, Ats. : ( 1;2;2 ). 16) 2 x y = 4, Ats. : (1;2;1).
3 x + y 2 z = 5; y + 3 z = 1;

Tiesini lygi sistem sprendimas Gauso ordano metodu

Gauso metodas tai neinomj nuoseklaus eliminavimo metodas, kai duotj


sistem suvedame trikamp form, i kurios paskutins lygties lengvai randame vieno
neinomojo reikm. Radus vieno neinomojo reikm ir raius j kitas lygtis,
surandamos ir kit neinomj reikms.
1 pavyzdys:
x + 2 y z = 3, / ( 2) / (3) x + 2 y z = 3,

2 x y + 2 z = 2, 5 y + 4 z = 8, / ( 1)
3 x + y 4 z = 11; 5 y z = 2;

x + 2 y z = 3,

5 y + 4 z = 8, -5z510, z5-2, y50, x51. Ats.:(1;0;-2).
5 z = 10;

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i sistema isprsta Gauso metodu.


Kad nereikt perrainti kintamj, veiksmus galima atlikti tik su sistemos
iplstins matricos elementais.
2 pavyzdys:
x + y + z = 1,

2 x + y 2 z = 5, sudarome iplstin matric ir j pertvarkome:
4 x + z = 5;

1 1 1 1 /.2/(-4) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 1 2 5 0 3 0 3 / : 3 0 1 0 1 /.4
4 0 1 5 0 4 3 1 0 4 3 1

1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 x = 1,

0 1 0 1 /.(-1) 0 1 0 1 y = 1, Ats.:(1;-1;1).
0 0 3 3 0 0 1 1 z = 1.
/:3
i sistema isprsta Gauso ordano metodu.
3 pavyzdys:
3 x + y + z = 0, 3 1 1 0 1 3 0 3 /.5/.(-2)

5 x + y 2 z = 2, 5 1 2 2 5 1 2 2
2 x 2 y + z = 3; 2 2 1 3 /(-1) 2 2 1 3

1 1 2 3 1 1 2 3

0 16 2 17 0 16 2 17 ;
0 8 1 9 /.2 0 0 1
0

Paskutinioji lygtis sprendini neturi, todl sistema nesuderinta.


4 pavyzdys:
2 x1 + x 2 + 3 x3 = 6, 2 1 3 0 6

x2 x3 2 x 4 = 2, 0 1 1 2 2 /.(-1)/.(-5)

x2 2 x3 x 4 = 2, 2 1 2 1 2

5 x2 11x3 4 x 4 = 10; 0 5 11 4 10

2 1 3 0 6 2 1 3 0 6
2 x1 + x2 + 3 x3 = 6,
0 1 1 2 2 0 1 1 2 2
x2 x3 2 x 4 = 2,
0 0 1 1 0 /.(-6) 0 0 1 1 0
x3 x4 = 0.
0
0 6 6 0 0
0 0 0 0

i sistema turi be galo daug sprendini. Tegu x45t, tada x35t, x253t-2,
x154-3t. Ats.: (4-3t;3t-2;t;t), teR.

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Pratimai

Isprskite lygi sistemas Gauso ordano metodu:


x + 2 y + 3 z = 6, 4 x y + z = 5,

1) 4 x y + 2 z = 5, Ats. : (1;1;1). 2) x y z = 3, Ats. : ( 2;1;2).
y z = 0; 2 x + 2 y + 3 z = 0;

x y 3z = 7, 4 x + 2 z = 10,

3) x + 2 y z = 0, Ats. : (0;1;2). 4) 2 x + 2 y = 2, Ats. : (1;2;3).
3 x + z = 2; x + y 5 z = 12;

x + 2 y + 3 z = 0, x y + z = 2,

5) 3 x + 2 y + z = 0, Ats.; ( t;2t; t ). 6) 2 x + y 2 z = 6, Ats. : (3;2;1).
2 x + 2 y + 2 z = 0; 3 x + 2 y + 4 z = 17;

2 x + 2 y z = 4, x y + z = 5,

7) 2 x + y = 1, Ats. : (1;1;0). 8) 3 x + 2 z = 14, Ats. : (4;0;1).
4 x y + z = 3; 4 y 5 z = 5;

3 x y + z = 8, x + y + 2 z = 1,

9) x z + 2 y = 3, Ats. : (2;1;3). 10) 2 x + 2 y + 4 z = 1, Ats. : &.
4 x 3 y = 11; 3 x + 3 y + 6 z = 0;

x1 + 2 x2 + x3 = 2, 3 x1 x 2 x3 = 3,

11) 2 x1 + x2 + x3 = 1, Ats. : (1;0;3). 12) 2 x1 + 3 x2 + 5 x3 = 17, Ats. : &.
x + x + 2 x = 5; 5 x + 2 x + 4 x = 15;
1 2 3 1 2 3

x1 + x2 = 2,
x1 + x2 + x3 = 3, x + 2 x + x + x = 5,
7 3t 5 t 1
13) 3 x1 x 2 + 2 x3 = 4, Ats. : ( ; ; t ). 14)
2 3 4
Ats. : (1;1;1;1).
2 x 2 x + x = 1; 4 4 3 x 2 + 4 x 3 x 4 = 6,
1 2 3
2 x1 x3 x4 = 0;

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16

x1 2 x2 + x 4 = 2, x1 + 2 x 2 + 3x3 + 4 x 4 = 6,
2 x 5 x + x = 2, x + 2 x + x = 3,

15) 1 2 3
Ats. : (1;0;0;1). 16) 2 3 4
Ats. : (1;1;1;0).
x1 x3 x4 = 0, 2 x1 x 2 2 x4 = 1,
3 x2 x3 + 2 x4 = 2; 3 x1 x 2 x3 + x 4 = 1;

Tiesini lygi sistemos sprendimas atvirktins matricos


pagalba

Imkime tiesini lygi sistem


a11 x1 + a12 x2 + ... + a1n xn = b1 ,
a x + a x + ... + a x = b ,
21 1 22 2 2n n 2

.......... .................... .......... ...
a n1 x1 + a n 2 x 2 + ... + a nn xn = bn ;

a11 a12 ... a1n x1 b1



a a 22 ... a 2 n x2 b
Jeigu A5 21 , X = , B = 2 ,
... ... ... ... ... ...

a a n 2 ... a nn x b
n1 n n
tai lygi sistem galima urayti viena lygtimi AX5B.
Abi lygties puses padaugin i A-1, gausime
A-1.A.X5 A-1.B,
E.X5 A-1.B,
X5 A-1.B.
x1 A11 A21 ... An1 b1

x 2 1 A12 A22 ... An 2 b2
Gavome X = = , arba
... ... ... ... ... ...

x A Ann bn
n 1n A2 n ...

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17

1
x1 = ( A11b1 + A21b2 + ... + An1bn ),

1
x2 = ( A12 b1 + A22 b2 + ... + An 2 bn ),

.......... .......... .......... .................... ....
1
xn = ( A1n b1 + A2 n b2 + ... + Ann bn ).

Pavyzdys
x + y z = 2, 1 1 1 /.(-2) 1 1 1
1 3
2 x + 3 y + z = 1, = 2 3 1 50 1 3 = = 12.
x + 2 y 2 z = 1; 3 3
1 2 2 0 3 3

8 0 4 x 8 0 4 2
1 1 1
A = 3 3 3 , y = 3 3 3 1 ;
12 z 12
7 3 1 7 3 1 1
1 1
x= ( 8 2 + 0 1 + 4 1) = ( 12) = 1,
12 12
1
y = (3 2 3 1 3 1) = 0,
12
1 1
z = (7 2 3 1 + 1) = 12 = 1.
12 12
Ats.: (1;0;-1).

Pratimai

Isprskite lygi sistemas atvirktins matricos metodu:


4 x + y + 5 z = 1, 2 x + y + 3 z = 15,

1) 5 x + 3 y + z = 6, Ats. : (1;0;1). 2) 5 x + 2 y + 5 z = 28, Ats. : ( 2;1;4).
2 x + 4 y + z = 1; 2 x + 5 y 4 z = 25,

3 x 3 y + 3 z = 9, 3 x 2 y 2 z = 1,

3) 2 x + 4 y + 5 z = 3, Ats.; (1;1;1). 4) 2 x 3 z = 12, Ats. : (3;3;2).
3x y 4 z = 0 : x 4 y + 5 z = 5;

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