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INTEGRALINIS SKAIIAVIMAS

NEAPIBRTINIS INTEGRALAS
1. Pirmykt funkcija. Tiesioginis integravimas
Diferencialinio skaiiavimo pagrindinis udavinys rasti funkcijos F(x)
ivestin F9(x) 5f(x) arba diferencial dF(x)5f(x)dx. Danai tenka sprsti atvirktin
udavin iekoti funkcijos F(x), kai inoma ios funkcijos ivestin f(x) arba
diferencialas f(x)dx.
1 apibrimas. Funkcija F(x) vadinama funkcijos f(x) pirmykte funkcija
atkarpoje [a;b], jeigu visuose ios atkarpos takuose x teisinga lygyb
F9(x) 5f(x) arba dF(x)5f(x)dx.
Pvz., funkcijos f(x) 5x3 pirmykts funkcijos F(x) intervale (-:;:) yra ios
1 4 1 1 1
F ( x) = x , F ( x) = x 4 + 3, F ( x) = x 4 3, F ( x) = x 4 + C , nes
4 4 4 4
1 1 1 1
F ( x ) = ( x 4 ) = ( x 4 + 3) = ( x 4 3) = ( x 4 + C ) = x 3 = f ( x ). Vadinasi, jei
4 4 4 4
funkcija f(x) turi vien pirmykt funkcij, tai ji turi j be galo daug.
2 apibrimas. Jeigu funkcija F(x) yra funkcijos f(x) pirmykt funkcija, tai
reikinys F(x)+C vadinamas funkcijos f(x) neapibrtiniu integralu ir ymimas simboliu

f ( x)dx.
Vadinasi f ( x)dx = F ( x) + C , kur C const., F9(x)5f(x).
Veiksmas, kuriuo surandame duotosios funkcijos pirmykt funkcija, vadinamas
integravimu.
Neapibrtinio integralo savybs:

1) ( f ( x)dx) = f (x);
2) d ( f ( x) dx) = f ( x)dx;
3) dF ( x) = F ( x) + C;
4) cf ( x)dx = c f ( x)dx;
5) ( f ( x) + g ( x))dx = f ( x)dx + g ( x)dx.

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2

Pagrindini integral lentel:


1. dx = x + C.
x n +1
2. x dx =
n
+ C, (n 1).
n +1

3.
dx
= ln x + C , (x 0 ).
x
ax
4. a dx =
x
+ C, (a > 0, a 1).
ln a

e dx = e x + C.
x
5.

6. sin xdx = cos x + C.


7. cos xdx = sin x + C.
dx
8. cos 2
x
= tgx + C .

dx
9. sin 2
x
= ctgx + C.

dx
10. 1 x2
= arcsin x + C.

dx x
11. a2 x2
= arcsin
a
+ C.

dx
12. 1+ x 2
= arctgx + C .

dx 1 x
13. a 2
+x 2
= arctg + C .
a a

14. tgxdx = ln cos x + C.

15. ctgxdx = ln sin x + C.

dx x
16. sin x = ln tg 2 + C.
dx x
17. cos x = ln tg 4 + 2 + C.
dx 1 xa
18. x 2
a 2
= ln
2a x + a
+ C.

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3

dx
19. x a2 2
= ln x + x 2 a 2 + C.

Pavyzdiai
1. (3 x 2 2 sin x + 6 x ) dx = 3 x 2 dx 2 sin xdx + 6 x dx =
3
1 3
2( cos x ) + 6 3 + C = x 3 + 2 cos x + 4 x x + C.
x x2
= 3 x 2 dx 2 sin xdx + 6 x dx = 3 2
3 2

sin 2 x 1 cos 2 x 1
2. tg 2 xdx = 2
dx = 2
dx dx dx = tgx + x + C.
cos x cos x cos 2 x
Pratimai
1. (2 x + 5)dx; Ats. : x 2 + 5 x + C.

(12 x )
6 x + 4 dx; Ats. : 3x 4 3 x 2 + 4 x + C.
3
2.

3 16 9
4 x + dx; Ats. : x 7 + 8 x 3 + C.
3
3.
x 7 x

4. (
3
x 2 x + 3 dx; ) Ats. :
3 3 2 2
5
x x x x + 3x + C.
3

3x 2 6 x x
5. 3
x 2
dx; Ats. : x 3 + C.

(x 2
+ 1)
2
1 1
6. x 3
dx; Ats. : x 2 + 2 ln x 2 + C.
3 2x

3 x 3 23 x 4 3 x + 2 3 2 6 x 2
7. x2
dx; Ats. :
2
x 63 x +
x
+ C.
x
(x + 1)2 dx; 2 2 4
8. x
Ats. :
5
x x + x x + 2 x + C.
3

x e x 1
x 2 dx; Ats. : e + x + C.
x
9. e 1

cos 2 x
10. cos 2
x sin 2 x
dx; Ats. : ctgx tgx + C.

ctg Ats. : ctgx x + C.


2
11. xdx;

3 2tg 2 x
12. cos2 x dx; Ats. : 3tgx + 2ctgx + C.

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x x sin x
sin + C.
2
13. dx; Ats. :
2 2 2
2 3
14. 1 + x 2
dx; Ats. : 2arctgx 3 arcsin x + C.

1 x2

x4 x3
15. 1 + x 2 dx; Ats. :
3
x + arctgx + C.

2. Integravimas keiiant kintamuosius


Integruojant kintamojo keitimo metodu, integralas f ( x)dx pakeiiamas

integralu F (u ) du , kur lengva apskaiiuoti pagal kuri nors formul. Iekodami

integralo f ( x)dx , kintamj x pakeiiame nauju kintamuoju u: x5w(u). Idiferenciav


t lygyb, gauname dx5w9(u)du. pointegralin reikin vietoje x ir dx ra j iraikas
per u ir du, gauname f ( x)dx = f ( (u )) (u )du = F (u )du .
Apskaiiav integral naujo kintamojo atvilgiu, keitiniu u5c(x) vl grtame
prie kintamojo x.
Pavyzdiai

(3x + 2) dx
5
1.

1 2
Sprendimas. Imkime keitin 3 x + 2 = u , x = u ,
3 3

1 2 1
dx = u + du = du. stat duot integral, gausime
3 3 3
6

(3x + 2) dx = u du = u du = (3x + 2)6 + C.


5 1 1 5 1 u 1
+C =
5

3 3 3 6 18
5x 3 + 1 = u,

du = (5 x 3 + 1) dx,
1
du
x 2 dx 1 du 1
2. 3 = = 15 = = ln u + C =
5x + 1 du = 15 x dx,
2
u 15 u 15
1
x 2 dx = du
15
1
= ln 5 x 3 + 1 + C.
15

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2 x = u,
dx 1 du 1 u 1
3. = du = 2dx , = = ln tg + C = ln tgx + C .
sin 2 x 2 sin u 2 2 2
dx = 12 du

x
3 x = u, 1
du
3 dx 1 du 1 u
4. 25 9 x
= du = 3 x ln 3dx, = ln 3
1
= =
5 2 u 2 ln 3 5 2 u 2 ln 3
arcsin +
5
3 x dx = du;
ln 3
1 3x
+C = arcsin + C.
ln 3 5
Pratimai

1. x
2
1 + x 3 dx; Ats. :
2
3
(1 + x ) + C.
3

3 xdx 3
2. 5 2x 2
; Ats. :
2
5 2 x 2 + C.

6 z 3 dz 3
5 z 4 2 ; Ats. : 10 ln 5 z 2 + C.
4
3.

z 2 dz 1
5 z 3 + 1 ; Ats. : 15 ln 5z + 1 + C.
3
4.

1
e
3 x +1
5. dx; Ats. : e 3 x +1 + C.
3
1 2
e
5 x 2 1
6. 2 xdx; Ats. : e 5 x 1 + C.
5
e 3 x 1 2

3 x 1
7. dx; Ats. : e + C.
3x 1 3

e
+6 x+5
(x + 1)dx; 1 2
Ats. : e 3 x + 6 x + 5 + C.
2
3x
8.
6
5 4 x 3
2

5
4 x 2 3
9. dx; Ats. : + C.
ln 5
1 1

6 dxx2
6 x2
10. 2x 3
; Ats. :
16 ln 6
+ C.

8 tgx 8 tgx
11. 5 cos 2 x dx; Ats. :
5 ln 8
+ C.

( ) Ats. : sin (5t 2 3) + C.


1
12. cos 5t 3 2tdt;
2

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1 1
Ats. : t + sin 2t + C.
2
13. cos tdt ;
2 4
1 1
x + sin 2 x + C.
2
14. sin xdx; Ats. :
2 4
1
Ats. : sin 4 x + C.
3
15. sin x cos xdx;
4

ctg (8 x 3 2 ) + C.
5 x 2 dx 5
16. sin 2 (8 x 3 2); Ats. :
24

xdx 5 x2
17. 2 x2
; Ats. : ctg + C.
2 5
sin
5
6dx
18. 9 36 x 2
; Ats. : arcsin 2 x + C.

4dx
19. 1 16 x 2
; Ats. : arcsin 4 x + C.

dx 3 3
20. 5 3x 2
; Ats. :
3
arcsin x + C.
5

; Ats. : arcsin(x + 2 ) + C.
dx
21. 1 ( x + 2)
2

dx x3
22. 4 (x 3)
2
; Ats. : arcsin
2
+ C.

5dx 5
23. 3 + 12 x 2
; Ats. : arctg 2 x + C.
6
4du 2 30 30 z
24. 5 + 6u 2
; Ats. :
15
arctg
5
+ C.

25.
ln x
; Ats. :
2
(ln x )3 + C.
x 3
x 3 dx 1
26. 1 x8
; Ats. : arcsin x 4 + C.
4
1 1
27. cos x sin 3xdx; Ats. : cos 4 x cos 2 x + C.
8 4
1
cos xdx; Ats. : sin x sin 3 x + C.
3
28.
3

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sin 3 xdx cos 2 x


29. cos x
; Ats. : 2 cos x
5
1 + C .

cos x 1
30. 1 + 2 sin x dx; Ats. : ln 1 + 2 sin x + C .
2

3. Integravimas dalimis
Tegu u5u(x) ir v5v(x) kintamojo x funkcijos, turinios tolydias ivestines.
Tada
d(uv) 5 udv+vdu,
udv5d(uv)+vdu.
Integruodami ios lygybs abi puses gausime

udv = uv vdu.
Pavyzdiai
u = x, du = dx
1. x sin xdx = = x( cos x ) ( cos x )dx =
dv = sin xdx, v = cos x

= x cos x + cos xdx = x cos x + sin x + C.

u = ex, du = e x dx,
2. e x cos xdx = = e x sin x sin xe x dx =
dv = cos xdx, v = sin x

=
u = ex, du = e x dx,
dv = sin xdx, v = cos x
( )
= e x sin x e x cos x ( cos x )e x dx . Gavome lygyb

e
x
cos xdx = e x sin x + e x cos x e x cos xdx, 2 e x cos xdx = e x (sin x + cos x ),

e (sin x + cos x ).
1 x
e cos xdx =
x

2
Pratimai
1. x sin xdx; Ats. : x cos x + sin x + C.

2. ln xdx; Ats. : x ln x x + C.

3. x 2 e x dx; Ats. : x 2 e x 2 xe x + 2e x + C.

4. xe x dx; Ats. : e x ( x 1) + C.

1 1
5. xe 2 x dx; Ats. : xe 2 x e 2 x + C.
2 4

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(x 1)e (x 1)e 2 x 1 e 2 x + C.
2x 1
6. dx; Ats. :
2 4

7. (1 x )sin xdx; Ats. : ( x 1) cos x sin x + C.

8. x cos xdx; Ats. : x sin x + cos x + C.

x 1
9. x sin 2 xdx; Ats. : cos 2 x sin 2 x + C.
2 4

Ats. : e x (sin x cos x ) + C .


1
10. e x sin xdx;
2

11. e 2 x cos xdx; Ats. : e 2 x (sin x + cos 2 x ) + C .


1
5

Ats. : xarctgx ln (1 + x 2 ) + C.
1
12. arctgxdx;
2

13. xarctgxdx; Ats. :


2
(x arctgx + arctgx x ) + C.
1 2

ln x ln x 1
14. x 2
dx; Ats. :
x
+ C.
x
xdx
15. sin 2
x
; Ats. : ln sin x xctgx + C .

xdx
16. cos 2
x
; Ats. : xtgx ln cos x + C .

17. arccos xdx; Ats. : x arccos x 1 x 2 + C.

18.
xarctgx
1+ x 2
(
; Ats. : 1 + x 2 arctgx ln x + 1 + x 2 + C. )
(
19. x 3 e x dx; Ats. : e x x 3 3 x 2 + 6 x 6 + C. )
20. ln 2 xdx; Ats. : x(ln 2
)
x 2 ln x + 2 + C.

4. Racionalij trupmen integravimas

Pn (x )
Racionalija trupmena vadinama pavidalo trupmena, kur Pn(x) ir Qm(x)
Qm ( x )
atatinkamai n ojo ir m ojo laipsnio daugianariai. Racionalioji trupmena vadinama
taisyklinga, jei n<m, ir netaisyklinga, jei n>m.

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Bet koki netaisykling racionalij trupmen, jos skaitikl padalijus i vardiklio,


galima pakeisti daugianario ir taisyklingosios trupmenos suma.
Integruojant taisyklingj racionalij trupmen, ji ireikiama paprastj
trupmen suma, t.y.

A Bx + C
ir
(x a ) m
(x 2
+ px + q )
n

pavidalo trupmen suma, kur kvadratinis trinaris x2+px+q neturi reali akn, o
m ir n sveikieji teigiami skaiiai.
Pavyzdiai
2x + 1
1. x 2
5x + 4
dx.

Sprendimas
Surandame vardiklio aknis ir pointegralin reikin pakeiiame dviej trupmen
suma
2x + 1 A B
= + ;
x 5x + 4 x 1 x 4
2

ia A ir B koeficientai, kuriuos reikia rasti. Abi lygybs puses padauginame i


bendro vardiklio ir gauname
2x+15A(x-4)+B(x-1),
2x+15(A+B)x-(4A+B).
Sulygin koeficientus prie vienod x laipsni, gauname lygi sistem
A + B = 2,

4 A + B = 1,
Isprend lygi sistem randame A5-1, B53. Vadinasi
2x + 1 1 3
= + ;
x 5x + 4 x 1 x 4
2

Dabar apskaiiuojame duotj integral

2x + 1 dx dx ( x 4)
3

x 2 5x + 4 dx = x 1 + 3 x 4 = ln x 1 + 3 ln x 4 + C = ln x 1 + C.

3x + 1
2. (x + 3) (x 5) dx.
2

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Sprendimas
3x + 1 A B C
= + + ,
(x + 3) (x 5)
2
x + 3 ( x + 3)2
x5
3x+15A(x+3)(x-5)+B(x-5)+C(x+3)2,
3x+15Ax2+3Ax-5Ax-15A+Bx-5B+Cx2+6Cx+9C,
3x+15(A+C)x2+(-2A+B+6C)x+(-15A-5B+9C).
Sulygin koeficientus prie vienod x laipsni, gauname sistem
A + C = 0,

2 A + B + 6C = 3,
15 A 5 B + 9C = 1.

1 1
Isprend gauname A = , B = 1, C = . Taigi
4 4
3x + 1 1 dx dx 1 dx 1 1
(x + 3) (x 5) dx = 4 x + 3 + (x + 3)
2 2
+
4 x5
= ln x + 3
4 x+3
+

1 1 x5 1
+ ln x 5 + C = ln + C.
4 4 x+3 x+3

7 x 2 + 26 x 9
3. x 4 + 4 x 3 + 4 x 2 9 dx;
x 4 + 4 x 3 + 4 x 2 9 = (x 2 + 2 x ) 3 2 = (x 2 + 2 x 3)(x 2 + 2 x + 3) =
2

= (x 1)( x + 3)(x 2 + 2 x + 3),

7 x 2 + 26 x 9 A B Cx + D
= + + 2 ,
x + 4 x + 4x 9 x 1 x + 3 x + 2x + 3
4 3 2

i ia
7 x 2 + 26 x 9 = A(x + 3)(x 2 + 2 x + 3) + B(x 1)(x 2 + 2 x + 3) + (Cx + D )(x 1)( x + 3);
sutvark lygybs dein pus ir sulygin koeficientus prie vienod x laipsni gausime
sistem
A + B + C = 0,
5 A + B + 2C + D = 7,


9 A + B 3C + 2 D = 26,
9 A 3B 3D = 9;

isprend gauname A51, B51, C5-2, D55. Tuomet

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7 x 2 + 26 x 9 dx dx 2x + 5
x 4 + 4 x 3 + 4 x 2 9 dx = x 1 + x + 3 + x 2 + 2 x + 3 dx = ln x 1 + ln x + 3
2x + 2 7 2x + 2 7 dx
2 dx = ln x 1 + ln x + 3 2 dx + = ln x 1 +
x + 2x + 3 x + 2x + 3 (x + 1)2 + 2 ( )2

+ ln x + 3 ln x 2 + 2 x + 3 +
7
arctg
x +1 (x 1)(x + 3) + 7 arctg x + 1 + C.
+ C = ln 2
2 2 x + 2x + 3 2 2

x 4 dx
4. x2 3.
Sprendimas
Duotoji trupmena netaisyklingoji, todl iskiriame jos sveikj dal:
x4 ?x 2-3
x -3x x 2+3
4 2

3x2
3x2-9
9

x4 9 9
= x2 + 3 + 2 = x2 + 3 + =
Tada
x 3
2
x 3 x 3 x+ 3 ( )( )
3 3 1 1
= x2 + 3 .
2 x 3 x + 3

x 4 dx x3 3 3 x 3
Todl = + 3x ln + C.
x 3 3
2
2 x+ 3

Pratimai
x
1. x + 4 dx; Ats. : x 4 ln x + 4 + C .

(1 + x )2 dx; Ats. : x + ln(x 2 + 1) + C.


2. x2 +1
x 4 dx x3
3. x2 +1 ; Ats. :
3
x + arctgx + C.

dx x 1
4. x(x 1) ; Ats. : ln
x
+ C.

dx 1 2x 3
5. (x + 1)(2 x 3) ; Ats. : ln
5 x +1
+ C.

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dx 1 x2
6. x 2
+ 3 x 10
; Ats. : ln
7 x+5
+ C.

2x + 7
7. 2 ; Ats. : ln
(x 1) + C. 3

x +x2 x+2

6 x 2 13x + 4
8. 3 dx; Ats. : ln x 2 (x 1) (x 2 ) + C.
3

x 3x + 2 x
2

x3 x3
9. x2 dx; Ats. :
3
+ x 2 + 4 x + 8 ln x 2 + C.

6x 4 x( x 2)
10. x 3
4x
dx; Ats. : ln
(x + 2)2
+ C.

x4 (x 2) 2

11. (x 2)(x 3) dx; Ats. : ln x 3 + C.


2x + 7
12. 2 dx; Ats. : ln
( x 1)
3

+ C.
x +x2 x+2

3x 2 + 2 x 3 x 3 (x 1)
13. x 3 x dx; Ats. : ln
x +1
+ C.

(x + 1)3 dx; x2 (x 1) + C. 8

14. x2 x
Ats. :
2
+ 4 x + ln
x

x+2 1 x2
15. x 3
2x 2
dx; Ats. : + ln
x x
+ C.

5. Kai kuri trigonometrini funkcij integravimas

Skaiiuojant sin 2 n xdx arba cos


2n
xdx pavidalo integralus, kai sinuso arba

kosinuso laipsnis lyginis, taikome laipsnio mainimo formules:


1 1 1
sin 2 x = cos 2 x, cos 2 x = + cos 2 x.
2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1 1
Pvz., sin 2 2 x = cos 4 x dx = dx cos 4 xdx = x + sin 4 x + C.
2 2 2 2 2 8

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Skaiiuojant sin 2 n +1 xdx arba cos


2 n +1
xdx pavidalo integralus, kai sinuso

arba kosinuso laipsnis nelyginis, reikia nuo nelyginio laipsnio atskirti vien daugikl ir
vesti nauj kintamj, paymjus sinx5u arba cosx5u.
Pvz., cos 3 xdx = cos 2 x cos xdx = (1 sin 2 x )cos xdx = cos xdx

sin 2 xd (sin x ) = sin x sin 3 x + C .


1
3

Skaiiuojant sin x cos xdx, sin x sin xdx ir cosx cos x pavidalo

integralus, reikia taikyti formules:

sin x sin x =
1
(cos( )x cos( + )x )
2

cos x cos x =
1
(cos ( )x + cos ( + )x )
2

sin x cos x =
1
(sin ( )x + sin ( + )x ).
2

(sin( 2 x ) + sin 8 x)dx = sin 2 xdx + sin 8 xdx =


1 1 1
Pvz., sin 3 x cos 5 xdx =
2 2 2
1 1
= cos 2 x cos 8 x + C.
4 16
Skaiiuojant R(sin x; cos x )dx pavidalo integralus, reikia naudoti keitin

x
tg = t ir formules:
2
x
2tg
sin x = 2 = 2t ;
x 1+ t2
1 + tg
2
x
1 tg 2
2 = 1 t ;
2
cos x =
x 1+ t2
1 + tg 2
2
x
2tg
2 2t
tgx = = .
1 tg 2
x 1 t2
2
x 2 dt
I lygties tg = t randame, kad x = 2arctgt , tai dx = .
2 1+ t2

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2 dt
Pvz.,
dx 1+ t2 dt dt
5 + 4 cos x
= = 2 = 2 2 =
1 t 2
5 + 5t 4 4t
2 2
t +9
5+ 4
1+ t 2

= 2 arctg + C = arctg (13 tg 2x ) + C.


1 t 2
3 3 3
Pratimai
cos3 x
1. sin 3 xdx; Ats. : cos x + + C.
3
1
2. cos 3 xdx; Ats. : sin x sin 3 x + C.
3
1 1
3. sin 5 x sin 3 xdx; Ats. : sin 2 x sin 8 x + C.
4 16
3 1 1
4. cos 4 xdx; Ats. : x + sin 2 x + sin 4 x + C.
8 4 32
1 1
5. cos 4 x cos xdx; Ats. : sin 3 x + sin 5 x + C.
6 10
1 1
6. sin 7 x cos 3 xdx; Ats. : cos 4 x cos10 x + C.
8 20

(1 + 2 cos x ) dx; Ats. : 3x + 4 sin x + sin 2 x + C.


2
7.

(1 sin 2 x ) dx;
3x sin 4 x
+ cos 2 x + C.
2
8. Ats. :
2 8
x sin 4 x
9. sin 2 x cos 2 xdx; Ats. : + C.
8 32
3 x sin 4 x sin 8 x
10. sin 4 x cos 4 xdx; Ats. : + + C.
128 128 1024
dx x
11. sin x ; Ats. : ln tg
2
+ C.

sin 3 x
12. sin 2 x cos xdx; Ats. : + C.
3

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6. Kai kuri iracionalij funkcij integravimas

Skaiiuojant integralus, turinius x2 a2 , x2 + a2 , a 2 x 2 pavidalo


radikal, naudojamasi trigonometriniais keitiniais:

1) x5asinu (arba x5acosu) integraluose, turiniuose x2 a2 ;

2) x5atgu (arba x5actgu) integraluose, turiniuose x2 + a2 ;

3) x5a/sinu (arba x5a/cosu) integraluose, turiniuose a2 x2 .


Pavyzdiai

1. 4 x 2 dx.

Sprendimas

Panaudokime keitin x52sinu; i ia dx52cosudu, 4 x 2 = 2 2 2 2 sin 2 u =

= 2 1 sin 2 u = 2 cos u. Turime


1 + cos 2u
4 x 2 dx = 2 cos u 2 cos udu = 4 cos 2 udu = 4
2
du =

( )
= 2 du + cos 2udu = 2u + sin 2u + C.

x x
I keitinio x52sinu randame u = arcsin , sin 2u = sin 2 arcsin =
2 2

x x x x x2 x 4 x2
= 2 sin arcsin cos arcsin = 2 1 sin 2 arcsin = x 1 = .
2 2 2 2 4 2

x x 4 x2
Gauname 4 x 2 dx = 2 arcsin
2
+
2
.

dx
2. x 1+ x2
.

Sprendimas
du 1
Paymj x5tgu, randame dx = , 1+ x2 = . Vadinasi
cos 2 u cos u
dx 1 1 du u
x 1+ x 2
= 2

cos u tgu
cos udu =
sin u
= ln tg + C.
2

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1 1 x u sin u
Kadangi cos u = , tai sin u = 1 = , tg = =
1+ x 2 1+ x 2
1+ x 2 2 1 + cos u

x x dx x
=
1
=
1+ x +1 2
; ir x 1+ x 2
= ln
1+ x2 +1
+ C.
1 + x 1 +
2


1+ x2

x 2 1dx
3. x
.

Sprendimas

1 cos u x2 1
Panaudokime keitin x = , tada dx = 2 du, = cos u ir
sin u sin u x

x 2 1dx cos 2 u sin 2 u 1 1 1


x
= 2
sin u
du = 2
sin u
du = u + ctgu + C = arcsin + ctg arcsin + C =
x x

1 1 1 1 1
= arcsin + 1 + C = arcsin + 1 + C = arcsin + x 2 1 + C.
x 1 x 1
2
x
sin 2 arcsin
x x

dx udu u +1 1 1
4. x +1
= x = u 2 , dx = 2udu = 2
u +1
= 2
u +1
du = 2 1 du =
u + 1
d (u + 1)
= 2 du 2
u +1
= 2u 2 ln u + 1 + C = 2 x 2 ln x + 1 + C. ( )
Pratimai

x 2 dx x x 9 x2
1. 9 x2
; Ats. : 4,5 arcsin
3

2
+ C.

x 3 dx (x 2
+ 8) 4 x 2
2. 4 x2
; Ats. :
3
+ C.

dx 1 x
3. x 4 + x2
; Ats. : ln
2 4 + x2 + 4
+ C.

4.
dx
9+x 2
(
; Ats. : ln x + 9 + x 2 + C. )
dx x
5. ; Ats. : + C.
(1 + x ) 2 3 1+ x2

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dx 9 x2
6. x 2
9 x2
; Ats. :
9x
+ C.

x 2 4 dx 2
7. x
; Ats. : 2 arcsin
x
+ x 2 4 + C.

dx
8. x 42
; Ats. : ln x + x 2 4 + C.

dx x
9. ; Ats. : + C.
(16 x ) 2 3 16 16 x 2

dx 1
10. x 1 x 2
; Ats. : arcsin
x
+ C.

11.
dx
(
; Ats. : 2 x 5 ln 2 x + 5 + C. )
2x + 5

12.
x dx
x +1
(
; Ats. : 2 x arctg x + C. )
13. x 2 4 x 2 dx; Ats. : 2 arcsin
x x
2 x2
2 4
( ) 4 x 2 + C.

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APIBRTINIS INTEGRALAS
7. Apibrtinio integralo svoka
Sakykime, funkcija f(x) apibrta atkarpoje [a;b]. Padalykime atkarp [a;b]
takais a < x0 < x1 < x 2 < ... < x n = b n lygi dali, irinkite kiekvienoje elementarioje

atkarpoje [xk-1;xk] bet kok tak jk ir paymkime x k kiekvienos tokios atkarpos ilg.
Funkcijos f(x) integraline suma atkarpoje [a;b] vadinama suma
n

f ( )x
k =1
k k = f (1 )x1 + f ( 2 )x2 + ... + f ( n )x n .

Funkcijos f(x) apibrtiniu integralu atkarpoje [a;b] vadinama integralins


sumos riba, kai didiausios i elementarij atkarp ilgis artja prie nulio:
b n

f ( x )dx = lim
max xk 0
f ( )x
k =1
k k .
a

Apibrtinio integralo savybs


1. Baigtinio skaiiaus funkcij algebrins sumos apibrtinis integralas yra lygus
t funkcij apibrtini integral algebrinei sumai:
b b b

[ f1 (x ) f 2 (x )]dx = f1 (x )dx f 2 (x )dx.


a a a

2. Pastov daugikl galima ikelti prie integralo enkl:


b b

kf (x )dx = k f (x )dx.
a a

3. Pakeitus integravimo rius, apibrtinio integralo enklas pakeiiamas


prieingu:
b a

f (x )dx = f (x )dx.
a b

4. Apibrtinis integralas, kurio integravimo riai vienodi, lygus nuliui:


a

f (x )dx = 0.
a

5. Integravimo atkarp galima skaidyti dalis:


b c b

f (x )dx = f (x )dx + f (x )dx.


a a c

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8. Niutono Leibnico formul


Funkcijos f(x) apibrtinis integralas, kai galima rasti atitinkam neapibrtin
integral F(x), skaiiuojamas pagal Niutono-Leibnico formul:
b
b
f (x )dx = F (x ) a = F (b ) F (a ).
a

Pavyzdiai

(2 x + 1)dx = (x + x ) = (12 + 1) (0 2 + 0 ) = 2.
1
2
1
1.
0
0


6
3 3
sin xdx = cos x = cos cos = + = 0.
6
2.

6 6 6 2 2
6


1
1
= arctg1 arctg( 1) = = .
dx
3. 11 + x 2 = arctgx
1 4 4 2
Pratimai

(3x 5 x 2 )dx; Ats. : 10,5.


1 1

(2 x + 5)dx;
2
1. Ats. : 12. 2.
3 2

1 x +1
4 9
2 1
3. x dx; Ats. : 2 . 4. dx; Ats. : 21 .
1 x 3 1 x 3

4 3
2dx 2
5. cos xdx;

Ats. : 2 . 6. 1+ x
0
2
; Ats. : .
3

4


(x + 2 x + 1)dx; Ats. : 9.
1 2
2 dx

2
7. ; Ats. : . 8.
3 1 x 2 3 1
2

(x + 2 x )dx;
0 8
1 3
Ats. : 1 .
3
9. 10. 3
x 2 dx; Ats. : 18 .
1
4 1
5

e2 1
27 1
dx
8 3 x ; Ats. : 7,5. e dx;
x
11. 12. Ats. : .
1
e

e3 1
1 e
dx
13. e 3 x dx; Ats. : . 14. ; Ats. : 1.
0
3 1
x


1 3
dx dx
15. 0 x + 2; Ats. : ln 1,5. 16.
0 9 x2
; Ats. :
2
.

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9. Apibrtinio integralo skaiiavimas kintamojo keitimo metodu


Skaiiuojant apibrtin integral kintamojo keitimo metodu, i apibrtinio
b
integralo f (x )dx , pakeitus u = (x ) arba x = (u ) , gaunamas apibrtinis integralas
a

kintamojo u atvilgiu. iuo atveju integravimo riai a ir b atitinkamai pakeiiami riais


a ir b, kurie randami i pradinio keitinio.
Pavyzdiai
1
2 x 1 = u, du = 2dx, dx =
3 5
1 u4 5
(2 x 1) dx =
du; 1 3
= u du = = 68.
3
1. 2
2 kai x = 2, u = 3; kai x = 3, u = 5; 23 2 4 3

1 1 1
u = 5 x 1, du = 5dx, dx =
2 9
dx du; 1 2 2 29 2
2.
1
= 5 = u du = u
5 x 1 kai x = 1, u = 4; kai x = 2, u = 9; 5 4 5 4 5
= .

Pratimai
5 1

(4 x ) ;
1 dx 7
Ats. : . (3x + 1)
3
1. 2. 4
; Ats. : .
4
4 0
64
3 5

(2 x 1) dx;
3
3 x 1dx;
3 3
3. Ats. : 3 . 4. Ats. : 12.
0
4 1

(2 x )
5 1
1

4
5. 3 x + 1dx; Ats. : 3. 6. 3
+ 1 x 2 dx; Ats. : .
0 0
15

7. (x 1) xdx; Ats. : 10 .
2 2
1 4 xdx 8
(x
2 3
8. ; Ats. : .
1)
3
1
8 0
2 9
2 2 2
xdx 1
9. 9 x 3 + 1x 2 dx; Ats. : 52. 10. ; Ats. : .
0 5 3x 2 + 1 3

3 2
32 xdx 15 5
11. (x
1
2
+ 1)
5
; Ats. : .
64
12.
0
3 sin x + 1 cos xdx; Ats. : 1 .
9

2 3
2 sin xdx
13.
3
1 cos x sin xdx; Ats. : .
3
14. 3 cos x ;
0
Ats. : ln 1,25.
2


2 6
cos xdx
15. 2 + sin x ;
0
Ats. : ln 1,5. 16. e sin x cos xdx; Ats. : e 1.
0

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1

2
1 e 8
3 2
e sin 2 xdx;
2 x
17. dx; Ats. : . 18. Ats. : .
0
2 4
12

3 1
6 4
dx dx
19. cos 2 2 x ; Ats. :
2
. 20.
2 16 x 2
; Ats. :
3
.
8

(4 3x ) dx;
4 xdx 8 4
(x 2 1)3 ; Ats. : 9 . Ats. : 132
3
21. 22. .
0
15
5 2
3 xdx 2 xdx
23.
0 x +4
2
; Ats. : 3. 24.
0 2x 2 + 1
; Ats. : 2.


4 2
3 cos xdx
25. sin 4 xdx; Ats. : 0,5.
0
26. 2 sin x + 1;

Ats. : 1,5 ln 1,5.
6


3 3
dx dx
27. 4 x2
; Ats. :
2
. 28. 9+ x
0
2
; Ats. :
18
.
2

10. Apibrtinio integralo integravimas dalimis


Jeigu funkcijos u(x) ir v(x) ir j ivestins yra tolydios atkarpoje [a;b], tai
apibrtinio integravimo dalimis formul yra tokia:
b
b b
a udv = uv a a vdu.
Pavyzdys
1
u=x du = dx x 1
1
1
xe dx =
x
= xe e x dx = e x ( x 1) = 1.
0
e dx = dv v = e
x x
0 0 0

Pratimai

(e + 1).
1 2
1 2
1. xe 2 x dx; Ats. : 2. ln xdx; Ats. : ln 4 1.
0
4 1

2
3
3. x ln xdx; Ats. : ln 4 . 4. x cos xdx; Ats. : 2.
1
4 0

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2 4
e2
5. x sin xdx;
0
Ats. : 1. 6. x ln x;
e
Ats. : 8 ln 4 4
4
.

1
1 1
7. arcsin xdx; Ats. : 1. 8. xarctgxdx; Ats. : .
0
2 0
4 2
1
2
9. ln 2 xdx; Ats. : e 2. 10. xe
x
dx; Ats. : 1 .
0
e

4 2
1 8 7
x sin 2 xdx; x ln xdx; Ats. : ln 2 .
2
11. Ats. : . 12.
0
4 1
3 9
1
2
2
3
13. arccos xdx; Ats. : 1 . 14. x
2
cos xdx; Ats. : 4 .
0
6 2 0

11. Netiesioginiai integralai


1. Jeigu funkcija f(x) tolydi intervale [a;+:), tai
+ b
b
f (x )dx = lim f (x )dx = lim F (x ) a = lim F (b) F (a ).
b + b + b +
a a

2. Jeigu funkcija f(x) tolydi intervale (-:;b], tai


b b
b
f ( x )dx = lim f (x )dx = lim F (x ) a = F (b ) lim F (a ).
a a a
a

3. Jeigu funkcija f(x) tolydi intervale (-:;+:), tai


+ c +

f ( x )dx = f ( x )dx + f (x )dx.


c

Tais atvejais, kai ribos baigtins, sakoma, kad netiesioginiai integralai


konverguoja; prieingu atveju jie diverguoja.
Pavyzdiai
+ b
b
1. 0 sin xdx = lim
b
0
sin xdx = lim cos x = lim cos b + 1.
b 0 b

Kadangi lim cos b neegzistuoja, tai integralas


b sin xdx diverguoja.
0

d (x 2 + 4 ) 1
ln (x 2 + 4 ) = lim (ln 4 ln (a 2 + 4 )) = -:.
0 0
xdx 1 0 1 0
2. x 2 + 4 2 a a x 2 + 4 = 2 alim
= lim
a 2 a a

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Integralas diverguoja.
+
dx
0
dx
+
dx
0
d (x + 1)
3. x 2 + 2x + 2
= (x + 1) 2
+1
+ (x + 1) 2
+1
= lim
a
(x + 1) 2
+1
+
0 a

d (x + 1)
+
0 b
+ lim (x + 1) = lim arctg (x + 1) + lim arctg (x + 1) = lim (arctg1 arctg (a + 1)) +
+ 1 a
b + 2
0
a b + 0 a

+ lim (arctg (b + 1) arctg1) = + + = . Integralas konverguoja.
b + 4 2 2 4
Pratimai
+ +
dx dx
1. ; Ats. : diverguoja. 2. 1+ x 2
; Ats. : .
1
x 1
4
+
5
0
dx dx
3. x + 1; Ats. : diverguoja . 4. x

2
+ 4x + 9
; Ats. :
5
.

+ +

xe dx; xe
x 2
x
5. Ats. : 0,5. 6. dx; Ats. : 1.
0 0

+
x +1
0
dx
7. e x ln 2 x ; Ats. : 1. 8. x

2
+1
dx; Ats. : diverguoja.

+ +
dx
9. x cos 2 xdx;
0
Ats. : diverguoja . 10. x (1 + x );
2
Ats. : 1 ln 2.
1

12. Apibrtinio integralo taikymai


Plokios figros plotas
1. Kreivins trapecijos, apribotos funkcijos f(x)/0 grafiko, abscisi aies ir
tiesi x5a bei x5b , plotas skaiiuojamas pagal formul
Y
y5f(x)

S = f (x )dx .
a

X
O a b

2. . Kreivins trapecijos, apribotos funkcijos f(x)0 grafiko, abscisi aies ir


tiesi x5a bei x5b , plotas skaiiuojamas pagal formul

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Y
a b
X b
S = f (x )dx
O
a

y5f(x)

3. Jei figra, ribojama kreivs f(x), abscisi aies ir tiesi x5a bei x5b, yra
abiejose pusse abscisi aies, tai
Y

c b c b

a O
X S = f ( x )dx + f ( x )dx.
a c

4. Jei figr riboja dviej funkcij y5f(x) ir y5g(x) grafikai, tai jos plotas lygus
Y y5f(x)
b
S= ( f ( x) g ( x))dx.
a

X
O a b
y5g(x)

Pavyzdiai
Apskaiiuoti figros, apribotos kreivi y5x2, x51, x52, y50, plot.
Sprendimas

2
x 3 2 2 3 13 7 1
y5x2 S = x 2 dx = = = =2 .
1
3 1 3 3 3 3

1 2

2. Apskaiiuokite figros, apribotos kreivi y56x-x2-7 ir y5x-3, plot.

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Sprendimas
Pirmiausia randame t kreivi
y56x-x2-7
susikirtimo tak abscises.Tuo tikslu
y5x-3 sprendiame lygt 6x-x2-75 x-3; i ia
gauname x151, x254. Tada

S = (6 x x 2 7 x + 3)dx =
4
1
2
1

5 4
(5x x 4 )dx = x 2
4
x3
2
4 x =
1 2 3 1
64 5 1
= 40 16 + + 4 = 4,5.
3 2 3

Pratimai
Rasti figr, apribot linijomis, plotus:
1. 2x+3y59, y50, x5-1, x54; Ats.:10.
2. y-3x5-1,y50, x52, x54; Ats.:16.
3. 4x+5y=20, x=0, y=0; Ats.:10.
2
4. y=x2+1, y=0, x=0, x=2; Ats.: 4 .
3
5. y=3x2+3, y=0, x=-2, x=1; Ats/:18.
6. y=-x2+9, y=0; Ats.:36.
1 1
7. y = x 2 + 3, y = 0, x = 2, x = 3; Ats. : 11 .
3 9
2
8. y=-x2+6x-5, y=0, x=2, x=3; Ats.: 3 .
3
9. y=-x2+8x+4, y=0; Ats.:120.
10. y=-x2+5x-4, y=0; Ats.:4,5/
11. y=-x2+6, x+y=4; Ats.:4,5.
7
12. y=x2, x-2y=-6; Ats.: 7 .
48
4
13. y= , y=7-3x; Ats.:0,5.
x2
14. y=x2, y=2x-x2; Ats.:1/3.
15. y=x2-2x+2, y=2+4x-x2; Ats.:9.

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2
16.y=x2-2x+2, 2x+y=6; Ats.:10 .
3
17
17. y=2x2-4x+3, x+2y=6; Ats.:1 .
64
32
18. y=4-x2, y=0; Ats.: .
3
19. xy=4,x=1,x=4,y=0; Ats.:8ln2.
20. y=lnx, x=e, y=0; Ats.:1.

Sukinio tris
1. Jei kreivin trapecija, apribota kreivs y5f(x) ir tiesi y50, x5a, x5b,
sukama apie a OX, tai gauto sukinio tris lygus
Y

O
X V X = y 2 dx
a

2. Jei kreivin trapecija, apribota kreivs x5f(y) ir tiesi x50, y5a, y5b,
sukama apie a OY, tai gauto sukinio tris lygus
Y

VY = x 2 dy
a

X
O
3. Jei kreivin trapecija, apribota kreivs y5f(x) ir tiesi y50, x5a, x5b,
sukama apie a OY, tai gauto sukinio tris lygus
Y

VY = 2 xydx
X a

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4. Jei figra, apribota kreivi y5f(x) ir y5g(x) (f(x)/g(x)) ir x50, y5a, y5b,
sukama apie a OX, tai gauto sukinio tris lygus

V X = ( f 2 ( x ) g 2 ( x ))dx .
b

Pavyzdiai
1. Figra, apribota kreivi y5x2, x52, y50 sukama apie OX a.
Apskaiiuokite gautojo sukinio tr.

y5x2
V X = y 2 dx = (x 2 ) dx =
b 2
2 x 5 2 32
= .
a 0
5 0 5

2. Figra, apribota kreivi y5x2, y54, x50 sukama apie OY a.


Apskaiiuokite gautojo sukinio tr.

b
4
VY = x 2 dy = jei y = x 2 , tai x = y ir a = 0, b = 4 =
a
4
y2 4
= ydy = = 8 .
0
2 0
-2 2

Pratimai
Apskaiiuokite trius sukini, kurie gaunami duot kreivi apribotas figras
sukant apie OX a:
1. y252x, x53, y50; Ats.:9p.
2. y256x, x50, x55, y50; Ats.:75p.
4. y5 x , x51,x54, y50; Ats.:7,5p.
5. y53x, y50, x52; Ats.:24p.

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16
6. y52x-x2, y50; Ats.: p.
15
16
7. y5x3, y50, x52; Ats.: p.
3
8. xy54, x51, x54, y50; Ats.:12p.
5
9. y5x3, y= x ; Ats.: p.
14
8
10. y=(x-1)2, y=1; Ats.: p.
5

11 y= 4 x 2 , x-y+2=0, y=0; Ats.:8p.


1
12. y=x, y= , x=3; Ats.:8p.
x
x2 x3 4
13. y= , y= , Ats.: p.
4 8 35
2 2
14. y=sinx, y= x, 0 x ; Ats.: .
2 12
( 2)
15. y=sinx, y=cosx, y=0, 0 x ; Ats.: .
2 4
Apskaiiuokite trius sukini, kurie gaunami duot kreivi apribotas figras
sukant apie OY a:
8
16. y=2x-x2, y=0; Ats.: p.
3
512
17. y=x x , x=4, y=0; Ats.: p.
7
18. y=x3, x=0, y=8; Ats.:19,2p.
64
19. x2-y2=4, y=-2, y=2; Ats.: p.
3
3
20. y=lnx, x=2, y=0; Ats.: 2 2 ln 2 .
4

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