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TRNG HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG

KHOA VIN THNG

BO CO TIU LUN
MN CC MNG THNG TIN V TUYN
ti:

K THUT MIMO

GVHD: Phm Minh Quang

Nhm thc hin: 13

on Vn Nguyn
Trn Thin Ngc Lam
Lng Vn Tun

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TP H Ch Minh-Thng 5/2017
MC LC

I. GII THIU TNG QUAN V MIMO


1.1 Khi nim . ................................................................ 2
1.2 Lch s pht trin ....................................................... 2
1.3 Cc dng cu hnh anten thu-pht. ............................ 3
1.4 u im, Nhc im. .............................................. 5
II. K THUT PHN TP
2.1 Khi nim .................................................................. 6
2.2.1.1 Phn loi ........................................................... 6
III. LI TRONG H THNG MIMO
3.1 li Beamforming.................................................. 9
3.2 li ghp knh khng gian. .................................... 9
3.3 li phn tp. .......................................................... 10
IV. NG DNG
4.1 K thut MIMO-OFDM ng dng trong h thng thng tin khng
dy.................................................................................... 10
4.1.1 H thng MIMO-OFDM ...................... 10
4.1.2 H thng MIMO-OFDM Alamouti ....... 11
4.1.3 H thng MIMO-OFDM V_BLAST..... 11
4.1.4 H thng MIMO-OFDM V_BLAST..... 12
4.2 MIMO trong LTE ................................................... 12
4.2.1 SU-MIMO trong LTE ............................. 13
4.2.2 MIMO a ngi dng- MU MIMO ....... 15
V. KT LUN
VI. TI LIU THAM KHO

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I. GII THIU TNG QUAN V MIMO

1.1 Khi nim

- MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output)

- MIMO l k thut s dng ng thi nhiu anten my pht v my thu


truyn v nhn d liu

- MIMO l mt trong cc h thng thng tin khng dy

1.2. Lch s pht trin

Cc h thng thng tin khng dy lun c nghin cu nhm ci thin cht


lng cng nh chng li hin tng a ng. i vi cc h thng thng tin,
cht lng tn hiu c th ci thin bng cch tng cng sut, tng dung lng
truyn khi tng bng thng. Tuy nhin cng sut cng ch c th tng n mt
mc gii hn no v khi cng sut tng th c th gy nhiu cho cc h thng
thng tin xung quanh v vic phn b . V th c th tng nng sut v cht
lng ngi ta trong cy vo cc k thut truyn pht v x l tn hiu.

H thng MIMO c th tng dung lng knh truyn, s dng bng thng
hiu qu nh ghp knh khng gian, ci thin cht lng h thng ng k nh
vo phn tp ti pha pht v pha thu m khng cn tng cng sut pht cng
nh bng thng ca h thng.

Nm 1984, Jack Winters thuc phng th nghim Bell xin cp bng sang
ch v vic s dng a anten trong h thng v tuyn. Nm 1985 ng nghip
ca Jack Winters l Jack Salz xut bn cng trnh v MIMO da trn nhng
nghin cu ca Jack Winters. T nm 1986 n 1995 c nhiu bi bo v
MIMO c a ra. Nm 1996, trong khi ang lm vic ti trng i hc
Stanford, Greg Raleigh v VK jones khm ph ra hin tng phn x a
ng do h thng v tuyn va chm vi cc vt to ra nhiu knh truyn o
ring l trong h thng MIMO. T Greg Raleigh vit bi bo ch ra rng
hin tng a ng l yu t gip tng dung lng knh truyn. Cng trong

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nm 1996 G.J.Foschini thuc phng th nghim Bell a ra kin trc D-
BLAST (Diagonal-Bell Laboratories Layered Space-Time) cho truyn dn v
tuyn s dng cng ngh MIMO. Nm 1998, P.W.Wolniansky v cc ng
nghip thuc phng th nghim Bell a ra k thut V-BLAST (VerticalBell
Laboratories Layered Space-Time) vi hiu sut s dng ph ln u tin
khong 20-40 bps/Hz. Siavash M.Alamouti cng a ra s phn tp pht
n gin s dng 2 anten pht v 1 anten thu, s ny cng a ra phng
php p dng cho M anten thu c li 2M. Nm 2003, Airgo tung ra
chip MIMO u tin. Nm 2004, IEEE lp nhm TGn nghin cu chun
802.11n da trn h thng MIMO kt hp k thut OFDM. Nm 2006, TGn
a ra bn nhp u tin ca 802.11n tho lun v sa cha.

1.3 Cc dng cu hnh anten thu-pht.

Cc m hnh h thng thng tin khng dy c th c phn loi thnh 4 h


thng c bn gm:

SISO (Single Input Single Output)

SIMO (Single Input Multiple Output)

MISO (Multiple Input Single Output)

MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output)

1.3.1 H thng SISO

Hnh 1. 1. H thng SISO

H thng SISO l h thng thng tin khng dy truyn thng ch s dng


mt anten pht v mt anten thu. My pht v my thu ch c mt b cao tn v
mt b iu ch, gii iu ch. H thng SISO thng dng trong pht thanh v

[4]
pht hnh, v cc k thut truyn dn v tuyn c nhn nh Wi-Fi hay
Bluetooth. Dung lng h thng ph thuc vo t s tn hiu trn nhiu c
xc nh theo cng thc Shanon:

C log2 (1 SNR) bit/ s/ Hz

1.3.2 H thng MISO

Hnh 1.2. H thng MISO

H thng s dng nhiu anten pht v mt anten thu c gi l h thng


MISO. H thng ny c th cung cp phn tp pht thng qua k thut Alamouti t
ci thin lng tn hiu hoc s dng Beamforming tng hiu sut pht v
vng bao ph. Khi my pht bit c thng ti knh truyn, dung lng h thng
tng theo hm logarit ca s anten pht v c th c xc nh gn ng theo
cng thc:

C log2 (1 N.SNR) bit/ s/ Hz

1.3.3 H thng SIMO

Hnh 1.3 H thng SIMO

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H thng s dng mt anten pht v nhiu anten thu c gi l h thng
SIMO. Trong h thng ny my thu c th la chn hoc kt hp tn hiu t cc
anten thu nhm ti a t s tn hiu trn nhiu thng qua cc gii thut
beamforming hoc MMRC (Maximal- Ratio Receive Combining). Khi my thu
bit thng tin knh truyn, dung lng h thng tng theo hm logarit ca s anten
thu, c tnh theo cng thc:

C log2 (1 M.SNR) bit/ s/ Hz

1.3.4 H thng MIMO

Hnh 1.4 H thng MIMO

H thng MIMO l h thng s dng a anten c ni pht v ni thu. H


thng c th cung cp phn tp pht nh a anten pht, cung cp phn tp thu nh
vo a anten thu nhm tng cht lng h thng hoc thc hin Beamforming ti
ni pht v ni thu tng hiu sut s dng cng sut, trit can nhiu. Ngoi ra
dung lng h thng c th ci thin ng k nh vo li ghp knh cung cp
bi k thut m ho khng gian - thi gian V-BLAST. Khi thng tin knh truyn
c bit ti c ni pht v thu, h thng c th cung cp li phn tp cc cao
v li ghp knh cc i, dung lng h thng trong trng hp phn tp cc
i c th xc nh theo cng thc:

C log2 (1 M. N.SNR) bit/ s/ Hz

1.4 u im, Nhc im

u im:

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- C hiu sut s dng ph tn cao p ng c nhu cu v dung lng
- Khc phc c nhc im ca truyn a ng tng dung lng v
cht lng truyn dn.
- Trong cc h thng MIMO, phainh ngu nhin v tri tr c th c s
dng tng thng lng.
- Cc h thng MIMO cho php tng dung lng m khng cn tng bng
thng v cng sut.

Nhc im:

- HT MIMO cha nhiu anten dn n: tng phc tp, th tch, gi


thnh phn cng so vi SISO.

- V iu kin knh ph thuc vo mi trng v tuyn nn khng phi


bao gi h thng MIMO cng c li.

- Khi tn ti ng truyn thng (LOS), cng trng LOS cao hn ti


my thu s dn n hiu nng cng nh dung lng ca h thng SISO
tt hn, trong khi dung lng ca h thng MIMO li gim. L do v
cc ng gp mnh ca LOS dn n tng quan gia cc anten mnh
hn v iu ny lm gim u im s dng h thng MIMO.

I. K THUT PHN TP

2.1 Khi nim

Phn tp: L k thut gip cho pha thu (MS,BTS) ci thin cht lng tn
hiu thu b suy gim do fading nh vic kt hp tn hiu thu a ng n t
cng mt ngun pht. Phn tp c thc hin ti c MS hoc BTS ty cng
ngh.

2.2 Phn loi

K thut phn tp:

- Phn tp tn s

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- Phn tp thi gian

- Phn tp khng gian

2.2.1 Phn tp thi gian.

Phn tp theo thi gian c th thu c qua m ha v xen knh. Sau y ta


s so snh hai trng hp: truyn k t lin tip v dng xen knh khi li knh
truyn rt nh.

Hnh 2.1 Phn tp thi gian

T hnh v ta thy rng: t m x2 b trit tiu bi Fading nu khng dng b


xen knh, nu dng b xen knh th mi t m ch mt mt k t v ta c th
phc hi li t 3 k t t b nh hng bi Fading. Phn tp thi gian c th t
c bng cch truyn d liu ging nhau qua nhng khe thi gian khc nhau,
ti ni thu cc tn hiu Fading khng tng quan vi nhau. Khong cch thi
gian yu cu t nht bng thi gian nht qun ca knh truyn hoc nghch o
ca tc Fading.

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1
= (2.1)
.

M iu khin li thng c s dng trong h thng truyn thng cung


cp li m (coding gain) so vi h thng khng m ha. Trong truyn thng
di ng, m iu khin li kt hp vi xen knh t c s phn tp thi
gian. Trong trng hp ny, cc phin bn ca tn hiu pht n ni thu di
dng d tha trong min thi gian. Khong thi gian lp li cc phin bn ca
tn hiu pht c quy nh bi thi gian xen knh thu c Fading c lp
ng vo b gii m. V tn thi gian cho b xen knh dn n tr hon vic
gii m, k thut ny thng hiu qu trong mi trng Fading nhanh, thi
gian nht qun ca knh truyn nh. i vi knh truyn Fading chm nu xen
knh qu nhiu th c th dn n tr hon ng k.

2.2.2 Phn tp tn s

Trong phn tp tn s, s dng cc thnh phn tn s khc nhau pht


cng mt thng tin. Cc tn s cn c phn chia m bo b nh hng
ca fading mt cch c lp. Khong cch gia cc tn s phi ln hn vi ln
bng thng nht qun m bo rng fading trn cc tn s khc nhau l
khng tng quan vi nhau. Trong truyn thng di ng, cc phin bn ca tn
hiu pht thng c cung cp cho ni thu dng d tha trong min tn s
cn c gi l tri ph, v d nh tri ph trc tip, iu ch a sng mang v
nhy tn. K thut tri ph rt hiu qu khi bng thng nht qun ca knh
truyn nh. Tuy nhin, khi bng thng nht qun ca knh truyn ln hn bng
thng tri ph, tri tr a ng s nh hn chu k ca tn hiu. Trong trng
hp ny, tri ph l khng hiu qu cung cp phn tp tn s. Phn tp tn s
gy ra s tn hao hiu sut bng thng ty thuc vo s d tha thng tin trong
cng bng tn s.

2.2.3 Phn tp khng gian

Phn tp khng gian cn gi l phn tp anten. Phn tp khng gian c s


dng ph bin trong truyn thng khng dy dng sng viba. Phn tp khng
gian s dng nhiu anten hoc chui array c sp xp trong khng gian ti
pha pht hoc pha thu. Cc anten c phn chia nhng khong cch ln,

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sao cho tn hiu khng tng quan vi nhau. Yu cu v khong cch gia cc
anten ty thuc vo cao ca anten, mi trng lan truyn v tn s lm vic.
Khong cch in hnh khong vi bc sng l cc tn hiu khng tng
quan vi nhau. Trong phn tp khng gian, cc phin bn ca tn hiu pht
c truyn n ni thu to nn s d tha trong min khng gian. Khng
ging nh phn tp thi gian v tn s, phn tp khng gian khng lm gim
hiu sut bng thng. c tnh ny rt quan trng trong truyn thng khng dy
tc cao trong tng lai.

II. LI TRONG H THNG MIMO

3.1 li Beamforming.

TX RX

Hnh 3. 1. K thut Beamforming

Beamforming gip h thng tp trung nng lng bc x theo hng mong


mun gip tng hiu qu cng sut, gim can nhiu v trnh c can nhiu ti
t cc hng khng mong mun, t gip ci thin cht lng knh truyn v
tng bao ph ca h thng. c th thc hin Beamforming, khong cch
gia cc anten trong h thng MIMO thng nh hn bc sng (thng thng
l ), Beamforming thng c thc hin trong mi trng t tn x .Khi mi
trng tn x mnh h thng MIMO c th cung cp li ghp knh khng
gian v li phn tp.

3.2 li ghp knh khng gian.

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TX RX

Hnh 3.2 Ghp knh khng gian

Tn dng cc knh truyn song song c c t a anten ti pha pht v


pha thu trong h thng MIMO, cc tn hiu s c pht c lp v ng thi
ra cc anten (hnh 2.3), nhm tng dung lng knh truyn m khng cn tng
cng sut pht hay tng bng thng h thng. Dung lng h thng s tng
tuyn tnh theo s cc knh truyn song song trong h thng. cc i li
ghp knh qua cc i dung lng knh truyn thut ton V-BLAST
(Vertical- Bell Laboratories Layered SpaceTime) c p dng.

3.3 li phn tp.

TX RX

Hnh 2. 4. Phn tp khng gian ci thin SNR

Trong truyn dn v tuyn, mc tn hiu lun thay i, b Fading lin tc theo


khng gian, thi gian v tn s, khin cho tn hiu ti ni thu khng n nh,
vic phn tp cung cp cho cc b thu cc bn sao tn hiu ging nhau qua cc
knh truyn Fading khc nhau (hinh 2.4), b thu c th la chn hay kt hp
hay kt hp cc bn sao tn hiu ny gim thiu tc sai bit BER, chng
Fading qua tng tin cy ca h thng. cc i li phn tp, gim
BER v chng li Fading, thut ton STBC (Space-Time Block Code) v STTC

[11]
(Space-Time Trellis Code) c p dng. Thc t, h thng c dung lng
cao, BER thp, chng c Fading, ta phi c s tng quan gia li phn
tp v li ghp knh trong vic thit k h thng.

III. NG DNG

4.1 K thut MIMO-OFDM ng dng trong h thng thng tin khng dy

4.1.1 H thng MIMO-OFDM

Cu trc my thu v pht ca h thng MIMOOFDM bao gm h


MIMO NT anten pht v NR anten thu.

4.1.2 H thng MIMO-OFDM Alamouti

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4.1.3 H thng MIMO-OFDM V_BLAST

Khi m ha STC trong trng hp ny ch l mt b S/P chia lung d liu


ln thnh NT lung d liu nh, sau NT lung ny c a vo NT b pht
OFDM.

4.1.4 H thng MIMO-OFDM V_BLAST

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4.2 MIMO trong LTE

Nh chng ta bit , t c cc yu cu v tc , cht lng dch v


trong LTE, chng ta phi s dng cng ngh MIMO. Phn ny tp trung vo
MIMO n ngi dng bao gm m hnh truyn dn SU MIMO, x l cc tn
hiu s ng xung. V trnh by MIMO a ngi dng trong LTE, nh MU
MIMO.

4.2.1 SU-MIMO trong LTE

M hnh truyn SU-MIMO tng qut cho trng hp truyn dn vng kn


c m t nh hnh v.

Hnh 2.1: M hnh truyn dn SU-MIMO tng qut

4.2.1.1 X l tn hiu s trong SU MIMO ng t eNodeB n u


cui di ng

4.2.1.1.1 Qu trnh x l tn hiu s pha pht.


Ghp knh khng gian vng kn vi L lp vi P anten pht (P L) c minh ha
trn hnh sau:

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Hnh 2.2 : X l tn hiu SU MIMO vng kn pha pht

4.2.1.2 Qu trnh x l tn hiu s pha thu

Nguyn l kh nhiu ln lt nh sau. Trc ht, my thu gii iu ch v


gii m mt trong s cc tn hiu c ghp khng gian. Sau s liu sau gii
m, nu gii m ng, c m ha li v cc tn hiu thu s tr s liu ny loi
b n. Sau tn hiu ghp khng gian th hai s c gii iu ch v gii m m
khng b nhiu ( t nht l trong trng hp l tng) bi tn hiu th nht v nu
c gii m ng, n c m ha li v c loi b khi cc tin hiu thu cn

[15]
li trc khi gii iu ch v gii m tn hiu th 3. Qu trnh ny c lp li
nhiu ln cho n khi tt c cc tn hiu ghp khng gian c gii iu ch v gii
m.

4.2.2 MIMO a ngi dng- MU MIMO

Hnh v trnh by m hnh MU-MIMO vi to bp da trn bng m cho


nhiu UE s dng cng ti nguyn thi gian, tn s. Trong cc phin bn u ca
4G, ch c 1 ch c s dng cho MU-MIMO l TM5 ( Transmission
Mode 5: Ch truyn dn s 5). Khi c lp cu hnh trong TM5, UE coi rng
truyn dn ng xung ca eNodeB c thc hin trn cng mt knh chia s
bng mt lung ( mt lp). i vi truyn dn 2 ca anten 2 lung s liu (L=2)
c pht ng thi n UE trn cng mt ti nguyn thi gian tn s vi 4 b tin
m ha c s dng theo bng m c cho trong bng 1 cho Rank-1 da vo
phn hi t UE.

V. KT LUN

Bo co ny trnh by mt cch tng quan v k thut MIMO. Cc k thut phn


tp s dng trong h thng MIMO cng nh cc li ca h thng. ng dng
ca MIMO vi h thng MIMO-OFDM hay l ng dng ca MIMO trong LTE.

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VI. TI LIU THAM KHO

1. TS. Phan Hng Phng, KS.Lm Chi Thng (2007), K thut phn tp
anten trong
ci thin dung lng h thng MIMO-OFDM, http://www.ebook.edu.vn .
2. I.E. Telatar (1999), Capacity of multiantenna Gaussianchannels, European
Transactions on
Telecommunications, vol.10, no.6, pp.585595, November/December.
3. Nguyen Tuan Duc, MIMO - MIMO OFDM Techniques: State of Art and
Future, PhD student, IRISA/Universite de Rennes.
4. Lun vn thc s K THUT MIMO-OFDM NG DNG TRONG H
THNG THNG TIN KHNG DY ca Phm Minh Trit.
5. Lun vn tt nghip ca Ng Vn Hn.
6. www.dientuvienthong.net
7. Din n vntelecom.org
8. V t mt s ngun khc trn Internet.

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