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Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is appropriate method to analyse aerodynamic flow in wind turbine. This is why we choose this method to compare static torque characteristics of two vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT), one with straight blade and the other one with helical blade. Analyses are realized by use of Ansys CFX software. At first, three-dimensional (3D) simulations of straight blade turbine with different meshes are carried out. To determine how much mesh parameters affect the accuracy of result and computational time. Then we perform 3D simulations of helical blade turbine and compare its results with straight blade one.

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Wind Turbines

**Michal Petružela, Vojtěch Blažek
**

Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava

Ostrava, Czech Republic

michal.petruzela@vsb.cz, vojtech.blazek@vsb.cz

**Abstract—Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is turbine, Gorlov turbine had blades twisted in angle of 180
**

appropriate method to analyse aerodynamic flow in wind degrees because it had only 2 blades. Angle of twist is given by

turbine. This is why we choose this method to compare static dividing the full angle by number of blades. It is also called

torque characteristics of two vertical axis wind turbines Gorlov helical turbine. This blade curvature has the effect of

(VAWT), one with straight blade and the other one with helical evenly distributing the airfoil surface over rotation cycle. So

blade. Analyses are realized by use of Ansys CFX software. At there are no abrupt changes of lift and drag forces and therefore

first, three-dimensional (3D) simulations of straight blade turbine smoother torque curve and less vibrations and noise. Thanks to

with different meshes are carried out. To determine how much increasing computing power there is growing number of three-

mesh parameters affect the accuracy of result and computational

dimensional (3D) simulations. Kacor et al.[9][10] used

time. Then we perform 3D simulations of helical blade turbine

and compare its results with straight blade one.

computational fluid dynamic (CFD) to analyse VAWT and

compare results with speed characteristic provided by

Keywords—Computational fluid dynamic (CFD); vertical axis manufacturer and then modified its construction to achieve

wind turbine; Darrius turbine; Gorlov turbine; straight blade; better results. Howell et al. [11] compared two-dimensional

helical blade; static torque (2D) and 3D simulations with manufactured model and

conclusion was the 3D simulations show to be in reasonably

good agreement with wind tunnel measurements and 2D

I. INTRODUCTION

simulations show greater performance because it does not

Due to continuously growing emphasis on renewable count with tip vortices. The aim of this paper is compare static

energy sources, there is also increased focus on research on this torque characteristics of Darrieus and Gorlov turbine in 3D

sources, among which belongs wind power. Wind power is CFD simulations. In simulations we use – turbulence

attractive due its low maintenance cost. Currently most model, its strength is given by the reduced calculation times

widespread type of wind turbine is one with horizontal axis of required to perform a simulation with good levels of

rotation (HAWT). The output power from HAWT varies in convergence [12].

wide range from 1 kW to units of MW. Although the type of

construction of these kinds of wind power plants is various

II. THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF STRAIGHT BLADE TURBINE

there can be found several factors that are common for proper

functionality of HAWT [1, 2]. Typical is higher wind velocity At first we describe characteristic dimensions of analysed

for optimal operation of HAWT with that is related necessity of Darrieus turbine, then we briefly mention boundary settings.

the equipment for adjusting turbine blades against direction of The solid geometry was created with AutoCAD and imported

wind. Accordingly to [3, 4] HAWT have low efficiency for low into ANSYS® DesignModeler™, there we created volumes in

wind velocity so the wind power plant is not fully utilized. which will be mesh generated. Modelled turbine with diameter

D = 1,5 m and height H = 2,2 m is composed of three

In the areas with lower wind velocities is more appropriate Wortmann FX 60-126 airfoils with chord length 0,4 m and a

to use vertical axis wind turbines. Generally vertical axis wind shaft of diameter Dshaft = 0,15 m. We created three

turbine (VAWT) have lower power output in ranges from computational domains, the reason was to achieve sufficiently

hundreds of W to units of kW, some experimental turbines dense mesh only in areas close to rotor blades so we don’t

have bigger output power, and for example Sandia 34-M rated waste computing power. Largest domain (DOk) have square

at 500 kW [5] or Éole Cap-Chat rated at 4 MW [6]. Main plane with side L_DOk = 15 m one of its face is set as inlet

advantage of VAWT is its independence of wind direction and with air velocity 10 m/s. Velocity is uniformly distributed and

operation at low wind velocities. In 1931 Darrieus [7] revealed directed along the x-axis. Remaining outer faces are set as

his concept of VAWT what is area of research to this day. One opening with direction and relative pressure 0 Pa. Second

example is Gorlov [8] and his patent of improved Darrieus domain (BOk) also have square plane with side L_Bok = 2,5 m

This paper is supported by the following projects: LO1404: Sustainable

development of ENET Centre; CZ.1.05/2.1.00/19.0389 Development of the

ENET centre research infrastructure; SP2017/159 Students Grant Competition

and TACR TH01020426, Czech Republic.

978-1-5090-6406-9/17/$31.00 ©2017 IEEE

5. Mesh 3 Mesh is composed of elements with various size. We can conclude that method creates mesh on the source face and then copy it to the the Mesh1 is insufficient and Mesh 2 is applicable only for target face. 2 see fig. Front and back faces of BOk and Name Body Nodes Elements Computational ROk are set to opening. Definition of angle of rotation III. PARAMETERS OF ROK MESH AND ITS EFFECT ON NUMBER OF ELEMENTS AND COMPUTATIONAL TIME DOk and last domain (ROk) that have circle plane with diameter of DROk = 1. for this reason we will use its simulation growth ratio 1. 3. topology of the body [13]. this creates 5 layers with have to use Mesh 3. This dense mesh is. 4. 1. Assuming that the more given in table 1. 2.7 m. for DOk is set to 0.05 m and in ROK we have three different settings are rotation are torques quite different. On top of that we use inflation We need torque values at different angles of rotation so we method on turbine wall blades.010 1520726 1460760 ~3 Fig. Size vary by domains. 4 and 5 we see that at certain angles of to 0. Mesh 1 Fig. . MESH CONFIGURATIONS Fig. in BOk By looking at fig. It then generates either hexahedral or wedge cases where we want average torque.015 659175 633600 1. because discrepancy of elements connecting the two faces and following the exterior average values between Mesh 3 and Mesh 2 is equal to 5 %.its purpose is to avoid big difference in mesh element sizes of TABLE I.2 m. (m) Mesh1 0. results in further comparison. Mesh 2 Fig. 2.175 Mesh3 0. the more accurate results. turbine blades walls have no slip sizing time boundary condition. Mesh is created with sweep method. 3. Turbine and computational domains Plan Fig. this elements are predominantly hexahedrons and a few are wedges.025 281625 268050 Mesh2 0.

8. Darrieus turbine . Because of more complex turbine shape we couldn’t use sweep method on ROk.Fig. Static torque characteristics of straight blade turbine for three different meshes IV. we used automatic method set Fig. Darrieus turbine. 9 shows static torque characteristics of both compared to patch conforming with body sizing set to 0. Fig. Fig. Static torque characteristics of Darrieus turbine and Gorlov turbine. this Gorlov turbine which is smoother torque curve compared to increased computational time approximately threefold. instead. 7. 6. 9. Another conclusion is the Gorlov turbine should not have problem to start up from any position because torque doesn’t drop to values close to zero what is case of Darrieus turbine. Resulting turbines and we can see previously mentioned advantage of mesh in ROk has 669 000 nodes and 3 411 000 elements. 8. Gorlov turbine fig. THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF HELICAL BLADE TURBINE Twist angle of each blade is 120° so the end of one blade is just right above the starting point of next one as we can see at Fig.025 m.

Sutherland. Modification of construction design of vertical axis wind turbine Annals of DAAAM and Proceedings of the International DAAAM Symposium. pp.0. Acta We performed analysis of two vertical axis wind turbines. (Ed. E. Messineo. Tumino. Release 15. McGowan. 3013- theory. Orlando. and T. Direct driven generator for vertical axis wind turbines. 8 December 1931. Gorlov. ISBN 2-553. A. Energies 2015. 19 turbine and also that the torque is distributed more evenly over September 1995. A. Wind energy explained: analysis of a vertical axis wind turbine. From comparison we found out the average [7] G. ISBN 978-91-554-7264-1. "A retrospective of effect on computational time. Katalinic. New York. 2009. We January 2012. Kacor.S. Vienna. S.4x increase of mesh VAWT technology. Firstly we did simulations of 2008.9 Nm that is about 38 % greater than the one of Darrieus [8] M. and L. Turbine having its rotating shaft transverse to the flow of the current. 3033. D. ISBN 978-0-470. elements caused 3x increase of computational time. 3D CFD [2] J.00931-3. Manwell. Uppsala. Esposito. 2002.). J. Wind turbine design with emphasis on Darrieus concept.8 Nm and of Gorlov turbine is 3. pp. 8. B. Patel. [12] A. design and application. A. Richards. 723-724. Qin. San Francisoco. [1] M. Misak. Kacor. ISSN 1726-9679. Universitatis Upsaliensis. torque of Darrieus turbine is 2. Optimization and redesign of vertical problem to start up and will have higher number of operational axis wind turbine for generator of independent source of energy. Prokop. Misak. V. Future research lies in carrying out steady and transient ISBN 978-3-901509-73-5. ANSYS Inc. 20-23rd October 2010. of DAAAM for 2010 & Proceedings of the 21st International DAAAM Symposium. Wind tunnel and numerical study of a small vertical axis wind turbine. “Initial operation of project EOLE 4MW vertical axis wind most dense mesh and then compared it with Gorlov turbine turibne generator. Published simulations for rotating turbine. 2011. Eriksson. selected most appropriate results which are simulations with [6] B. this means Gorlov turbine will not have [9] P. Darrieus turbine with different mesh settings for finding out its [5] H. November 2013. . [13] ANSYS meshing user’s guide. October 1987. Patent 1835018. Edwards. Berg. L. Renew.S. D. J. Wind and solar power systems.: Canonsburg. Ashwill. Alaimo. New York. in our case 5. John Wiley & Sons. Specialized meshing. D. CRC Press. 412–422. SAND2012-0304. by DAAAM International Vienna. Energy 2010. 1999. PA. 1605-7. Paraschivoiu. Durrani. Croatia. N.” Windpower ’87. Rogers. 1053-1054. Patent 5451137. Howell. U. [10] P. [3] I." Sandia National Laboratories. 35. pp. New York. N. and A. Darrieus and Gorlov turbine. S. REFERENCES [11] R. Prokop. Unidirectional helical reaction turbine operable under reversible fluid flow for power systems U. 1500-1. ISBN 0-8493. whole rotation. pp. Darrieus. CONCLUSION [4] S. C. 2010. simulation results. Zadar. J. R. Annals hours. John Wiley & Sons. Sweden.

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