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TEORIA GENERAL

DEL ACTO JURIDICO


QUINTA EDICION ACTUALIZADA

E. DI T O RIAL
S`[tMu
DE CHILE
9 .-i LL4bB
ISH 956.10.1488-2

Con singular maestra, rigor cientfico y lucidez el profesor


Vctor Vial aborda en esta obra ya en su quinta edicin
actualizada y aumentada una materia de importancia
fundamental para la ciencia del Derecho y para la formacion
jurdica de los abogados.
A travs de los aos y por numerosas razones, esta obra
ha tenido una notable acogida entre profesores y estudiantes.
Entre ellas, cabe destacar particularmente la objetividad de
los planteamientos del autor expuesta en los diversos cap-
tulos, como asimismo la abundante y renovada bibliografa
de que da cuenta, la que, sin duda, ofrece al lector un
importante y enriquecedor apoyo.
La voluntad, el obleto, la causa, los efectos, la neicacia
y las modalidades de los actos jurdicos son temas clsicos
desarrollados desde una perspectiva original.
Una obra de extraordinaria utilidad e importancia para la
formacin de los estudiantes de derecho, y texto de consulta
de profesores, abogados y jueces.

5
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EDITORIAL
1
!UR1DICA
DE CHILE
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Profesor de Derecho Civil
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Catlica (le Chile y A ndrs Belio

TEORIA GENERAL
DEL ACTO JURIDICO
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PA1Lo RODRGUEZ GREz


CAPITULO 1
LA TEORIA DEL ACTO JURIDICO

1. GENERALIDADES

1. CONCEPTOS GENERALES
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44
TEORIA GENERAL DEI. ACTOjURIDIC()

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4. Los HECHOS JURDICOS. CONCEPTOS GENERALES


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91"IsGzOLOjGjOT"JK"RUY"N"KINUY"P[XO,OIUY
A ) Hechos jurdicos naturales y hechos jurdicos voluntaos
Rvz"oljovz"q}ykpjvz"uh{}yhslz"jvuzpz{lu"lu"}u"hjvu{ljptplu{v
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47
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sh"jvujlwjpu/"ls"uhjptplu{v""sh"t}ly{l1
Yhu{vyv"Vhzzhylssp"kpjl"x}l"ls"jyp{lypv"kl"kpz{pujpu"lu{yl"svz
oljovz"kl"sh"uh{}yhslh""svz"hj{vz"o}thuvz"klil"%jlu{yhyzl"lu
sh"{yhzjluklujph"kl"sh"~vs}u{hk"o}thuh"kls"oljov%1"`"hnylnh
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iyl/"zlh"v"uv"~vs}u{hypv%1%*
B) Hechos jurdicos positivos y hechos jurdicos negativos
Rvz"lmlj{vz"q}ykpjvz"w}lklu"wyvk}jpyzl"jvtv"jvuzlj}lujph"kl
x}l"vj}yyh"hsnv"}u"hjvu{ljptplu{v"kl"sh"uh{}yhslh"v"}u"hj{v
o}thuv"v"jvyuv"jvuzlj}lujph"kl"x}l"uv"vj}yyh"hsnv1"Ku"ls
Vyps}ly"jhzv"zl"ohish"+sl"oljovz"q}ykpjvz"wvzp{p~vz/""kl"oljovz
q}ykpjvz"ulnh{p~vz"lu"ls"zln}ukv1

Saiioro Passarelli, op. cit., pg. 115.

48
ZKUXOG"MKTKXGR"JKR"GIZU"P[XOJO+,

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~hh"}upkv"}u"oljov"wvzp{p~v?"ls"{yhuzj}yzv"kls"{pltwv1

C) Hechos jurdicos constitutivos, hechos jurdicos extintivos


y hechos jurdicos impeditivos
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kh"uhjptplu{v"h"}u"jvu{yh{v/"x}l"lz"m}lu{l"kl"klyljovz"z}iql0
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ylshjpu"q}ykpjh1"Vvy"lqltwsv/"ls"whnv"kl"}uh"vispnhjpuA"sh"yl0
~vjhjpu"kl"}u"wvkly1
Nljovz"q}ykpjvz"ptwlkp{p~vz"zvu"hx}lssvz"x}l"viz{hu"h"sh
lmpjhjph"kl"svz"oljovz"q}ykpjvz"jvuz{p{}{p~vz1%0%"Y}"lpz{lujph
ptwpkl"x}l"ls"oljov"jvuz{p{}{p~v"wyvk}jh"z}z"lmlj{vz"v"ptwpkl
x}l"kpjovz"lmlj{vz"zl"wyvk}jhu"lu"mvyth"lz{hisl1"Vvy"lqltwsv/
sh"lpz{lujph"kl"}u"~pjpv"kl"u}spkhk/"1"ny1/"sh"pujhwhjpkhk"kl"}uh
kl"shz"why{lz"v"ls"viql{v"psjp{v1

X1"N1"Hyliiph/"vw1"jp{1/"wn1"4;1
8"
Ook1/"wn1"761
R}pnp"Ihyp}{h"Llyyhyh?"El negocio jurdico, Shkypk/"Gn}khy/"47"lkpjpu/"hv
4>89/"wn1":1

49
lA 1'F.()RIA 1)iL. AGI)FURI1)I(X)

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~v/"l{pu{p~v"v"ptwlkp{p~v"klil/"wvy"ylnsh"nlulyhs/"wyvihy"ls
oljov"ylzwlj{p~v1
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ihy"sh"lpz{lujph"kls"oljov"jvuz{p{}{p~v"kl"kvukl"lthuh"z}
klyljov1"Govyh"iplu/"zp"ls"kl}kvy"klthukhkv"zl"klmplukl"hsl0
nhukv"x}l"z}"vispnhjpu"zl"l{pun}p"wvy"hsn}uv"kl"svz"tvkvz
kl"l{pun}py"shz"vispnhjpvulz/"klily"wyvihy"sh"vj}yylujph"kls
oljov"l{pu{p~v1"Rv"tpztv"zp"hslnhyl"sh"pulmpjhjph"kl"sh"ylshjpu
q}ykpjh"wvy"lpz{py"}u"~pjpv"kl"u}spkhk/"klily"wyvihy"sh"lpz0
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7. CONSECUENCIAS DE LOS HECHOS JURDICOS

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tplu{v"jvywvyhs1"Ku"zlu{pkv"wyvwpv"zl"lu{plukl"jvtv"hj{v"zsv"ls"tv~ptplu{v
jvywvyhs"x}lypkv/"ls"ohjly1"Ypu"ltihynv/"sh"jplujph"kls"klyljov"zl"~pv"vispnhkh
ohjl"{pltwv"h"htwsphy"ls"jvujlw{v"kl"hj{v/"jvtwylukplukv"{htipu"shz"vtpzpv0
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{pkv"lz{ypj{v"v"puhj{p~h"+ulnh{p~h,"vtpzpu1%"Gnylnh"x}l"%h"wlzhy"kl"lz{h"hup0
wsphjpu"kls"jvujlw{v"kl"hj{v/"uv"zvu"slsvz?"4,"svz"wyvjlzvz"pu{lyuvz/"wvy"lqltwsv/
ls"wluzhy"lu"sh"kl{lytpuhjpu"x}l"oh"kl"hkvw{hyzl1" 5-"sh"jvuk}j{h"l{lyuh"x}l
zl"wyvk}jl"pujvuzjplu{ltlu{l"ls"lumlytv"hs{ppkkv"pppjihph"ls"j}jopssv"hs"pukp0
jv/""6,"sh"jvuk}j{h"uv"vypnpuhkh"wvy"}uh"klplp*ppppu}sh"~vs}u{hk/"zpuv"+vyhkh
wvy"~h"hizvs}{h1%"Ku"lz{l"tpztv"zlu{pkv/"Kuuljjjy}z/"Qp4w""]vsmm"zlhshu"x}l
*hj{v"lz"sh"ylhsphjpu"x}lypkh"v/"hs"tluvz/"wyl~pzpisl"+O{*"}u"p*lzpps{hkv"l{lyuh0%
+vw1"jp{1/"wn1";1,1
2'
L1"Yhu{vyv"Vhzzhylssp/"vw1"jp{1/"wn1"4471

55
lA IE( )RIA DEL JLt."/RUS[RMR.c/

G,"A tendiendo a que el acto puede o no conformarse con el derecho:


actos lcitos y actos ilcitos
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Rvz"psjp{vz/"lu"jhtipv/"zvu"hx}lssvz"x}l"jvu{yh~plulu"hs"klyljov1
Kz{h"jshzpmpjhjpu"kl"svz"hj{vz"o}thuvz"{plul"ptwvy{hujph/
w}lz"zsv"svz"sjp{vz"lz{u"wyv{lnpkvz"wvy"ls"klyljov""wyvk}jlu/
jvuzlj}lujphstlu{l/"svz"lmlj{vz"x}lypkvz"wvy"ls"h}{vy"v"wvy"shz
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wluhslz/"wyvk}jlu"jvuzlj}lujphz"jvu{yhyphz"h"svz"mpulz"wlyzln}p0
kvz"wvy"ls"h}{vy?"ls"vykluhtplu{v"q}ykpjv"ptwpkl"x}l"ls"hj{v
wyvk}jh"svz"lmlj{vz"x}l"wyl{lukh"+jvtv"vj}yyl/"wvy"lqltwsv/
lu"sh"opw{lzpz"kls"jvu{yh{v"u}sv,"v"jvuz{ypl"h"z}"h}{vy"h"ylwh0
yhy"sh"slzpu"jh}zhkh"h"U{yv/"jvtv"vj}yyl/"wvy"lqltwsv/"lu"sh
opw{lzpz"kl"sh"j}swh"hx}psphuh15i
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psjp{vz"kl"hsn}uh"kl"lz{hz"kvz"thulyhz?"ptwpkplukv"x}l"ls"hj{v
wyvk}jh"svz"lmlj{vz"x}lypkvz"wvy"ls"h}{vy"v"wvy"shz"why{lz"}"vy0
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kljshyhkh"q}kpjphstlu{l"sh"u}spkhk/"zl"ptwpkl"x}l"ls"jvu{yh{v
wyvk}jh"lmlj{vz1
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jp~ps1"Ks"vykluhtplu{v"q}ykpjv/"lu"lz{vz"jhzvz/"uv"w}lkl"ptwl0
kpy"x}l"zl"wyvk}jh"}u"khv"whyh"sh"~j{pth"kls"hj{v"psjp{vA"wlyv
ylhjjpvuh"vispnhukv"hs"x}l"jvtl{p"ls"khv"h"ylwhyhy"svz"wly0
q}pjpvz"jh}zhkvz1

U. Stolti, op. ciL, pg. 2.

56
ZKUXOG"MKTKXGR"JKR"GIZUP[XOO,OMU

B) A tendiendo a que los efectos del acto pueden o no surgir como


consecuencia inmediata y directa de la manifestacin de voluntad:
negocios jurdicos y actos jurdicas
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shz"why{lz"x}l"sv"lqlj}{hu"jvu"lzh"wyljpzh"pu{lujpu/"v"x}l"w}l0

%"R}pnp"Llyyp?" La autonoma xzili. Shkypk/"Kkp{vyphs"Xl~pz{h"kl"Jlyljov"Vyp0


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U1"Y{vsmp/"vw1"jp{1/"wn1"61

24
RG"ZKUXOG"b,KR1"GIZU"OOP"Xs"Jr_,

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41"IRGYOLOIGIOT"JK"RUY"NKINUY"P[XJOIUY1"I[GJXU"YOTVZOIU
A ) A tendiendo a si consisten en que ocurra un acontecimiento o en
que no ocurra un acontecimiento: hechos jurdicos positivos y
hechos jurdicos negativos
B) A tendiendo a si consisten en un acontecimiento de la naturaleza o
del hombre: hechos jurdicos naturales o propiamente tales y hechos
jurdicos del hombre o voluntarios
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41"Rjp{vz"v"psjp{vzA

58
TEORIA GENERAL DEL ACTO jtJR1 D1(X)

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{lyz{pjh"z}h%111

59
RG"Z4UXOG"JKR"GI"yv"wS[RMR.c/

]puzjolpk"sv"klmpul"jvtv"sh"kljshyhjpu"kl"~vs}u{hk"wyp~hkh
kpypnpkh"hs"uhjptplu{v/"l{pujpu"v"tvkpmpjhjpu"kl"klyljovz166
Ks"huspzpz"kl"sh"klmpupjpu"uvz"vispnh"h"kl{lulyuvz"lu"svz
zpn}plu{lz"hzwlj{vz?

A ) El acto jurdico es una manifestacin de voluntad


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B) La manifestacin de voluntad debe perseguir un propsito


especfico y determinado
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C) La manifestacin de voluntad produce los efectos queridos


por el autor o por las partes, porque el derecho la sanciona
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64
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I,"A tendiendo a la utilidad o beneficio que reporta el acto jurdico


para quienes lo ejecutan: actos jurdicos a ttulo gratuito y actos
jurdicos a ttulo oneroso
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D) A tendiendo a que el acto jurdico puede o no producir sus efectos


de inmediato y sin limitaciones: actos jurdicos puros y simples
y actos jurdicos sujetos a modalidad
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E) A tendiendo al contenido de los actos jurdicos: actos jurd kos
de familia y actos jurdicos patrimoniales
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F) A tendiendo a que el acto jurdico puede o no subsistir por s mismo:


actos jurdicos principales y actos jurdicos accesoria
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G) A tendiendo a que la ley, puede o no cxigirfonnalidades para su


celebracin: actos jurdicos solemnes y actos jurdicos no solemnes
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77
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N,"A tendiendo a que el acto puede o no encontrarse regulado por


la ley: actos jurdicos nominados y actos jurdicos innominados
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79
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thupmlz{hjpu"lwsjp{h"v"kpylj{h187

R}pz"Ishyv"Yvshy?"X I Derecho Civil, Santiago, Kkp{vyphs"Thzjptlu{v/"hv"4>74/

7:
TEORIA GENERAL DEI, ACTO JLJRIDI(X)

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7;
UJ"a`W-UJMSU[7U/RLJ

B) Manifestacin de voluntad tcita


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lwylzh1
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kvy"uv"ihz{h"sh"thupmlz{hjpu"{jp{h"kl"~vs}u{hkA"yjx}pypukv0

E. Ko!t, op. cit., pg. 100.

49
'F101uA GENERAl. DEI, ACTO JURIL)ICO

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83
wJ"aXw`W]JM"7`[RMfJ

zp{p~vz"x}l"klt}lz{yhu"pulx}~vjhtlu{l"sh"thupmlz{hjpu"kl"~v0
s}u{hk%1%
Ypu"ltihynv/"wvy"ljlwjpu"ls"zpslujpv"w}lkl"{luly"ls"~hsvy
kl"thupmlz{hjpu"kl"~vs}u{hk1"Kssv"vj}yyl"j}hukv"hz"sv"zlhsh
sh"sl/"sv"lz{hisljlu"shz"why{lz"v"sv"kpzwvul"ls"q}l1
A ) La ley puede atribuir al silencio el valor de manifestacin
de voluntad. Hay diversas disposiciones del Cdigo Civil que as
lo demuestran
Vvy"lqltwsv/"ls"hy{j}sv"4566"kls"Ikpnv"Ip~ps"lz{hisljl"x}l"ls
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z}"zpslujpv"zl"tpyhy"jvtv"hjlw{hjpu1

B) Las partes pueden atribuir al silencio el valor de manifestacin


de voluntad en un determinado sentido. Por ejemplo, en ciertos
contratos como la sociedad o el arrendamiento es frecuente que las
partes, junto con estipular el plazo de duracin del contrato,
agreguen que en el evento de que al vencimiento del plazo nada
se diga, deber entenderse renovado el contrato

C) El juez puede atribuir al silencio el valor de manifestacin


de voluntad en los casos no contemplados expresamente por la ley
o por las partes, cuando las circunstancias de hecho del caso
sometido a su conocimiento permiten formular una atribucin
en tal sentido. Tal es el llamado silencio circunstanciado
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61
G1"Rlu"N1/"Op. jp{1/"wn1"8>1
gG1"Rlu"N1/"vw1"jp{1/"wn1"951

84
lEORIA GENERAL DEL ACTO t) RIt)I(X)

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~vs}u{hk"lu"}u"kl{lytpuhkv"zlu{pkv196

22. REGLAMENTACIN APLICABLE AL SILENCIO

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27. LA AUTONOMA PRIVADA


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28. LIMITACIONES A LA AUTONOMA PRIVADA

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H. Maicauci, mt iR. op. ciL, pg. 130.


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E. Beni, op. cit., pg. 88.


H. Mazeaud, et al., op. cit., pgs. 128 y 129.

94
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A. Len H., op. cit., pg. 114.

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9>
lEORIA GENERAL DEL A( TOJURDI(:1)

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V}lz{h1

:4
T1'X)RIA GENFRAL DEL A(:ToJURu)( O

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:5
1A VOIUNI'M)IURIDICA

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6>1 SUSKTZU"KT"W[K"YK"LUXSG"KR"IUTYKTZOSOKTZU

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klz{hjhtvz"h"jvu{pu}hjpu?
A ) En lo que respecta a la capacidad de las partes
Rhz"why{lz"klilu"zly"jhwhjlz"hs"tvtlu{v"kl"jvu{yh{hy1
R) En lo que respecta al objeto del contrato
Ks"viql{v"klil"zly"sjp{v"hs"tvtlu{v"kl"jvu{yh{hy1

() En lo que respecta a las leyes que se aplicarn al contrato:


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Kmlj{v"Xl{yvhj{p~v"kl"shz"Rllz/"lu"{vkv"jvu{yh{v"zl"lu{pluklu
pujvywvyhkhz"shz"sllz"~pnlu{lz"hs"{pltwv"kl"z}"jlsliyhjpu1

E)) En lo que respecta a los efectos del contrato


Ks"jvu{yh{v"ltwplh"h"wyvk}jpy"z}z"lmlj{vz"klzkl"ls"tvtlu{v
lu"x}l"zl"wlymljjpvuh1

E) En lo que respecta a la retractacin del oferente


[uh"~l"mvythkv"ls"jvuzlu{ptplu{v/"ls"vmlylu{l"uv"w}lkl"yl0
{yhj{hyzl"~spkhtlu{l"lz{hukv"vispnhkv"h"j}twspy"ls"jvu{yh{v1

731 ZKUXGY"VGXG"JKZKXSOTGX"KR"SUSKTZU"KT"W[K"YK"LUXSG
Ks/"IUTYKTZOSOKTZU

Yl"ohu"mvyt}shkv"lu"kvj{ypuh"kp~lyzhz"{lvyhz"whyh"kl{lytpuhy
ls"tvtlu{v"lu"x}l"zl"mvyth"ls"jvuzlu{ptplu{v1"Rhz"tz"ptwvy0
{hu{lz"zvu"shz"zpn}plu{lz?

L. Claro S., &1J. cit., pig. 73.

:6
'rEc)lUA GENERAl, DEL A( 'lO JURIDI(X)

A ) Teora de la declaracin de voluntad o de la aprobacin


Ylnu"lz{h"{lvyh/"ls"jvuzlu{ptplu{v"zl"mvyth"lu"ls"tvtlu{v
lu"x}l"ls"klz{puh{hypv"hjlw{h"sh"vmly{h/"kh"sh"hjlw{hjpu/"h}u0
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kl"sh"vmly{h"zl"kljshyh"kl"j}hsx}plyh"thulyh%1*0*
B) Teora de la expedicin
Ks"jvuzlu{ptplu{v"zl"mvyth"lu"ls"tvtlu{v"lu"x}l"ls"klz{puh{h0
ypv"kl"sh"vmly{h"lu~h"sh"jvyylzwvuklujph"x}l"jvu{plul"z}"hjlw0
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kl"sh"hjlw{hjpu/"zpuv"x}l"lz"uljlzhypv"x}l"z{h"zlh"kpypnpkh"hs
vmlylu{l/"h}ux}l"uv"lz"uljlzhypv"x}l"z{l"sh"ohh

C) Teora de la recepcin
Ks"jvuzlu{ptplu{v"zl"mvyth"lu1"ls"tvtlu{v"lu"x}l"sh"hjlw{h0
jpu/"jvu{lupkh"lu"}uh"jhy{h"v"{lslnyhth/"sslnh"hs"kvtpjpspv"kls
vmlylu{l1
%Ku"ls"zpz{lth"kl"sh"yljlwjpu"zl"lpnl"x}l"ls"kvj}tlu{v
th{lyphs"x}l"jvu{plul"sh"hjlw{hjpu"ssln}l"h"wvkly"kls"wyvwv0
ulu{l/"lu{lukpukvzl"wlymljjpvuhkv"ls"jvu{yh{v"wvy"ls"oljov
kl"sslnhy"sh"hjlw{hjpu"h"z}"jhzh/"h}ux}l"ls"wyvwvulu{l"h}zlu0
{l"v"lumlytv"ohh"pnuvyhkv"x}l"oh"sslnhkv"sh"jhy{h"v"{lslnyhth
x}l"jvt}upjh"sh"hjlw{hjpu%1%%*

D) Teora del conocimiento o de la informacin


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46. EL KXXUX"KY"[T"\OIOU"JKR"IUTUIOSOKTZU
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47. CLASES JK"KXXUX


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Vhyh"svz"yvthuvz/"ls"sshthkv" error iuris v"lyyvy"kl"klyljov


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49. EL ERROR DE HECT-JO

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\1"Vpl{yvivu/" Uq,1"cit., pg. 638.

434
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jphjpu"kls"jhyj{ly"v"{ltwlyhtlu{v"kl"}uv"kl"svz"jvu{yhlu0

V. Pietrohon, op. cit., pg. 639.

435
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61. EFECTOS DEL ERROR EN LA PERSONA

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62. EL ERROR JS"QTX"ACTOS JURDICOS UNILATERALES

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hs"lyyvy"lu"hj{vz"q}ykpjvz"}upsh{lyhslz1"Vvy"lqltwsv/"ls"hy{j}0

V. Pietrnbon, op. cit., pg. 640.


V. Pietrobon, op. cit., pg. 65.

436
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jvuzlj}lujph"kl"z}"pnuvyhujph/"ls"hjlw{hu{l"zl"oh"ylwylzlu{hkv
mhszhtlu{l"sh"ylhspkhk1

SECCION SEGUNDA
LA FUERZA

63. CONCEPTOS GENERALES

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LA VOItINAt)L]Ril)1CA

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sh"jvsvjh"lu"}uh"wvzpjpu"x}l"lz{pth"klzmh~vyhisl"whyh"z}z"pu{l0
ylzlz/"wvy"sh"zvsh"jpyj}uz{hujph"kl"ohily"jvuzlu{pkv"lu"s"wvy"sh
ptwlypvzh"uljlzpkhk"kl"kpulyv1
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lssv"sh"~vs}u{hk"kl"jvu"{yh{hy%A:"uv"zl"jvhy{h"sh"spily{hk"kl"kl0
jpkpy"x}l"z}wvul"{vkh"thupmlz{hjpu"kl"~vs}u{hk"~spkh1

G- Hyp{lypv"viql{pv
[u"zlj{vy"kl"sh"kvj{ypuh"lz{pth"x}l"sh"slzpu"klil"hwyljphyzl
jvu"}u"jyp{lypv"lz{ypj{htlu{l"viql{p~v1"Kssv/"wvyx}l"sh"slzpu"uv
n}hykh"ylshjpu"hsn}uh"jvu"ls"jvuzlu{ptplu{v"kl"sh"~j{pth/"jvu
sh"tlu{hspkhk"kl"svz"jvu{yh{hu{lz"up"jvu"svz"mpulz"wvy"lssvz"wly0
zln}pkvzA"sh"slzpu"vwlyh/"spzh""sshuhtlu{l/"j}hukv"ls"jvu{yh{v
jvujs}pkv"wvy"shz"why{lz"yl~lsh"}uh"klzpn}hskhk"kl"shz"wylz{h0
jpvulz"x}l"z}wlyh"svz"tynlulz"wlytpzpislz/"zpu"x}l"zl"{vtlu
whyh"uhkh"lu"j}lu{h"shz"yhvulz"z}iql{p~hz"x}l"ohhu"wyvk}jp0
kv"kpjoh"klzpn}hskhk1
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jov"stp{l1
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spkhk"kls"jvu{yh{v"wvy"ls"~pjpv"kls"jvuzlu{ptplu{v"ylzwlj{p~vA
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wvy"slzpu/"whyh"sv"j}hs"sl"ihz{hy"jvu"kltvz{yhy"x}l"zl"wyvk}0
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svz"tynlulz"{vslyhkvz"wvy"sh"sl1
H- Hyp{lypv"tp{v
Nh"hsn}uvz"x}l"hwyljphu"sh"slzpu"jvu"}u"jyp{lypv"sshthkv"tp0
{v/"x}l"ylz}s{h"kl"sh"m}zpu"kl"svz"kvz"hu{lypvylz1

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mhs{h"kl"lx}p~hslujph"x}l"z}wlyl"svz"stp{lz"wlytp{pkvz"wvy"sh"sl1
Nhz{h"hx}/"jvtv"zl"w}lkl"~ly/"sh"{lyjlyh"pu{lywyl{hjpu"jvpujp0
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sh"~j{pth/"x}l"sh"oh"jvsvjhkv"lu"}uh"zp{}hjpu"klztlkyhkh"mylu0
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sh"slzpu"x}l"uv"zl"m}ukl"lu"sh"uljlzpkhk/"tpzlyph/"spnlylh"v
pulwlyplujph"kl"sh"~j{pth"uv"zlyh"ylwyvihisl/"wvy"t}"nyhu0
kl"x}l"lssh"zlh""h}ux}l"z}wlyl"jvu"jyljlz"svz"tynlulz"{vslyh0
kvz"wvy"sh"sl1

;;1"RG"RKYOT"KT"KR"IJOMU"IO\OR"INORKTU
Ks"hy{j}sv"4784"kls"Ikpnv"Ip~ps"uv"tlujpvuh"lu{yl"svz"~pjpvz
kls"jvuzlu{ptplu{v"h"sh"slzpu/"wlzl"h"x}l"ls"wyvlj{v"kl"4;86
sh"pujs}h"lwylzhtlu{l"jvtv"}uv"kl"lssvz1
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shjpu"uv"jvuz{p{}l"sh"slzpu"}uh"jh}zhs"nluypjh"kl"ylzjpzpu
kl"svz"jvu{yh{vz"vulyvzvz"jvut}{h{p~vz"x}l"l~pklujplu"}uh"klz0
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wh{yptvuphs"x}l"sh"sl"lz{pth"ljlzp~vA"kpj{hukv"whyh"{hslz"jh0
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svz/"x}l"jvuz{p{}lu"svz"jhzvz"kl"slzpu"x}l"jvu{ltwsh"ls"Ikp0
nv"Ip~ps?

A ) Lesin en el contrato de compraventa de bienes races


Ks"hy{j}sv"4;;;"lz{hisljl"x}l"ls"jvu{yh{v"kl"jvtwyh~lu{h"w}l0
kl"ylzjpukpyzl"wvy"slzpu"luvytlA"wyljpzhukv"ls"hy{j}sv"4;>4
x}l"uv"ohiy"s}nhy"h"sh"hjjpu"ylzjpzvyph"wvy"slzpu"luvytl"lu
sh"~lu{h"kl"iplulz"t}lislz/"up"lu"shz"x}l"zl"o}iplylu"oljov"wvy
ls"tpupz{lypv"kl"sh"q}z{pjph1
Ysv"jhil"sh"slzpu"lu"sh"jvtwyh~lu{h"~vs}u{hyph"kl"iplulz
yhjlz1
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j}hukv"ls"wyljpv"x}l"yljpil"lz"pumlypvy"h"sh"tp{hk"kls"q}z{v"wyl0
jpv"kl"sh"jvzh"x}l"~lukl""ls"jvtwyhkvy/"h"z}"~l/"z}myl"slzpu
luvytl"j}hukv"ls"q}z{v"wyljpv"kl"sh"jvzh"x}l"jvtwyh"lz"puml0
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Rh"sl"uv"wyl{lukl"x}l"shz"wylz{hjpvulz"kl"shz"why{lz"zlhu
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tptv"h"sh"mhs{h"kl"lx}p~hslujph"kl"shz"wylz{hjpvulz/"sv"x}l"ihqv
z{l"luj}hkyh"}u"htwspv"thynlu"klu{yv"kls"j}hs"ptwlyh"sh"h}0
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n}uh"h"mhj{vylz"z}iql{p~vz""h}u"j}hukv"sh"~j{pth"kl"sh"slzpu
sh"o}iplyl"jvuvjpkv""hjlw{hkv1
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klthukhy"sh"ylzjpzpu"kl"sh"jvtwyh~lu{h/"h}u"j}hukv"o}iplyl
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spiyl""lzwvu{ulhtlu{l1
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lyyvy/"m}lyh/"kvsv"v"ihqv"ls"hwyltpv"v"uljlzpkhk"kl"wyvj}yhyzl
kpulyv/""zpu"x}l"{htwvjv"uljlzp{l"kltvz{yhy"x}l"zl"lujvu{yh0

45:
O4_,NPG"MKTKXGR"4R1"G+"pu"P{PXOs,4+"U

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sh"x}l"klil"zly"kljshyhkh"wvy"ls"q}l/"zp"ls"klthukhu{l"wy}lih
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ipkv""ls"jvtwyhkvy"h"ylz{p{}py"ls"put}lisl1"Ypu"ltihynv/"sh"ylnsh
nlulyhs"x}l"ypnl"svz"lmlj{vz"kl"sh"u}spkhk"luj}lu{yh"lu"lz{h"th0
{lyph"}uh"jhspmpjhkh"ljlwjpu/"{vkh"~l"x}l"sh"why{l"lu"jvu{yh
kl"x}plu"zl"wyvu}ujph"sh"ylzjpzpu"jvtv"jvuzlj}lujph"kl"oh0
ily"hjvnpkv"ls"q}l"sh"klthukh"kl"sh"v{yh"why{l"x}l"z}myp"sh
slzpu/"w}lkl"l~p{hy"x}l"zl"wyvk}jhu"svz"lmlj{vz"kl"sh"u}spkhk
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jhzv"kl"x}l"ls"~luklkvy"ohh"z}mypkv"slzpu"wvyx}l"~lukp"lu
'"433"sv"x}l"{luh"}u"q}z{v"wyljpv"kl"'"633""ls"q}l"o}iplyh
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lptpyzl"kl"sh"vispnhjpu"kl"ylz{p{}py"ls"put}lisl"l"ptwlkpy"svz
lmlj{vz"kl"sh"u}spkhk"zp"jvtwsl{h"ls"q}z{v"wyljpv"jvu"klk}jjpu
kl"}uh"kjpth"why{l/"lz"kljpy/"zp"whnh"hs"~luklkvy"sh"kpmlylujph
lu{yl"'433""'"5:3/"tvu{v"lz{l"s{ptv"x}l"ylz}s{h"kl"klk}jpy"h
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45;
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lmlj{vz"kl"sh"u}spkhk""uv"ylz{p{}py"ls"{v{hs"kls"wyljpv"yljpipkv
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'"443/"x}l"lz"ls"q}z{v"wyljpv"h}tlu{hkv"lu"}uh"kjpth"why{l/"
'"6331

B) Lesin enorme en el contrato de pe-muta de bienes races


Ks"hy{j}sv"4>33"kls"Ikpnv"Ip~ps"ohjl"hwspjhislz"hs"jvu{yh{v"kl
wlyt}{h"{vkhz"shz"kpzwvzpjpvulz"ylsh{p~hz"h"sh"jvtwyh~lu{h"x}l
uv"zl"vwvunhu"h"sh"uh{}yhslh"kl"hx}ls"jvu{yh{v1
Ku{yl"kpjohz"kpzwvzpjpvulz"zl"luj}lu{yhu"shz"x}l"yljpu"huh0
spihtvz/"ylmlylu{lz"h"sh"slzpu"lu"sh"jvtwyh~lu{h"kl"iplulz
yhjlz1
Vhyh"lz{vz"lmlj{vz/""zlnu"sv"kpzwvul"ls"hy{j}sv"4>33/"jhkh
wlyt}{hu{l"zly"jvuzpklyhkv"jvtv"~luklkvy"kl"sh"jvzh"x}l"kh/
"ls"q}z{v"wyljpv"kl"lssh"h"sh"mljoh"kls"jvu{yh{v"zl"tpyhy"jvtv
ls"wyljpv"x}l"whnh"wvy"sv"x}l"yljpil"lu"jhtipv1
Vvy"lqltwsv/"G""H"jlsliyhu"}u"jvu{yh{v"kl"wlyt}{h"lu"~py0
{}k"kls"j}hs"zl"lu{ylnhu"yljwyvjhtlu{l"zlukvz"iplulz"yhjlz1
Gzl"zplu{l"slzpvuhkv""wyvt}l~l"}u"q}pjpv"kl"slzpu"hjylkp{hu0
kv"x}l"ls"q}z{v"wyljpv"kls"put}lisl"x}l"lu{yln"lu"~py{}k"kls
jvu{yh{v/""x}l"zl"tpyh"jvtv"wyljpv"kls"put}lisl"x}l"yljpip"h
jhtipv/"lyh"'"7331333/""x}l"ls"q}z{v"wyljpv"kls"put}lisl"x}l
lu{yln"H/""x}l"zl"tpyh"jvtv"wyljpv"kls"put}lisl"x}l"yljpip
h"jhtipv/"lyh"'"43313331
U"zlh/"zl"jvuzpklyh"x}l"G"~lukp"h"H"lu"'"4331333"}u"pu0
t}lisl"j}vq}z{v"wyljpv"lyh"'"7331333/"z}myplukv/"lu"jvuzlj}lu0
jph/"slzpu"luvytl/"w}lz"ls"wyljpv"x}l"yljpil"0'"4331333"lz
pumlypvy"h"sh"tp{hk"kls"q}z{v"wyljpv"kls"put}lisl"x}l"lu{ylnh
0'"7331333/"wyvk}jpukvzl"svz"lmlj{vz"wyl~pz{vz"lu"ls"hy{j}0
sv"4;>3/"h"jvtlu{hkv1

C) Lesin en la clusula penal noe


Rh"js}z}sh"wluhs"lz"}uh"l~hs}hjpu"hu{pjpwhkh"x}l"ohjlu"shz
why{lz"kl"svz"wlyq}pjpvz"x}l"klyp~lu"kls"yl{hykv"lu"ls"j}t0
wsptplu{v"kl"}uh"vispnhjpu/"v"kls"puj}twsptplu{v"kl"sh"tpz0
th1"G"lssh"zl"ylmplylu"svz"hy{j}svz"4868""zpn}plu{lz"kls"Ikpnv
Ip~ps1

45>
y{"X[RJ"PNWN[Jw2"7/774"JLX`[ww/RL./

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klztlz}yhkh/"wlykplukv/"lu"jvuzlj}lujph/"z}"jhyj{ly"puklt0
uph{vypv""jvu~pupukvzl"lu"}u"s}jyv"whyh"ls"hjyllkvy1
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>41"TEORAS SOBRE EL ROL DE LA VOLUNTAD EN LOS ACTOS


JURDICOS

A ) 7??ora de la voluntad o dogma de la voluntad


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F. Ferrara, op. cit.., pg. 24.

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A ) Determinacin del objeto
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v"jvu{yh{v"zl"ohsshyhu"lu"x}p"v"pu"mplu%154:
B) Posibilidad del objeto
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C) Licitud del objeto


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4441"REQUISITOS QUE DEBE REUNIR LA HTXF"OBJETO


DE LA DECLARACIN DE VOLUNTAD

A) Iw{i zmit
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4493
El OBJETO

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klyzl"x}l"uv"lz{u"m}lyh"kls"jvtlyjpv%1"`"lssv/"wvyx}l"kpjohz
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ls"jvujlw{v"kl"pujvtlyjphipspkhk"kl"}uh"jvzh"n}hykh"ljs}zp~h0
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C) Cosa determinada
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112. REQuisiTos QUE DEBE REUNIR EL HECHO OBJETO


DE LA DECLARACIN DE VOLUNTAD

A ) Hecho determinado
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klil"ohjlyzl"v"uv"ohjlyzl1
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tvyhstlu{l"wvzpisl1
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113. SANCIN POR FALTA DE OBJETO

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22
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499
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4:4
Z1UrOG"+ALTKXGO/"J4O1"J0!p01Sau7R17001

B) Se pueden vender las cosas cuya enajenacin adolece de objeto


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4:5
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4:6
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4:7
EL ()L3FIO

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4:8
TEORIA r;ENERA1, DEI. A(TOUR1I)LC()

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zvs}{h"wvy"ls"~pjpv"kl"pspjp{}k"kls"viql{v1
Kz{h"pujvuzlj}lujph"sh"h{ypi}pyuvz"h"}u"lyyvy"kls"Ikpnv1"Yp
uv"lpz{plyh"ls"T"4"kls"hy{j}sv"4797/"x}l"kljshyh"x}l"{plul"vi0
ql{v"psjp{v"sh"luhqluhjpu"kl"shz"jvzhz"pujvtlyjphislz/"wvkyh"zvz0
{lulyzl"x}l"{vkvz"svz"hj{vz"ylsh{p~vz"h"z{hz"zvu"pulpz{lu{lz"wvy
jhyljly"sh"jvzh"kl"}u"h{ypi}{v"v"hw{p{}k"lzlujphs"whyh"jvuz{p{}py
ls"viql{v"kl"sh"kljshyhjpu"kl"~vs}u{hk/"x}l"lz"sv"x}l"uvz"whyl0
jl"q}ykpjhtlu{l"jvyylj{v/"h"x}l"uv"kp~pzhtvz"yhu"hsn}uh"x}l
q}z{pmpx}l"sh"ljlwjpu"jvu"sh"jvtwyh~lu{h"v"luhqluhjpu"kl"{h0
slz"jvzhz1

44>1"KTGPKTGIOT"JK"RUY"JKXKINUY"`"VXO\ORKMOUY"W[K"TU
V[KJKT"ZXGTYLKXOXYK"G"UZXGY"VKXYUTGY

Ks"Ikpnv"zl"ylmplyl"lu"ls"T"53"kls"hy{j}sv"44797"h"svz"klyljovz
wlyzvuhszptvz/"x}l"zvu"hx}lssvz"x}l"uv"w}lklu"{yhuzmlypyzl"h
v{yhz"wlyzvuhz/"jvtv"wvy"lqltwsv/"svz"klyljovz"kl"}zv""kl"oh0
ip{hjpu"+hy{1";4>,""ls"klyljov"h"wlkpy"hsptlu{vz"+hy{1"667,1
Nh"x}plulz"jvuzpklyhu"x}l"lz{h"kpzwvzpjpu"lz"ylk}ukhu0
{l/"w}lz"svz"klyljovz"y wyp~pslnpvz"x}l"uv"w}lklu"{yhuzmlypyzl"h
v{yhz"wlyzvuhz"lz{hyhu"m}lyh"kls"jvtlyjpvA"hwspjukvzl"h"z}"luh0
qluhjpu"sh"ylnsh"kls"T"4"kls"hy{j}sv"47971
Kz{h"pu{lywyl{hjpu"lz"lx}p~vjhkh/"wvyx}l"svz"klyljovz" y wyp0
~pslnpvz"x}l"uv"w}lklu"{yhuzmlypyzl"h"v{yhz"wlyzvuhz"zl"luj}lu0

4:9
EL OBJETO

{yhu"klu{yv"kls"jvtlyjpv"o}thuv/"{vkh"~l"x}l"zvu"z}zjlw{pislz
kl"kvtpupv"v"kl"wvzlzpu"wvy"svz"why{pj}shylz1"Zplulu/"lzv"z/"sh
why{pj}shypkhk"kl"zly"puhspluhislz/"sv"x}l"zpnupmpjh"x}l"ls"{p{}shy
kl"kpjovz"klyljovz"uv"w}lkl"{yhuzmlypysvz"h"v{yh"wlyzvuh1
Kz{pthtvz/"lu"jvuzlj}lujph/"x}l"ls"Ikpnv"uv"lz"ylk}ukhu0
{l"lu"ls"T"5"kls"hy{j}sv"4797/"w}lz"zpn}l"sh"kvj{ypuh"yvthuh
x}l"kpz{pun}l"lu{yl"jvzhz"pujvtlyjphislz""jvzhz"puhspluhislz1
Zvkhz"shz"jvzhz"pujvtlyjphislz"zvu/"{htipu/"puhspluhislzA"wlyv
uv"{vkhz"shz"jvzhz"puhspluhislz"zvu"pujvtlyjphislz"jvtv"z}jl0
kl"jvu"svz"klyljovz"wlyzvuhszptvz/"w}lz"w}lklu"zly"z}zjlw{p0
islz"kl"kvtpupv"v"kl"wvzlzpu"wvy"svz"why{pj}shylz1

4531"KTGPKTGIOT"JK"RGY"IUYGY"KSHGXMGJGY"VUX"JKIXKZU
P[JOIOGR

Rh"sl"uv"klmpul"ls"ltihynv1
[uh"zlu{lujph"kl"sh"Ivy{l"Y}wylth"kpjl"x}l"ls"ltihynv"vwl0
yh"klu{yv"kls"q}pjpv"lqlj}{p~v""jvuzpz{l"lu"%sh"hwyloluzpu"jvt0
w}szp~h"x}l"ls"q}l"kl"sh"jh}zh"ohjl"kl"kl{lytpuhkv"iplu"kls
kl}kvy/""klzkl"ls"tvtlu{v"lu"x}l"zl"~lypmpjh/"{hslz"iplulz"x}l0
khu"z}ql{vz"h"sh"h}{vypkhk"kls"ylmlypkv"q}l%1%%
Zhu{v"sh"kvj{ypuh"jvtv"sh"q}ypzwy}klujph"jvpujpklu"lu"x}l
{plul"sh"jhspkhk"kl"ltihynhkh"uv"zvshtlu{l"sh"jvzh"jvu"ylzwlj0
{v"kl"sh"j}hs"zl"oh"{yhihkv"ltihynv"lu"}u"q}pjpv"lqlj}{p~v/"zpuv
x}l"{htipu"hx}lssh"x}l"zl"luj}lu{yh"hmlj{hkh"wvy"}uh"tlkp0
kh"wyljh}{vyph"kl"wyvopipjpu"kl"jlsliyhy"hj{vz""jvu{yh{vz"v
kl"nyh~hy""luhqluhy1558

Ip{hkh"wvy"G~l"spuv"Rlu"N}y{hkv?" El objeto en los acts jurdicos, Yhu{phnv/


Kkp{vyphs"q}ykpjh"kl"Iopsl/" ia lkpjpu/"hv"4>8;/"wn1" 124.
2
K}nlupv"\lshzjv"Rl{lsplyA" El objeto ante la jurisprudencia, Yhu{phnv/"Kkp{vyphs
Thzjptlu{v/"hv"4>74/"wnz1"434"h"436/"zlhsh"x}l/"hs"ylmlypyzl"ls"hy{j}sv"4797"h
sh"luhqluhjpu"kl"shz"jvzhz"x}l"lu}tlyh/"oh"ljs}pkv"}uh"zlypl"kl"jvu{yh{vz/"jvtv
wvy"lqltwsv/"sh"jvtwyh~lu{h""ls"hyylukhtplu{v/"ylzwlj{v"kl"svz"j}hslz"ls"q}l
wvkyh"kljyl{hy"wyvopipjpu1"Govyh"iplu/"zp"zl"pumypunplyh"}uh"wyvopipjpu"kl"~lu0
kly"v"hyylukhy/"wvy"kpz{hy"t}jov"kpjovz"Ivu{yh{vz"kl"sv"x}l"jvuz{p{}l"}uh"luh0
qluhjpu/"uv"wvkyh"hwspjhyzl"ls"hy{j}sv"4797""jvuzpklyhyzl"x}l"lu"sh"~lu{h"v
hyylukhtplu{v"x}l"pumypunl"sh"wyvopipjpu"ohiyh"viql{v"psjp{v1"Jl"hwspjhyzl"lz0
{ypj{htlu{l"sh"sl{yh"kl"sh"sl/"zlyh"mvyvzv"jvujs}py"x}l"jhyljl"kl"zhujpu"sh"pu0
myhjjpu"h"{puh"wyvopipjpu"kl"jlsliyhy"hj{vz""jvu{yh{vz"zviyl"kl{lytpuhkvz
iplulz/"pu{lywyl{hjpu"x}l"ls"h}{vy"jp{hkv"yljohh/"hk}jplukv"x}l"klqhy"lu"sh"pt0
w}upkhk"sh"pumyhjjpu"~h/"l~pklu{ltlu{l/"jvu{yh"ls"lzwyp{}"kls"slnpzshkvy1"Ivu0

4::
ZKUXOG"MKTKXGR"JKO/"GIZU"P[XOJOU

Rh"luhqluhjpu"kl"shz"jvzhz"ltihynhkhz"wshu{lh"}uh"zlypl
kl"pu{lyyvnhu{lz"x}l"whzhyuvz"h"lwvuly"h"jvu{pu}hjpu?

A ) Desde qu momento debe entenderse que una cosa se encuentra


embargada
Vhyh"ylzwvukly"h"lz{h"wyln}u{h"zl"ohjl"wyljpzv"kpz{pun}py"lu{yl
shz"why{lz"sp{pnhu{lz"lu"ls"q}pjpv"lu"x}l"zl"oh"kljyl{hkv"ls"lt0
ihynv""svz"{lyjlyvz"hqluvz"h"kpjov"q}pjpv1
Ivu"ylzwlj{v"h"shz"why{lz"sp{pnhu{lz"lu"ls"q}pjpv"lu"x}l"zl"oh
kljyl{hkv"ls"ltihynv/"z{l"lpz{l""wyvk}jl"{vkvz"z}z"lmlj{vz
klzkl"ls"tvtlu{v"lu"x}l"uv{pmpjhkh"sh"ylzvs}jpu"x}l"vykluh
ylx}lypy"kl"whnv"hs"kl}kvy""ltihynhysl"iplulz"z}mpjplu{lz"zp
uv"whnh"lu"ls"tvtlu{v"kls"ylx}lyptplu{v/"ls"tpupz{yv"kl"ml"h
x}plu"jvyylzwvukl"lmlj{}hy"sh"kpspnlujph"kls"ltihynv"wyhj{pjh
z{l"zviyl"iplulz"lzwljmpjvz"kls"kl}kvy1
Ivu"ylzwlj{v"h"{lyjlyvz/"oh"x}l"kpz{pun}py/"h"z}"~l/"zp"ls
ltihynv"yljhl"zviyl"iplulz"t}lislz"v"zviyl"put}lislz1
Ks"ltihynv"x}l"yljhl"zviyl"iplulz"t}lislz"lpz{l"jvu"ylz0
wlj{v"kl"{lyjlyvz"zsv"klzkl"ls"tvtlu{v"x}l"ohu"{lupkv"jvuv0
jptplu{v"kls"tpztv1
Jl"jvumvytpkhk"jvu"sv"x}l"lz{hisljl"ls"Ikpnv"kl"Vyvjlkp0
tplu{v"Ip~ps/"ls"ltihynv"x}l"yljhl"zviyl"put}lislz"lpz{l"jvu
ylzwlj{v"kl"{lyjlyvz"zsv"}uh"~l"x}l"zl"oh"puzjyp{v"lu"ls"Xlnpz{yv
kl"Ou{lykpjjpvulz""Vyvopipjpvulz"kl"Kuhqluhy"kls"Ivuzly~hkvy"kl
Hplulz"Xhjlz"+hy{z1"5>:""786"kls"Ikpnv"kl"Vyvjlkptplu{v"Ip0
~ps,1
Ihil"klz{hjhy"x}l"sh"luhqluhjpu"kl"}u"put}lisl"ltihynh0
kv"hkvsljl"kl"viql{v"psjp{v"h}ux}l"uv"zl"ohh"puzjyp{v"ls"lt0
ihynv1"Kssv/"wvyx}l"ls"Ikpnv"Ip~ps"uv"ylx}plyl"{hs"puzjypwjpu
whyh"x}l"ls"put}lisl"zl"jvuzpklyl"ltihynhkv"whyh"ls"lmlj{v"kl
z}"luhqluhjpu1
Vhyh"jvtwylukly"sv"hu{lypvy"z}wvunhtvz"ls"zpn}plu{l"lqlt0
wsv?"lu"ls"q}pjpv"lqlj}{p~v"x}l"zpn}l"G"lu"jvu{yh"kl"H/"zl"ltihy0

js}l"K1"\lshzjv"x}l"ls"hy{j}sv"5>9"kls"Ikpnv"kl"Vyvjlkptplu{v"Ip~ps/"oh"tvkp0
mpjhkv"svz"T%"6*""7*"kls"hy{j}sv"4797"kls"Ikpnv"Ip~ps/"%lu"ls"zlu{pkv"kl"x}l"{yh0
{ukvzl"kl"wyvopipjpvulz"q}kpjphslz"kl"jlsliyhy"hj{vz""jvu{yh{vz%/"zl"hwspjh"ls
hy{pj}sv"4797"j}hukv"zl"pumypunl"sh"wyvopipjpu/"hkvsljplukv/"wvy"{hu{v/"sh"pumyhj0
jpu"js{"viql{v"psjp{v/"h}ux}l"sh"wyvopipjpu"uv"ohh"zpkv"kl"luhqluhy1

4:;
El, OLJEL()

nh"}u"put}lisl"kl"wyvwplkhk"kl"lz{l"s{ptv1"Zyhihkv"ls"lt0
ihynv"wlyv"jvu"hu{lypvypkhk"h"sh"puzjypwjpu"kls"tpztv/"H"luh0
qluh"ls"put}lisl"h"I1
Ku"lz{h"opw{lzpz"uvz"lujvu{yhtvz"mylu{l"h"sh"luhqluhjpu"kl
}uh"jvzh"ltihynhkh/"sv"x}l"ohjl"wvzpisl"x}l"G"zl"luj}lu{yl"lu
jvukpjpvulz"kl"klthukhy"sh"u}spkhk"hizvs}{h"kl"sh"luhqluhjpu
x}l"opv"G"h"H/"zpu"x}l"svz"klthukhkvz"w}lkhu"hslnhy"x}l"hs
tvtlu{v"kl"sh"luhqluhjpu"ls"put}lisl"uv"{luh"sh"jhspkhk"kl
ltihynhkv"wvyx}l"ls"ltihynv"uv"zl"lujvu{yhih"puzjyp{v1
Rv"x}l"vj}yyl"lz"x}l"sh"zlu{lujph"x}l"kljshyh"sh"u}spkhk"hi0
zvs}{h"kl"sh"luhqluhjpu"wvy"sh"jh}zhs"kl"viql{v"psjp{v"uv"wyv0
k}jl"lmlj{vz"ylzwlj{v"kl"{lyjlyvz"zp"h"sh"mljoh"lu"x}l"zl"ylhsph
z{h"ls"ltihynv"uv"zl"lujvu{yhyh"puzjyp{v1"Jl"sv"kpjov"zl"pumpl0
yl"x}l"kpjoh"zlu{lujph"lz"vwvupisl"h"svz"{lyjlyvz"lu"ylshjpu"jvu
svz"j}hslz"lz{"klz{puhkh"h"wyvk}jpy"lmlj{vz"zvshtlu{l"j}hukv
ls"ltihynv"zl"luj}lu{yh"puzjyp{v1"I}twspukvzl"sh"tlujpvuh0
kh"jvukpjpu/"H"zl"~ly"wyp~hkv"kl"sh"wvzlzpu"kl"sh"jvzh1

B) Cundo debe existir el embargo o prohibicin para que


la enajenacin adolezca de objeto ilcito
Ks"ltihynv"v"wyvopipjpu"klil"lpz{py"hs"tvtlu{v"kl"sh"luhql0
uhjpu"whyh"x}l"z{h"hkvsljh"kl"viql{v"psjp{v1

C) Hay objeto ilcito en la enajenacin forzada de una cosa


embargada?
Y}wvunhtvz"x}l"}u"kl}kvy"{plul"kvz"hjyllkvylz/"G""HA"x}l"ls
wyptlyv"pupjph"}u"q}pjpv"lqlj}{p~v"whyh"vi{luly"ls"whnv"kl"sv"x}l
zl"sl"hkl}kh""ltihynh"}u"iplu"kls"kl}kvy1"Vvz{lypvytlu{l"H
klthukh"lqlj}{p~htlu{l"hs"kl}kvy"lu"v{yv"{ypi}uhs""vi{plul
x}l"zl"{yhil"ls"ltihynv"zviyl"ls"tpztv"iplu"x}l"h"ohih"lt0
ihynhkv"G1"Ks"q}pjpv"lqlj}{p~v"pupjphkv"wvy"H"h~huh"jvu"tz"jl0
slypkhk"x}l"ls"klk}jpkv"wvy"G/"kl"tvkv"x}l"ls"q}l"vykluh
ylth{hy"ls"iplu"ltihynhkv"whyh"x}l"OO"zl"whn}l"jvu"ls"wyvk}j0
{v"kl"sh"ylhsphjpu1"Govyh"ipluA"klzkl"ls"tvtlu{v"lu"x}l"}u
{lyjlyv"hkx}plyl"jvtv"jvuzlj}lujph"kl"sh"luhqluhjpu"vykluh0
kh"wvy"ls"q}l"}u"iplu"x}l"zl"luj}lu{yh"ltihynhkv"lu"ls"q}pjpv
wyvtv~pkv"wvy"ls"hjyllkvy"G/"z}ynl"}uh"k}kh"lu"ylshjpu"jvu
sh"~hspkl"kl"sh"luhqluhjpu"x}l"ylx}plyl"hjshyhy"zp"z{h"hkvsljl
v"uv"kl"viql{v"psjp{v1

4:>
ZKUXRG"MKTKXGR"JL?4/"Gs"ZO,"q[XO4P+_,

Gsn}uvz"h}{vylz"jvtv"Ishyv"Yvshy""G~lspuv"Rlu"jvuzp0
klyhu"x}l"sh"luhqluhjpu"mvyhkh"kl"sh"jvzh"ltihynhkh"lz"~sp0
kh/"wvyx}l"lu"ls"T"6"kls"hy{j}sv"4797"sh"sl"zhujpvuh"sh"pspjp{}k
x}l"yl~lsh"sh"jvuk}j{h"kl"sh"wlyzvuh"x}l"{yhuzmplyl"ls"kvtpupv
kl"sh"jvzh"ltihynhkh"h"}u"{lyjlyv/"wlzl"h"x}l"sh"sl"sv"wyvopil/
psjp{v"x}l"zsv"zl"hwyljph"lu"shz"luhqluhjpvulz"x}l"ls"kl}kvy"ohjl
~vs}u{hyphtlu{l""uv"lu"hx}lsshz"x}l"uv"ylx}plylu"ls"jvuzlu{p0
tplu{v"kls"kl}kvy""x}l"w}lklu"wyvk}jpyzl"pujs}zp~l"jvu{yh"z}
~vs}u{hk/"jvtv"zvu"shz"vykluhkhz"wvy"ls"q}l"lu"ls"lqlyjpjpv"kl
z}z"mhj}s{hklz1
U{yvz"wpluzhu"x}l"wvy"uv"kpz{pun}py"sh"sl"lu{yl"luhqluhjpu
mvyhkh""luhqluhjpu"~vs}u{hyph/"j}hsx}plyh"kl"lsshz"hkvsljlyh
kl"pspjp{}k"lu"ls"viql{v/"w}lz"ls"hy{j}sv"4797"T"6"zl"ylmplyl"h
htihz1"Gnylnhu"x}l"lz{h"pu{lywyl{hjpu"lz"tz"hjvykl"jvu"svz
mpulz"x}l"wlyzpn}l"sh"sl/"lu"ls"zlu{pkv"kl"wyv{lnly"hs"tptv
svz"pu{lylzlz"kl"svz"hjyllkvylz1"Yp"sh"lqlj}jpu"mvyhkh"m}lyh"~0
spkh/"kpztpu}pyhu"shz"zln}ypkhklz"kl"z{vz1
Xljvuvjplukv"x}l"ls"w}u{v"lz"kpzj}{pisl""ohjplukv"wylzlu{l
x}l"shq}ypzwy}klujph"zviyl"sh"th{lyph"lz"lx}~vjh/"w}lz"zl"ohu
kpj{hkv"zlu{lujphz"x}l"hjvnlu"}uh"}"v{yh"wvzpjpu/"uvz"whyljl
tz"yhvuhisl"sh"wyptlyh"pu{lywyl{hjpu/"h"j}h"vwpupu"hkol0
yptvz1

D) De qu manera se podra enajenar vlidamente una cosa


embargada?
Ks"hy{j}sv"4797"T" 63"lz{hisljl"kvz"thulyhz"whyh"luhqluhy"~sp0
khtlu{l"}uh"jvzh"ltihynhkh?"sh"h}{vyphjpu"q}kpjphs""ls"jvu0
zlu{ptplu{v"kls"hjyllkvy1
Ivu"ylzwlj{v"h"sh"h}{vyphjpu"q}kpjphs/"sh"q}ypzwy}klujph"oh
zlhshkv"x}l"kpjoh"h}{vyphjpu"sh"klil"jvujlkly"ls"tpztv"q}l
x}l"kljyl{"sh"wyvopipjpu"v"ltihynvA""x}l/"zp"~hypvz"q}ljlz"ohu
{yhihkv"ltihynv"zviyl"sh"tpzth"jvzh"v"ohu"wyvopipkv"z}"luh0
qluhjpu/"sh"h}{vyphjpu"klil"zly"khkh"wvy"{vkvz"lssvz1g
Vvy"v{yh"why{l/""jvujvykhu{l"jvu"sv"kpzw}lz{v"wvy"ls"hy{j}0
sv"45"kls"Ikpnv"Ip~ps/"x}l"wlytp{l"hs"{p{}shy"kl"}u"klyljov"yl0
u}ujphysv"zpltwyl"x}l"lz{"lz{hisljpkv"lu"z}"wyvwpv"ilulmpjpv

G1"Rlu"N1/"vw1"jp{1"wn1"4791

4;3
EL OBJETO

"x}l"uv"lz{"wyvopipkh"sh"ylu}ujph/"ls"hy{j}sv"4797"lu"z}"u0
tlyv"6"wlytp{l"x}l"ls"hjyllkvy"lu"j}v"ilulmpjpv"zl"{yhi"ls
ltihynv"h}{vypjl"sh"luhqluhjpu/"hj{v"jvu"ls"j}hs"lz{hyh"ylu}u0
jphukv"{jp{htlu{l"h"lqlyjly"svz"klyljovz"x}l"sl"jvyylzwvuklu
lu"z}"jhspkhk"kl"hjyllkvy"ltihynhu{l1"Yp"ls"ltihynv"zl"o}ipl0
yh"{yhihkv"h"mh~vy"kl"kvz"v"tz"hjyllkvylz/"{vkvz"klilu"jvu0
zlu{py"lu"sh"luhqluhjpu"kl"sh"jvzh1
Kz"ptwvy{hu{l"{luly"wylzlu{l"x}l"{hu{v"sh"h}{vyphjpu"q}kp0
jphs"jvtv"ls"jvuzlu{ptplu{v"kls"hjyllkvy"klilu"wylz{hyzl"jvu
hu{lypvypkhk"hs"hj{v"kl"luhqluhjpu1"Yp"z{l"h"o}iplyh"zpkv"ylh0
sphkv/"uv"jhil"sh"h}{vyphjpu"kls"q}l"v"ls"jvuzlu{ptplu{v"kls
hjyllkvy"khkv"h"wvz{lypvyp/"w}lz"~lukyh"h"jvuz{p{}py"}uh"mvyth
kl"zhulhtplu{v"kls"~pjpv"kl"u}spkhk"hizvs}{h"x}l"sh"sl"uv"jvu0
{ltwsh1%*

4541"KTGPKTGIOT"JK"RGY"KYVKIOKY"I[`G"VXUVOKJGJ"YK"ROZOMG
YOT"VKXSOYU"JKR"P[Ka"W[K"IUTUIK"JKR"ROZOMOU

Kzwljplz"j}h"wyvwplkhk"zl"sp{pnh"zvu"hx}lssvz"j}lywvz"jply{vz/
t}lislz"v"put}lislz/"j}v"kvtpupv"v"wyvwplkhk"zl"kpzj}{l"lu
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4;5
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4;7
EL OBJETO

B) Deudas contradas en juegos de azar


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4;8
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P5"`sw3"3"cit., pg. 143.
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4641"QU ES LO QUE DEBE TENER CAUSA?


EL ACTO O CONTRATO O LA OBLIGACIN?
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A ) A rgumentos de quienes sostienen que la obligacin y no el acto
del cual sta emana requiere causa
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B) A rgumentos de quienes sostienen que el acto o controlo debe tener
una causa:
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A ) A rgumentos de quienes sostienen que el Cdigo sigue el criterio


objetivo de la doctrina tradicional
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B) A rgumentos de quienes sostienen que el Cdigo Civil innov


en materia de causa, apartndose de la doctrina tradicional
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547
CAPITULo V
LAS FORMALIDADES

41"MKTKXGROJGJKY

142. CONCEPTOS GENERALES


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143. FORMALIDADES PROPIAMENTE TALES O SO1EMNIDADES

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G,"Solemnidades requeridas para la existencia de un acto jurdico


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549
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B) Solemnidades requeridas para la validez de los actajurdicos


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upkhk"lz"uljlzhypv"kpz{pun}py"zp"z{h"zl"ylx}pyp"whyh"sh"lpz{lu0
jph"v"whyh"sh"~hspkl"kls"hj{v"q}ykpjv1

A ) La solemnidad se requiere para la existencia del acto


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{l"sh"lzjyp{}yh"wispjh"lu"sh"jvtwyh~lu{h"kl"}u"iplu"yh1

B) La solemnidad se requiere para la validez del acto


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lpz{l/"wlyv"jvu"}u"~pjpv"x}l"ohjl"wvzpisl"sh"kljshyhjpu"kl"u}sp0
khk1"Zhs"vj}yyl/"wvy"lqltwsv/"j}hukv"zl"vtp{l"sh"puzpu}hjpu"kl
sh"kvuhjpu"lu"svz"jhzvz"lu"x}l"klip"yljhihyzl1

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oh"vtp{pkv"}uh"mvythspkhk"x}l"shz"sllz"wylzjypilu"whyh"ls"~h0
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uv"zl"ohnh"lu"wispjh"z}ihz{h/"vtp{pukvzl"shz"mvythspkhklz"oh0
ipsp{hu{lz"kl"wyv{ljjpu"kl{lytpuhkhz"wvy"svz"hy{j}svz"6>6""6>71
Ku"vwpupu"kl"hsn}uvz/"{hslz"hj{vz"klilu"zhujpvuhyzl"jvu"sh
u}spkhk"hizvs}{h""uv"jvu"sh"u}spkhk"ylsh{p~h/"wvyx}l"sh"mvyth0

553
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jlz"kl"shz"wlyzvuhz"z}ql{hz"h"n}hykh""~lu{h"kl"svz"tpztvz"ipl0
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tlkpvz"kl"wy}lih/"jvtv"zlyh/"wvy"lqltwsv/"sh"jvumlzpu1

4831 KLKIZUY"W[K"VXUJ[IK"RG"USOYOT"JK"[TG"SKJOJG
JK"V[HROIOJGJ
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klyljov"h"sh"wlyzvuh"h"x}plu"kpjoh"vtpzpu"oh"jh}zhkv"}u"wly0
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x}l"ls"ylzwvuzhisl"kl"sh"vtpzpu"oh"jvtl{pkv"}u"klsp{v"v
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sh"jlzpu"kl"}u"jykp{v"x}l"ohjl"ls"jlklu{l"hs"jlzpvuhypv""x}l
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hjlw{hkh"wvy"z{l1

554
IGVOZ[RU"\O
EFECTOS DE LOS ACTOSJURIDICOS

R"MKTKXGROJGJKY

4841"IUTIKVZUY"MKTKXGRKY
Ku"vwpupu"kl"Hl{{p/"svz"lmlj{vz"kl"svz"hj{vz"q}ykpjvz"jvyylzwvu0
klu"%zlnu"sh"hwyljphjpu"slnpzsh{p~h/"h"sh"mpuhspkhk"ljvutpjv0
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whyljlu"tz"hklj}hkvz"h"sh"ylnshtlu{hjpu"kl"pu{lylzlz"x}l"shz
why{lz"uvythstlu{l"ohu"{lupkv"lu"j}lu{h%15
Nltvz"tlujpvuhkv"x}l"whyh"sh"kvj{ypuh"p{hsphuh"ls"mpu"wly0
zln}pkv"wvy"ls"h}{vy"v"wvy"shz"why{lz"kl"}u"hj{v"q}ykpjv/"hs
tluvz"lu"mvyth"putlkph{h/"lz"}u"mpu"wyj{pjv/"kl"jvu{lupkv"zv0
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uljlzpkhk""oh"wyl~pz{v/"hs"tpztv"{pltwv/"x}l"jvu"sh"jlsliyh0
jpu"kl"}u"kl{lytpuhkv"hj{v"q}ykpjv"w}lkl"sslnhy"h"zh{pzmhjly0
sh1"Gz/"sh"wlyzvuh"x}l"x}plyl"kpzwvuly"kl"z}z"iplulz"whyh
klzw}z"kl"z}z"khz/"v{vynhy"{lz{htlu{v/"{pwv"kl"hj{v"q}ykpjv
x}l"sl"wlytp{py"svnyhy"z}"viql{p~vA"zp"x}plyl"pu{lyjhtiphy"ipl0
ulz/"jlsliyhy"}uh"jvtwyh~lu{hA"zp"x}plyl"mvythy"}uh"mhtpsph/
jvu{yhly"th{yptvupv1
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wvy"ls"h}{vy"v"shz"why{lz"kl"}u"hj{v"q}ykpjv""svz"lmlj{vz"x}l"sh
sl"hzpnuh"hs"tpztv1"Yp"ls"mpu"wyj{pjv"wlyzln}pkv"lz"tlyljlkvy
kl"{}{lsh/"ls"vykluhtplu{v"q}ykpjv"jylh"}uh"mpn}yh"{wpjh"h"{yh0

E. Betti, op. cit., pg. 186.

556
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ul"ls"slnpzshkvy"kls"mpu"wyj{pjv1"Ivuz{p{}lu/"wvy"sv"tpztv/"sh
mvyth"h"{yh~z"kl"sh"j}hs"sh"sl"%{yhk}jl%"h"{ytpuvz"q}ykpjvz
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lu"z}th/"sh"jvu~lyzpu"kls"mpu"wyj{pjv"lu"}u"mpu"q}ykpjv1
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}u"{pwv"x}l"sh"ylwyvk}jlA"lz{hisljplukv"svz"lmlj{vz"x}l"~h"h"wyv0
k}jpy"ls"{pwv"wvy"t"jylhkv%1

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zl"wyvk}jlu"jvtv"vispnhkh"jvuzlj}lujph"kl"z}"jlsliyhjpuA"kl
tvkv"{hs"x}l"shz"why{lz"uv"w}lklu"klzjhy{hysvz"up"z}z{yhlyzl"h
lssvz1"Vvy"lqltwsv/"lu"sh"jvtwyh~lu{h"zvu"lmlj{vz"lzlujphslz"sh
vispnhjpu"x}l"jvu{yhl"ls"~luklkvy"kl"khy"sh"jvzh""sh"vispnh0
jpu"x}l"jvu{yhl"ls"jvtwyhkvy"kl"whnhy"ls"wyljpv1
B) Efectos no esenciales o naura1es
Kmlj{vz"uv"lzlujphslz"v"uh{}yhslz"kl"svz"hj{vz"q}ykpjvz"zvu"hx}l0
ssvz"x}l"lz{hukv"lz{hisljpkvz"wvy"sh"sl"x}l"pu{lywyl{h/"hs"lz{h0
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w}lklu"zly"lsptpuhkvz/"zplukv/"wvy"lukl/"wvzpisl"z}z{yhlyzl"h
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jpu""svz"~pjpvz"ylkopip{vypvz1
C) Efectos accidentales
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{}k"kl"sh"h}{vuvth"wyp~hkh/"pujvywvyhy"h"svz"hj{vz"q}ykpjvz1

557
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vispnhkhz"h"z}"j}twsptplu{v1"Vvy"lqltwsv/"shz"why{lz"w}lklu"lz0
{pw}shy"}uh"jvukpjpu"v"}u"wshv1

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lu{yl"lmlj{vz"kpylj{vz""lmlj{vz"pukpylj{vz1

G, Kfectos directos de los actos jurdicos


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tlkph{h""kpylj{h"kl"sh"jlsliyhjpu"kl"}u"hj{v"q}ykpjv1"Vvy"lqlt0
wsv/"sh"vispnhjpu"kls"jvtwyhkvy"kl"whnhy"ls"wyljpv1
B) Efectos indirectos de los actos jurdicos
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x}l"ylz}s{hu"kl"jply{hz"ylshjpvulz"v"zp{}hjpvulz"q}ykpjhz"x}l"zvu
wyvk}j{v/"h"z}"~l/"kl"}u"hj{v"q}ykpjv1"Hl{{p"jp{h"jvtv"lqltwsv
%sh"ylshjpu"kl"hsptlu{vz"lu{yl"ju}nlz/"sh"j}hs"uv"jvuz{p{}l
}u"lmlj{v"kls"th{yptvupv"jvtv"hj{v/"zpuv"kls"z{h{}z"kl"ju}0
nl/"x}l"klyp~h"kls

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VXUJ[IKT"RUY"KLKIZUY"JK"RUY"GIZUYP[XOJOIUY

4871"KLKIZUY"JK"RUY"GIZUY"P[XJOIUY"KTZXK"RGY"VGXZKY
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jplyvu"uhjly1"Zhs"lz"sh"ylnsh"nlulyhs/"x}l"sptp{h"sh"wyvk}jjpu
kl"lmlj{vz"h"shz"why{lz"x}l"jlsliyhyvu"ls"hj{v1
Ivtv"kpjl"Hl{{p/"zl"{yh{h"%kl"}u"snpjv"jvyvshypv"kl"sh"h}{v0
uvth"wyp~hkh/"x}l"lz"yljvuvjpkh"h"svz"pukp~pk}vz"wvy"sh"zvjpl0

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558
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kls"hj{v"q}ykpjv"x}l"zl"klqh"zpu"lmlj{v1

15. EFECTOS DE LOS ACTOS JURDICOS RESPECTO DE TERCEROS


Nltvz"zlhshkv"x}l/"wvy"ylnsh"nlulyhs/"svz"hj{vz"q}ykpjvz"wyv0
k}jlu"lmlj{vz"zvshtlu{l"lu{yl"shz"why{lz"x}l"svz"ohu"jlsliyhkv1
Kjlwjpvuhstlu{l/"ls"hj{v"q}ykpjv"w}lkl"wyvk}jpy"lmlj{vz
ylzwlj{v"kl"{lyjlyvz/"lz"kljpy/"kl"wlyzvuhz"x}l"uv"pu{ly~puplyvu/
up"wlyzvuhstlu{l"up"ylwylzlu{hkhz/"lu"z}"jlsliyhjpu1"Ivu"lz{l
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slz""hj{vz"q}ykpjvz"ipsh{lyhslz1
A ) A ctos jurdicos unilaterales
I}hukv"ls"hj{v"q}ykpjv"lz{"klz{puhkv"h"jylhy/"tvkpmpjhy"v"l0
{pun}py"}uh"ylshjpu"q}ykpjh/"z}z"lmlj{vz"uv"w}lklu/"wvy"sv"nl0
ulyhs/"yhkpjhyzl"ljs}zp~htlu{l"lu"sh"wlyzvuh"kls"h}{vyA"zplukv/
wvy"ls"jvu{yhypv/"uljlzhypv"x}l"hsjhujlu"h"{lyjlyvz1
Kz"wvzpisl/"lu{vujlz/"x}l"zl"jyll"}uh"ylshjpu"q}ykpjh"lu0
{yl"ls"h}{vy""ls"klz{puh{hypv"kl"svz"lmlj{vz"q}ykpjvz"+jvtv"zl0
yh/"wvy"lqltwsv/"sh"ylshjpu"lu{yl"vmlylu{l""hjlw{hu{l,"v"lu{yl

7727872-
N4"Kpt2" Os). cit., pg. 189.

559
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156. TERCEROS A QUIENES PUEDEN AFECTAR LOS ACTOS JURDICOS

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55;
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564
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74!PNWN[JURMJMN]

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158. CLASES O ESPECIES DE INEFICACIA


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159. INEFICACIA POR IA OMISIN DE UN REQUISITO ESENCIAL


PARA lA EXISTENCIA DE UN ACTO JURDICO
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["Ihypv{h"Llyyhyh/"vw/"cit., pg. 272.


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161, INEFICACIA JK"[T"GIZU"P[XJOIU"\ROJGSKTZK"LUXSGJU


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