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# Communication Systems Laboratory

## Amplitude Modulation Techniques in Simulink/Matlab

Introduction

The purpose of this lab is to introduce to the students how to implement and analyze amplitude
modulation techniques in Simulink/Matlab. It is assumed that the student already knows and has used
Simulink/Matlab. In electronics and telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying one or
more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal which
typically contains information to be transmitted.

In telecommunications, modulation is the process of conveying a message signal, for example a digital bit
stream or an analog audio signal, inside another signal that can be physically transmitted. Modulation of a
sine waveform is used to transform a baseband message signal into a passband signal.

A device that performs modulation is known as a modulator and a device that performs the inverse
operation of modulation is known as a demodulator (sometimes detector or a demod). A device that can
do both operations is a modem (from "modulatordemodulator"). [1]

Objectives

In this lab, you will perform analog modulation techniques in Simulink/Matlab including the following:

Amplitude modulation
a. Full AM or Double Side Band (DSB)
b. -Double Side Band Suppressed Carrier (DSB-SC)
c. Single Side Band (SSB)

Equipment

Qty Equipment

## Note: Give brief and concise answers to questions when asked.

Communication Systems Laboratory

Aim: To generate and observe Double Side Band Amplitude Modulated waveform

Theory

## c(t ) = Ac (1 + km(t )) cos(2p ft )

Where :

c(t ) = AM wave
Ac = Amplitude of carrier
m(t ) = message signal
f = carrier frequency

## The term h = km(t ) is the modulation index.

Amax - Amin
The modulation index can also be computed as h =
Amax + Amin

Practically speaking, the Amplitude Modulated waveform c(t) is a current or voltage signal. In either
case, the average power delivered to a 1-ohm load resistor by c(t) is comprised of the following three
components:

1 2
Carrier power = Ac
2

1 2 2
Upper side-frequency power= h Ac
8

1 2 2
h Ac
Lower side-frequency power= 8
Communication Systems Laboratory

Specifications:

Questions:

## What minimum sample time should be used for carrier signal?

Achieve 100%, 150% and 200% modulation and show the resulting time domain modulated waveform.

Change the message signal to a square wave and perform 100% modulation. Show resulting time domain
waveform for the modulated wave.

## Why does the demodulated wave have a dc offset? Explain?

Why does the recovered message signal have a phase delay? Explain?

Give the specifications and magnitude response of the designed digital filter.

Aim: To generate and observe Double Side Band Amplitude Modulated waveform using higher level
predefined modulation/demodulation blocks

Theory

It is often easier and more efficient to use predefined Simulink model blocks for doing just what we want
to do. For example, Simulink has built in model blocks performing analog passband modulation and
demodulation. Using such facility tends to lower the design and testing time of the engineer.
Communication Systems Laboratory

Go to the Simulink library and fetch the DSB AM modulator and demodulator blocks from the
communications blockset. Construct a similar Simulink model:

Specifications:

Message signal:

Type: Sawtooth,

Amplitude: 1

Offset: 0

## Modulation Index: 100%

Communication Systems Laboratory
Communication Systems Laboratory

Questions:

Give frequency and time domain waveforms for the modulated and demodulated waveform

Have you perfectly recovered the message signal? If not, what is the reason?

## Aim: To generate and observe DSB-SC AM using predefined Simulink blocks

Theory

Go to the Simulink library and fetch the DSB-SC AM modulator and demodulator blocks from the
communications blockset. Construct a similar Simulink model:
Communication Systems Laboratory
Communication Systems Laboratory
Communication Systems Laboratory

Specifications:

Message signal:

Type: Sawtooth,

Amplitude: 1

Offset: 0

## Modulation Index: 100%

Questions:

Give frequency and time domain waveforms for the modulated and demodulated waveform

(Note: Your wave form should clearly show the Upper side bands and Lower Side bands)

Aim: To generate and observe upper band of SSB AM using predefined Simulink blocks

Theory

Go to the Simulink library and fetch the SSB AM modulator and demodulator blocks from the
communications blockset. Construct a similar Simulink model:
Communication Systems Laboratory

Specifications:

Message signal:

Type: Sawtooth,

Amplitude: 1

Offset: 0

## Upper band only

Questions:

Give frequency and time domain waveforms and frequency domain representation for the demodulated
waveform
Communication Systems Laboratory
Communication Systems Laboratory

References

[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modulation

[2] Haykin, An introduction to Analog and Digital Communication, 1989, John Wiley, pg-267

Scope:
Communication Systems Laboratory