Artículo científico que describe la el comportamiento de la acumulación de materia seca y la absorción de macronutrientes en el cultivo de tabaco (Nicotiana tabacum, lo cual tiene relevante importancia para el uso racional de los fertilizantes.

© All Rights Reserved

7 vistas

Artículo científico que describe la el comportamiento de la acumulación de materia seca y la absorción de macronutrientes en el cultivo de tabaco (Nicotiana tabacum, lo cual tiene relevante importancia para el uso racional de los fertilizantes.

© All Rights Reserved

- Homemade Potting Media
- SPIC TC Banana Cultivation
- Soil and Water testing Labortary of KVK, Kapurthala, (P.A.U, Ludhiana)
- Green Tech Brochure 2008-9
- Memoeria de Calculo Ixiamas
- 26. Studying Germination.full
- Fertilizing Eucalyptus at Plantation Establishment
- Biblio g
- Uranium in Fertiliser: Overview
- Nutrient Management
- test paper in ecology
- M-9309L
- Mathmatics Main 1 & 2 (Class–IX).pdf
- structure and function
- soil compaction
- lesson plan science portfolio
- Proposal Presetation
- Mini Project
- Alsta Hydrogel - Super Absorbent Polymer for Agriculture
- Fertilizer Industry in India, Indian Fertilizer Industry, Fertilizer Industry, Indian Fertilizer, Fertilizer Industry of India

Está en la página 1de 14

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/234176000

uptake in flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana

tabacum L.)

DOI: 10.1016/j.fcr.2004.11.002

CITATIONS READS

22 398

2 authors, including:

Nicolaos K. Moustakas

Agricultural University of Athens

38 PUBLICATIONS 815 CITATIONS

SEE PROFILE

All content following this page was uploaded by Nicolaos K. Moustakas on 16 July 2017.

Field Crops Research 94 (2005) 113

www.elsevier.com/locate/fcr

flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.)

N.K. Moustakasa,*, H. Ntzanisb

a

Agricultural University of Athens, Soil Science and Agr. Chemistry Lab., Iera Odos 75, Botanikos 118 55, Athens, Greece

b

Experimental Tobacco Station, Heraklitou 12, Agrinio 301 00, Greece

Received 2 November 2004; accepted 8 November 2004

Abstract

In a two-year field experiment using flue-cured tobacco, carried out in Agrinio (western Greece), dry matter accumulation

(DMA) was studied in addition to the uptake of the nutrients nitrogen (N), potassium (K), phosphorous (P), calcium (Ca), and

magnesium (Mg) on a weekly basis during the period from transplant to harvest over two cultivation seasons. Whole plants were

sampled and divided into leaves, stalks and roots. These were dried, weighed and DMA and the nutrient uptake determined. Both

DMA and nutrient uptake in plant parts as well as in whole plants follows a sigmoidal curve, accurately described by a logistic

equation. During growth there is a period when DMA and nutrient uptake in plant parts occurs at an intense rate. The time of

onset of this period and its duration varies with different plant parts. Maximum daily DMA occurs when 50% of the maximum

plant DMA has been achieved. Maximum daily nutrient uptake in aerial parts of the plant occurs approximately 1 week prior to

the maximum daily DMA. The period of rapid DMA and nutrient uptake in flue-cured tobacco coincides with the knee-high and

budding (rapid qrowth and elongation) stage (4175 DAT). Consequently during this period, the soil must have sufficient

nutrients available to supply the needs of the plant.

# 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Logistic equation; Rate of dry matter accumulation; Rate of nutrient uptake; Daily dry matter accumulation; Daily nutrient uptake

stage when the plants are adapting to a new

The life cycle of flue-cured tobacco is relatively environment, is impractical due to the large size of

short, ranging from 90 to 120 days and hence any the plants.

window of opportunity for intervention to correct any In order for a rational fertilisation programme to be

nutrient deficits is brief (Miner and Tucker, 1990). developed, in addition to the nutrient status of the soil

in which the tobacco will be cultivated, the following

information is required: (a) the maximum nutrient

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +30 210 5294099;

fax: +30 210 5294092. uptake determining the maximum yield, (b) the rate of

E-mail address: nmoustakas@aua.gr (N.K. Moustakas). nutrient uptake throughout the life span of the plant to

0378-4290/$ see front matter # 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.fcr.2004.11.002

2 N.K. Moustakas, H. Ntzanis / Field Crops Research 94 (2005) 113

determine the period of maximum nutrient uptake and plant variable (namely DMA or nutrient uptake) at

(c) the distribution of nutrients within the plant parts time after transplanting t, where a is the maximum

during (leaves, stalks and roots) maturation in order to value of DMA or nutrient uptake, b the initial DMA or

determine the quantity of nutrients that will be nutrient uptake, c an accumulation or uptake constant,

removed from the field upon harvest determined by calculation. The logistic equation

Nutrient demands are estimated from knowledge of expresses DMA as a factor of time. Thence the growth

the quantities of these nutrients removed by the plants rate, i.e. increase in production per unit time, is

during a cultivation season in relation to the DMA, calculated from the first derivative of Eq. (1) as:

largely in the aerial parts. The total DMA and the

dW ab ebct

quantity of nutrients taken up vary with the type of (2)

tobacco, the fields residual nutrient status, planting dt 1 ebct 2

density, irrigation, climate and other environmental Half the maximum value of the result of Eq. (1) gives

factors (Collins and Hawks, 1993; Ceotto and Castelli, the point of inflexion and corresponds to the time t at

2002). Consequently, nutrient uptakes reported in the which the maximum growth rate is observed.

literature reflect the particular local cultural practices Of interest is the second derivative of Eq. (1)

and climatic conditions under which the tobacco is

dW 2 ac ebct ebct 1

grown (McCants and Woltz, 1967). Generally, Burley (3)

and Maryland tobaccos have high demands for N and d2 t 1 ebct 3

are grown in fertile, medium to light textured soils. The value of t at which the second derivative equals

Flue-cured tobacco is less demanding and will zero also corresponds to the time of maximum growth

satisfactorily grow in sandy and loamy-sand soils, rate.

whilst orient tobaccos are grown on soils low in N

(Flower, 1999). Data for flue-cured tobacco, both

on DMA and nutrient uptake, under Mediterranean 2. Materials and methods

conditions are scarce and concern only to the aerial

portion of plants with little or no reference to DMA For the purposes of this investigation, a field

and nutrient uptake in the roots. experiment was carried out over 2 years in Agrinio,

The purpose of this study was the investigation of western Greece (3883700 N, 2182300 E, 45 m above sea

the patterns of DMA and the uptake of N, P, K, Ca and level). The soil of the site is a clayey loam (CL) (fine,

Mg in leaves, stalks and roots of flue-cured tobacco mixed, thermic, typic xerofluvent) with 26% sand,

grown under Mediterranean conditions. 43% silt and 31% clay, pH 7.1, cation-exchange

capacity (CEC) of 20.4 cmolc kg1 soil, organic

1.1. Theoretical considerations matter 1.8%, exchangeable Ca, Mg and K of 17.2,

1.7 and 0.5 cmolc kg1, respectively, and available P

The application of mathematics to the study of (P Olsen) 6.2 mg kg1 soil. Prior to this study the

plant growth rates has led to such a plethora of field was under corn cultivation (1993).

research that it is now itself a specialised discipline of The climate of the region is classed as a thermic

plant physiology in its own right. The growth of a crop Mediterranean (FAO-UNESCO, 1973). Average rain-

passes through three consecutive phases which in their fall (for 30 years) is 1022 mm with 68% falling

entirety determine a quantitative relationship between between November and April, with an average air

production/yield and time. This relationship is temperature of 14.7 8C. Climatic data such as air

described by the sigmoidal growth curve. temperature, air humidity, global radiation, wind

The logistic equation (Hunt, 1982) velocity and precipitation were measured from an

a automatic weather station installed 40 m from the

W (1) experimental site. During the cultivation periods of

1 ebct

1994 and 1995, maximum air temperature was greater

is a mathematical expression describing the sigmoidal than 30 8C in JuneAugust, whilst the minimum

growth curve, i.e. the growth of a plant, where W is the temperature ranged from 13 to 19 8C and 11 to 18 8C

N.K. Moustakas, H. Ntzanis / Field Crops Research 94 (2005) 113 3

for 1994 and 1995, respectively, over the same period. broadcast over the soil surface of each plot before

No difference in rainfall distribution during the two being incorporated into the soil to a depth of 0.15

experimental periods was observed. Briefly rainfall 0.2 m by hand. Topping took place when 50% of the

was 98 mm in 1994 distributed as 23% in May, 39% in plants in each plot were at full bloom (75 and 76 DAT

July and 38% in August. In 1995, rainfall was 101 mm in 1994 and 1995, respectively) and to a height such

distributed as 24% in May, 35% in July and 41% in that 2224 leaves remained. All cultivation practices

August. Tobacco plants were irrigated 12 times in took place in strict accordance with the guidelines of

1994 and 10 times in 1995 with a total irrigation of the National Tobacco Institute of Greece (1996).

350 mm each cultivation period. The quantity of water On an approximately weekly basis, three plants

used for irrigation was equal to the maximum were randomly selected from each experimental plot

evapotranspiration rate (ETc) which was estimated from 34 DAT until 96 DAT (full maturation and seed

from the potential evapotranspiration (ETp) and the production) resulting in the sampling of 54 plants per

crop constant for tobacco (Kc). ETp was calculated sampling date. The length of the various stages of

using the minimum and maximum air temperatures, tobacco development and the number of samplings

duration of solar radiation, relative humidity and wind during that period (National Tobacco Institute of

speed, using the Penman Equation (1948) as modified Greece, 1996) are shown below:

by Frere (1979). The value of the constant Kc for

tobacco during the growing season was taken as 0.4 recovery (adaptation): 3035 days, 1 sampling;

for the recovery period, 0.70.8 for the phase of rapid knee-high: 1015 days, 2 samplings;

growth and elongation, 0.91.0 for the stage of budding (rapid growth and elongation): 1015 days,

flowering and topping and finally 0.750.85 for the 2 samplings;

maturation and seed formation phase (Doorenbos and flowering and topping, beginning of harvest: 2535

Pruit, 1977). Irrigation was carried out when the days, 2 samplings;

moisture content at 0.3 m was less than 40% of the maturation and seed formation: 2025 days, 2

available water moisture. Soil moisture was measured samplings.

using tensiometers installed in the field.

The experimental field comprised 18 plots Each plant was extracted from the soil by digging a

(150 m2) arranged in 3 rows of 6 plots with a distance trench around it 0.3 m2 by 0.4 m deep and removing it

of 1.5 m between rows and 1 m between plots. On 18th as a block. The roots were washed well to remove all

May 1994 and 19th May 1995, each plot was planted traces of soil and the plants then separated into leaves,

up with flue-cured tobacco plants (McN-944) in 15 stalks and roots. Individual parts were then washed to

rows, each row 10 m long, with a distance of 1 m remove all traces of soil. The corresponding parts of

between rows and 0.5 m between plants (20,000 plants the three plants sampled were combined to produce a

per ha). Half of the plot was used to monitor DMA and bulk sample for each plant part and each experimental

nutrient uptake, the other half being used for plot. For statistical purposes, there were thus 18 re-

collection and processing of mature tobacco leaves plicates. The fresh weight of the bulk sample plant

to determine crop yield. Fertilisation was carried out parts was recorded and the samples were then dried to

each year using quantities appropriate for maximum a constant weight in an oven at 70 8C whereon dry

yield and quality production of flue-cured tobacco. weight was then recorded. The parts were then ground

The total amounts of fertiliser used were 6 g N m2, to pass a 250 mesh sieve. A portion of the ground

12 g P m2, and 24 g K m2. Applications were made samples was incinerated at 550 8C and the ash diss-

23 days before transplanting using 4 g N m2, olved in concentrated nitric acid. This solution was

12 g P m2 and 17 g K m2 using calcium ammonium used for the determination of Ca, Mg, P and K. Co-

nitrate (26% N), ordinary superphosphate (21% P2O5) ncentrations of Ca and Mg were determined using

and potassium sulphate (50% K2O). One month after atomic absorption spectrometry with an acetylene

transplanting, an application of 2 g N m2 and N2O and acetyleneoxygen flame for Ca and Mg,

7 g K m2 was applied in the form of KNO3 (13% respectively. Potassium was determined using flame

N and 46% K2O). The fertiliser was uniformly photometry. The ascorbic acid method of Murphy

4 N.K. Moustakas, H. Ntzanis / Field Crops Research 94 (2005) 113

Rilley was used to determine P. Total nitrogen was during the growth period follows a sigmoidal curve

determined using the Kjeldahl method. The analysis of (Figs. 15) which can be accurately described by the

plant parts took place in accordance with the methods logistic equation:

reported by Page (1982). a

The dry weight of leaves, stalks and roots was W

1 ebct

determined for each sampling date and expressed as

g m2. The amount of N, K, P, Ca, and Mg taken up where W is the accumulation of DML, DMS, DMR,

and distributed within plant parts was calculated by DMAe and DMP at a time t, a is the maximum value of

multiplying the dry weight by the corresponding DMA, b the initial DMA, c an accumulation constant,

elemental concentration and expressed as g m2. The t the time in days after transplanting. The values for a,

leaves of plants not sampled for elemental analysis b, and c were calculated using Rosenbrocks method

were harvested and dried in a bulk-curing furnace, (Machura and Mulawa, 1973) with the statistical soft-

appropriately treated and the tobacco yield calculated ware application Statistica for Windows (StatSoft,

per hectare. 1995). The correlation coefficient r between predicted

After data collection, statistical analyses were and observed values is very high (Table 1) and ensures

performed in the following order to: the statistical integrity of the curve.

Figs. 15 show the accumulation curves for whole

(a) examine the effect of year and date on DMA and plants and plant parts resulting from the application of

nutrient uptake and distribution in whole plant and the logistic equation to the data. A study of these

plant parts; curves gives us the following information.

(b) determine whether data for the 2 years could be

combined and analysed, using Bartletts x2 test for 3.1. Dry matter accumulation

homogeneity;

(c) examine the adaptation of our data using non- Dry matter accumulation in whole plants and plant

linear regression to a logistic equation and parts was relatively slow until 35 DAT, indicating the

estimation of the parameters a, b, and c; slow adaptation of the plants to their new environment.

(d) statistically evaluate predicted and measured Similar periods of adaptation have been reported by

values. Raper and McCants (1967), Atkinson et al. (1977),

and Mylonas and Pangos (1980) for flue-cured, Burley

3. Results and discussion and orient type tobaccos, respectively.

At maturation in flue-cured plants 848 g DM m2

The distribution of rainfall, as well as other factors accumulated distributed as 356 g m2 in leaves,

influencing tobacco growth, such as daily minimum 277.2 g m2 in stalks and 240.49 g m2 in roots

and maximum air temperatures, was satisfactory (Fig. 5) representing 42.3%, 33% and 28.5%,

in both years. The average annual production of respectively, of total DM. The sum of DM in plant

processed leaves was 3450 kg ha1 (380.3). parts is not equal to the total DMA as a result of

An examination of the data showed that experi- smoothing applied during the regression analysis.

mental year and sampling date had no effect on DMA In the period between 34 and 96 DAT, between

nor nutrient uptake and distribution. Bartletts x2 test transplant and maturation, there is rapid DMA in plant

showed that combining the data from both years was parts and whole plants (Figs. 1a, 2a, 3a, 4a and 5a).

acceptable. In addition, deviation in the transplant date This period differs between plant parts both in respect

in the two experimental years was almost non-existent to onset as well as to duration. In particular, in leaves

and hence for any given sampling date the plants were this period of rapid DMA is between 41 and 75 DAT

at the same stage of development in each year. In the (Fig. 1a) in which 93% of total DMA is achieved,

analysis that follows, all values given are the averages corresponding to 39.4% DMP. Similarly, Suzuki et al.

of the data for the 2 years combined.The DMA in (1970) report rapid changes in DMA in Burley tobacco

leaves (DML), stalks (DMS), roots (DMR), aerial leaves from 30 to 75 DAT. In stalks, there is a period of

parts (DMAe = DML + DMS) and whole plant (DMP) rapid DMA from 48 to 90 DAT (Fig. 2a) where 95% of

N.K. Moustakas, H. Ntzanis / Field Crops Research 94 (2005) 113 5

Fig. 1. (a) Dry matter accumulation and nutrient uptake curves in leaves of flue-cured tobacco. (b) Leaf growth rate and nutrient uptake rate

curves of flue-cured tobacco.

DMS is achieved, corresponding to 11.4% of DMP. tobacco plant. The maximum daily DMA differs

This period of rapid DMA occurs in roots from 48 to between plant parts both in value and in date of onset.

90 DAT (Fig. 3a) where 82% of DMR is achieved, The maximum DMA in leaves, stalks and roots is

corresponding to 11.8% of DMP. observed on 56, 70 and 69 DAT, at 89.5, 72.4 and

From transplant to 48 DAT (i.e. the first half of 60.2 g m2, respectively (Figs. 1b, 2b and 3b).

the period from transplant to maturation) DMA is The rate of increase in DMP rises until 62 DAT

86.6 g m2 in leaves, 18 g m2 in stalks and 3 g m2 when it reaches its maximum, after which it declines

in roots, representing 23%, 6.5% and 1.3% of DMA in to zero when DMA is at its maximum. Fig. 6 shows

leaves, stalks and roots or 9.0%, 2.0% and 0.4%, that the maximum growth rate, i.e. maximum daily

respectively, of DMP at maturation. DMA, is achieved at time t where the second factor of

DMA in leaves, stalks and roots per unit time is Eq. (3) tends to zero and DMA is at half its maximum.

calculated from Eq. (2) and expresses the rate of The same pattern in daily DMA is observed in plant

growth, i.e. the daily DMA in the various parts of the parts for flue-cured tobacco. It is noteworthy that the

6 N.K. Moustakas, H. Ntzanis / Field Crops Research 94 (2005) 113

Fig. 2. (a) Dry matter accumulation and nutrient uptake curves in stalks of flue-cured tobacco. (b) Stalk growth rate and nutrient uptake rate

curves of flue-cured tobacco.

maximum daily DMA in leaves, stalks and roots where U is nutrient uptake (g m2) at time t, a is

appears towards the end of the budding stage (early maximum nutrient uptake (g m2), b the initial nutri-

floweringtopping stage). ent uptake (g m2), c a nutrient uptake constant, t time

in days after transplant and e the natural logarithm.

3.2. Nutrient uptake Again the sum of uptakes is not equal to the total

uptake due to smoothing in the regression analysis.

The uptake of nutrients in whole flue-cured tobacco

plants, as well as the uptake and distribution in 3.2.1. Nitrogen uptake

individual plant parts follows a sigmoidal curve The pattern of N uptake in whole plants and in plant

(Figs. 15) described by the logistic equation: parts is shown in Figs. 1a, 2a, 3a, 4a and 5a. A period

of rapid change in N uptake is observed between 41

a and 68 DAT where 85% of whole plant N is taken up.

U

1 ebct The maximum daily uptake of N is observed on 55

N.K. Moustakas, H. Ntzanis / Field Crops Research 94 (2005) 113 7

Fig. 3. (a) Dry matter accumulation and nutrient uptake curves in roots of flue-cured tobacco. (b) Root growth rate and nutrient uptake rate

curves of flue-cured tobacco.

DAT at 4.5 g m2 (Fig. 5b). In leaves, the period of respectively (Fig. 5a). During the growth period from

rapid change in uptake occurred between 41 and 68 transplant to 48 DAT (i.e. the first half of the growth-

DAT (Fig. 1a) where 93% of total leaf N was taken up, maturation phase) N taken up and distributed in

corresponding to 56% of whole plant N. The leaves, stalks and roots was 2.9, 0.5 and 0.13 g m2

maximum daily N uptake distributed in leaves was corresponding to 16%, 2.6% and 0.7% whole plant N,

found on 54 DAT at 2.7 g m2, in stalks 67 DAT at respectively. During the floweringtopping stage, the

0.86 g m2 and in roots 64 DAT at 1.1 g m2 (Figs. 1b, leaves, stalks and roots contained 10.7, 2.3 and

2b and 3b). The amount of N in the whole plant at 4.22 g N m2, respectively. These values represent

maturity was 18.24 g m2, distributed as 10.9 g m2 98%, 72% and 93% of total uptake in leaves, stalks

in leaves, 3.22 g m2 in stalks and 4.6 g m2 in roots, and roots, respectively, and correspond to 58%, 13%

representing 60%, 18% and 25% whole plant N, and 23% of whole plant N uptake. According to

8 N.K. Moustakas, H. Ntzanis / Field Crops Research 94 (2005) 113

Fig. 4. (a) Dry matter accumulation and nutrient uptake curves in the aerial parts of flue-cured tobacco. (b) Crop growth rate and nutrient uptake

rate curves of aerial parts of flue-cured tobacco.

McCants and Woltz (1967), the uptake and distribu- DAT and in roots between 48 and 75 DAT (Figs. 1a, 2a

tion of small quantities of N to the leaves of flue-cured and 3a) where 93%, 92% and 93% of total leaf, stalk

tobacco after flowering is desirable to ensure good and root K was taken up, corresponding to 18%, 33%

quality. and 22.5% of whole plant K. The amount of K in the

whole plant at maturity was 18.54 g m2, distributed

3.2.2. Potassium uptake as 7.6 g m2 in leaves, 6.7 g m2 in stalks and

A period of rapid change in K uptake is observed 5.3 g m2 in roots, representing 41%, 36% and 29%

between 41 and 68 DAT where 81% of whole plant K whole plant K, respectively. These values represent

is taken up (Fig. 5a). The maximum daily uptake of K 98%, 62% and 93% of total K uptake in leaves, stalks

is observed on 61 DAT at 4.6 g m2 (Fig. 5b). In and roots, respectively, and correspond to 40.5%, 23%

leaves, the period of rapid change in uptake occurred and 27% of whole plant K uptake. During the growth

between 41 and 68 DAT, in stalks between 41 and 90 period from transplant to 48 DAT (i.e. the first half of

N.K. Moustakas, H. Ntzanis / Field Crops Research 94 (2005) 113 9

Fig. 5. (a) Dry matter accumulation and nutrient uptake curves over a growing season of flue-cured tobacco in whole plants. (b) Crop growth rate

and nutrient uptake rate curves over a growing season of flue-cured tobacco.

the growth-maturation phase) K taken up and uted in stalks occurred 73 DAT at 1.86 g m2 and in

distributed in leaves, stalks and roots was 1.9, 0.7 roots 64 DAT at 1.33 g m2 (Fig. 1b)

and 0.14 g m2 corresponding to 10.3%, 3.9% and The quantities of N and K taken up and distributed

0.8% whole plant K, respectively. in aerial parts of the plant are approximately the same

The distribution of K in tobacco plants indicates at 18.5 g m2. McCants and Woltz (1967) report that

that K is essential even after topping. McCants and while flue-cured tobacco takes up greater quantities of

Woltz (1967) report that application of a K containing K than N, greater quantities of K-fertiliser must be

fertiliser 34 weeks after transplanting favours the added for the further reason that a high K uptake

production of good tobacco. The maximum daily K improves tobacco quality.

uptake distributed to leaves was found on 54 DAT at

1.91 g m2 (Fig. 1b) showing that K must be present in 3.2.3. Calcium uptake

significant quantities even at the early stages of A period of rapid change in Ca uptake is observed

development. The maximum daily K uptake distrib- between 41 and 75 DAT where 90% of whole plant Ca

10 N.K. Moustakas, H. Ntzanis / Field Crops Research 94 (2005) 113

Computation parameters a, b, c from the logistic equation using non-

and 4% of whole plant Ca. The amount of Ca in the

linear regression technique and correlation coefficient r between

observed and predicted values whole plant at maturity was 17.7 g m2, distributed as

9.6 g m2 in leaves, 2.3 g m2 in stalks and 3.9 g m2

Variable a b c r

in roots, representing 48.25%, 25% and 27% whole

DMLa 357.8 7.90 0.14 0.992

plant Ca, respectively. During the growth period from

DMS 289.73 8.59 0.12 0.996

DMR 240.68 15.85 0.24 0.97 transplant to 48 DAT (i.e. the first half of the growth-

DMAe 639.57 7.34 0.12 0.992 maturation phase) Ca taken up and distributed in

DMP 855.57 7.93 0.13 0.99 leaves, stalks and roots was 2.5, 0.3 and 0.17 g m2

NLb 10.88 9.69 0.18 0.973 corresponding to 16%, 2% and 1% whole plant Ca,

NS 3.43 6.97 0.09 0.997

respectively. During the floweringtopping stage, the

NR 4.56 14.21 0.22 0.97

NAe 13.7 9.01 0.16 0.992 leaves, stalks and roots contained 9.1, 1.9 and

N 18.27 9.06 0.16 0.996 3.2 g Ca m2, respectively. These values represent

KLc 7.68 10.29 0.19 0.887 95%, 83% and 81% of total uptake in leaves, stalks

KS 7.47 6.64 0.09 0.989 and roots, respectively, and correspond to 58%, 12%

KR 5.33 14.6 0.23 0.97

and 20% of whole plant Ca uptake. The maximum

KAe 13.27 8.93 0.15 0.992

K 18.57 9.73 0.16 0.996 daily Ca uptake distributed in leaves was found on 55

PLd 0.49 8.98 0.17 0.867 DAT at 2.4 g m2, in stalks 62 DAT at 0.6 g m2 and in

PS 0.25 13.2 0.22 0.939 roots 66 DAT at 0.98 g m2 (Figs. 1b, 2b and 3b).

PR 0.27 13.03 0.20 0.955 Calcium is third in order of importance of the

PAe 0.75 9.56 0.17 0.992

nutrients taken up in large quantities by Flue-cured

P 1.01 9.99 0.17 0.996

CaLe 9.62 8.06 0.15 0.996 tobacco. McCants and Woltz (1967) refer to the fact

CaS 2.36 7.98 0.13 0.999 that the major macronutrient for Flue-cured tobacco is

CaR 3.91 11.23 0.17 0.996 K, however the uptake and distribution of K and Ca to

Ca Ae 11.92 7.94 1.14 0.992 leaves is dependent on the nutrient status of the plant

Ca 15.84 7.74 0.13 0.996

and the availability of Ca (Elliot, 1978).

MgLf 1.54 7.99 0.14 0.992

MgS 0.66 7.59 0.11 0.995

MgR 0.87 12.9 0.20 0.986 3.2.4. Magnesium uptake

Mg Ae 2.17 7.49 0.13 0.992 A period of rapid change in Mg uptake is observed

Mg 3.06 8.12 0.13 0.996 between 41 and 75 DAT where 89% of whole plant Mg

a

DML, DMS, DMR, DMAe, DMP: dry matter accumulation in is taken up (Fig. 5a). The maximum daily uptake of

leaves, stalks, roots, aerial plant parts and in whole plants, respec- Mg is observed on 61 DAT at 0.8 g m2 (Fig. 5b). In

tively.

b leaves, the period of rapid change in uptake occurred

NL, NS, NR, NAe, N: nitrogen uptake in leaves, stalks, roots,

aerial plant parts and whole plants, respectively. between 41 and 75 DAT, in stalks between 41 and 90

c

KL, KS, KR, KAe, K: potassium uptake in leaves, stalks, roots, DAT and in roots between 48 and 90 DAT (Figs. 1a, 2a

aerial plant parts and whole plants, respectively. and 3a) where 95%, 96% and 99% of total leaf, stalk

d

PL, PS, PR, PAe, P: phosphorus uptake in leaves, stalks, roots, and root Mg was taken up, corresponding to 48%, 21%

aerial plant parts and whole plants, respectively.

e and 28% of whole plant Mg.

CaL, CaS, CaR, CaAe, Ca: calcium uptake in leaves, stalks,

roots, aerial plant parts and whole plants, respectively. The amount of Mg in the whole plant at maturity

f

MgL, MgS, MgR, MgAe, Mg: magnesium uptake in leaves, was 3.03 g m2, distributed as 1.54 g m2 in leaves,

stalks, roots, aerial plant parts and whole plants, respectively. 0.6 g m2 in stalks and 0.6 g m2 in roots, represent-

ing 50%, 21% and 28% of whole plant Mg,

is taken up (Fig. 5a). The maximum daily uptake of Ca respectively. During the growth period from transplant

is observed on 61 DAT at 3.9 g m2 (Fig. 5b). In to 48 DAT (i.e. the first half of the growth-maturation

leaves, the period of rapid change in uptake occurred phase) Mg taken up and distributed in leaves, stalks

between 34 and 75 DAT, in stalks between 41 and 90 and roots was 0.4, 0.1 and 0.002 g m2 corresponding

DAT and in roots between 48 and 90 DAT (Figs. 1a, 2a to 13%, 2% and 1% of whole plant Mg, respectively.

and 3a) where 95%, 98% and 98% of total leaf, stalk During the floweringtopping stage, the leaves, stalks

N.K. Moustakas, H. Ntzanis / Field Crops Research 94 (2005) 113 11

Fig. 6. Dry matter accumulation curve, crop growth rate curve (first derivative) and crop growth acceleration curve (second derivative) over a

growing season in whole plants of flue-cured tobacco.

and roots contained 1.4, 0.5 and 0.8 g Mg m2, During the floweringtopping stage, the leaves, stalks

respectively. These values represent 95%, 70% and and roots contained 0.5, 0.24 and 0.24 g P m2,

90% of total uptake in leaves, stalks and roots, respectively. These values represent 98%, 96% and

respectively, and correspond to 48.16%, 16% and 26% 90% of total uptake in leaves, stalks and roots,

of whole plant Mg uptake. The maximum daily Mg respectively, and correspond to 49%, 25% and 26% of

uptake distributed in leaves was found on 56 DAT at whole plant P uptake. It is noticeable that P uptake

0.38 g m2, in stalks 67 DAT at 0.17 g m2 and in occurs during the first stages of development prior to

roots 64 DAT at 0.22 g m2 (Figs. 1b, 2b and 3b). topping. The maximum daily P uptake distributed in

leaves was found on 52 DAT at 0.12 g m2, in stalks

3.2.5. Phosphorous uptake 61 DAT at 0.06 g m2 and in roots 64 DAT at

A period of rapid change in P uptake is observed 0.07 g m2 (Figs. 1b, 2b and 3b).

between 41 and 75 DAT where 96% of whole plant P is

taken up (Fig. 5a). The maximum daily uptake of P is 3.2.6. Aerial plant parts

observed on 55 DAT at 0.24 g m2 (Fig. 5b). In leaves, The DMA in aerial parts of the plant exhibits a

the period of rapid change in uptake occurred between period of rapid change between 48 and 90 DAT

34 and 61 DAT, in stalks between 41 and 75 DAT and (Fig. 5a). Up to 48 DAT 12% DMA was produced and

in roots between 48 and 90 DAT (Figs. 1a, 2a and 3a) 18% N, 13.4% K, 17.6% Ca, 15.3% Mg and 17.2% P

where 94%, 95% and 99% of total leaf, stalk and root P of the whole plant content has been taken up and

was taken up, corresponding to 46%, 24% and 26% distributed in aerial parts. Atkinson et al. (1977),

of whole plant Mg. working with Burley tobacco, report that only 18%

The amount of P in the whole plant at maturity DMA of the aerial plant parts is produced during the

was 1.0 g m2, distributed as 0.5 g m2 in leaves, first half of the growth period. Grizzard et al. (1942),

0.25 g m2 in stalks and 0.27 g m2 in roots, working on flue-cured tobacco, report that during the

representing 49%, 25% and 27% of whole plant P, first half of a 90-day cultivation period, 18% of DMA

respectively. During the growth period from transplant was apportioned to the aerial parts of the plant.

to 48 DAT (i.e. the first half of the growth-maturation The maximum daily DMA in aerial parts of the

phase) P taken up and distributed in leaves, stalks and plants was observed 62 DAT at 159.9 g m2 (Fig. 4b).

roots was 0.16, 0.01 and 0.01 g m2 corresponding to The maximum daily uptake and distribution of N in

16%, 25% and 26% of whole plant P, respectively. aerial parts was recorded 55 DAT at 3.43 g m2

12 N.K. Moustakas, H. Ntzanis / Field Crops Research 94 (2005) 113

(Fig. 4b). Maximum daily uptake of K, Ca, Mg and P soil must have sufficient nutrients available to supply

in aerial parts was observed 57, 56, 58 and 55 DAT at the needs of the plant.

3.13, 2.98, 0.54 and 0.19 g m2, respectively (Fig. 4b). The greater part of N and Ca taken up by flue-cured

It is notable that the maximum daily uptake of all tobacco is distributed in leaves (60%) meaning that a

nutrients in aerial parts took place 57 days prior to the substantial proportion of these nutrients is removed at

attainment of maximum DMA. Raper and McCants harvest and should be replaced by appropriate

(1967) report that in flue-cured tobacco, 50% of N and fertilisation. In contrast, K, though taken up in equal

K of the plant is distributed to aerial parts during the quantities as N is distributed throughout the plant

early growth stage, specifically from 35 to 42 DAT and differently with 65% remaining in stalks and roots

that the uptake and distribution of Ca, Mg and P occurs after harvest.

at a relatively steady rate throughout the growth Hence for coarse-textured soils a split application

period. Atkinson et al. (1977), Bruns and McIntosh of 1/3 N and K fertiliser 23 days prior to transplanting

(1988) and Bertinuson et al. (1970) working with and 2/3 2530 DAT is recommended. For fine-textured

Burley, Maryland and shade-grown wrapper tobacco soils 2/3 prior to transplanting with an additional

respectively report that the daily uptake and distribu- application of the remaining 1/3 2530 DAT is

tion of nutrients to aerial parts was greater during the recommended in order to fulfil the plants require-

later stages of development. ments.

The distribution of nutrients was different in

tobacco plant parts as shown in Figs. 13. The greater

part of N (60%) and of Ca (59%) was distributed in Acknowledgement

leaves, resulting in their removal from the field at

harvest. In contrast, the major portion of K taken up by The authors would like to thank Ms. Susan Coward

plants was distributed in stalks (36%) and roots (29%) for her help in the preparation of this paper.

which theoretically are returned to the soil at the end

of the cultivation season. The distribution of Mg and P

was equal between those parts harvested (4849% in References

leaves) and those remaining in the field after harvest

(roots and stalks). Atkinson, W.O., Bush, L.P., Sims, J.L., 1977. Dry matter and

nutrient accumulation in Burley tobacco. Tob. Sci. 21, 8182.

Bertinuson, T.A., Larssen, E., Teveris, B., Comfort, M., Petersen,

M., 1970. Nutrient uptake and dry matter accumulation of

4. Conclusions Connecticut shade-grown wrapper tobacco for three consecutive

years. Tob. Sci. 14, 155157.

During growth there is a period when DMA in plant Bruns, H.A., McIntosh, M.S., 1988. Growth rates and nutrients

parts occurs at an intense rate. The time of onset of this concentrations in Maryland tobacco. Tob. Sci. 32, 8287.

Ceotto, E., Castelli, F., 2002. Radiation-use efficiency in flue-cured

period and its duration vary with different plant parts.

tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum L.): response to nitrogen supply,

Maximum daily DMA occurs when 50% of the climatic variability and sink limitation. Field Crops Res. 74,

maximum plant DMA has been achieved. 117130.

During growth there is a period of rapid change in Collins, W.K., Hawks, S.N., 1993. Principles of Flue-cured Produc-

nutrient uptake whose onset and duration vary not only tion. N. C. State University, Raleigh, NC.

with regard to the time of onset and duration but also to Doorenbos, J., Pruit, W.O., 1977. Crop water requirements. Irriga-

tion and Drainage. Paper 24 (revised). FAO, Rome.

specific nutrient, and plant part. Maximum daily Elliot, J.M., 1978. A survey of flue-cured tobacco grown in Ontario

nutrient uptake in aerial parts of the plant occurs in 1976. Part II. Nutrient elements. Lighter 47, 1921.

approximately 1 week prior to the maximum daily FAO-UNESCO, 1973. Carte bioclimatique de la zone Mediterranee.

DMA. O.N.M., Paris.

The period of rapid DMA and nutrient uptake in Flower, F.C., 1999. Field practices. In: Layten Davis, D., Nielsen,

M.T. (Eds.), Tobacco, Production, Chemistry and Technology.

flue-cured tobacco coincides with the knee-high and Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK.

budding (rapid qrowth and elongation) stage (between Frere, M., 1979. A Method for the Practical Application of the

41 and 75 DAT). Consequently during this period, the Penman Formula for the Estimation of Potential Evapotranspira-

N.K. Moustakas, H. Ntzanis / Field Crops Research 94 (2005) 113 13

tion and Evaporation from Free Water Surface. FAO, Rome, tobacco.. In: Proceedings of CORESTA Congress, 2024

AGP:Eco/1979/1. November, Manila, The Phillipines.

Hunt, R., 1982. Plant Growth Curves. Edward Arnold, London. National Tobacco Institute of Greece, 1996. Guidelines for Tobacco

Grizzard, A.L., Davies, H.R., Kangas, L.R., 1942. The time and Production (in Greek).

rate of nutrients absorption by flue-cured tobacco. Agron. J. 34, Page, A.L., 1982. Chemical and microbiological properties. In:

327339. Page, A.L. (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Agronomy

Machura, M., Mulawa, A., 1973. Rosenbrock function minimization 9.. ASA, Inc., Madison, WI.

Algorithm 450. Commun. ACM 16, 482483. Penman, H.L., 1948. Natural evaporation from open water, bare

McCants, C.B., Woltz, W.G., 1967. Growth and mineral nutrition of soils s and grass. Proc. Roy. Soc. A 193, 120146.

tobacco. Adv. Agron. 19, 211265. Raper, C.D., McCants, C.B., 1967. Nutrient accumulation in Flue-

Miner, G.S., Tucker, M.R., 1990. Plant analysis as an aid in cured tobacco. Tob. Sci. 11, 190.

fertilizing tobacco. In: Westerman, R.L. (Ed.), Soil Testing Statsoft Inc., 1995. Statistica for Windows. tatSoft, Inc., Tulsa, OK.

and Plant Analysis SSSA Book, Ser. 3. SSSA, Madison, WI, Suzuki, M., Shinochara, T., Kona, K., 1970. Studies on the growth

pp. 645657. and the absorption of nutrients by Burley tobacco plants growth

Mylonas, V.A., Pangos, E.A., 1980. Dry matter and nutrient on Ando soils (Kuruboku). Morioka Lab. Tob. Exp. Sta. Bull.

accumulation in various plant parts of oriental neutral type 3, 91109.

- Homemade Potting MediaCargado porKirk's Lawn Care
- SPIC TC Banana CultivationCargado porBala Subramaniam
- Soil and Water testing Labortary of KVK, Kapurthala, (P.A.U, Ludhiana)Cargado porRajan Bhatt, Ph.D (Soil Science)
- Green Tech Brochure 2008-9Cargado porelasticmedia
- Memoeria de Calculo IxiamasCargado porMarco Antonio Torrez
- 26. Studying Germination.fullCargado porTJPRC Publications
- Fertilizing Eucalyptus at Plantation EstablishmentCargado porHugo Mabilana
- Biblio gCargado porAntonio Donizetti Giuliano
- Uranium in Fertiliser: OverviewCargado porJD_pdf
- Nutrient ManagementCargado porAngela Rollins
- test paper in ecologyCargado porHarold Ortiz Buenvenida
- M-9309LCargado porhulpe
- Mathmatics Main 1 & 2 (Class–IX).pdfCargado porminku_agrawal_3
- structure and functionCargado porapi-243079615
- soil compactionCargado porZel Galang
- lesson plan science portfolioCargado porapi-273332088
- Proposal PresetationCargado porFantasyta Valentino
- Mini ProjectCargado porWawaaNadia
- Alsta Hydrogel - Super Absorbent Polymer for AgricultureCargado porHydrogel Agriculture
- Fertilizer Industry in India, Indian Fertilizer Industry, Fertilizer Industry, Indian Fertilizer, Fertilizer Industry of IndiaCargado porArjun S
- Updated Table 4.1Cargado porGEMPF
- Chemical Versus Organic FertilizersCargado porN.Murugesan
- 8 Science NCERT Solutions Chapter 1Cargado porSuyash
- Roots and Shoot].pdfCargado porReno Baliguat
- chapter-1Cargado porprashant_cool_4_u
- report montero finalCargado porapi-439692198
- TUGAS 1.pdfCargado porTogap P Siringoringo
- 2019 scince 7.docxCargado porsiddharth arora
- 68-338-1-PB.pdfCargado porfaruq
- Barhee Tissue Irriga 2016Cargado pordada

- Chemometric Strategies for the Extration and Analysis Optimization of Herbicide Residues in Soil Samples.Cargado porManuel Vegas
- Diseases of SoybeanCargado porManuel Vegas
- Physiology and Biochemistry of Plants Under Salt StressCargado porManuel Vegas
- Comparison of Bos Taurus Bos Indicus Breed Crosses With Straigttbred Bos Indicus Breeds of Cattle for Maternal and Individual TraitsCargado porManuel Vegas
- Genetic Analyses of Bolting in Bulb Onion Allium CepaCargado porManuel Vegas
- Assessment_of_genetic_relationships_among_sexual_a.pdfCargado porManuel Vegas
- Tropical Fruit Tree Species and Climate ChangeCargado porManuel Vegas

- SunflowerCargado porHongYu Hui
- The.growth.of.PopulationsCargado porChirag Hablani
- Articulo IAMOT 2010Cargado porAngel Daniel Rios
- BinningCargado porSher Win
- pop growth pogil rennelCargado porapi-323831182
- Hemiptera Belastomatidae Benefits of Male Parental Care in Abedus Breviceps (Hemiptera Belostomatidae)Cargado porBiank Morejon
- The Hanoverian Supply Chain Model.pdfCargado porDiego Cortez Granados
- PMZC_model_81943937Cargado porOtieno Moses
- limiting-factors-to-population-growth l v20 0ba s1Cargado porapi-209948896
- Nureg Cr 6791Cargado poraldeanucu
- ML_S_IntroductionDataMining.pdfCargado porOtto Fco Wagner
- oncologists.pdfCargado porAlloush86
- An Outline of General System TheoryCargado porCassi F Grisdale
- 2007_02tCargado porsadiqaftab786
- IIJCS-2017-08-18-18.pdfCargado porAnonymous vQrJlEN
- A Review on Fish Growth Calculation Multiple Functions in Fish Production and Their Specific ApplicationCargado porRiccardo Melis
- Analysis of Logistic Growth Models Can HelpCargado porRT Patmawathy Ramalingam
- Technology Absorption and DiffusionCargado porAakriti28
- Neo Open Innovation in the Digital Economy : Harnessing Soft Innovation ResourcesCargado porijmit
- Bayesian Logistic Regression Modelling via Markov Chain Monte Carlo Algorithm - Henry De-Graft AcquahCargado porSantiago Fucci
- FCS_ITCargado porjimakosjp
- S-CurveCargado porlusavka
- Discrete Software Reliability Growth Models with Discrete Test Effort FunctionsCargado porijsea
- On the Idea Indigenous by JB Childs and Guillermoe DelgadoCargado porLorraine M. Del Rosario
- Logistic NotesCargado porHimesh Anand
- Chapter 13.0 Population EcologyCargado porWanie Raina
- bct. neuvoCargado porKarimPrinceAddo
- FunctionCargado porMaySnowdrop
- Cup 080911Cargado porPSP1984
- p_027_AAPMCargado porEloy Mora Vargas

## Mucho más que documentos.

Descubra todo lo que Scribd tiene para ofrecer, incluyendo libros y audiolibros de importantes editoriales.

Cancele en cualquier momento.