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Porosity and Lithology in

Complex Environments
Integrated evaluation
for more accurate
Applications Simplified porosity and lithology measurement stability. This sonde
Formation evaluation in com- evaluation in difficult reservoirs records the full pulse-height spectra
plex environments, such as The IPL* Integrated Porosity Lithology from both detectors and processes
shaly sands, mixed-lithology system provides accurate formation information into windows. Bulk density
carbonates, high-salinity porosity and lithology information, and photoelectric effect (Pe) informa-
fluids and micaceous sands even in reservoirs that are difficult to tion are derived conventionally. The
evaluate with standard tools. This sys- spectral information available is used
Stand-alone gas identification
tem acquires new-generation neutron for improved log and calibration qual-
Porosity measurement ity control.
porosity, natural gamma ray spectrom-
Lithology identification etry, density and photoelectric effect
Thin-bed analysis measurements using one modular tool. Full modularity
The control electronics for the IPL
Benefits Neutron porosity measurement system sensor array are compact, yet
The APS* Accelerator Porosity Sonde, fully modular. They allow the tool to
Improved gas detection in
which uses an electronic neutron be run as a stand-alone platform or
shaly reservoirs
source instead of a chemical source, the individual sensors to be run in
Improved reserve estimates combination with other Schlumberger
is the heart of the IPL system. Because
Identification of thin pay-zones the neutron source has a large yield, platforms and tools.
Efficient wellsite operation it allows the use of epithermal neutron
saves rig time detection and borehole shielding to Solutions for tough problems
Reduced radiation hazard obtain porosity measurements that The IPL system and tool combinations
with sourceless porosity are affected only minimally by the provide interpretation solutions in
measurement borehole environment and formation many conditions that are difficult to
characteristics, such as lithology and evaluate with traditional wireline
salinity. Five detectors provide infor- measurements, such as thin beds, shaly
mation for porosity evaluation, gas sands, mixed-lithology carbonates,
Combinability with ECS* high-salinity fluids, micaceous sands
detection, shale evaluation, vertical-
Elemental Capture Spectro- and rough or difficult hole conditions.
resolution improvement and borehole
scopy sonde to provide robust
petrophysical properties Thin beds
High-yield pulsed-neutron Natural gamma ray measurement The APS porosity measurements
generation improved vertical resolution and lower
The HNGS Hostile-Environment
Thermal neutron and Natural Gamma Ray Sonde incorpo- sensitivity to clay make identification
epithermal neutron porosity rates technology that enhances answer and evaluation of thin beds much
measurements quality. Increased detection efficiency easier. The thermal neutron formation
Real-time correction to reduce with spectral processing significantly capture cross section (sigma) measure-
environmental effects improves measurement precision and ment can be used to greatly improve
reduces environmental corrections. the vertical resolution of the shale eval-
Improved vertical resolution
Sensitivity to the barite content of uation usually obtained from gamma
Sigma measurement ray information. When the APS sonde
mud is eliminated by using only the
High-efficiency gamma ray high-energy gamma rays for analysis. is run with the AIT* Array Induction
detectors The MAXIS* Multitask Acquisition Imager Tool or ARI* Azimuthal Resis-
Enhanced data validation and and Imaging System corrects for bore- tivity Imager, the combination provides
quality control hole size and the borehole potassium a vertical resolution of about 1 ft.
Modular tool design contributionin real time.
Shaly sands
Density and photoelectric Because clay has little effect on the
effect measurements APS neutron-porosity measurement,
The Litho-Density* sonde has a pad the gas effect in shaly sands is more
with a gamma ray source and two visible. This reduces the chance of
detectors. Magnetic shielding and high- missing a pay zone.
speed electronics ensure excellent
Mixed-lithology carbonates Micaceous sands
IPL tool string.
The degree of dolomitization in a for- The high-quality HNGS measurements
mation has little influence on the APS of natural radioactivity, together with
carbonate porosity response. As a the APS formation sigma, improve
result, the APS neutron porosity meas- evaluation of micaceous sands.
urement in carbonates with unknown
or variable dolomitization is the closest Rough hole conditions
to true formation porosity. Using the APS epithermal array
detectors to correct for tool standoff
High-salinity fluids improves results in rugose hole HNGS sonde
APS epithermal neutron detection sections. Thorium, uranium and
and borehole shielding minimize the potassium concentrations
effects of formation and borehole Difficult hole conditions
fluids that have high salinities. When Since its neutron porosity measure-
conventional neutron porosity tools are ments do not require a radioactive
used, these effects are much greater source, the APS sonde can be used in
and are dependent on lithology, inva- wells with difficult borehole condi-
sion characteristics and hydrocarbon tions where tool sticking might be a
saturation. problem.

APS sonde
Epithermal neutron porosities
IPL Hardware Specifications Epithermal neutron
Hardware Length Weight Diameter Temperature Pressure
slowing time
(ft) (lbm) (in.) (F) (psi) Invaded formation sigma
HNGS sonde 8.5 203 3 34 500 25,000 Detector standoff
APS sonde 13 222 3 5 8 350 20,000
IPL cartridge 8 128 3 3 8 350 20,000
Litho-Density sonde 11 292 4 716 350 20,000

IPL Logging Specifications

Logging Mode Sampling Rate Logging Speed
(in.) (ft/hr)
IPL cartridge
Standard 6 1800
High speed 6 3600 Raw data spectral and
time distribution transmitted
High resolution
to surface
Density 1 900
Neutron porosity 2 Improved log quality control
Natural gamma ray spectroscopy 6

IPL General Specifications

Specifications Range Accuracy
APS measurement
Near-to-array epithermal porosity 07 p.u. 0.5 p.u.
730 p.u. 7%
3060 p.u. 10%
Litho-Density sonde
Litho-Density measurements
Bulk density 2.03.0 g/cm3 0.01 g/cm3 Compensated bulk density
Photoelectric factor 16 10% Photoelectric factor
HNGS measurements Borehole diameter
Thorium 2%
Uranium 2%
Potassium 5%
8-in. borehole filled with fresh water, with no tool standoff, at standard pressure and temperature conditions
Quicklook lithology evaluation In the lower shale section (A), the Above X240 ft, the cuttings analysis
The ability of the APS sonde to meas- APS porosity and bulk density curves describes the formation as sandstone
ure total formation hydrogen index display shale separation in a conven- with a varying amount of shaliness.
greatly simplified this quicklook lithol- tional manner, although the separation Both gamma ray and Pe measurements
ogy evaluation in a 12-in. borehole, is less than half that of CNL* Compen- show this potential bed as shaly, yet
which had been drilled through a shaly sated Neutron Log porosity and bulk the IPL neutron-density separation is
sand formation using 11.1-lbm/gal mud density curves. larger than the separation in the lower,
weighted with small amounts of barite. cleaner sands, indicating a gas effect.

This quicklook lithology evaluation demonstrates the ability of the IPL tool combination
to improve lithology and porosity evaluation and gas detection in shaly sands.






Caliper 1:240 ft APS Array Porosity

10 (in.) 20 45 (p.u.) 15
Total Formation Gamma Ray CNL Thermal Neutron Porosity
0 (GAPI) 15 45 (p.u.) 15
Standoff Bulk Density
1 (in.) 9 1.95 (g/cm3) 2.95
Photoelectric Factor Density Correction
0 (in.) 10 0.25 (g/cm3) 0.25
Gas detection in thin, shaly sands sand more clearly than either the streaks and a 2-ft gas zone. The AIT
In this thinly bedded, shaly sandstone, gamma ray or spontaneous poten- 1-ft-resolution resistivity measure-
the AIT and IPL combination detected tial measurements do. The density ment also shows this zone. Formation
several gas zones that conventional measurement, together with the APS matrix density variations make the
logging technology would have missed. neutron porosity profile, which is CNL porosity profile comparatively
The formation sigma measurement sensitive only to variations in forma- insensitive to the presence of gas in
defines the overall extent of the shaly tion hydrogen index, pinpoints tight the formation.

A plug-and-abandon permit was issued after this shale and shaly sand interval was logged with DIL* Dual Induction
Resistivity Log, Litho-Density and CNL tools. A subsequent evaluation of the same interval with an AIT and IPL
combination pinpointed five gas-bearing intervals that had been overlooked. This was confirmed by formation test
samples, and the well was completed. It is expected to provide a 10-fold return on investment.


Producing gas at
1.6 MMcf/D


Caliper AIT 90-in. Resistivity

6 (in.) 16 0.2 (ohm-m) 20
Uranium-Free Gamma Ray DIL Deep Resistivity
0 (GAPI) 150 0.2 (ohm-m) 20
Spontaneous Potential Bulk Density
80 (mV) 20 1.65 (g/cm3) 2.65
Sigma CNL Thermal Neutron Porosity
0 (c.u) 40 60 (p.u) 0
APS Array Porosity
60 (p.u) 0
Gas detection without for gas detection in problem holes.
a chemical source In this shaly sand example, overlaying
The APS sonde uses an electronic the epithermal neutron and sonic
source, not a chemical one, so the APS curves reveals a crossover profile in
neutron-sonic combination is useful the gas zones.

Both the APS neutron-density and APS neutron-sonic logs identified all the gas zones in this interval.
The lack of gamma ray contrast, shown in the depth track, indicates very shaly sands.






Bulk Density 1:240 ft Rxo, Invaded Zone Resistivity Compressional t

1.7 (g/cm ) 3 2.7 Formation 0.2 (ohm-m) 20 220 (s/ft) 70
APS Array Porosity Gamma Rt, Formation Resistivity APS Array Porosity
60 (p.u.) 0 0.2 (ohm-m) 20 60 (p.u.) 0
0 150
Gas (GAPI) Gas
SMP-5167 Schlumberger
August 2002 *Mark of Schlumberger