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MDT* Modular

Formation Dynamics
Tester
MDT* Modular
Formation
Dynamics Tester

S C H L U M B E R G E R E D U C A T I O N A L S E R V I C E S
Schlumberger 1992

Schlumberger Educational Services


P.O. Box 2175
Houston, Texas 77252-2175

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be


reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or tran-
scribed in any form or by any means, electronic or
mechanical, including photocopying and recording,
without prior written permission of the publisher.

SMP-9220

An asterisk (*) is used throughout this document to


denote a mark of Schlumberger.
10/95
Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Application examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Pressure profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Tool description, operations
Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
and specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
MiniDSTs with the dual-packer module . . . . . . . 22
Standard MDT system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Permeability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Electrical power module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Hydraulic power module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Single-probe module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Quartz pressure gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 References and recommended reading . . . . . . . . . . 31
Sample chambers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Nomenclature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
MDT flowline system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Bottomhole testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Log and plot mnemonics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Dual-probe system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Optional modules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Multiprobe system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Flow-control module. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Pumpout module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
OFA* Optical Fluid Analyzer module . . . . . . . . . . 12
Multisample module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Dual-packer module. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Packer-probe module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Tool specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

10/95
MDT Modular Formation
Dynamics Tester

Introduction
Wireline formation tester results have provided oil depths, provide a determination of gas-oil-water
and gas operators with important reservoir infor- contacts. In development wells these pressure sur-
mation for many years. Recovered samples pro- veys often offer an understanding of how fluids are
vide formation fluid for identification and analysis moving within the reservoir.
at surface, and pressure measurements allow a Wireline formation tests also provide perme-
determination of fluids in place and formation ability determinations. The recorded pressure
permeability estimates. A new device, the MDT response to a known flow-rate pulse gives an esti-
Modular Formation Dynamics Tester tool, adds mation of the formation permeabilityfrom either
significant capabilities through advances in sen- the drawdown or buildup pressure transients. The
sors, downhole motors, fabrication techniques multiprobe tester is a significant advancement with
and interpretation methods. the capability of a direct and deeper measurement
The standard MDT tool is the heart of the of permeabilitiesboth vertical and horizontal.
system and provides several enhancements over Successive pressure measurements distributed
existing tools. Optional modules provide addition- along the borehole produce a spatial permeability
al capabilities and the modular design allows opti- mapping.
mum tool configurations for specific applications. The MDT tool recovers PVT-quality samples
A new quartz transducer developed specifically by using techniques for downhole fluid analysis,
to react quickly and accurately to pressure and a system to discard contaminated fluids before tak-
temperature transients greatly reduces the wellsite ing samples and precision flow-control methods
time required to obtain reservoir pressures. Real- to limit the drawdown pressure.
time surface control over downhole flow rates and The MAXIS 500* wellsite unit controls the
volumes allows the recording of optimum point- field operationfrom downhole tool functions
by-point pressure tests through highly heteroge- and sequences to acquisition and processing of
neous formations. These accurately measured the pressure data.
reservoir fluid pressures plotted versus well

10/95 Introduction 1
Tool description, operations and specifications
Worldwide, wireline test tools have a diverse range pressure. The tool is usually combined with a
of applications. These include fluid recovery for gamma ray device for depth control and an AMS
identifying the presence of hydrocarbons and pro- Auxiliary Measurement Sonde tool for tension
viding samples for analysis. Also included are monitoring.
reservoir pressure measurements for precise map-
pingover hundreds of points in a single well. Electrical power module
The monitoring of pressure interferences between The electrical power module provides tool electri-
wells and the determination of fluid mobility are cal power along a common electrical bus that runs
other important uses. The MDT tool employs through all modules. The electrical power module
a modular construction design to address such is used in every MDT configurationalways at
a range of applications. Currently, the standard the top of the tool string.
tool includes electrical power, hydraulic power,
single-probe and sample modules. Optional mod- Hydraulic power module
ules include multiprobe, multisample, flow-control The hydraulic power module is the basic hydraulic
and pumpout. Optical fluid description and dual- power source, delivering power by way of a
packer modules are being field tested and will be hydraulic bus. Through-flowline and electrical
more widely available in 1993. The modular connections allow the running of this module any-
design allows the optimum configuration of the where in the tool string below the electrical power
tool for each operation to meet specific client module.
needs.

Standard MDT tool


Figure 1 shows a schematic of the MDT tool Electrical power
module
with the single-probe module. This configuration,
which extends the capabilities of existing single-
Hydraulic power
probe testers, provides a basic tool to which addi- module
tional modulesand therefore capabilitiescan
be added. Advantages over existing tools include
the determination of flowline fluid resistivity, sev- Probe module
eral fluid samples per trip, standard operations in
a larger range of hole sizes, extended pressure
accuracy and dynamic response and surface-
controlled pretest rate and volume and sampling
Sample modules

Figure 1. Standard MDT tool configuration for single-probe


tests.

2 Tool description, operations and specifications 10/95


MRPS 1 Vert SG Pressure (BSG1) Elapsed MRPS 1 Vert SG MRPS 1 Vert GS MRPS 1 Vert GS MRPS 1 Vert GS
Time Ten's (SG1T) One's (SG1U) Fraction (SG1F)
0.0 (PSIG) 5000.0 (ETIM) Pessure (BSG1)
(S) (PSIG) 0.0 (---) 10.0 0.0 (---) 10.0 0.0 (---) 10.0

MRHY
Motor
MRPS Resistivity (BFR1) Speed
0.0 (OHMM) 1.0 (HMS1)

0.0
(RPM) Single-probe module
8000.0
MRPP
Uphole Connected directly to the hydraulic power module,
MRSC 1 VP1 1 (VP1) Current
-5.0 (---) 250.0 (PPUC)
(AMPS)
the single-probe module provides the standard
10.0
0.0 probe, strain gauge (and optional quartz gauge)
MRSC 2 VP2 2 (VP2)
-5.0 (---) 250.0 and pretest functions. The probe extends against
MRSC 3 VP3 3 (VP3)
-5.0 (---) 250.0 the borehole wall to provide a sealed fluid path
MRPS 1 Resitivity Temperature
(B1TR) from the reservoir to the flowline. An optional
50.0 (DEGF) 150.0 CONCLUSION OF TEST NOT SHOWN

534 101.6
large-diameter probe is also available.
455 101.6
456
477
101.7
101.7
The pretest is used to assure a good hydraulic
458
459
101.4
100.6 seal, to obtain accurate formation pressure record-
450 0
OPEN441
SAMPLE CHAMBER0
432 2911.6
ings and to determine permeability. The module
423
414
2911.5
2911.5 has one pretest chamber with a maximum volume
405 2911.4
396
387
2911.4
2911.3
of 20 cm3. The MAXIS 500 service unit controls
378 2911.2
369
360
2911.2
2911.0
the sampling pressure, the pretest flow rate and
351
342
2910.9
2910.7 volume from the surface. This allows the selection
333 2910.5
324
315
2910.5
2910.3
of optimal values for the various formation charac-
306 2910.0
297
288
2909.8
2909.5
teristics that can be encountered during a sequence
279
270
2909.2
2909.8
of pressure measurements. Figure 2 shows a
261 2908.1
252
243
2907.4
2906.4
pretest section of the MDT log and the log insert
234
225
2905.1
2903.2 with mnemonic identification.
236 2900.4
207
196
2896.2
2859.2
The standard telescoping backup pistons allow
185 2875.8
180
171
2827.3
1014.2
testing in a large range of borehole diameters from
162 PRETEST
20 CC
153
1103.8
3293.4 6 to 14 in.; a kit extends the range to 19 in.
144 3293.4
135
126
3293.4
3293.5
New features include a flowline resistivity
117
108
3293.5
3293.4 sensor, temperature sensor and isolation valve.
99 3248.4
90
81
3296.0
3294.3
The resistivity measurement helps to discriminate
72 3294.3
SET63 PROBE
54
3294.0
3294.3
between filtrate from water-base muds and forma-
45
36
3294.4
3294.5 tion fluids (Fig. 3). It is also useful when taking
27 3294.5
18
9
3294.5
3294.7
formation water samples in wells drilled with oil-
Figure 2. Section of MAXIS log over pretest section base mud. The isolation valve minimizes the
including the log insert showing mnemonics identification. effects of flowline fluid volume on pressure
transients.
234-gal sample
13,000 32
Sampling Fluid
starts resistivity
12,000 24
Resistivity (ohm-m)

Reservoir
Pressure (psi)

11,000 pressure 16
Sample
chamber
10,000 full 8

9000 Hydrocarbon 0
flowing
8000
1264 1272 1280 1288 1296 1304
Time (sec)
Figure 3. The flowline resistivity measurement helps
discriminate between fluid contaminated by filtrate and
pure formation fluid.

10/95 Tool description, operations and specifications 3


Table 1. MDT gauge specifications
Specifications Strain Gauge CQG Quartz Gauge
Accuracy 0.10% full scale 2.0 psi + 0.01% of reading
Repeatability 0.06% full scale 1.0 psi
Resolution 0.001% full scale 0.003 psi
@ 0.14-sec sampling @ 1-sec sampling
Temp. rating 400F (204C) 350F (175C)

Quartz pressure gauge Another comparison, shown in Fig. 5, illus-


The probe module has the option of including trates the dynamic response of these three gauges.
a quartz gauge. The MDT tool uses the CQG* The top portion shows the response to a dry test.
Combinable Quartz Gauge sensora gauge devel- Note the large undershoot of the conventional
oped specifically to react quickly and accurately quartz gauge. The bottom portion shows the return
to pressure and temperature transients. This sensor to hydrostatic pressure after the dry test. The raw
offers an order-of-magnitude improvement in both CQG data stabilize much more quickly than the
gauge resolution and accuracy over existing strain conventional quartz gauge but not as quickly as the
gauges. strain gauge. However, after applying dynamic
Table 1 compares quartz and strain gauge compensation to the CQG gauge, it stabilizes as
specifications. The isolated portion of the flowline fast as the strain gauge while retaining the accura-
volume, compressed during pressure buildup, is cy and resolution of the quartz gauge.
significantly reduced compared with tools using Table 2 provides comparative specifications for
conventional quartz gauge adapters. the CQG quartz gauge and the conventional quartz
Figure 4 compares the stabilization characteris- gauge.
tics of CQG quartz, conventional quartz and strain
gauges. This example of a 10C thermal shock at a
8010
constant pressure of 8000 psi shows how the CQG
gauge stabilizes much more rapidly and has a Conventional quartz gauge
much smaller peak error than a conventional
Strain gauge
quartz gauge. +1 psi

1 psi
Pressure CQG
(psi) 7995 gauge

7980
0 24 48
Time (min)

Figure 4. Comparison of the stabilization characteristics of


the CQG quartz (without dynamic correction), conventional
quartz and strain gauges.

4 Tool description, operations and specifications 10/95


100

90
Pressure (psi)

80

70

60

50

40
1900 2100 2300 2500 1900 2100 2300 2500
Time (sec) Time (sec)
CQG raw data Hewlett-Packard
CQG corrected Paine (strain)

Figure 5. Comparison of the dynamic response of the CQG quartz (with, left, and without dynamic correction, right), conven-
tional quartz and strain gauges.

Table 2. Comparison of CQG and conventional quartz gauges


Parameter CQG Quartz Gauge Conventional Quartz
Gauge without Clock
Pressure range Atm15 kpsi Atm12 kpsi
Temperature range 10C to 125C 25C to 175C
Accuracy (overall) including repeat/hyst. (0.01% reading +2 psi) (0.01% reading +2 psi)
Long-term stability at 150C and 10 kpsi Better than 0.2 psi over 7 days 0.5 psi over 7 days
Resolution
over 1 sec 0.003 psi 0.01 psi
over 0.1 sec 0.03 psi
Pressure shock response time (return within 1 psi)
without dynamic correction
500 psi a few sec (average) 3 min
5000 psi 2 min (average) 10 min
with dynamic correction a few sec (average) Not applicable
Temperature response time to a 10C step (return within 1 psi)
without dynamic correction 18 min (average) 24 min
with dynamic correction Always within 1 psi Not applicable

10/95 Tool description, operations and specifications 5


Throttle valve
Sample chambers Module electronics
Transport valve
The standard sample chambers are available with
volumes of 1, 234 and 6 gal. The 6-gal unit is Drain valve
expandable in multiples of six. The 1- and 234-gal
modules are available in H2S-resistant material.
These smaller chambers contain the through flow-
lines and electrical bus so they may be placed any-
where in the string below the electrical power
module. However, the 6-gal unit does not contain
these and it must run at the bottom of the string.
The software will handle up to 12 sample units,
but length and weight limitations make only 5 or 6
Recycling valve
per trip practical. Figure 6 shows a schematic of Electrical bus
the 1-gal sample unit illustrating the through-flow-
line and electrical connections and the valves.
The electromechanically actuated throttle (seal)
Figure 6. Schematic of 1-gal sample module illustrating the
valves, controlled from the surface, direct sampled
through-flowline and electrical connections.
fluid to the selected chamber in any order. The
throttle valve is a dynamic valve, constantly
adjusted to maintain a specified flowline sampling
pressure within an error band. The valve also func- CQG gauge
tions as a seal valve. Isolation valve
Resistivity/
Temperature Equalizing valve
MDT flowline system cell Flowline bus
Figure 7 shows a schematic of the MDT flowline Articulated flow line Strain gauge
system. Unlike other tester tools, the MDT set and Pretest
pretest sequences are independent and controlled Front shoe
by the operator. The MDT filter valve moves when Filter Backup telescoping
pistons
the hydraulic pressure is at 2800 psi rather than
Packer
at the 2000 psi required for other tester tools. Also,
the MDT pretest piston moves with full system Filter valve
pressure in the set line instead of the 2700 psi Probe pistons
required for other tools. With the features of the
Throttle/Seal valve
MDT tool, there is less chance of a loss of seal.
Sample module
Sample chamber

Figure 7. Schematic of the MDT flowline system.

6 Tool description, operations and specifications 10/95


Electrical power Bottomhole testing
module
Figure 8 shows one application of this flexible
modular system using the single-probe tool.
Bottomhole sampling within 2 ft of total depth
(TD) is possible with the probe placed at the
Sample modules bottom of the string.
For pressure testing only, the MDT tool would
run in this configurationminus the sample
modules.

Hydraulic power Dual-probe system


module Two single-probe modules can be used to monitor
contiguous zones during an interference test
Probe module (Fig. 9). Also, the use of two single-probe modules
may enhance the pressure-gradient measurement
because of the fixed and precisely known distance
between the two measuring points. Other applica-
Figure 8. This configuration of the modular MDT tool allows
tions for this configuration include the use of a
testing within 2 ft of the bottom of the well.
different probe type on each module for testing
different formation types on the same trip. Also,
it provides a backup in case of a plugged probe.

Electrical power
module

Hydraulic power
module

Probe module

Probe module

Sample module

Sample module

Figure 9. The use of dual probes enhances pressure gradient


measurements since the distance between the two measuring
points is precisely known.

10/95 Tool description, operations and specifications 7


Optional modules

Multiprobe system
A detailed characterization of the permeability
distribution throughout a reservoir is a valuable
resource in the design of efficient well completions
and pressure maintenance and flood programs.
The effective permeability determined by a sin-
gle-probe device in thick anisotropic formations is
the spherical permeabilitya combination of both
the vertical and radial permeabilities. Without an
additional measurement the radial and vertical
permeabilities cannot be separated.
With the multiprobe configuration (Fig. 10),
both the vertical and horizontal mobilities can be
determined by performing a localized interference
test. With this tool it is not necessary to know the
porosity-total compressibility product to determine
formation mobilities and permeability anisotropy.
Also, the range of permeabilities over which the
tool can operate extends beyond that for a single
probe. This is because the individual monitor
probes are more or less sensitive to different
combinations of formation parameters. Additional
advantages of the multiprobe tool become obvious
when testing in heterogeneous formations.

Figure 10. This photo of the MDT tool shows the multiprobe
configuration.

8 Tool description, operations and specifications 10/95


Figure 11 shows a schematic of the multiprobe
system with its three probesthe sink, vertical
monitor and horizontal monitor probes. For normal
Observation operations, the sink probe withdraws fluid from the
Sink probes
probe formation at a prescribed rate while the vertical
and horizontal probes monitor the pressure
response (Fig. 12). The vertical monitor probe
is 2.3 ft (70 cm) above the sink probe and the hori-
zontal monitor probe is diametrically opposite the
sink probe. In this configuration, the 20-cm3
pretests at the three probes establish hydraulic
Figure 11. The multiprobe tester provides a method for communication with the formation, confirm pres-
measuring a pressure response at locations other than the sure seals and determine formation pressures at the
flowing probeallowing vertical and horizontal permeability probe locations. An analysis of the transient pres-
determinations. sure data acquired during the individual pretests
provides estimates of drawdown and buildup
5 mobilities near the probes.
With the multiprobe system it is possible to
0 Vertical sample from either the vertical or sink probes into
observation
probe any one of the sample chambers. The horizontal
Pressure Change (psi)

5 probe is strictly a pressure-monitoring probe with-


Horizontal out a connection to the flowline bus. Resistivity
10 observation
probe cells located in the flowline close to the vertical
and sink probes help to identify the fluid being
15
sampled through these two probes.
1,000
Quartz gauge
1500 Strain gauge
2000
Flowing probe
2500
25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150
Time (sec)

Figure 12. Typical pressure response from a multiprobe test.

10/95 Tool description, operations and specifications 9


Flow-control module Electrical power
module
The flow-control module, shown in the multiprobe
tool string in Fig. 13, supplies the means to pulse
Hydraulic power
the formation to a greater depth and a method to module
control the pulse for greater accuracy determining
vertical permeability. The module provides a Probe module
maximum flow volume of 1000 cm3, which gives
a significant increase over the small pretest cham-
bers in the depth and magnitude of the pulse on the Dual-probe
module
formation. Of equal importance is the ability to
control and measure the sampling flow rate. Flow control
Operational modes for the flow-control module module
include constant flow rate, constant pressure and
ramped flow rate or pressure. The module also has Sample module
the ability to perform pulses repeatedly while
downhole; the 1000-cm3 sample is either pumped
into the borehole or is dumped into an available
sample chamber. Figure 13. Multiprobe system using the flow-control module.
The module also has applications in difficult
sampling situations such as unconsolidated
formations.

Pumpout module
Electrical power
The recovery of PVT-quality samples from the module
formation requires three capabilities. The first is
a system to purge unwanted fluid from the fluid
Hydraulic power
sample. A dump chamber can serve this purpose module
with certain limitations, but the pumpout module,
illustrated in Fig. 14, provides a much better solu-
tion. It pumps fluid directly from the formation Probe module
into the mud column. The pumpout module elimi-
nates the volume limitation on the amount of fluid
dumped. Multisample
module
During the test, the engineer monitors the resis-
tivity of the flowline fluid while pumping. When
Pumpout
fluid quality is representative of the reservoir, the module
pump is stopped and a pure formation fluid is
diverted to a sample chamber. The pump performs
at about 0.6 gal/min at an 800-psi pressure differ-
ential. Lower differential pressures increase the
Figure 14. MDT tool string with the multisample module
pumping rates, while higher differentials reduce
that can collect six samples per trip for PVT analysis. The
the pumping performance. An additional advan-
pumpout module enhances PVT-quality sampling operations.
tage of the pumpout device is the ability to limit
the drawdown pressure applied to the formation
greatly reducing seal failures.

10 Tool description, operations and specifications 10/95


POPV BFR1 BSG1
(gal) (ohm-m) (psi)
35 1.4 7000
234 gal
30 1.2 6000
BSG1 (probe pressure) 6 gal
25 1.0 5000

20 0.8 4000
BFR1 (flowline resistivity)
15 0.6 3000

10 0.4 2000

5 0.2 1000
POPV (cumulative volume pumped)
0 0.0 0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
Time (min)

Figure 15. Illustration of the sequence of pumpout module operations showing pumpout volumes, probe
pressure and flowline resistivity.

Figure 15 illustrates the sequence of pumpout Elapsed


module operations. The presentation includes Time(s) Event Summary
curves for the probe pressure, flowline resistivity
2415.0 Retract (Single Probe Module 1)
and cumulative volume pumped measurements. 2332.2 Sealed (Multi-Sample Module 1 bottle 3)
In this example, the resistivity curve shows that, 2166.0 Opened (Multi-Sample Module 1 bottle 3)
2086.5 Sealed (Multi-Sample Module 1 bottle 2)
initially, most of the fluid in the flowline was mud 1932.9 Opened (Multi-Sample Module 1 bottle 2)
filtrate. During the pumpout operation, the resistiv- 1884.3 Pumping Out Stopped 18170.1 C3 (Pumpout Module)
595.8 Pumping Out Started (Pumpout Module)
ity gradually declined showing less and less conta- 576.6 Pumping Out Stopped 3028.4 C3 (Pumpout Module)
mination. After pumping about 25 gal of flowline 378.0 Pumping Out Started (Pumpout Module)
208.2 Pretest at vertical probe 20.0 cc (Single Probe Module 1)
fluid into the borehole, the engineer stopped the 131.7 Probe setting @ 6267.1 FT (Single Probe Module 1)
pump and opened the sample unit to recover 18.3 Electronic ACOM (Single Probe Module 1)
an uncontaminated sampleconfirmed by the
resistivity values while the fluid flows into the Figure 16. A MAXIS event summary from a multisample test
chamber. Figure 16 shows a MAXIS event that included the pumpout module.
summary from a multisample test.

10/95 Tool description, operations and specifications 11


OFA Optical Fluid Analyzer module Electrical power
The second requirement for the recovery of PVT- module
grade fluid samples is a detection system to indi-
Hydraulic power
cate fluid quality. The sensor in the probe module module
provides a resistivity measurement over a wide
range. However, some conditions and particularly Probe module
wells drilled with oil-base mud may require the
Optical Fluid Analyzer module. This module, run
Optical Fluid
immediately below the probe module as shown in Analyzer module
Fig. 17, uses optical analysis techniques to identify
the fluid in the flowline. Optical absorption Multisample
spectrometry in the near infrared range differenti- module
ates oil and water. Reflection measurements at Pumpout
different reflection angles detect gas. module
The OFA field test example in Fig. 18 is a real-
time fluid analysis recorded while sampling. In
track 1 the red curve is the flowing pressure and Figure 17. The Optical Fluid Analyzer module helps to iden-
the green curve is the fluid color. The low fluid tify fluids in the flowline during testing and sampling.
color values to the left correspond to clear or trans-
parent fluidsvalues on the right correspond to
opaque fluids. Track 2 shows the volume fractions
of oil in green and water in blue. A gas flag is pre-
sented in red. Note the gas breaking out of solution
whenever the flowing pressure drops below the
bubblepoint. The raw spectra are presented in
tracks 3 and 4.
The OFA module will be available in 1993. x000

Figure 18. OFA display of real-time fluid analysis while


sampling.

12 Tool description, operations and specifications 10/95


Multisample module
The third requirement for PVT-quality samples
is an appropriate sample receiver. The multisample
module contains six sample chambers mounted in
a single carrier (Fig. 17). Each sample cylinder
collects a 450-cm3 sample suitable for full PVT
analysis. Valves, controlled from the surface, open
and close specific sample bottles as required. This
makes it possible to take multiple samples during
one tool set, at various times of fluid flow, or fill
single sample bottles at various well depths. A
Figure 19. The 450-cm3 multisample bottles are certified for throttling valve, acting as an inlet choke, provides
transportation by air. pressure control while sampling. Additional con-
trol devices, the water cushion and flow chokes,
are especially useful for suppression of pressure
surges.
At the surface, the small sample cylinders
easily detach from the carrier for transportation
(Fig. 19). The bottles meet transportation regula-
tions for shipping of pressurized containers.
Figure 20 displays an MDT log recorded during
a multisample test for PVT analysis. The client
wanted to sample gas condensate at critical condi-
tions with the specification that the drawdown
(flowing) pressure be less than 10 psi. Water cush-
ions and chokes were used with the water cushion
throttled to a sample chamber. Through careful
pressure control, drawdown pressure was less than
8 psi for all bottles. The log shows the pressures
recorded while filling the last two bottles.
Figure 21 shows the results of PVT analysis on
four of these samples. Note the consistency of the
samples, as shown in the compositional analysis
and the parameters in Table 3.

Figure 20. An MDT log recorded during a multisample test


for PVT analysis.

10/95 Tool description, operations and specifications 13


100

Sample 1 Sample 3
Sample 2 Sample 4
10
Composition (mole %)

0.1

0.01
CO2 C1 C2 C3 i-C4 n-C4 i-C5 n-C5 C6 C7+

Component

Figure 21. PVT analysis of the recorded samples shows excellent consistency.

Table 3. Comparison of multisample properties


Sample 1 2 3 4
Opening pressure (bar gauge) 215 @ 19C 212 @ 21C 215 @ 20C 223 @ 21C
Flash gas/liquid ratios 1508 1572 1439 1472
Tank liquid density @ 15C (g/cm3) 0.809 0.807 0.806 0.806
3
Volume transferred (cm ) 367 325 347 344

14 Tool description, operations and specifications 10/95


Dual-packer module
Electrical power
The dual-packer module, Fig. 22, employs two module
inflatable packers to isolate a borehole interval for
testing. The pumpout module, using borehole Pumpout
fluid, inflates the packers to about 1000 psi above module
hydrostatic pressure. Spacing between packers
is variable but the minimum distance is about 3 ft Dual-packer
(93 cm). This provides access to an area of module
borehole wall about 3000 times greater than the
cross-sectional area of the standard MDT probe.
This large area allows the withdrawal of fluids at Sample module
high flow rates without dropping below the bub-
blepoint pressure, while limiting the fluid velocity
Sample module
across the sand face. This provides a pressure
buildup with a radius of investigation of 50 to 80
ft. This small scale DST-type testing offers several
advantages over conventional DST tests in areas
of environmental, safety and economical concerns. Figure 22. The dual-packer module employs two inflatable
Field testing has shown the packer tool is also packers to isolate an interval of the borehole for testing.
useful in fractured reservoirs where the probe type
measurement has little chance to succeed.
However, this situation requires Formation
MicroScanner* or Acoustic TeleScanner* borehole
images for determining the packer placements.
Electrical power
Another interesting feature of the packer tool module
is the ability to pump into the formation after
setting the packersleading to other possible Pumpout
applications. module
After each test, the pumpout module deflates
the packers to a high negative differential to ensure Hydraulic power
their return to minimum diameters. module
The dual-packer module will be available in
1993. Probe module

Packer-probe system Dual-packer


Similar to the dual-probe combination, the packer module
module mounted below the single-probe module
allows vertical permeability determinationbut at Sample module
a longer spacing since the pressure pulse is much
larger (Fig. 23).
Figure 23. A single-probe module mounted above the packer
module allows the determination of vertical permeability.

10/95 Tool description, operations and specifications 15


Tool specifications
Table 4 provides the specifications for the MDT tool modules.

Table 4. MDT tool module specifications


Module name Tool Temp. Pressure Hole size Dia. Length Weight
(F) (kpsi) Min. Max (in.) (in.) (lbm)
Electrical power MRPC-AA 400 20 4 34 60 157
Hydraulic power MRHY-AA 400 20 4 34 101 295
Single-probe MRPS-AB 400 20 614 1414 5 75 210
with CQG MRPS-BB 350 15 614 1414 5 96 260
Dual-probe MRPD-AA 400 20 7 58 1314 6516 81 258
5
with CQG MRPD-BA 350 15 7 8 1314 6516 103 308
1-gal sample MRSC-AA 400 14 4 34 73 214
H2S MRSC-BA 400 20 5 73 204
3
2 4 -gal sample MRSC-CA 400 14 4 34 113 292
H2S MRSC-DA 400 20 5 113 269
6-gal sample MRSC-EB 400 10 4 34 158 340
Multisample MRMS-AA 400 20 4 34 156 428
Flow-control MRCF-BA 400 20 4 34 91 275
Pumpout MRPO-AA 400 20 4 34 127 340
OpticalFluid Analyzer MRFA 350 20 4 34 74 187

Dual-packer MRPA-AA 225 20 7 912 512 178 675
with CQG MRPA-BA 225 15 7 912 512 200 725
1
Optional packers (Add to or 225 20/15 6 2 812 5 116 178/200 10
subtract from the above weight 225 20/15 7 34 10 12 6 316 178/200 +70
when element size change is made.)
225 20/15 8 1112 6 34 178/200 +170
225 20/15 812 1112 7 178/200 +100
1
225 20/15 8 2 12 7 14 178/200 +230

19 in. with large-hole kit.

Higher temperatures with special packers.

16 Tool description, operations and specifications 10/95


Application examples
Pressure profiles With a simultaneous calibration of the strain
gauges and/or with in-situ calibrations performed
Figure 24 shows the pressure profile obtained in
to bring the static response of the gauges into coin-
a high-permeability sand with a multiprobe system
cidence, the statistics associated with gradient
using strain gauges. When performing point-by-
determinations should improve.
point pressure measurements, vertically distributed
In this example, note the difference in pressures
in thick formations, the individual gauges should
shown between the vertical probe set at x437 ft
produce the same fluid gradient with statistics
and the horizontal and sink probes set at x439.3 ft.
appropriate to the performance of a single gauge.

X415

Probe spacing Zp

X420 Shale at X420

>1 g/cm3

X425
Depth (ft)

Shale at X427

0.75g/cm3
X430
Shale at X430 to X431

Vertical probe
X435 Sink probe
Horizontal probe
Zp Shale at X439
X440
1200 1250 1300 1350 1400

Pressure (psi)

Figure 24. Pressure gradients in a laminated sand.

10/95 Application examples 17


Gamma ray
Shallow x437
X400 resistivity
(SFLU)
SP

Medium
induction
(ILM)
Deep
X450 induction
(ILD)

x438
Figure 25. Openhole logs corresponding to Fig. 24.

Figure 25 displays the openhole logs used to


select the test points. None of the log curves indi-
cates an obvious pressure barrier at this test depth.
The Formation MicroScanner borehole images
covering this test point (Fig. 26) show the presence
of a thin shale that would fall between the vertical
and the horizontal and sink probesexplaining the
difference in measured pressures.
Figure 27 shows the pressure profiles obtained x439
in a well with a single-probe configuration using
both CQG and strain gauges. The pressure data
plotted versus TVD show striking linear trends
corresponding to gas, oil and water. The oil-water
contact correlates precisely with that indicated by
openhole logs. The interpreted fluids agree well
with those observed during subsequent cased-hole
DSTs, as shown in Table 5.

x440

Figure 26. Borehole images from Formation MicroScanner


tool corresponding to Fig. 24.

18 Application examples 10/95


X500

Gas

X600
Depth
(ft)

Oil

X700

Water

X450 X550 X650

Pressure (psi)

Figure 27. Pressure profiles obtained using both CQG and strain gauges.

Table 5. Comparison of pressure gradients derived from MDT tests and DSTs
Zone MDT DST Result Surface Strain DST
(psi/ft) Gauge (psi/ft) (psi/ft)
Upper 0.092 Flowed gas 0.625 0.047
Middle 0.367 Flowed oil 0.848 0.367
Lower 0.441 Flowed water 1.052 0.455

10/95 Application examples 19


Figure 28 is a plot of wireline pressure data expected in this normally pressured environment.
from this well (Well 2) and from an adjacent well However, the gas gradients do not overlie, with a
(Well 1), indicating they had penetrated different 22-psi discrepancy between the two wells. Since
gas accumulations. These detailed data plots clear- the gas effect on the density and neutron logs in
ly reveal gas, oil and water gradients. The water Well 1 clearly indicated the zone was gas bearing,
gradients from both wells overlie each otheras separate intervals were diagnosed.

Gas, Well 2
0.065 psi/ft
Well 1
Gas, Well 1 RFT
X600
Well 2
MDT
RFT
X800
Depth Water,
(ft) Wells 1 and 2
0.449 psi/ft

X1000

Oil, Well 2
X1200 0.369 psi/ft

X450 X550 X650 X750

Pressure (psi)

Figure 28. Pressure profiles in two wells indicate different gas


reservoirs.

20 Application examples 10/95


Sampling
In this multiprobe example (Fig. 29), the vertical first through the vertical probe and the second
probe was set in a transition zone at x474.5 ft and through the sink probe. Sampling through the sink
the sink and horizontal probes were set 2.3 ft probe was temporarily interrupted and then
(70 cm) below. The resistivity logs indicate inva- allowed to continue normally to completion. The
sion in the zone by mud filtrate to be relatively sample through the vertical probe had 17 ft3 of gas,
shallow. Estimated pretest drawdown mobilities 200 cm3 of condensate and 2900 cm3 of water. The
at the individual probes were 95 md/cp, 45 md/cp recovery through the sink probe included 1 ft3 of
and 43 md/cp, respectively, at the vertical, sink gas, 200 cm3 of oil having an API gravity of about
and horizontal probes, indicating a formation 30 and 9000 cm3 of water. These results clearly
of reasonably good permeability. show the localized nature of wireline formation
Two 234-gal samples were taken in succession tester sampling processes through a small probe.
without throttling the flow into the chambersthe

Shallow
resistivity
X450 (SFLU)
Caliper

SP
Vertical
probe
Medium
induction
(ILM)
Sink
probe
Deep
induction
(ILD)
X500
Gamma
ray

Figure 29. Openhole logs showing relatively shallow invasion at test points
for multiprobe tool.

10/95 Application examples 21


Vertical Probe
3700 20
Resistivity

Resistivity (ohm-m)
The flowline fluid resistivity measured during

Pressure (psig)
2960 16
sampling shows an obvious difference in the com-
Pressure
position of the two samples (Figs. 30 and 31). The 2220 12
large excursion in resistivity clearly indicates an 1480 8
almost immediate breakthrough of mobile hydro-
carbons in the first sample. However, the 0.85 740 4
ohm-m of resistivity measured during the second 0 0
sample does not deviate substantially from the 600 700 800 900 1000 1100
estimated downhole resistivity of the mud filtrate. Time (sec)
The measured resistivities of the recovered waters,
converted to downhole conditions, were 0.8 ohm-m Figure 30. Flowline resistivity and pressure recorded during
for the first sample and 0.72 ohm-m for the second. samplingfirst chamber.
This indicated a small amount of formation water
in the second sample.
Changes in the flow regime of the fluid mixture Sink Probe
3500 20
likely created the large fluctuations in resistivity

Resistivity (ohm-m)
3000

Pressure (psig)
occurring towards the end of the first sample 16
2500
period. The fluctuations probably result from the Pressure
2000 12
progressive decline in the volume fraction of gas
1500 8
in the fluid stream. Also, the decrease in fluid
1000 Resistivity
velocity, as the sampling pressure approached 5
500
that of the formation, likely contributed.
0 0
1400 1600 1800 2000
Mini-DSTs with the dual-packer module
Time (sec)
The MDT dual-packer test over a small zone
yields data for interpretation using traditional tech-
niques. With use of a transient test lasting just a Figure 31. Flowline resistivity and pressure recorded during
few minutes, formation information can be deter- samplingsecond chamber.
mined with a depth of investigation of tens of
meters. In the following example an MDT tool Interpretation Analysis and Computation program
with dual-packer module was positioned over a provided an excellent match for the testyielding
naturally occurring fracture. The FMI* Fullbore estimates for parameters such as formation trans-
Formation MicroImager and Acoustic TeleScanner missivity and reservoir pressure. The program uses
images, shown in Fig. 32, both identify the frac- a new model for cases where wellbore storage
ture. Several fluid samples were taken from the changes during the course of the test. In this case
fracture, with a buildup pressure transient lasting the changing wellbore storage is associated with
about 6 min recorded between each. Figure 33 fluid stored within the predominantly horizontal
shows both the pressure and derivative and the fracture itself, within the packed-off wellbore and
generalized Horner-type plots. The first buildup within the tools flowline.
illustrates the quality of the CQG gauge pressure This analysis indicated that storage stabilized at
data. The derivative data were usable without about five orders of magnitude smaller than would
smoothing and the radial-flow regime plateau have been obtained by a conventional DST. It is
clearly emerges at the end of the 6-min period. mainly for this reason that radial flow can develop
Analysis with the ZODIAC* Zoned Dynamic after just 6 min of shut-in.

22 Application examples 10/95


Pressure and Derivative

103

Dp and Derivative (psi)


Pressure change

102 Pressure
derivative

101
Radial flow regime

100
104 103 102 101 100

Dt (hr)

Generalized Horner

400

300

Dp (psi) 200

100

0
104 103 102 101 100

Dt (hr)

Figure 33. Pressure and derivative plot and the generalized


Horner type plot.

Figure 32. Display of the Acoustic TeleScanner (left) and


FMI (right) images used to select the test interval for a dual-
packer test. Suitable test zone is bounded by red lines.

10/95 Application examples 23


Impermeable barriers

Permeability
Permeability is a macroscopic transport property
and is a strong function of direction, scale and con-
tinuity. By combining MDT multiprobe data and
Radii of
high-resolution log data, permeability characteris- investigation
tics of a reservoir can be determined within the
context of explicit geological constraintssuch as
laminations or crossbedding.
Figure 34 illustrates the effect of scale on verti-
cal permeability measurements. The schematic
shows a laminated sand-shale sequence where the Figure 34. An illustration of the effect of scale on vertical
permeability being measured is affected by the permeability measurements.
radius of investigation. This radius can be approxi-
mated by the following formula.
ri = 0.6 [V4p d f Ct]1/3,
where
ri = radius of investigation (cm),
V = sample/pretest volume (cm3),
d = gauge resolution (psi), Gas
f = porosity
and
Ct = compressibility (psi1). Oil
Figure 35 shows the effect of reservoir lamina-
tions on the flooding process. This schematic rep-
kv
resents a gas flood in an oil reservoir with the
injection well on the left and the producing well kh
on the rightwith both wells completed through-
out the interval as shown. The upper panel depicts
a homogeneous reservoirthe gas overrides the
oil and the sweep efficiency is low. In the middle
panel, continuous permeability barriers divide the
reservoir into discrete zones and the sweep effi-
ciency is better. In the lower panel, discontinuous
permeability obstacles laminate the reservoir, lead-
ing to a more efficient sweep. A detailed map of
permeability characteristics and selective comple-
tion techniques would offer the most efficient
sweep.

Figure 35. Schematic showing the effect of reservoir


laminations on the efficiency of a gas flood.

24 Application examples 10/95


The MAXIS 500 wellsite unit allows real-time are boundaries, finite obstructions or simply strata
pressure interpretation in parallel with data acqui- of different permeability and determine the flow
sition. With the aid of petrophysical data and bore- regime. Figure 36 shows examples of the type flow
hole images multiprobe MDT pressure measure- geometries experienced by a wireline formation
ments can determine whether laminations or layers tester.

Homogeneous (Spherical Flow) Layered (Radial Flow) Hemispherical Flow

Homogeneous (Spherical Flow) Flow Around an Object

Low-permeability
streak

Figure 36. Examples of flow geometries


experienced by a wireline formation
tester.

10/95 Applicationi examples 25


100
Computed flow rate from sink probe
After identifying the model, the program Horizontal probe
80

Flow Rate (cm3/sec)


incorporates the relative positions of potential
flow barriers and estimates the effective vertical

Dp (x10 psi),
60
and horizontal mobilities. A forward modeling
program then checks the quality of the parameter Flow-control
40 flow rate
estimations.
Figure 37 shows data acquired with a multi-
20
probe tool operating with a flow-control module Vertical probe
when testing a water sand with high permeability.
0
Estimated pretest drawdown mobilities were
502 md/cp at the vertical probe, 198 md/cp at the 0 5 10 15 20 25
horizontal probe and 396 md/cp at the sink probe. Elapsed time (sec)
All three probes used strain gauges. The response
at the vertical probe is too small at the chosen
Figure 37. Data from a multiprobe tool operating with
flow-control rate for adequate characterization
a flow-control module.
with a strain gauge. Also shown is a comparison
between the measured flow rate from the flow-
control module and the flow rate inferred from the
sink probe pressure. Immediately following the 20
flow-control test, a 234-gal sample test generated 18

Flow Rate (50 cm3/sec)


a pulse at the sink probe. On retrieval, the sample 16
chamber contained 9000 cm3 of water and 0.25 ft3 14
of gas. Horizontal probe
Dp (psi)

12
Figures 38 and 39 show, respectively, the pres- 10
sure disturbances measured at the monitor probes
8
and the spherical-time function plot. Also shown
6 Flow rate
on Fig. 38 is the rate-deconvolved pressure
response. From the deconvolved response the per- 4
2 Vertical probe
meability anisotropy calculated to be 9.6, kr/m =
912 md/cp and kz/m = 95.1 md/cp. 0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
A procedure for parameter estimation provided
independent estimates of the values of the forma- Time (sec)
tion parameters. The forward model used for the
tool response was the bounded formation model. Figure 38. Pressure response of multiprobe toolhigh-
Estimated from openhole log data, the formation permeability sand.
thickness and the position of the vertical probe
relative to the top of the formationwere respec-
tively 9 ft and 3 ft (Fig. 40). This procedure result-
ed in kr/m = 1006 md/cp and kz/m = 93.9 md/cp for
an anisotropy of 10.7.

26 Application examples 10/95


25
Deconvolved
horizontal probe

Flow Rate (20 cm3/sec)


20 24.4 psi

15

Dp (psi),
Horizontal probe

10
Flow rate
Vertical probe
5 4.4 psi
Deconvolved
vertical probe
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
1/Sqrt (Elapsed Time, sec)

Figure 39. Spherical time-function plothigh-permeability sand.

Shallow resistivity
(SFLU)
X700
Gamma ray

SP Medium induction (ILM)

Vertical
probe

Sink Deep induction (ILD)


probe

Rwa

X750

Figure 40. Openhole logspermeability example.

10/95 Application examples 27


Figure 41 compares the measured data with the blocking the pore throats. The gas in this layer will
reconstructed pressure responses at the monitor produce from the higher permeability upper layer
probes for the two sets of formation parameters through vertical movement. The MDT test pro-
obtained. gram was designed to measure a vertical perme-
Another permeability example includes multi- ability profile through both layers and into the
probe tests conducted at 42 locations in the well aquifer below to assess the likely impact of water
on one trip. The reservoir contains a lower layer coning. Figure 42 shows data from one of the tests
with reduced permeabilitycaused by platy illite in the aquifer zone. The tool was set near low

2.0

1.8 Spherical time-function plot

1.6

1.4
Vertical Probe Dp (psi)

1.2
Levenberg-Marquart
1.0
Field data
0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

Horizontal Probe Dp (psi)

Figure 41. Comparison of data with parameter estimation.

28 Application examples 10/95


permeability streaks identified as light-colored model comprising a homogeneous formation
sinusoids on the Formation MicroScanner images. with upper and lower boundaries some distance
As the sink probe accepts fluid and is then shut from the tool. Flow rate, measured using the flow-
in, the horizontal probe shows an immediate and control module, was incorporated into the match
quite large pressure change (Dp), while the vertical using continuous convolution. The match gave
probe registers a much smaller and delayed Dp. horizontal and vertical permeabilities of 5.50 and
The reaction at the vertical probe indicates there is 0.22 md, respectively, showing some vertical com-
some vertical permeability. With the interpretation munication despite a large permeability anisotropy.
package, the data were matched to a formation

Flow
22.5

17.8
Flow Rate (cm3/sec)
13.1 Drawdown

8.3

3.6
Buildup
1.1
718.1 796.7 875.3 954.0 1032.6 1111.3
Time (sec)

Pressure
384.8

303.7

222.5
Dp (psi)

141.4 Horizontal probe

60.2 Vertical
probe

20.9
718.1 796.7 875.3 954.0 1032.6 1111.3
Time (sec)

Figure 42. The Formation MicroScanner log used to select test points for vertical permeability tests
displayed with the resulting flow and pressure plots.

10/95 Application examples 29


Summary
The MDT Modular Formation Dynamics Tester in each of the traditional formation test tool appli-
service provides significant improvements in wire- cationspressure measurement, sample recovery
line formation testing. The standard single-probe and permeability determination. Evolutionary
tool offers several advantages over existing single- progress in the pressure measurement and sam-
probe testers. The optional modules provide addi- pling technologies provides improved dynamic
tional capabilities and the modular design allows response and an ability to obtain PVT-grade sam-
a multitude of tool configurations for specific ples. Revolutionary advances in permeability
applications. determination allow direct in-situ measurement
Recent advances in sensor technology, fabrica- of the undamaged formation mobility and perme-
tion techniques, downhole motor design and ability anisotropy.
interpretation methods provide new capabilities

30 Summary 10/95
References and recommended readings
Colley N, Hastings A, Ireland T, Joseph J, Sandia-Los Alamos Technical Library Package
Reignier P, Richardson S, Traboulay I and SLATEC: Code SNLS1, available through the
Zimmerman T: The MDT Tool: A Wireline National Energy Software Clearinghouse.
Testing Breakthrough, Oilfield Review (April Stewart G and Ayestaran L: The Interpretation
1992) 4, No. 2, 5865. of Vertical Pressure Gradients Measured at
Goode P A, Pop J J and Murphy III W F: Observation Wells in Development Reservoirs,
Multiple Probe Formation Testing and Vertical paper SPE 11132, presented at the 57th SPE
Reservoir Continuity, paper SPE 22738, Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition,
presented at the 66th SPE Annual Technical New Orleans, September 2629, 1982.
Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, October Stewart G and Wittmann M: Interpretation
69, 1991. of the Pressure Response of the Repeat
Goode PA and Thambynayagam RKM: Analytic Formation Tester, paper SPE 8362, presented
Models for a Multiple Probe Formation Tester, at the 54th SPE Annual Technical Conference
paper SPE 20737, presented at the 65th SPE and Exhibition, Las Vegas, September 2326,
Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 1979.
New Orleans, September 2426, 1990. Stewart G, Wittmann M and Meunier D:
Kuchuck FJ, Carter RG and Ayestaran L: Afterflow Measurement and Deconvolution
Deconvolution of Wellbore Pressure and Flow in Well Test Analysis, paper SPE 12174,
Rate, SPE Formation Evaluation, March 1990, presented at the 58th SPE Annual Technical
5359. Conference and Exhibition, San Francisco,
Moran J and Finklea EE: Theoretical Analysis October 58, 1983.
of Pressure Phenomena Associated with the Zimmerman T, Macinnis J, Hoppe J, Pop J and
Wireline Formation Tester, J. Pet. Tech., 14, Long T: Application of Emerging Wireline
August 1962, 899908. Formation Testing Technologies, paper OSEA
Samson P N, Fligleman H and Braester C: New 90105, presented at the Offshore South East
Pressure Analysis Technique Using Repeat Asia Conference, 1990.
Formation Texter Data, The APEA Journal,
1985, 275281.

10/95 References and recommended readings 31


Nomenclature Log and plot mnemonics
@ at BFR1 Flowline fluid resistivity
cm centimeter B1TR Flowline fluid temperature
cm3 cubic centimeter BSG1 Probe strain gauge pressure
cp centipoise BQP1 Probe quartz gauge pressure
dia. diameter CALI Caliper log
DST drillstem test GR Gamma ray log
ft foot ETIM Elapsed time
g gram ILD Deep induction log
g/cm3 gram per cubic centimeter ILM Medium induction log
gal gallon HMS1 Motor speed
in. inch POPV Cumulative volume pumped
kr Radial (horizontal) permeability (darcies) PPV Pump volume
kz Vertical permeability (darcies) PSIG Gauge pressure (psi)
m Formation fluid viscosity (centipoise) RWA Apparent water resistivity log
m meter SFL Spherically Focused Log
md millidarcy SP Spontaneous potential log
mPa milliPascal
ohm-m ohm-meter
psi pressure per square inch
PVT Pressure-volume-temperature
sec second
temp. temperature
zp Spacing between vertical and horizontal
probes (cm)

32 Nomenclature/Log and plot mnemonics 10/95


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