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Railway Policy: A Transportation Policy Analysis

Republic Act No. 4156


An act creating the Philippine National Railways, prescribing its powers,
functions and duties, and providing for the necessary funds for its operation.

In partial fulfilment of the requirements

For the subject CE123: Transportation Engineering

Submitted by:

CABUNDOCAN, Clarence L.

GARCIA, Jheanne

SAYCO, Christian Marc

MARCH 2017
INTRODUCTION

Republic Act 4156 is an act creating the Philippine National Railways, prescribing

its powers, functions and duties, and providing for the necessary funds for its operation.

Up to date, the Philippine National Railway is under rehabilitation but there are stations

that are currently operating. Railway transportation is the least developed mode of

transportation in the Philippines. The questions how and when shall we develop the

railway system in the country has very little to no information across the country. To

understand the efforts made by our government to revitalize the railway system in the

country, the researchers come up with this paper. This paper aims to know the impacts

of this policy on the railway transportation of the country. In order to do this, comparison

on the previous accounts on Philippine railway shall be elaborated.


BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Philippine National Railway is the only company to provide commuter rail service

on the Philippine railway network. It originally provides service all throughout the island

of Luzon. Right now, it is in its 124th year in service which also means a lot of changes

happened including its service and tracks due to wars and internal issues happened in

the past century. Railway policy seems appealing to discuss today since most of the

countrys citizen have little information on how to access and avail this service. Other

than that, improving the countrys railway system through research, studies and of

course railway policies, might be the solution to the countrys devastating problem on

roadway traffic. Knowing that the Philippines is a small country and Manila being its

capital is too small to provide roads to handle massive volumes of cars and freights

going to the Northern or Southern part of the country, having a good railway system

might be helpful.

THE POLICY

The policy that the researchers chose to analyze is Republic Act 4156. For the

readers reference, a copy of the said policy is shown below.

R.A. 4156

AN ACT CREATING THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL RAILWAYS, PRESCRIBING ITS

POWERS, FUNCTIONS AND DUTIES, AND PROVIDING FOR THE NECESSARY

FUNDS FOR ITS OPERATION.


Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in

Congress assembled:

SECTION 1. Name, Duration and Domicile.A corporation to serve as the

instrumentality of the Government of the Philippines in providing a nation-wide railroad

and transportation system, is hereby created, to be known as the Philippine National

Railways, which shall exist for a term of fifty years from the date of approval of this Act.

It shall have its main office in the City of Manila, and shall have such branches and

agencies within or outside the Philippines as may be necessary for the proper conduct

of its business. The Corporation shall be under the Office of Economic Coordination.

SEC. 2. Purposes and specific powers.The Philippine National Railways shall have

the following purposes and specific powers:

(a) To acquire and hold the assets of the Manila Railroad Company of the Philippine

Islands, and to succeed to, or acquire, maintain and operate such grants, concessions

and franchises as are now held and enjoyed by the said Manila Railroad Company of

the Philippine Islands;


(b) To own or operate railroads, tramways, and other kinds of land transportation,

vessels and pipelines, for the purpose of transporting, for consideration, passengers,

mail and property between any points in the Philippines; and

(c) As an auxiliary to its main purpose, to own and/or operate powerhouses, hotels,

restaurants, terminals, warehouses, timber concessions, coal mines, iron and other

mineral properties and to manufacture rolling stock, equipment, tools and other

appliances; to construct and operate in connection with its railroad lines, toll viaducts,

toll tunnels.

SEC. 3. Authorized capital stock of the Philippine National Railways.The authorized

capital stock of the Philippine National Railways shall be two hundred fifty million pesos

divided into one million two hundred fifty thousand par value shares of two hundred

pesos each, which shall include the present capitalization of the Manila Railroad

Company: Provided, That the increase in the authorized capital shall be fully subscribed

by the Government: Provided, further, That the existing long term obligations of the

Manila Railroad Company to the Government of the Philippines including its agencies or

instrumentalities, in the amount of ninety-two million six hundred thousand pesos shall

be converted into capital stocks of the Philippine National Railways and made a part of

the subscription: Provided, still further, That the Philippine National Railways shall,

aside from its authorized capital stock of two hundred fifty million pesos, receive from

the Government of the Philippines the amounts allocated under Republic Acts
Numbered Eighteen hundred sixty-seven, Sixteen hundred twenty-three and Eighteen

hundred one, for the construction of new railroad lines to the Cagayan Valley, and to the

Province of Sorsogon, and the rehabilitation of the Cabanatuan line, respectively: And,

provided, finally, That the additional amount of one hundred twenty million pesos be set

aside, and the entire amount or so much thereof as may be needed by the Philippine

National Railways be made available to the Philippine National Railways at least one

year before the completion of the Cagayan and/or Sorsogon construction projects, for

the purchase of motive power, rolling stocks and other supplies for use in the new lines,

it being specified that fifty million pesos of the authorized capital of the Philippine

National Railways shall be invested for the purchase of motive power and rolling stock

for the railway project in Mindanao and five million pesos or so much thereof for the

survey of said railway project.

SEC. 4. General Powers.The Philippine National Railways shall have the following

general powers:

(a) To do all such other things and to transact all such business directly or indirectly

necessary, incidental or conducive to the attainment of the purpose of the corporation;

and
(b) Generally, to exercise all powers of a railroad corporation under the Corporation

Law.

SEC. 5. Board of Directors, Composition and Appointment.The corporate powers of

the corporation shall be vested in and exercised by a Board of Directors of not more

than eleven and not less than five members as may be fixed by the President of the

Philippines, consisting of chairman, vice-chairman and other members, appointed by

the President of the Philippines with the consent of the Commission on Appointments.

The members of the Board need not be stockholders of the Corporation. The first

members of the Board shall serve as designated by the President in their appointments

for terms of one, two, and three years, respectively, from date they qualify and assume

office; but their successors shall be appointed for terms of three years, except that any

person chosen to fill a vacancy shall serve only for the unexpired term of the member

whom he succeeds. For actual attendance of meetings, each such members shall

receive a per diem of twenty-five pesos.

SEC. 6. Powers and Duties of the Board of Directors.The Board of Directors shall

have the following powers and duties:

(a) To prescribe, amend and repeal, with the approval of the Administrator of Economic

Coordination, by-laws, rules and regulations governing the manner in which the general
business of corporation may be exercised, including provisions for the formation of such

committee, or committees as the Board of Directors may deem necessary to facilitate its

business.

(b) To appoint and fix the compensation of the General Manager, subject to the

approval of the President of the Philippines, and to appoint and fix the compensation of

the other officers of the Corporation, with the approval of the Administrator of Economic

Coordination. The Board by a majority vote of all the members, may, for cause, and with

the approval of the President of the Philippines, suspend and or remove the General

Manager.

(c) To approve, subject to the final action of the Administrator of Economic

Coordination, the annual and/or such supplemental budgets of the Corporation which

may be submitted to it by the General Manager from time to time.

SEC. 7. Suspension and removal of Directors.Any member of the Board of Directors

may be suspended or removed by the President of the Philippines.

SEC. 8 Prohibition for Board Members.No chairman or member of the Board of

Directors of the Corporation shall at the same time serve in the Corporation in any
capacity whatsoever other than as Chairman or member thereof, unless otherwise

authorized by the President of the Philippines or existing law.

SEC. 9. Managing head.The management of the Corporation shall be vested in the

General Manager.

SEC. 10. Powers and duties of the General Manager.The General Manager shall

have the following powers and duties:

(a) To direct and manage the affairs and business of the Corporation on behalf of the

Board of Directors, and subject to its control and supervision;

(b) To sit in all meetings of the Board of Directors, as Vice-Chairman, and participate in

its deliberation, with the right to vote, and to preside any meetings for or in the absence

of the Chairman;

(c) To submit within sixty days after the close of each fiscal year an annual report,

through the Board of Directors, to the Office of the President of the Philippines;
(d) To appoint and fix the number and salaries, with the approval of the Board of

Directors, of such subordinate personnel as may be necessary for the proper discharge

of the duties and functions of the Corporation, and with the approval of the Board of

Directors, to remove, suspend, or otherwise discipline, for cause, any subordinate

employee of the Corporation; and

(e) To perform such other duties as may be assigned to him by the Board of Directors

from time to time.

SEC. 11. Appointment and promotion.In the appointment and promotion of officers

and employees, merit and efficiency shall serve as basis, and no political test or

qualification shall be prescribed and considered for such appointments or promotions.

Said officers and employees shall be subject to the Civil Service Law, rules and

regulations.

SEC. 12. Exemption from taxes, duties and port charges.The Corporation is hereby

exempt from payment of all taxes of every name and naturemunicipal, city, provincial,

or nationalupon its capital stock, franchises, rights of way, earnings, and all other

property owned or operated by it and all duties on all railways materials, supplies and

equipment imported in the Philippines for and/or by the said Corporation and this

exemption shall extend to port charges upon vessels whose entire cargo consists of
materials for the construction or equipment of the Corporation and to such proportion of

the prescribed port charges on other vessels as the tonnage of materials for such

constructions or equipment may bear to the tonnage of the entire cargo of the vessel.

SEC. 13. Audit Personnel and Report.

(a) Personnel.The Auditor General shall appoint a representative who shall be the

Auditor of the Corporation, and the necessary personnel to assist said representative in

the performance of his duties. The number and salaries of the Auditor and said

personnel shall be determined by the Auditor General, subject to appropriation by the

Board of Directors. In case of disagreement, the matter shall be submitted to the

President of the Philippines whose decision shall be final. Said salaries and all other

expenses of maintaining the Auditors office shall be paid by the Corporation.

(b) Report.The financial transactions of the Corporation shall be audited in

accordance with law, administrative regulations, and the principles and procedures

applicable to commercial corporate transactions. A report of audit for each fiscal year,

by the representative of the Auditor General, through the latter, to the Board of Directors

of the Corporation, and copies thereof shall be furnished the President of the

Philippines, the Administrator of Economic Coordination and the Presiding Officers of

the two Houses of Congress. The report shall set forth the scope of the audit and shall
include a statement of assets and liabilities, capital and surplus or deficit; a statement

and surplus or deficit analysis; statement of income and expenses; a statement of

sources and application of funds; and such comments and information as may be

necessary, together with such recommendations with respect thereto as may be

advisable, including a report of any impairment of capital noted in the audit. The report

also shows specifically any program, expenditures, or other financial transaction or

undertaking observed in the course of audit, which in the opinion of the Auditor, has

been carried on or made without authority of law.

SEC. 14. Legal Counsel.Any provision of law or executive order to the contrary

notwithstanding, the Philippine National Railways shall have its own legal department,

the chief and members of which shall be appointed by the Board of Directors.

SEC. 15. Exemption from the Public Service Act.The Philippine National Railways

shall not be subject to the authority and supervision of the Public Service Commission.

SEC. 16. Liquidation.When its term or period of existence has expired in accordance

with the provision of this Act, it shall nevertheless, continue as a body corporate for

three years after the time of its dissolution for the purpose of prosecuting and defending

suits by or against it and of enabling it gradually to settle and close its affairs, to dispose

of and convey its properties, but not for the purpose of continuing the business for which
it was established. In order to carry out its liquidation, upon the dissolution of the

Corporation, a Board of Liquidators shall be appointed by the President to take charge

of winding up its corporate affairs and affecting its liquidation.

SEC. 17. Strikes during national emergency.The provisions of law to the contrary

notwithstanding, in cases of national emergency, or when in the opinion of the President

of the Philippines, the national security or interest is in imminent danger, employees and

laborers of the Corporation shall not strike for the purpose of securing changes or

modification in their terms and conditions of employment during said period of

emergency.

SEC. 18. Reversion of General Funds.All funds resulting from dissolution and

liquidation of the Corporation as herein provided shall revert to the general funds of the

Government.

SEC. 19. Applicability of the Corporation Law.The provisions of the Corporation Law

which are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act, shall be applicable to the

corporation created hereby.


SEC. 20. Repeal or Modifications.All Acts, Executive Orders, Administrative Orders,

and Proclamations or parts thereof inconsistent with any of the provisions of this Act,

are hereby repealed or modified accordingly.

SEC. 21. Separability Clause.In the event any provision of this Act or the application

of such provision to any person or circumstance is declared unconstitutional, the

remainder of this Act or the application of said provision to other persons or

circumstances shall not be affected thereby.

SEC. 22. Dissolution of the Manila Railroad Company of the Philippine Islands.The

Corporation known as Manila Railroad Company of the Philippine Islands is hereby

abolished and dissolved. Its rights, permanent personnel, assets, liabilities and

obligations of all kinds are hereby transferred to or assumed by the Corporation herein

created. A process of liquidation shall be decided upon, and carried out, in accordance

with general principles of law and accounting procedures.

SEC. 23. Effectivity.This Act shall take effect upon its approval.

POLICY ANALYSIS

The policy shown above simply states that the Philippine National Railways is a

state-owned railway company which means that the government has power over it and
shall provide funds for further rehabilitation for the common good of its citizens and

residents. This policy was approved on 1964. However, extending its corporate life up to

the next 50 years as an operating legitimate railway was the only thing amended in this

policy by RA 10638 in 2014. Its powers and duties as approved on 1964 remains the

same.

Analyzing the policy, the researchers noticed that it was impeccably made but its

operating year. 50 years is long enough for its policy to be amended knowing that lots of

changes happens every decade. Shall the citizens wait for another century for the

railway system to improve will not be todays generation problem for they will not be

able to utilize it anymore. This policy can be further improve by providing a position for

researchers and engineers to boost its development and that 50 corporate years

provided by the government be fruitful.

PROPOSED SOLUTION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Further study on this policy is recommended. However, the researchers propose

that the scope for this policy be improve. As suggested, the policy may cover the

researchers and engineers duty, responsibility, and benefits. This is suggested in order

to attract engineers of all ages to contribute in revitalizing the Philippines railway

system which the researchers believe to drastically contribute on the fast growth of the

countrys economy and to resolve all aspects of problem in transportation. The

researchers believe that in doing so, the improvement shall follow the improvement on

the congestion on ports and roadway.


REFERENCES

http://www.gov.ph/1964/06/20/republic-act-no-4156/

http://www.gov.ph/2014/06/16/republic-act-no-10638/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rail_transport_in_the_Philippines

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippine_National_Railways

http://www.pnr.gov.ph/