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Port Layouts

&
Sedimentation-Erosion Patterns

Ports and Maritime Organization of Iran


and PIANC-Iran
R. Kamalian 7 9 December 2015
Available options to protect against wave
Place harbour basin in front of coastline

Place harbour basin in-land

Use nature; protect small bays

Connect offshore islands by breakwaters

Use natural basins like estuaries

Place harbour in river


Harbor layouts - Artificial
Harbor layouts - Protected
Harbor layouts
Harbor layouts
Harbor layouts
Harbor layouts
Harbor layouts
Which layout to choose?
Just a few guidelines available
No very straightforward classification rules
Maybe more than one layout must be checked
Compare total cost (construction + maintenance) important: realistic life-time
To have open mind: see many harbours in google earth
Important factors: target vessel, wave rose, littoral drift, sediment type & size, bed slope
H. Burcharth (chapter) in: M. Abbott, W. Price, Coastal, Estuarial and Harbour Engineer's Reference Book, Wallingford, UK: Chapman & Hall, 1994
Comment: Second breakwater may be needed for sediment

H. Burcharth (chapter) in: M. Abbott, W. Price, Coastal, Estuarial and Harbour Engineer's Reference Book, Wallingford, UK: Chapman & Hall, 1994
H. Burcharth (chapter) in: M. Abbott, W. Price, Coastal, Estuarial and Harbour Engineer's Reference Book, Wallingford, UK: Chapman & Hall, 1994
SMB:

DB:

OB:

K. Mangor, Shoreline Management Guidelines, Denmark: DHI, 2004


Fishing Ports
Design Manual,
Japan

Comment:
we have also offshore harbours which are connected
to the shoreline by single long breakwater
Like Konarak, Koohe Mobarak,

Deputy of fishing ports development Japan (1992), Fishing Ports Design Manual. (Persian translation by M. Dibajnia)
Sedimentation, various scenarios

OCDI, 2002
How sand deposits at SMB port entrance?
More depth; no wave breaking, no much reflection, no more sed. suspension see
No more radiation stress gradient, step-geometry, no more high current velocity see
Oscillating wave current towards the lee of breakwater, where is calm see
Stokes drift in wave direction towards the lee of breakwater (by diffractn-refractn) see
Interaction of sand and SMB harbour
Accretion at upstream shoreline
Erosion at downstream shoreline
Sand reaches the harbour entrance after years (small port or large?)
Natural bypass & deposition in access channel or entrance
Sand bar development in front of harbour entrance see
To be considered for SMB layout
Entrance inside surf-zone or outside? see

If the entrance is very wide? see


If the main breakwater is very long see
The angle of main breakwater is also important see
Sand bar development in front of harbour entrance see
Interaction of sand and DB harbour

It is part of session 14
How sand moves forward?

Silvester, 1993

Back to presentation
sand deposition at port entrance

deeper zone
no wave breaking
no more sand suspension force
Deposition of suspended sand

Wave breaking zone

Back to presentation
sand deposition at port entrance

deeper zone
Wave breaking no wave breaking
makes radiation stress gradient no more radiation stress gradient
which generates long-shore current no more current force
step-like geometry
current divergence and weakening

Back to presentation
sand deposition at port entrance
Suspended sediment moves back and force
by the periodic current of wave
it acts as diffusion
The back & force movement
of current under wave,
brings suspended sediment
to the calm area behind brkwtr

Back to presentation
sand deposition at port entrance

Stokes drift
moves sand in wave direction.
After storm;
Wave direction turns towards
sand bar moves back towards
the lee of breakwater
shoreline by Stokes drift
by diffraction
and also by refraction
after initial deposition
sand deposition at port entrance

Back to presentation
sand bar in front of SMB port entrance

Back to presentation
Entrance inside surf zone our outside

PIANC, Design of breakwaters for yacht harbors, PIANC, 1981 Back to presentation
Entrance inside surf zone our outside

PIANC, Design of breakwaters for yacht harbors, PIANC, 1981 Back to presentation
If the mean breakwater is very long

PIANC, Design of breakwaters for yacht harbors, PIANC, 1981


Entrance inside surf zone our outside

Deputy of fishing ports development Japan (1992), Fishing Ports Design Manual. (translated by Dibajnia) Back to presentation
Angle of the main breakwater

At least:

PIANC, Design of breakwaters for yacht harbors, PIANC, 1981


OCDI (2002), Technical Standards and Commentaries for Port and Harbour Facilities in Japan Back to presentation