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Performance Using Neural Networks

Malek-Ashtar University of Technology, Shahinshahr, Isf, 83145/115, Iran

H. Badihi 3

Malek-Ashtar University of Technology, Shahinshahr, Isf, 83145/115, Iran

The turbine engines require control systems to achieve the appropriate performance.

This paper presents a successful approach in designing a Fuzzy Logic Controller for a

specific Jet Engine. At first a suitable mathematical model for the jet engine is presented by

the aid of SIMULINK simulation software. Then by applying different reasonable fuel flow

functions via the engine model, some important engine continuous time operation

parameters (such as: thrust, compressor surge margin, turbine inlet temperature and engine

spool speed) are obtained. These parameters provide a precious database which can be

used by a neural network. At the second step, by designing and training a feedforward

different reasonable fuel flow functions for various engine acceleration operations are

determined. These functions are used to define the desired fuzzy fuel functions. Indeed, the

neural networks are used as an effective method to define the optimum fuzzy fuel functions.

At the next step we design a fuzzy logic controller by using the engine simulation model and

the neural network results. The proposed control scheme is proved by computer simulation

using the designed engine model. The simulation results of engine model with fuzzy

controller in comparison with the engine testing operation illustrate that the proposed

1

Associate Professor and Head of Combustion & Propulsion Research Laboratory (CPRL) at Malek-Ashtar

University of Technology, Department of Mechanics & Aerospace Engineering, Shahin Shahr, Isfahan, Iran/

bazazzadeh@mut-es.ac.ir.

2

Student, Department of Mechanics & Aerospace Engineering, Shahin Shahr, Isfahan, Iran/al.shahriari@gmail.com.

3

Student, Department of Mechanics & Aerospace Engineering, Shahin Shahr, Isfahan, Iran/h.badihi@mut-es.ac.ir.

Copyright 2010 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. All rights reserved.

Nomenclature

Cp = specific heat

M = Mach number

P = pressure

T = temperature

W = flow rate

= density

= moment coefficient

x = input value

y = output value

w = weight

I. Introduction

G as turbine engines are constituted of a complex system. Their desired performance can guarantee the aircraft

flight safety [1]. This performance is impressed by some engine input controlling functions which would

change with the development of engines. Finding these functions can be a great success in jet engine control issue

[2,3]. For example, when a take offing airplane loses one of its operative engines, the remaining engines should

achieve their maximum thrust as fast as possible without any spools over speed, turbine inlet over temperature and

compressor surge. On the other hand, at a complex maneuvering by a fighter airplane, the engines should deliver

more accurate thrust functions. All of these examples can indicate the importance of the engine control issue.

During the last five decades, most of control problems have been formulated by the objective knowledge of the

given systems (e.g. mathematical model). Many of these model-base approaches have found their way into

practice and provided satisfactory solutions to the spectrum of complex systems (Antsaklis and Passino, 1993).

However, there are many knowledge-based systems that cannot be merely described by the traditional

mathematical representations (Zadeh, 1962, 1972; Gupta, Saridis & Gaines, 1987; Gupta & Sinha, 1996).

The knowledge-based approaches are much closer to human thinking than traditional classical approaches

(Zadeh, 1972, 1992; Kosko, 1991, 1997; Gupta & Sinha, 1996).

In a broad perspective, knowledge-based approaches underlie what is called soft computing. These methods

include fuzzy logic (FL), neural networks (NN), genetic algorithms (GA) and probabilistic reasoning (PR). In

addition, these methodologies in most part are complimentary rather than competitive (Zadeh, 1996; Takagi, 1993).

Fuzzy logic has been the area of heated debate and much controversy during the last three decades. The first

paper in fuzzy set theory, which is now considered to be the seminar paper of the subject, was written by Zadeh

(1965), who is considered the founding father of the field. In that work, Zadeh was implicitly advancing the concept

of approximate human reasoning to make effective decisions on the basis of the available imprecise, linguistic

information (Nguyen, Sugeno, Tong &Yagar, 1995). The first implementation of Zadehs idea was accomplished by

Mamdani (1974) which demonstrated the ability of Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) for a small model steam engine.

After this pioneer work, many consumer products and industrial applications using fuzzy technology have been

Fuzzy logic is one of the most effective methods for controlling the nonlinear systems. One of its important

advantages is the simplicity of utilization. The other one is feasibility of increasing the number and type of

membership functions and rules while it has wide variety of rules definition.

Designing an appropriate controller for each specific engine includes two steps: first, an accurate engine model

to simulate the engine behavior individually and second, system recognition. The system recognition as the most

important step in creating the suitable membership functions and rules is the knowledge of significant engine

performance parameters and specially their relation during engine operation. One of the most important performance

parameters is the fuel flow rate and its relation with turbine inlet temperature and compressor surge margin during

In [4], the authors studied a combination of two potential techniques; fuzzy logic and evolutionary algorithms for

a specific gas turbine. The controlling parameters include IGV angle and nozzle area. Similar work which has been

presented in [5] is designing and evaluation of two types of FLCs by controlling the combustor pressure.

In this paper, after designing an accurate simulator model for the engine; we consider the fuel flow rate directly

as the most comprehensive controlling parameter which has significant effects on all engine performance

parameters. A successful approach for achieving the system recognition is also presented. The proposed approach

includes designing and training a neural network which simulate the engine performance backwardly. So it

empowered us to obtain a series of fuel flow functions for various engine acceleration maneuverings. These

There are several ways to do engine modeling and simulation such as Traditional approaches, FORTRAN or

other 4th generation languages to calculate thermodynamics cycle parameters associated with the design and

performance prediction of gas turbine engines. These cycle decks have been used extensively by developers of gas

turbine engines to understand the behavior of jet engine designs prior to, during, and after the development of the

physical engines. In addition to them, Simulink software and associated tools can be applied in the development of

Simulink provides an easy-to-use, graphical, modeling and simulation development environment for developing

time-based simulations in a wide range of applications and Simulink is capable of code generation using associated

tools [6,7,8]. So, a dynamic model for a specific turbojet engine is developed using the MATLAB simulation

environment and its Simulink toolbox [1]. The schematic configuration of the simulated turbojet engine is shown in

Figure 1.

The engine model is constructed with a component approach for ease of modification and replacement with diff-

erent engine components. The precision of Turbine Engine Simulator Model (TESM) results, dependents on the

Each component can be instantiated from a software library module developed to represent the functions of that

particular type of component. Each module is a functional unit with its own set of inputs and outputs (I/O). Each can

For example the inlet module can be used as a stand-alone inlet component which can be used to instantiate inlet

in the engine model. The inlet component and its I/O are shown in Figure 2.

a) Subsystem

b) Subsystem's contents.

Fig. 2 Inlet module.

TESM consists of the component modules such as: Inlet, Compressor, Combustor, Turbine and Nozzle which are

modeled as lumped parameter thermodynamic systems. It means that, a multiple stage compressor or turbine is

The modules are developed based on fundamental laws of physics such as conservation of mass, momentum and

energy. For example, the rotor dynamics is presented by Eq. (1); the equation of conservation of angular momentum,

i.e. based on moment of inertia of the components attached to the shaft [1].

3600 W 3 C P 3 (T3 T 2 )

N& = [W 4 C P 4 (T 4 T5 ) ] (1)

4 N I

2 mech

Where N is engine spool speed, T is temperature, W is mass flow, I is engine spool moment of inertia and mech is

Other most important dynamical differential equations are used in the modeling process, are as follows [1]:

W3 W4 + u

& = (2)

C vol

C T W C P 4 T 4 W 4 + uLHV

T&4 = P 3 3 3 (3)

C vol & 4 T 4 C V

In order to use individual components to create an engine model, all hardware component information such as

flow, pressure ratio and efficiency maps, flow volume and area of some components are required.

The incorporation of turbo machinery map data (compressor and turbine maps) into the MATLAB workspace

(Simulink related blocks) is a significant part of the tuning process required to match the model performance with

The model configuration is shown in Figure 3. As can be seen, the relationships between components are easily

understood and the gas path flow parameter connections between major engine components include, mass flow rate,

total temperature and pressure, static pressure and fuel-air ratio (FAR).

.95

Gamagas

Inlet Efficiency

Goto10 P amb

WF R Inlet Efficiency Ps6

T2

T2

Goto7 Gama gas T (K) T amb W4(t)

Scope Ps6(t)

Goto6

a (m/s) a Ca Ca

Scope Cv gas(t) 0 h (m) 0.02487 Nozzle Exit Area

f(u) P (Pa) P amb Ts6

Cp(t) ISA P2 Goto5

Cv gas (t) Fcn Height 3 Nozzle Exit Area

RUN2 Scope (kg/m ) Mach num Gamagas Gama gass Scope Ts6(t)

R(t) ISA Atmosphere Model Terminator Inlet

f(u) R From11 R C6(t)

Clock u(1)/u(2) FAR(t) f(u) R(t) Scope Cp gas(t) 0

Scope Of Fuel Flow Ca From7 Ca Scope C6(t)

FAR Fcn R(t) Fcn f(u) Flight Mach num

T4 From5 P5 P5(t) SFC(t)

Cp gas(t) Fcn W4(t)

From9 Scope SFC (t)

W3(t) Lookup Table (Gama-T amb)1 From4 T5 T5(t)

R(t) T3(t) M dot Fuel(t) tr From3 WF WF

Switch

Scope Cp air (t) P3 Transport Scope Thrust(t)

f(u) P2 Delay From6 Nozzle

Gama air f(u) Cpav P2

Cp air (t) Fcn1 LHV

Goto1

Cp gas(t) Fcn1 P3

Scope W3(t) 2.5528 Scope W3(t)1 Goto8

Cp gas(t)

Constant Lookup Table (Gama-T amb)2 Scope P3(t) T3(t)

FAR(t) T3(t)

Scope

T4(t)

T3(t) FAR(t) T2

Cv gas (t) T4(t)

Gamaair P23 P23(t)

Cp gas (t) W3(t) W4(t) W4(t)

Goto11 From Compressor Cp avr FAR final

dot T 4(t)

Cp air (t) Scope T3(t) Add Gamaair

Divide W3(t) Scope

Scope Cpav

M dot Fuel(t) M dot Fuel (t) tr dot T4(t) .99 Burner eff N(t) From12

From8 T4(t)

Simulation Time Time Burner Efficiency

LHV Lookup Table T2

T3(t)

W3(t) W3(t) (Compr Etta-N tr) f(u)

FAR Determination T4(t) T3(t)

T4(t) T5(t)

T3(t) N(t) Etta Compr P23(t)

T3(t) N(t) Normalization

T4 T5

W4(t) 0.55*28500 N st

Goto9 T4(t)

44310000 W4 st LHV Scope T4(t)

T5(t) Goto4 Nst (rpm) .078 SMI

T4(t) -C- Etta tur T5(t)

Scope T5(t)

LHV 975.39 T4 st

Shaft Moment Of Inertia .99 Etaa Mechan

P4 Etta tur 1.56 Expan Ratio

T4 st 0.02 P4/P3 (burner press loss ) P4

Expan Ratio Gamagas gama gas

P5(t) P5 Scope P5(t) Etaa Mechan Cp gas (t) P23

P4/P3 (burner press loss) P3 P3 Goto2

P4 P4

From10 Goto3 Cp air (t) Goto

Cp gas (t) From1 Combuster Chamber Scope P4(t) Turbine

From2

Cp air (t) 1 1 PLA

N tr

Scope

SM

Subsystem for tra SM estimating

TESM has many outputs, can indicate the engine continuous time operation. Table 1 shows some of these

outputs.

ISA.Atms.Model a, , P1, T1

Inlet Ca, P2, T2

Compressor P3, T3, W3

Combustor P4, T4, W4

Turbine P5, T5

Nozzle Thrust, SFC, Ps6, Ts6, C6

Shaft N

TESM and its most important outputs as a single subsystem are shown in Figure 4.

The model operates as a virtual test cell and enables a user to investigate "what-if" scenarios at a fraction of the

Now, to present an efficient method to estimate the fuel flow injection function to the combustor chamber which

is of great importance among the engine input controlling functions [1-3, 9], some different reasonable fuel flow

functions are applied via the engine model and then some important engine continuous time operation parameters

(such as: thrust, compressor surge margin, turbine inlet temperature and engine spool speed,) are obtained. These

III. Neural Network Training

Neural networks are a powerful technique to solve many real world problems. They have the ability to learn from

experience in order to improve their performance and to adapt themselves to changes in the environment. In addition

to that, they are able to deal with incomplete information or noisy data and can be very effective especially in

situations where it is not possible to define the rules or steps that lead to the solution of a problem [2].

One of the most important aspects of Neural Network is the learning process. Neural networks learn by sample.

The samples must be selected carefully otherwise useful time is wasted or even worse the network might be

The learning process can start and continue by changing the values of the connections weights. The values of

j

w ji = yi (n) xi (n) yi (n) wki (n) yk (n) (4)

n=1

i = 1,2,...,M j = 1,2,...,L

Where x is input value and y is output value. Setting the weights between the hidden layer and output layer

m

j ( n) = e j (n)

w ji ( n) yi ( n)

(7)

i =0

Finally, setting the weights between input layer and output layer could be obtained by Eq.(8):

m

i (n) =

w ji (n) y i (n)

k (n) wkj (n) (8)

i =0 k

In the cases that network cannot coverage on a desired answer, by defining a moment coefficient named ; a

w ij = w ji (n 1) + (n)y i (n) (9)

By designing and training a feedforward multilayer perceptron neural network according to the available

database; we estimate a number of different reasonable fuel flow functions providing the desired engine

performance parameters such as thrust, compressor surge marginfor various acceleration maneuverings. In fact,

the proposed neural network would simulate the engine performance backwardly. So it empowered us to obtain a

series of fuel flow functions for various engine acceleration maneuverings. These functions would be used in the

The network input layer consists of four neurons which are the most important engine performance parameters

and acquired by the engine model. These engine model output parameters are depicted in Figure 4. There are ten

neurons in the hidden layer. The output layer includes one neuron as the fuel flow rate. The proposed neural network

is shown in Figure 5.

We use back propagation algorithm as a reliable and well-known algorithm to train the network. Applying this

Three hundred training data and fifty testing data are used by the network. The network activity function is as

follows:

1

f (x ) = (10)

1 + e x

Since the above function provides normalized outputs between zero and one; so the inputs of the network should

be normalized too. At last, the proffered network would achieve to acceptable error by 3500 epochs and training

process finish.

IV. Designing a Fuel Flow Controller by the Aid of Fuzzy Logic Method

Fuzzy logic is an increasingly popular method of handling systems associated with uncertainty, unmodeled

dynamics, or simply where human experience is required. Its ability to deal with imprecise data can often offer an

immediate benefit over conventional mathematical reasoning. It has been widely employed in control problems,

particularly due to its ability to mimic the behavior of nonlinear plants. By ensuring that a properly formulated rule

base is found, a fuzzy system can provide smooth transitions between operating regimes [4].

A Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) utilizes fuzzy logic to convert linguistic information based on expert knowledge

into an automatic control strategy. In order to use the fuzzy logic for control purposes, a front-end fuzzifier and a

rear-end defuzzifier are added to the usual input-output data set (Mamdani, 1974; Nguyen et al., 1995). A FLC

commonly consists of four sections: rules, fuzzifier, inference engine, and defuzzifier. Once the rule has been

established, the controller can be considered as a nonlinear mapping from the input to the output. The block diagram

(see Fig.6) of the generalized indistinct controller consists of four elements [13]:

1) Fuzzification block, transforming input physical values yi into corresponding linguistic variables ( yi);

3) Logic output block, transforming input linguistic variables into output with some belonging functions;

4) Defuzzification block, transforming output linguistic variables into physical control influence.

The designed FLC would determine the amount of fuel flow to the combustor chamber over its transient

operation. The FLC and the available turbine engine model constitute a closed loop which is shown in figure 7.

The first input of controller is the spool speed error (the difference of throttle demanded spool speed and current

spool speed). This input is named Error. The defined fuzzy function for the input is shown in figure 8. The second

input is the first input variations over time. This input is named Delta Error. The defined fuzzy function for the

Defining the proper fuzzy membership functions for fuel flow has a great influence on the controller behavior.

So, the obtained fuel flow functions as the neural network results would be helpful for defining the fuel flow fuzzy

membership functions. This approach could be used to defuzzifier of fuel flow fuzzy membership functions.

Conventionally, fuzzy rules are established by a combination of knowledge, experience and observation and may

thus not be optimal. Additionally, in spite of efforts to formalize a development standard for fuzzy controllers, fine

A variety of membership functions can be defined for inputs and output of the controller. By changing the

number and types of the functions and rules, the engine behavior would change.

The acceleration time to achieve pilot demanded operation point is of great importance. This time should be

short as much as possible [3,9,14]. On the other hand, if the acceleration time be shorter than its allowable limit,

compressor surge would be likely. So, it is necessary for the FLC to limit the inordinate engine acceleration.

In this paper, the applied logic for creation the FLC rules includes: higher spool acceleration rates during lower

spool speeds and lower spool acceleration rates during higher spool speeds. The some selected rules which produce

Delta-Error

Error NMS NS NVS Z PVS PS PMS

NMS NMS NS NS NS NS NVS Z

NS NMS NS NS NS NVS Z PVS

NVS NMS NS NS NVS Z PVS PS

Z NMS NS NVS Z PVS PS PMS

PVS NMS NS NVS Z PVS PS PMS

PS NVS Z Z Z PVS PS PMS

PMS Z PVS PS PS PS PS PMS

The variation of fuel flow versus the two controller inputs is depicted in figure 10.

By designing the controller, the influence of controller parameters on turbine engine should be examined in more

detail. So it would be essential to simulate the turbine engine and controller simultaneously.

The turbine engine acceleration for full throttle command would be considered to achieve the most critical

condition. The simulations are run with the unit step power lever angle and constant zero values for Mach number

and altitude.

The desirable engine performance would be obtained by applying more and various types of membership

functions and rules and then rerunning the simulation program. This technique is effective to achieve the best fuzzy

logic controller. The simulation results of engine model with FLC in comparison with the engine testing operation

When the turbine output power overcomes the compressor input power, the acceleration operation will be done.

So, increasing the fuel flow rate is a common method to accelerate the engine spool.

Through the initial time of acceleration, the turbine inlet temperature and the compressor output pressure will be

risen and the compressor air flow rate reduced. Considering the said circumstances during engine acceleration, high

acceleration rate may lead to compressor surge or stall and excessive turbine inlet temperature which must be

controlled by FLC. Figures 11(C) and 11(d) demonstrates the FLC capability in providing the above requirements.

The acceptability of gas turbine engine is crucially influenced by its ability in producing a demanded thrust while

desirable fuel consumption. The demanded thrust for the jet engine is 3500 (N). Figure 11(b) shows the FLC

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

(e)

Fig. 11 Trace of engine model responses with PLA Movement at sea level, M=0 versus simulation time (s).

(a) Normalized rotational speed. (b) Thrust (N). (c) Surge margin. (d) Turbine inlet temperature (K). (e) Fuel

flow.

An important characteristic of gas turbine engine control is its ability to follow a working line in order to

reduce the risk of stall or surge occurring. These are undesirable as they can lead to loss of thrust and, in severe

circumstances, destruction of the engine. Transient line as the most important transient simulation result and the

VI. Conclusion

The rationale behind this study was the need to develop new technique that may be able to improve the

performance, and simultaneously enhance the flexibility, of the control strategy for future concepts in aero-engines.

These engines include nonconventional engines or multi regime engines which are used by modern military aircraft

As engines become more complex and have more controllable and measurable parameters, the need for such

The steady and transient simulations indicated the fuel flow importance as a comprehensive controlling

parameter which has significant effects on all engine performance parameters. So the control system featured loops

to prevent engine over speeds, compressor surge and check turbine inlet temperature limit by scheduling the fuel

flow during accelerations and decelerations. The spool speed error and its differential over time were used as fuzzy

controller inputs. The influence of controller parameters on the turbine engine performance was analyzed by

changing the number and types of the membership functions and rules. This is effective to design the best controller.

The designed neural network simulated the engine performance backwardly. So it empowered us to obtain a series

of fuel flow functions in various engine acceleration maneuverings. These functions were used in the process of

The results obtained from full throttle simulation of the turbine engine and controller proved logical and well

founded. The compressor surge margin is safer than surge margin during conventional operation of turbine engine.

Other important parameter is turbine inlet temperature which is restricted by lower allowable value.

The simulation results of engine model with fuzzy controller in comparison with the engine testing operation

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge Combustion & Propulsion Research Laboratory (CPRL) at Malek-Ashtar

University of Technology for supplying engine test data during the course of testing and demonstration.

References

[1] M. Bazazzadeh, H. Badihi, A. Shahriari, Improved Turbine Engine Hierarchical Modeling and Simulation Based on

Engine Fuel Control System, Journal of Aerospace Science & Technology [JAST], ISSN: 1735-2134, 2009.

[2] H. Badihi, A. Shahriyari, Alir. Naghsh, Artificial Neural Network Application to Fuel Flow Function for Demanded Jet

Engine Performance, IEEE/AIAA Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, Montana, USA, 2009.

[3] K. Lietzau, A. Kreiner, Model based control concepts for jet engines, ASME Paper, 2001.

[4] Andrew J. Chipperfield, Beatrice Bica, and Peter J. Fleming, Fuzzy Scheduling Control of a Gas Turbine Aero-Engine: A

Multiobjective Approach, Journal of IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 49, No. 3, JUNE 2002.

[5] Zilouchian, A., Juliano, M., Healy, T, Design of Fuzzy Logic Controller for a Jet Engine Fuel System, Journal of Control

[6] Crosa G., Pittaluga F., Trucco A., Beltrami F., Torelli A. and Tarverso F., Heavy Duty Gas Turbine Plant

Aerothermodynamic Simulation Using Simulink, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 1998.

[7] Michael Lichtsinder, Yeshayahou Levy Jet Engine Model for Control and Real-Time Simulations, Journal of Engineering

[8] Al. Behbahani, Rama K. Yedavalli, P. Shankar, M. Siddiqi, Modeling diagnostics and prognostics of a two-spool turbofan

engine, 41st AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion conference and exhibit, Tucson, AZ, July 2005.

[9] A. Kreiner, K. Lietzau, The use of onboard real-time models for jet engine control, MTU Aero Engine Germany, 2004.

[10] M.T. Hagan, H.B. Demuth, M.H. Beale, Neural Network Design, ISBN: 0-9717321-0-8.

[11] Depold, H.R., Gass, F.D, The application of expert systems and neural networks to gas turbine prognostics and

diagnostics, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, Vol. 121 pp.607-12, 1999.

[12] Lu, P.J., Zhang, M.C., Hsu, T.C., Zhang, J., An evaluation of engine faults diagnostics using artificial neural networks,

[13] Verbruggen, H. B. and Bruijn, P. M., Fuzzy Control and Conventional Control: What is (And Can Be) the Real

[14] Alain Garassino, Snecma, An Advanced Control System for Turbofan Engine: Multivariable Control and Fuzzy Logic

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