Está en la página 1de 100

The Kylián Research Project

ONE OF A KIND
The Kylián Research Project

Jiří Kylián, Friederike Lampert, Désirée Staverman (Eds.)

Table of Contents

Foreword by Samuel Wuersten 7
Introduction by Jiří Kylián 9
Introducing One Of A Kind – The Kylián Research Project
by Friederike Lampert and Désirée Staverman 13
The Research Team 19

Dance & Age
NDT 3 Last Speech by Jiří Kylián 27
Far Too Close by Jiří Kylián 29
Expression of the Body at Different Ages
by Friederike Lampert and Désirée Staverman 35
Youth Mania. Ageing (or not) with or without Botox by Malte Friedrich 43
The Ageing Process from a Medical Point of View by Anandi Felter 49

Dance & Voice
Creating a Third Dimension – Podium interview with Jiří Kylián 61
Experimenting with Dance and Voice
by Friederike Lampert and Désirée Staverman 69
Report by an Overtone Singer by Borg Diem Groeneveld 79
The Naked Art Forms: Voice, Movement and Physicality
by Vincent Meelberg 87

Dance & Music
Experiencing the Interaction between Dance and Music
by Friederike Lampert and Désirée Staverman 99
Glued Together: Dance and Music by Friederike Lampert 105
Organisation and Inspiration: Personal Reflections on
Collaborations between Dancers and Musicians by Jan-Bas Bollen 113

Dance & Visual Technology
ONE OF A KIND Editing Moving Images by Friederike Lampert and Désirée Staverman 125
THE KYLIÁN RESEARCH PROJECT Some Thoughts on Dance Film by David Hinton 133
New Perspectives on Dance – Podium interviews with
Edited by Jiří Kylián, Friederike Lampert and Jiří Kylián, Michael Schumacher, Jason Akira Somma, Sabine Kupferberg,
Désirée Staverman for Codarts Rotterdam Boris Paval Conen, Ed Wubbe and David Hinton 145
Choreographing the Dialogue between Performance and Camerawork
© 2014 Codarts Rotterdam in Fred Astaire’s and Gene Kelly’s Hollywood Musical Films
ISBN 978-90-821951-0-1 by Anna Henckel-Donnersmarck 159

Codarts Rotterdam Dance & Design
Kruisplein 26
Dancers as Architects by Friederike Lampert and Désirée Staverman 171
3012 CC Rotterdam
Discussing Dance and Design – Podium interview with
The Netherlands
Jiří Kylián, Michael Schumacher, Sjoerd Vreugdenhil,
Ascon de Nijs and Erika Turunen 179
Cover photo: Serge Ligtenberg
Tuning the Body. On World Exhibitions and Atmosphere
English language editor: Nickolas Woods
by Nathalie Bredella 187
Photography: Joke Schot,
Wijnand Schouten (Dance & Music, Dance & Visual Technology),
Joris-Jan Bos (page 12 and 173)
Credits 195
Graphic design: 75B, Rotterdam
Printing: Veenman+, Rotterdam

5

artistic research had become so second nature to him that he found it almost superfluous to recognise it as such. stage design and architecture. aspiring dance artists almost felt like imposing himself on them. Samuel Wuersten. Jiří has fulfilled his role to the highest expectations simply by being what he truly is: one of the world’s most fascinating and gifted choreographers. Nothing could have been further from the truth. costume. Director of dance at Codarts Rotterdam and member of the executive board 7 . “Not my cup of tea. voice. In his ever-evolving creative process. part of which you are now holding in your hands. of course. Jiří Kylián has provided the dance programme at Codarts Rotterdam with invaluable input: reaching out to a new generation of dance artists by means of this research project has triggered many thoughts and discussions among our student population and teaching faculty. As we kept bringing up the subject. Foreword When we approached Jiří Kylián several years ago to see if he would be interested in leading a research project for Codarts Rotterdam. Jiří slowly started seeing where we were coming from. Future generations will be able to draw insights from this unique experience thanks to the extensive documentation that has been published. film and video art as well as lighting have been addressed along the way. Taking on an active role in sharing his insight and creative experiences with young. He explained that he did not feel comfortable with the notion of research within the context of formal dance education. As a research professor. Topics such as the human body’s expression at different ages. as Jiří discovered soon enough once the cycle of projects had started in September 2010. Désirée Staverman as well as artistic partners Michael Schumacher and Sabine Kupferberg. pointing out the importance and necessity of highly accomplished artists taking on the challenge of contributing to the discussion of artistic research within professional dance education. he was very reluctant to consider the idea. Jiří led the way on a journey of discovery from the point of view of dance and choreography. music. Friederike Lampert and Dr. One very lucky generation of students at Codarts has been able to benefit from this opportunity first hand while others have been following the project through the Internet. Supported by associate researchers Dr.” he said.

Dear friends. a good balance is essen- tial for life. Regardless of the current situation. as throwing something away is just as important as keeping something. “I don’t know. In essence. If we didn’t stimulate and foster this process carefully. they should never be afraid of uncomfortable questions from their students nor should they fear the fact that their answer to awkward questions might be. Sometimes jokes and seriousness are two sides of the same coin….” On the contrary. Although I have never considered myself a teacher. adventure and creativity. Teaching should be a journey of adventure and discovery. After all the complex issues we have discussed. I am sure that teachers who are unable to learn from their students are doomed to failure and vice-versa. Even after the three-year period of my lectureship. should be passed on to students in a simple. and of course to a certain extent it is. I have met very generous teachers who spend a great deal of time and energy addressing the specific needs and problems of individual students. This would be a pity. secondly. There are millions of examples of both cases. tradition. teaching means the passing on of knowledge. you will have nothing to throw away. but it should also stand for openness. I have simply tried to share some of my knowledge with you. Jiří Kylián 9 . The introduction you are about to read is not aimed at any method of t­eaching or any institution in particular. I accepted this lecture- ship at Codarts because of one simple idea: if I give you nothing. It merely states some of my c­onvictions concerning the delicate balance between teaching and learning. and it should always promote and encourage controversial discussions. have only one goal in mind. be free when teaching and feel free in your learning process. All the knowledge teachers have accumulated from their teachers. I know that this sounds like a joke. It represents autho­ rity. It should embrace new influences and innovation and stimulate fantasy. I still don’t consider myself a teacher. more trusted teachers. to stimulate each other in order to learn and move forward. The traditional roles of teachers and students have changed drastically. Teachers should never be afraid of the unknown. but we should realise that jokes have a serious side to them too. I want to share two very simple ideas with you: firstly. dignity and respect. Students should try to absorb as much material as is given to them but they should never do so without examining it critically: there are too many examples of teachers either being massively misused by dubious politicians or simply manipulating people’s opinions themselves. They’re certainly not just a laughing matter. our world would not be able to renew itself and would ultimately collapse. I’m sure admitting not knowing something would make them better. Teaching and learning is the very es- sence of our society. Good teachers give you confidence. and from their teachers’ teachers. frustrated teachers take it away. inclu- sive manner so that they may use it freely in the expression of their natural curiosity. creativity and fantasy.

.

In many ways. practice-led research as well as exploration of a wide range of topics related to dance and choreography.” “One Of A Kind is a rare work of art where The composer Brett Dean developed a soundscape there is a total unity between the l­ighting. Friederike Lampert and Dr. The Patricia Boccadoro in Culturekiosque cellist on stage was Pieter Wispelwey. the international NDT group itself. but as between the arts. has its The resulting composition also used African percussion proper place on stage. Each topic was based on 13 . and Dance and Design (Light. photo by Joris-Jan Bos set up experiments in which dance is coupled with another art form or topic in order to discover meaning in the inter­action of the two. a lighting designer from Germany. and to look at the world of art in a free way. including the cello.” He therefore One Of A Kind. Kylián worked with artists and experts from different disciplines on a series of specific themes: Dance and Age. without any preconceived ideas. Supported by asso­ ciate researchers Dr. Architecture). Désirée Staverman. the starting point was the music. Dance and Film. Dance and Music. Two of the press reviews were in order to create an original work of art. The team as follows: comprised a Japanese architect. an Australian com- poser. it is also a research centre into the exchange Joke Visser and Yoshiki Hishinuma for costumes. we can see the ballet One Of A Kind as the blueprint for the lectureship that Kylián started in October 2010 at Codarts Rotterdam. inspired by musical styles as diverse as sixteenth century the décor. Kylián invited and assembled an Theater performs Jiří Kylián’s choreography One Of A inter­national team of artists from different disciplines Kind for the first time. the music and the dance. Kylián said: “My pre­dominant interest was to show the students the wider world. Introducing One Of A Kind The Kylián Research Project by Friederike Lampert and Désirée Staverman Let’s go back to May 1998 when Nederlands Dans For One Of A Kind. The three-year lectureship involved interdisciplinary. Inuit singing and overtone chanting by Tibetan monks. Dance and Voice. Costume. Students from various departments at Codarts Rotterdam participated in the project-related workshops led by Kylián and Michael Schumacher as well as other experienced teachers. a cappella polyphony. design while Michael Simon was in charge of lighting. The architect Atsushi Kitagawara was responsible for stage group that is able to reach large audiences. […] One Of A Kind is a Kylián pointed out in an interview shortly before the message from the maternity room of dance. which is closely related to dance and choreo­graphy. a costume designer as well as a cellist from the Netherlands. Ariejan Korteweg in de Volkskrant like dance. “Nederlands Dans Theater is not only a last but not least. avant-garde music by John Cage. and vocal music in particular: “I love v­ocal music because.”1 first performance. and. Everything. who played the lament from Benjamin Britten’s first cello suite.”2 as well as birdsong from Dean’s native Australia. it is the only form of human music that can be made without an instrument.

6 february 1999. Patricia Boccadoro. which is actually one of his first War. One Of A Kind 14 15 . Less well known. Notes: small digression. which proved very layar app stimulating for both. light and dance appreciated by different senses.codarts. is the story behind it. The smart phone icon will tell (EN: The Hand of Fate) by Schoenberg and Der gelbe you which pages have short films behind them. stay focused on the whole page and wait until the short film appears on the screen of your device. different documentation tools and perspectives. This isn’t the time or the place to discuss Richard (Bühnengesamtkunstwerk) in order to reach what he and expert articles). but. The films provide a remarkable links between different disciplines. deeper. Go to one of the pages with the smartphone icon. by Désirée Staverman round provided a platform for participants to discuss their experiences and new-found knowledge. for further reflection. the same night. He explained his motivation to follow and document the process but also to produce from different disciplines. the differ- a specific view of it. De Volkskrant. If you Reiter exposition and almanac. It also goes without saying that. further. as plans for a first performance the composer’s music before but was impressed and had to be cancelled due to the start of the First World started this painting. The overall aim of the book is to share the journey of the Jiří Kylián Research Project. 8 may 1998. at the time of the concert. have searched for links between it is clear that Kandinsky aimed to combine a range meant the research could be seen from various angles. The photography and texts we have included in the book are therefore intended to stimulate awareness Interdisciplinary Art artists. Ariejan Korteweg. Many artists. He had never heard during Kandinsky’s life. The impact of the event a good example of a interdisciplinary work of art. was stronger than it may otherwise have been as. with more time. both of which were press the button on your smartphone or tablet you will open up digital extras experimental pieces for the theatre: Die glückliche Hand that are hidden behind the pages of the book. Two interesting projects resulted in addition to their 1912 co-operation for the Der blaue The book has additional features you can access using the Layar App. if you already have Layar. particularly in the Romantic era and the From the detailed introduction to Der gelbe Klang. i. Excursion: two workshops delving deeper into the theme by ob- serving and experiencing Kylián’s choreo­graphic input into one of the topics. The book is also dedicated to the the arts. the resources are entirely equal: very important perspective on the research. Or.codarts. This painting is rather well known and you might recog. This journey.” layer of documentation is a website that was set up at the beginning of the project (oneofakind. update it to the latest version (from the iPhone App Store or Android Play Store). reports dance in general. this was then followed by one or Not all the discussions and lectures we had through- out the project are published in this book. which the book can also be used as a textbook and as support early twentieth century. films.nl). interview texts. Nevertheless. of art. so tional programme in that students are now made aware how is it possible to document knowledge that is based of the interdisciplinary aspects of dance and how to on experience? The approach taken brought together use these aspects in their individual work. or by workshops led by invited research could have been conducted into the chosen topics. which was Finding an appropriate format for communicating dance designed to bring research and education together. it remains a fascinating project and is abstract works. “On the last inner base. In this sense. the free Layar App for iPhone or Android or. (DE: “Im letzten innerlichen Grunde sind diese Mittel nise its creator. A close friendship developed between them that resulted in an extended and very interesting corre- spondence. Books in fact added a new dimension to the Codarts educa- and written texts can hardly articulate the art of dance. interactive printing via the Layar App. they were of artistic elements such as colour. quotations. both artists were at a turning point in their careers.nl. theoretical reflection and prac­tical experience: a one- day symposium featuring guest speakers and artists introduced the topic. moving the outer differences are wiped out by the last goal and pictures. in his opinion. if you will allow me a in various articles. has practice was a key aspect of the research process.”) group. and viewed in various broad public interested in Kylián’s work and the art of dreaming about the ultimate Gesamtwerk or total work with art forms such as the spoken word and music formats (images. 1911 the inner identity is exposed. Barbara van den Bogaard’s film com. at the end of each workshop. however.e. Kandinsky heard some piano compositions by Unfortunately. a feedback and provide inspiration. finally. pany UmaMedia produced short films you can see using painting to give one example of how artists can create 2. which are far more relevant for dance. the artist known as vollkommen gleich: das Letzte Ziel löscht die äusseren the founder of Germany’s Der blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) Verschiedenheiten und enblösst die innere Identität. How does it work? Download Klang (EN: The Yellow Sound) by Kandinsky. Der gelbe Klang never came to fruition Arnold Schoenberg at a concert. All short films are archived at Codarts and can also be viewed at oneofakind. to put it more emphatically. Culturekiosque. I would like to use a Wassily Kandinsky ences between these artistic means are only external: 1. They generally shared the same artistic ideals and were very like-minded. A camera team was enlisted not only Wagner’s Gesamtkunstwerk that inspired many artists called “the spiritual in art”. press on “Scan”. In 1911. open the Layar App and hold your smartphone or tablet over the page so that the whole page is in the picture. Wassily Kandinsky. Another Impression III (Konzert). arguing that.

inspired by the music of Arnold Schoenberg GMS 78 Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus und Kunstbau München One Of A Kind . Wassily Kandinsky Impression III (Konzert) 1911.

map with Sinfonietta. a company for a film entitled Car Men with the the age of nine at the School of the “older” dancers. he became Swedish television and the Tokyo Moscow and Berlin. the Paris Opéra. It the Prague Conservatory. Stoolgame and La Stuttgart Ballet. He has worked with many Medal from the President of the 1975. but remained associated the com. He Republic. He has received many London in 1967. and which Macfarlane (Forgotten Land. His work is performed Officer of the Royal Dutch Order of where he made his debut as a all over the world by more than 80 Orange-Nassau. Bill Katz dancers the opportunity to develop (Symphony of Psalms. he went to the 72 of which were for Nederlands the course of his career including the Stuttgart Ballet led by John Cranko Dans Theater. year. young talent. he put Nederlands creative personalities of interna. John their skills and talents. in 1991. 1998) and Susumu Shingu (Toss of a Dice. 19 . Atsushi Kitagawara (One Of A Kind. 1980). company Theater (Viewers. he 1997) and Tōru Takemitsu (Dream jirikylian. In 1978. Czech Republic and the Chevalier du Dans Theater on the international tional stature. an honorary doctor- choreographer with Paradox for the companies and schools. and work). Benois de la Danse in Cathédrale Engloutie). In 1962. After making only made works for Nederlands York. extraordinary record of service. international awards and honours in his scholarship. functions as a breeding ground for Michael Simon (Stepping Stones. among them the Légion d’Honneur in France. he 2013 another film Between Entrance he was accepted as a student at handed over artistic leadership of and Exit with the same director. together with Carel Birnie. 1983) and the designers Walter which gave – and still gives – young Nobbe (Sinfonietta. After an director Boris Paval Conen and in National Ballet in Prague. he created in 1947) started his dance career at Dans Theater III. open brown coal mines in the Czech ship for the Royal Ballet School in pany as house choreographer. 1998).com founded Nederlands Dans Theater II. He left Nederlands Dans Theater in 1999 was choreographed on location in Prague when he received a scholar. He has not ate from the Juilliard School in New Noverre Gesellschaft. 2005). three Nijinsky Awards in Monte three ballets for Nederlands Dans Dans Theatre but also for the Carlo (best choreographer. After completing has created more than 100 ballets. an Honorary artistic director of the company in Ballet. 1978). The Research Team Jiří Kylián Jiří Kylián (born in Czechoslovakia He also created Nederlands In the summer of 2006. 1978). That same composers Arne Nordheim (Ariadne. Time.

the research. Dance and Age. in visual terms. She has been teaching spoken voice and music in early of this composer. 20 21 . that the with many pioneering musicians camera offered a new way of making including the percussionist Han research processes in the perform- Bennink. he has developed a One Of A Kind research project. From 1988 to publicist. She also organises 2002. He has collaborated first topic. composition. the shops in movement analysis and experiences of those involved and improvisation worldwide. unique approach to the discipline of It became clear when filming the improvisation. He has been a member of several groundbreaking UmaMedia dance companies. He currently lives in entire project and helped explain. She was on the studied ballet at the Frankfurt the violoncello in Amsterdam and Alphons Diepenbrock: Conception. choreographer. Désirée Staverman Friederike Lampert (born in Désirée Staverman (born in Hengelo. Germany in 1968). the violinist Mary Oliver. Twyla Tharp Dance. The camera and the cellist/composer Alex then became the research eye for the Waterman. Pretty Ugly Dance Company) and from 2002 to 2006 she worked as a research assistant in the Department for Performance Studies and taught dance theory and practice. ing arts world visible. Michael Schumacher Michael Schumacher is a perform- ing artist with roots in classical and modern dance. UmaMedia is a Ballet. she worked as a research assistant with Tanzplan Deutschland before becoming an associate researcher for Jiří Kylián’s professor- ship at Codarts Rotterdam. since 1988. including Ballet Owned by Barbara van den Bogaard Frankfurt. She organises conferences on dance studies and is artistic direc- tor of the K3 Youth Club at the K3 – Centre for Choreography | Tanzplan Hamburg at Kampnagel. Pretty Ugly Dance Company company that specialises in visual and Magpie Music Dance Company. They were asked to Working as dancer. produce several short films for the and teacher.Dr. Her doctoral thesis Improvisation in Artistic Dance was awarded the Tanzwissenschaftspreis NRW (a dance science award in North Rhine-Westphalia) in 2006. she has mainly been teaching dance theory and practice. the insights gained. performance focused tion of compositions by the Dutch Arts followed by Applied Theatre She worked for several years as both on the revival of Greek Tragedy composer Diepenbrock and was Studies at the Justus Liebig a violoncello teacher and a music on stage and the combination of working on the thematic catalogue University Giessen. Amsterdam and conducts work. The research for her 2006 the Master of Music programme at Erlangen. Feld and Gerbert Toes. Since September 2007. She conferences for the Royal Society for dancer (including Amanda Miller’s departments at Codarts Rotterdam has been research supervisor for Music History of The Netherlands. She the Netherlands in 1954) studied doctoral thesis The Stage Music of Codarts since 2007. editorial board for the Donemus edi- University of Music and Performing musicology at Utrecht University. storytelling. Friederike Lampert Dr. From 2008 to 2010. she worked as a professional music and cultural history in various twentieth-century stage music.

Sabine Kupferberg
Sabine Kupferberg (born in Michael Schumacher. In 1993, she
Wiesbaden, Germany, in 1951) took received the Prize of Merit from
her first ballet classes at the school Stichting Dansersfonds ‘79 founda-
attached to the city’s municipal tion. A year later, the Netherlands
theatre. In 1968, she went on to public broadcaster NOS produced
Stuttgart to complete her dance a television documentary about
education and subsequently joined her achievements that was shown
John Cranko’s famed troupe the nationwide. In February 1998,
Stuttgart Ballett. She danced the another public broadcaster in the
company’s entire repertoire, includ- Netherlands, the NPS, broadcast a
ing choreographies by John Cranko, separate documentary about her
Kenneth MacMillan and Glen Tetley. called Sabine Kupferberg, Woman of
It was in Stuttgart that she met Jiří Thousand Faces, a film made by the
Kylián as he was starting to put his German film producer Reiner Moritz.
first choreographic ideas in prac- In October 1998, she received the
tice and in 1975 they both joined Dutch Golden Theatre Dance Prize
Nederlands Dans Theater. During awarded by the Dutch association of
this period, she not only danced theatres and concert halls (VSCD).
almost every Kylián work but also
worked and created with a large
number of other choreographers
including Hans van Manen, William
Forsythe, Mats Ek, Christopher
Bruce, Maurice Béjart, Nacho Duato
and Ohad Naharin. She was one of
the original members of Nederlands
Dans Theater III (a company espe-
cially created for dancers aged over
forty) after it was created in 1991
and again had the opportunity to
work with renowned choreogra-
phers. She worked with Mats Ek on
his 2003 production Tulips, and in
2003 and 2004 she worked closely
with the American theatre director
Robert Wilson on his production 2
Lips and Dancers and Space. In 2006,
she played the main role in the
dance film Car-Men, which received
several international awards (the
Prix Italia, the Golden Prague and
many others). She recently took
part in the celebrated production
Last Touch First by Jiří Kylián and

22

Dance
&
Age

NDT 3
Last Speech
Good evening, friends. I would like to welcome you to this special evening.
I’m sure you’re asking yourselves what this evening is all about. There is a
reason for it, of course. There’s a reason why all these dancers are standing
with me on stage to say hello to you. It’s a special evening in which we’d like
to celebrate 15 years of NDT 3, a very special company that was founded
all those years ago and was fortunate to be able to work with some of the
world’s greatest choreographers and theatre-makers: Hans van Manen,
William Forsythe, Mats Ek, Robert Wilson, Maurice Bejart, to name only a
view. The company has created 53 ballets and travelled the world. It has been
to 31 countries and worked with 25 choreo­graphers. It has been to Iceland,
Korea, the United States, Russia, Australia, China, Brazil, Japan and many
other countries. It has been proved that there is a great interest around the
world in seeing these people perform.

As I said at the outset of this company’s life, older people, dancers who are
past their forties, have special tales to tell and we should listen in. Dance
isn’t just about performing as many pirouettes and fouettés as possible and
jumping as high as we can; it is about something else. It is about experience,
about sharing one’s life experience and feelings with the public.

I would like to thank all those wonderful people, all the choreographers, the
designers, the people who worked the lights, the technicians and c­ostume
makers, all the people who have shared these fantastic years with us.
Obviously, I am saying all this because NDT 3 will stop existing in its present
form by the 30th of this month. You will not see NDT 3 for at least two years
in this constellation. The company has projects in the future. We hope these
projects will be well funded financially and will take off in the most glorious
way, but we still have to wait and see if this happens.

The strange thing is that we always see young dancers and think how won-
derfully energetic and dynamic they are, what fantastic technique they have
and so forth, but we don’t realise that somebody like Iván Pérez will do a few
pirouettes as a younger man, then he suddenly reaches 40, then 50, then
60, and maybe he will have experienced some interesting things along the
way that he would also like to share with you. I think he should be given the
opportunity to do that.

I don’t think NDT 3 should rely solely on sponsors in the future. I would like to
thank you, our sponsors, for the financial support you have given in the past,
are giving now and will give in the future, but I think NDT 3 projects for older
dancers should be funded by public money. I think they should be given the
opportunity to keep their dreams alive and to bring their fantasies and crea-

You can learn many things but you cannot tive ideas to life, just as young dancers do. This is why I am standing here, to
tell you this and to ask you for your support in this endeavour.
learn experience. You have to live it.
About this evening… after I have finished my glorious speech, we will start
You have to live through it. And you should with a film, as I thought it might be interesting for you to see what has
live as intensely as possible in order to have happened in the 15 years of NDT 3. After the film, we will see NDT 1 in Bella
Figura, then NDT 2 in Chapeau and finally NDT 3 in Birthday. I wish you a
something to remember when you grow old. wonderful evening. Enjoy yourselves!

Jiří Kylián
Jiří Kylián, 2006
27

It is directly connected to the words “distance”. thoughts. so that we cannot see it in its complete form. June 2003 29 . there is a direct connection between the two words “motion” and “emotion” – we move and we are moved. which enable us to create zen gardens that inspire us… forever. or in order to move away from something. They are like the lines in the sand of a zen garden in which only our spiritual fantasy grows – or like the furrows of a fertile field in which our food grows. The word “movement” carries much symbolism and meaning. and even our body is constantly on the move from one landscape to another. “close” and many others. fantasy. or as anybody moving through life. all our moves (emotional or physical) leave deep wrinkles in our hearts. In any case. Even when just sitting down. Jiří Kylián. and maybe “far too far” from the other to be able to see it in any detail. We never stop moving. This simple fact is a fundamental question we should ask ourselves whenever we decide “to make a move”. we should ask ourselves. Our mind. in order to forget?” Are we moving in order to create future memories. often we arrive “far too close” to one thing. As dancers on stage. It is obvious that moving closer to something means moving further away from something else. to enter a new space and experience. “time”. “far”. our feelings. or just to forget the ones we have experienced? In our curious journey through life. which enables us to make zen gardens. Far Too Close We are constantly in motion. “Are we moving in order to come closer to something. which in turn inspires us to build fertile fields to feed us. We are in a permanent changing room. Our emotional world is closely linked to movement: in many languages.

very moving. Working on the Dance and Age part of my lectureship was a fine experience for all participants. aged roughly between 9 and 70. They all had to perform the same choreography to the Beatles song Yesterday. including myself. Jiří Kylián . The result was astounding and very. We had a number of dancers to work with.

Carolyn Carlson and Christopher Bruce and many others. I found this totally unacceptable and I realised that the departure of these very experienced dancers was a terrible waste. Robert Wilson. wisdom these dancers possessed. during which time they’d become truly great artists. It had to be done as these dancers had simply become too old to satisfy the physical demands of the company’s repertoire. There were pieces by Hans van Manen. William Forsythe. and to see you feel more like a teacher. The creation of the company was inspired by very simple but very significant idea from Pablo Picasso: ‘It takes a very long time to become young. I was often confronted with the terrible task of having to say good- bye to many wonderful dancers after they’d worked with me for 10-15 years. Mats Ek. The company consisted of only four people but their spirit took them to all the continents on the planet. Maurice Béjart. Many choreographers of international stature supported the idea and contributed to NDT 3’s unique repertoire. you work with older dancers. This simple fact was immediately understood by many of my colleagues. Your task is to give them the opportunity to create a repertoire that respects the experience they have accumulated and allows them to stand on stage with a sense of dignity compatible with their age. It felt natural to me to create a company like NDT 3 to use the wealth of experience and When you work with younger dancers. In short. they are the starting point. Michael Schumacher. As artistic director of Nederlands Dans Theater for 24 years. When them perform it on stage. Over time.’ Jiří Kylián Dieuwertje Derksen and Sebastian Spahn . you’re more like a colleague and you have to Jiří Kylián respect their biographies. You give them the opportunity to express all the experience they have gathered.

he worshipped the qualities of interested in ageing and in rethinking the aesthetics of seasoned dancers. in 1991. a company for experienced dancers aged older after years of successful touring. I don’t run for the bus. I just don’t do it. all of which proved dance. the younger ones turn. The new company performed works dance. With a lifetime of expertise as well as unique gifts. Michael Schumacher. Gérard Lemaître and David Krugel Jiří Kylián had his finger on the pulse when he founded The company was closed for financial reasons in 2006 NDT 3. Expression of the Body at Different Ages by Friederike Lampert and Désirée Staverman Ton Lutgerink and Martinette Janmaat Jiří Kylián in a podium discussion with Sabine Kupferberg. Kylián recognised the need to redefine technique and the aesthetics of age and experi- how Kylián had set the debate with NDT 3. How does age affect aesthetics in dance? What does this mean for per- I thought. In this by renowned choreographers all around the world and theoretical discussions and research. Martinette Janmaat (dancer aged 60+) Jamie Hendriks and Beau Delwel 35 .’ refinement. formers and choreographers? How do people perceive NDT 3 dancers performed masterpieces of subtlety and very young and older dancers on stage? What differences that because I’ll probably fall. are there between young and older dancers? I don’t take risks. but justified its existence. I wait for the next one. A few years later. In contrast with the general view that the dance and academic worlds became increasingly It’s like not running for the bus dance careers are short. ‘I’m not going to do ence. and ageing as a dancer moved to the centre of anymore. than 40.

Schumacher and Kupferberg developed the cho. Michael Schumacher and Sabine Kupferberg 36 37 . In performing the movements. the elder to formulate their thoughts on the content of the sym. The youngest couple found it easy to copy 50 and an older couple aged around 70. the approxi- As part of the One Of A Kind professorship at Codarts For a broader view. The entangled interaction of mately 200 students and teachers present were surprised Rotterdam. Codarts Friederike Lampert concluded the symposium with a presentation on the age-related experiments in Kontakthof by the choreographer Pina Bausch. Kylián’s experiment November 2010 that set out the central theme – the Meinungsforschung in Berlin then broached the topic of served to broaden the appreciation of age among par- expression of the human body in various age phases.g. their out the importance of self-development and focus in expression was delicate and fine. They (performed live by singer Tim Van Peteghem and guitar. The aim of the the steps and express them with innocence and purity. Schumacher invited the participants ment. a chair and the dancers’ clothing. Kylián then asked them how it was possible to able to do (e. s­tudents opened the session by speaking about their given the young dancers. They didn’t take risks. order to make personal choices rather than sticking to their movements were subtle and performed using the models. Movements and body took place on 24 November 2010. from a medical point the same time developing one’s personality and breaking of view and dance scientist and associate researcher at away from tradition to follow one’s own path. bending at the knees) but the timing remain young while ageing. The four generations were two children aged fact they were part of a cross-generational group in 13. phy that was to be developed during the week. smooth and musical execution of move- In the first session. Sociologist the oldest couple. The students who took part in the project were explicit “Expression of the body at different ages”. two dancers aged around ing the steps. the of real-life relationships. it was possible to observe expression is different in each phase of life. a key question in this research project. The subsequent dancer Anandi Felter explained the impact of the ageing discussion focused on the need to respect age while at process. knew how to deal with ageing bodies. former dancers Ton Lutgerink society sparked a major response from the students. about how much they had learned from working with between dancers of different ages. His raw take on today’s youth-obsessed of dancers over 70 to express themselves in a detailed. Everyone learned worked in pairs with one couple representing the group the same choreography. dancers who were willing to share students and scholars began with a symposium on 15 Malte Friedrich from the Institut für soziologische their lifelong experience with them. compensating the ist Zoltàn Polgàr) as the music for the short choreogra. Michael The dance students. and in doing so producing a wider and Martinette Janmaat as well as a group of Codarts an indication of how much food for thought he had aesthetic and a re-evaluation of the competencies of age. Codarts dance cance of dance in a non-Western culture. Schumacher and Sabine Kupferberg. particularly for dancers. loss of technique with expression. tunity to reflect on these questions in a project entitled presentation on her research into dance in Sudan. the first research project carried out reography in the studio. the dancers Sabine Kupferberg and to be young. convincing way. which was steered by Jiří Kylián. asking why we all want ticipants and observers alike. a group of 20 fourth-year students from the Codarts which each participant was practising the steps while at Bachelor of Dance degree programme (the students the same time observing each other. Martinette Janmaat and Ton Lutgerink. at the same time pointing remained the same. Everyone was aware of the each day. was to create performed the choreography with great dynamism and awareness among young people of the influence of age energy. Medical practitioner and views on ageing in the dance world. focusing on the interaction with as part of Jiří Kylián’s professorship at Codarts Rotterdam. was clear in this varied opening session. erations of dancers. skirt and blouse. Michael Schumacher. youth mania in Western society. at the height of their physical ability. In an animated discus- poses were initiated by unusual use of the chair and the sion following the lecture demonstration. needed to adapt some steps they were no longer posium. workshop. finding their own way of execut- in the lecture demonstration). The exchange intention being to provide an example of the signifi. an expression of experience and ageing combined with a very sensitive. In the performance by the middle-aged couple and experience on expression as well as to show how (Kupferberg and Schumacher). Kylián chose the song Yesterday by The Beatles expertise they had acquired in a lifetime of dancing. They witnessed the ability Professor Kylián. The presentation of the short choreography by four gen- Marta Mazzoleni and Michal Szymanski Kylián. theatre scientist and teacher at jacket. Jiří Kylián gave dance students an oppor­ Codarts’s dance department Hilke Diemer gave a lively female and male dancers was often an amusing reminder by the difference in expression of the various couples. The following one-week workshop involved four gene­ Rehearsing the piece in the studio was an uncommon rations of dancers who worked together for three hours situation for all participants. The influ- ence of society’s perception of age on the aesthetics of dance and choreography. couple.

Literature: Christoph Faircloth. Aagje Swinnen. Aging. Chicago: Intellect. live through it. New York: Pelgrave. 2012. 2011. Stotesbury. Embodiment and Dance: Finding a Balance. Representing Ageing: Images and Identities.Participating Codarts students: Ravid Arbabanel Clarissa Bragna Beau Delwel (Havo/vwo for Music and Dance) Dieuwertje Derksen Daphne Dudovich Sayaka Haruna Jamie Hendriks (Havo/vwo for Music and Dance) Sayo Homma Sonoko Kamimura Keonjoong Kim Marta Mazzoleni Ilse Orozco Allesandro Sebastiani Sebastian Spahn Michal Szymanski If you choose a career in Theresia Wallberg Beau Delwel dance. Aging Bodies: Images and Everyday Experience. Walnut Creek. 38 Michael Schumacher 39 . New York. –  How does ageing affect the body? You should live intensely to have –  How does ageing affect personality? –  Why and how do choreographers work with older dancers? something to remember when –  What is the aesthetic difference in the performances of young and older dancers? you grow old. Tim Van Peteghem (singer) share it differently. New York: Palgrave. 2012. –  How do trends in society influence the perception of ageing? You have to live it. 2011. Zoltàn Polgàr (guitarist) Michael Schumacher (dancer aged 50+) Guests: Martinette Janmaat Sabine Kupferberg Ton Lutgerink Michael Schumacher More to explore Short film: Dance & Age You can learn many things Questions: but you can’t learn experience. Elisabeth Schwaiger. 2003. Bristol. Ageing. Virpi Ylänne. John A. and Stardom: Doing Age on the Stage of Consumerist Culture. Performance. Oxford: Alta Mira pr. Fergus Early: The Wise Body: Conversations with Experienced Dancers. do it differently.Jiri Kylian Jacky Lansley. London: LIT Verlag. Gender.

We are all insecure and it is important to do this. It releases so much tension. sharing. I’ve been around for a while but seldom experienced so much opening-up and sharing as Michael and Jiří did in the work process. Sabine Kupferberg (dancer aged 50+) Sabine Kupferberg and Michael Schumacher . and avoiding the authority game. It’s rare for people to understand the importance of opening up.

to remove wrinkles reference. Meg Ryan does it. status of elderly people is no longer which promised immortality. themselves. getting older was indeed considered un. but the past. construction of age has turned important source of information and ent ages are using the same wonder youth into an ideal and a point of advice. It also loses its reputation for being able to fulfil a range of tasks across different age The loss of old age as an ideal groups and life situations. They’re not the only they think is youthful. Today’s ily responsibilities. It’s an easy way to as long as possible – in one’s own its integration into the social fabric. the traditional tasks promising a younger-looking body. Many immortalised in a painting by Lucas elderly people naturally accept fam- Cranach the Elder from 1546. Law. The The spatial and social bond isn’t main difference between now and necessarily a close one and elderly then is less in the intensity of the people can’t always rely on the care desire for youth and more in youth’s they need at home. 1960s while various forms of anti- phasised the position of elders in a authoritarian or symbiotic education community and assigned them a role are testament to the dissolution of Jamie Hendriks 43 . Generations of families only your actual age. but there are some charac. there are creams. a specific and unique situation. It isn’t all about looks. a foun. ship between parents and children. Their role in tain that restored youthfulness to the family unit becomes unclear and those who visited it and which was is different in every family. It’s In industrial and digital societies. Ageing (or not) with or without Botox by Malte Friedrich Madonna does it. called into question no later than the tion and tradition. Thousands of people of differ. however. and appreciation of old age have In addition to Botox and cosmetic to a large extent disappeared. em. they no longer always live in the teristics that justify our speaking of same house as their grandchildren. affecting the entire group (whether Mickey Rourke has been doing it haviour. surgery. Botox. for example. Age therefore unique position as the sole ideal. becomes a problem. as it came with the risk of changed then so has the relation- degeneration as well as other restric. Youth Mania. Injection with a paradoxical situation because the particularly Europe and North nerve poison is one of many offers population in the Western world is America. But the goal is always with us for a very long time. the ancient of the younger generation have goddess of youth who had the been reared and can provide for power to rejuvenate elderly people. conven. actually getting older. The aim is to stay young ty. or in determined by a social and spatial the story of the Jungbrunnen. even clothes that alter longing for youthfulness has been ically advisors or decision-makers your shape. Idealising age for its tranquilli- drug. in one’s approach to the world substance and arrest the ageing and in one’s self-representation. experience and wisdom facilitated from their faces. The social experience and knowledge were an ones. for example. in society: they had a voice in matters Gwyneth Paltrow will soon do it and Many people also base their be. family or community) and their for a long time. such as tempo- situation is not too different from rarily caring for grandchildren. If the basic family framework has desirable. tions and burdens. obligation to others. Up until not too long ago. paralyse the skin with a neurotoxic head. which means that the or in the legend of the Holy Grail. tend to live together until members in the figure of Hebe. even though it The hierarchy between them was was accepted socially. process temporarily. attitude and style on what clan. fitness The current obsession with youth Communities have become societies programmes and muscle-building is so rampant we could forget that whose elders are no longer automat- products. history: it can be seen. The while extended families have largely the same – to appear to others (but wish for (eternal) youth is an integral been replaced by small or nuclear primarily to yourself) as if you aren’t part at least of European cultural families.

which makes and perfection evident in bodies television or using the Internet. boys’ network too. The of this development. newness: not only is everything There is even less interest in older our image of a dream world and indicative of a narcissistic personal. as the former are believed to stop us comparing our own bodies. popu- improvement. of possibilities. they only because there are people close all. this is our taking pleasure in your own mirror avoid the self-indulgence of body of research are urban culture. all measures aimed at is strangely excluded merely by the you live. as products unattainable world that is nonethe. ages stimulate our dream worlds and willingness to transform oneself others. try. to relate them to each other and clear in this scenario. yeuristic gazes. We want them to see amounts to a restriction of freedom.g. image world entirely but instead the quest for youthfulness has sunk für soziologische Meinungsforschung news. body shaping normalise the results. or websites. One way to deal continue to act as role models needs for more than “stale” old members do not represent reality does not this trend have to accept the fact one type of behaviour that sees peo. of people where the old patriarchal These images accompany and The process is supported by youth us as we see ourselves. this can often only he was research associate for the irrelevant today. have to endure looking different to mobile telephones that allow users where the opportunities of youth once an important stage in the increasingly apparent in customer and. marriages. tion. Possessing the perfect body is limitations of the body. if to embody the images we see. About the author: everything should be in a state of where the focus is purely on people each other. fresh employees who count should look. models we need to bring our dreams has long exceeded the physical self-employment primarily con. their appearance will be inconsist. Narcissism is often under. while the diversity of possibilities at age structure still survives. as young people’s motivation healthy and active body. The most everything beyond this self-observa. need a constant flow of new. or. it is highly visible notion of how a body pretending time can stand still. bodies that flood our daily lives. Grooming There is a clear link between the gone. impossible to avoid comparisons. direct contact with other people opinion research. overcome it. sooner or Modernity’s outstanding cultural customers in order to survive. for the benefit of others is quickly ing for eternal youth. Narcissism ject Corporality and Urbanity. in other them the central point of reference transformed by images. It’s a narcis. a key reason why ing youthful-looking bodies. well as promises of being able to is typically narcissistic. The way they young. already outdated. Narcissists are focused only on again. We are fed a vision of a perfect equipped with the right images as the impression of (eternal) youth Waiting for the perfect match of experience and expertise are long life. Many of the tion. The desire for people in this age group. promises self-esteem and success visual preferences. This even applies ences. His areas should be in a state of constant age bracket are considered to be suf. naked or half-naked bodies ing a youthful look that didn’t exist to others – not in bid to make direct necessarily lead to a simpler lifestyle. It’s a com- people isn’t limited to family units. appointments. because they relate to eve. ent with the desired timelessness people. with or without Botox. hammers and knives The fact efforts are also being made why nearly everybody is long- The greater the demand for innova. From 1999 to 2002. which includes having a flawless. young. if basis. Purchasing a product. to life. we can do is avoid it or oppose it. We are all par- Capitalism and the world of work the products. (e. Cosmetic cerned with making an individual desirable state in our society today. to reshape the body – is only a radi. of our own dreams: it is a continu. willing to reveal their naked bodies tion in industrialised societies don’t act as if they could. the sound of the city and current or valid a few years ago is advertising campaigns to have an and we can’t ignore it. whereas seniority was This fixation with youth is becoming in assessing our own appearance. This orienta. previously. obsolete or even impact and result in product prefer. against this final bastion of the old of media. laughing towards us son why such wishful thinking is as your own body. to developers the from house walls. myth of Narcissus means more than to one’s own environment and ing and working in Berlin. but there is also another reason tant than familiarity with the past. taking-up trendy sports or sistic strategy in which the onlooker different levels (work. They cannot enter into be achieved by drawing attention German Research Foundation pro- to theories proclaiming the demise promotional clips and photos show overall power. Knowing these images People with no interest in following Attempting to look and be young is balance them out. It These sugar-coated images are with feels like to be ideal – another rea. The can be reviewed at any time. At the same time. Anyone want. having the perfect look not only and deal exclusively with their own agreements that can be terminated we see old age as a problem and try are nonetheless designed and to us doing it. an opportunities and freedoms that search for people who can spark it The obsession itself is mainly the attempts to conceal or reverse the increasing number of people are exist for large parts of the popula- and implement change – or at least result of an upsurge of images of physical affects of ageing by achiev. better still. with them. These im. line with images and in doing so ticipants in a competition to remain This lack of appreciation for older customer is young. a meaningful interaction with others to the sculpted body. as it is also about forgetting contouring has to start making lar music. developed for customers imagined but also an experience of what it ucts. They are omnipresent. dated models. its role has now be. Such efforts are sup. newness is a continuum. The images requirements. screens or in magazines. it isn’t easy to stop. so it is hardly surprising that but this does nothing to reduce its themselves. The one’s body is mainly about pleasing functional disability of old age. dream-body scenario come true. by the images of perfect. youthful suction tools. but shaping one’s body to upsurge in images of perfect bodies. Even if most products ryone and everything. the and enthusiasm count for more. Experience has little value because the bodies we see are the idealised using images is commonplace and perfection has become a form of the consumer world and narcissism working conditions and market en. which is not conducive to a embody the products the company and its imperfections. make your body immaculate. with the conundrum is to delay life to be negotiated on an individual of staff. aged 40 or less. “improving” it in idealisation of youth. However. the way one should look. Nowadays. to have young bodies and spirits. prod- to reach it as late as possible. The same because they are so absorbed in asserts itself even in the attempt to Presentation of Ethnicity in Hip-Hop. the only group using digital image processing. friendships or apartments). it is almost probably why so many people do try are – to immerse themselves in a by the fact that many social ties are special qualities. wants to create in the future. Looking to the future is more impor. attempt to transform oneself into As far as the workplace is concerned. aren’t focused directly on preserv. friends. to act as if they general appreciation of age. for example it is mostly young try to follow it and adapt and shape It is easy to detect narcissistic traits so deeply into our minds and is so since 2003. Whether we like it or not. that results in youth being the only vironments are constantly changing. a common daydream clearly sparked surgery – which uses plastic inserts. The bodies in the images stood as forms of self-love. and they show us an indulging yourself in the cult of the young as long as possible. tion is understandable. Malte Friedrich is a sociologist liv- perpetual change. which is – regardless of where they actually abound. although illustrate each product on the fashion. Once you start following this logic in a state of perpetual change but people in the advertising world the dream world in the image feed ity type. adapting Such a mental attitude is linked to the doesn’t matter who actually buys us every day. The stubbornly pursued. which ultimately of large companies. Media images of massive contact with other people but to Every decision reduces the numbers really considered by the top brass photographers and videographers amounts of invasive and extensive feast on themselves via others’ vo. perience could be useful is now only worked to perfection by artists. This approach is supported age structure and characterised by orientation. the more avidly companies cal continuation of all conventional forgotten. television sets persistent and penetrating as it is.clear boundaries between parents protestors are raising their voices market and can be seen in all forms using slang. They provide us with a putting age in the background and fact of looking at us. They also latest example of this is the use of words lingering in a mental state In summary. people we see on television and film their bodies in line with collective in much of our behaviour. Only those in this look as though they could defy time. relics from the past or out. consumer products and life (older) and children (younger). and again applies to areas of the media closely Most people don’t try to escape this their own image. ple interact with images rather than choices for as long as possible or. for example when watching that’s not possible. Anything that was ficiently open to influence for costly own self-created ideal of ourselves image. The idea that ex. young less our world as it is a visualisation The narcissistic personality doing the same) fits perfectly into meantime we all grow old. individual (even if everybody else is petition no one can win and in the it is evident in all sections of society. partners) makes it almost impossible Elders’ exact tasks again become un. feature is an ideology of constant ous loop of idealisation in which using an image for guidance is promises everything to everyone. where 44 45 . After completely different environment organised via formal or informal come superfluous. are intended to encourage people to ported by an entire industry fully an ideal image in order to evoke the days of seeing age as evidence buy. but the ing to escape such obliviousness Dr. yet another reason why He has been the head of the Institut older people are seen as yesterday’s related to the advertising indus. The quest for youth and beauty a consumer society that offers and later.

For the older generation. Despite that. It was so sincere and it really touched me. taking the audience with them to a magical world. Both the older and younger generations liked the song Yesterday by The Beatles. They have done a lot of things since. Seeing Beau and Jamie (the youngest dancers) touched me in a different way. but I missed emotion and pleasure. I noticed that Martinette and Ton were a bit stressed. The youngest ones don’t have much experience. it was more interesting to see the older and youngest dancers on stage – rather than dance students my age – as they performed with more expression and looked very honest. The dance students still have lots of questions to answer. when they started it was like they forgot all their worries. It had a different meaning for each of them. The dance students were good technically. I think there should be more projects like this. I hope the dance students learn something from them. They were funny but very focused on what they were doing. I started to think how I would feel at their age. but despite this they’re working hard to get to know the world. I would hope to be as honest as they are now. left a lot behind and already experienced more than they could have expected. They looked very cute and innocent but at the same time I could see they had no idea why they were dancing the piece and what it was all about. it seemed to remind them of a point in the past. They have more ahead of them than behind them. Some are experienced and know a lot but are still searching. Sonia Egner (dance student 18+) . For me as a performer. probably because of the pressure of having to dance in front of a big audience again. Observing the differences between generations is a great learning opportunity and helps us improve as artists and dancers. I had tears in my eyes when they finished. left everything behind and totally enjoyed the moment. correct in their steps. It gave hope.What I observed and what I liked about this experience was its optimism. The idea of creating the same choreography for people of different ages produced beautiful results.

the toddler phase (from 2. sunlight. during which time they’ve by Anandi Felter become truly fantastic artists. etc. Cells that can reproduce are blood cells and skin cells. and then having to say good-bye to so many Medical Point of View wonderful dancers after they’ve been working with you for 10-15 years. factors and exogenous factors such as radiation.7 million in 2041. According to the population prognosis by Statistics Netherlands . or synovial fluid. Imagine being the The Ageing Process from a director of a dance company for 25 years. We joint on the left and a degenerative hip joint on the right. the number of people aged 65 and over in 1 theJiri Netherlands Kylian will increase from 2. loss of the top layer of cartilage as well as a reduction in the amount of synovial fluid. Cartilage covers the ends of healthy synovial joints and provides shock in heaven but in my understanding it shouldn’t absorption.7 million in 2012 to 4. Jiří Kylián hip. A radiological sign of degenerative osteoarthritis is the nar- we possess the ability to dance throughout our rowing of joint space due to the loss of cartilage. nutrition or smoking. Skin: The speed at which the skin ages is determined by genes and exogenous influences (exposure to open air. population is ageing thanks to improvements in healthcare with bet- fantastic old. can dance from the womb to the tomb. choreographer and artistic director. Ageing causes the breakdown and ultimately as a dancer. This is also known as joint as well as my encounters with Asian cultures and wear-and-tear or degenerative osteoarthritis that allows Australia’s Aboriginal people. skeletal muscle cells and heart muscle cells. and how you can avoid injuries. NDT 3 was created in 1991.” of experience ter treatment and counsellingand wisdom of chronically ill people. the adult period (between 20 and 60) and the do know is that ageing is an interaction between endog- elderly period (from 60 years until death). The number of people aged over 80 This article describes the medical process of a­geing. genetic.). but the speed of reproduction decreases with age. By comparison. of the population will be aged 65 and over in 2040. It is estimated that 26% particularly in dancers. has taught me that the bones in the joint to rub together causing pain.5 to 6 years). knee. The focus of enous (e. After third of this group aged 80 or over. My long experience tion via lubrication and transports nutrients and waste matter. It’s impossible. cells belonging to the primary sense organs. adolescence (between theories exist about its origins or what causes it. Degenerative osteoarthritis is most common in the spine. There are two types of cells in the physiology of ageing.5 to 6 years). Cells that cannot proliferate are nerve cells.5 years). a person goes through the baby phase (up to percentage of people aged 65 and over in 2012 was 16%. The joint fluid. immunologic or n­euroendocrine) this chapter is on the final phase of life. one People go through different phases as they age.g. the birth. reduces fric- be viewed with scepticism. hand and foot. Dance and age doesn’t sound like a marriage made Joints: Synovial joints allow movement. the pre-school period (from 2. the elementary The ageing process remains a mystery. Unknown author and see it on stage. you grow old because accumulation you stop dancing. 1. 49 . More than 300 school period (from 6 to 12 years). Figure 1 is an x-ray of a 51-year-old dancer with a normal hip entire lives and can be respected for doing so. will increase from 2025 onwards. It is evident that there is narrowing of the joint space. as I was. those that proliferate (reproduce) and those that degenerate (can’t reproduce). It was natural “You don’t stop dancing to you because create growa company There are morelike NDT3 elderly to useThethis people nowadays. What we 12 and 20). Degenerative changes in the collagen and Jamie Henriks and Beau Delwel elastic fibres in the skin lead to decreased e­lasticity but at the same time protect freedom of movement (in the same way that losing elasticity in your trousers allows you to move more freely in them) while the loss of sub- cutaneous tissue causes wrinkles.

1. Rietveld A. ative changes cause a permanent decrease in a dancer’s Older dancers Reference group ers aged 45 years and older2. prevent Total 100% 100% and treat injuries caused by dancing or playing music. A comparison between the group of older dancers and Medisch Centrum Haaglanden.B. M. however. 1. resulting in a reduction of are generally caused by a disruption in the balance 66 dancers.” Miscellaneous 7% 5% as active amateurs. Treating and preventing these injuries 1. back.M. (eds.A. Of the total. by improving dance technique. 4.B. March 2000. 20-22. non.A.4 Possible explanations for this include the Common Injuries and Prevention”. Rietveld (middle) and A. it is more likely that the low No. It is possible to compensate for this with b­etween a dancer’s load-bearing capacity and the exercise. of the occurrence of injuries (see Table 1) but there is a E-mail: mcdm@medischcentrumhaaglanden. pp. lokatie Westeinde. 587 injuries muscle power.nl There was a lower percentage of ankle injuries in the 2. Their added value lies Back 18% 14% Kunstenaars).A. in Verhaar J.D.E. B. (dance) is a resident doctor at the Medical Centre for Dancers A total of 727 dancers and dance teachers who were and Musicians and works in the field of rehabilitation injured on consecutive occasions were analysed in the medicine. Houten. dancers with ankle injuries may chose another. In my opinion.. “Dance Injuries in the Older Dancer: Review of older dancers. 16-19.B. 2501 CK Den Haag. Notes: 1.e.M. van Loon-Felter (right) the reference group reveals no large differences in terms Postbus 432. orthopaedic surgeon at the Medical Centre physical capabilities. number of ankle injuries in older dancers was due to 4. “Dans en muziekletsels”. Mrs. dancing career. Because degener- A study of dance injuries in dancers and dance teach. is a matter of either increasing and enhancing the load- Table 1: Comparison of older dancers with the reference group bearing capacity – e. control and the body centre (core stabil- Research on ageing in dance medicine ity) – or reducing the demanded load. Vol. Journal of Dance Medicine and Science.). 2013. Rietveld A. Medical Centre for Dancers and Musicians. According to the author of the study.M. the majority of injuries in older dancers were caused by degenerative changes in the knee. The MCDM I would like to conclude this chapter with a quote from Foot 28% 16% osteoarthritis in his right hip is a clinic that provides specialised care for professional Shanna La Fleur: “It takes an athlete to dance. No.g.B. The study was carried out by A. only the strongest persist or Science. i. pp.N. Rietveld A.4 injuries per dancer 1. it is a d­emanded load.B. As far as muscle is concerned.cbs. general fitness. www.3 was conducted out on load-bearing capacity. Muscles: Ageing leads to a decreased ability of skeletal How can these injuries be prevented? Overuse injuries Older dancers Reference group muscle fibres to contract.7 injuries per dancer matter of “use it or lose it”. age. van Mourik successful treatment of ankle problems at a younger J.nl difference as far as the location of injuries is concerned (see Table 2). older dancers should Dance Teachers Union (Nederlandse Bond van Dans take advantage of other qualities. “Dance Injuries in the Older Dancer: Comparison with Younger Dancers”. 50 51 . They were compared with a control group of 345 dancers of all ages from a previous study and who had also been Address for correspondence: injured on consecutive occasions. (Boni) more in experience and expression and less in purely Hip 15% 10% Rietveld. The goal is to diagnose. load reduction is the only option Shoulder 4% 3% the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Dutch in such situations. Vol. Journal of Dance Medicine and “healthy worker effect”. She trained as a professional dancer and study. people (44 out of 66 or 67%) were dance teachers. or i­njuries that hinder the ability to engage in such About the author: Table 2: Location of injuries activities. hip and foot.M. However. Bohn Stafleu van Loghum. 3. March 2000. 92 injuries 345 dancers. The majority of Amsterdam. Knee 25% 25% for Dancers and Musicians (MCDM) department of the Ankle 3% 27% Figure 1: An x-ray of the hips of a 51-year-old dancer with degenerative Medisch Centrum Haaglanden in The Hague. but an and semi-professional dancers and musicians as well a­rtist to be a dancer. (Anandi) van Loon-Felter.M.. 66 people (9%) were aged 45 years dance teacher at the Dansacademie Lucia Marthas in or older with an average age of 52 years. Orthopedie. A.B. Figure 2: Work in progress at the Medical Centre for Dancers and Musicians with A. 4.E.

I realised it would take me a long time to achieve such expression. I’ll just have to wait a bit. Ton and Martinette. at times. I was envious of the older dancers. ‘I can’t say the things they can say.’ Michal Szymanski (dance student aged 18+) Allesandro Sebastiani 53 . There were a few moments when I thought.

As a dance student, you do think about
getting older. You know a dance career
won’t last forever. There will be physical
restrictions to deal with, but ‘once an artist,
always an artist’, as this performance made
clear. It also showed how you can keep
growing even if you’re body no longer
allows you to do everything you used to.
This was beautiful to see.
You need to be a personality on stage and
be strong enough to open up to the public,
something both couples showed. You
also need more than just technique and
physical possibilities to get the message
across. You need to be honest too. We saw
this honesty in the children, in the doubt
and vulnerability they occasionally showed.
We could see they were anxious but at the
same time enjoying themselves. Instead
of hiding their emotions behind the
choreography, they used the choreography
to show their emotions. This doesn’t mean
technique isn’t important, it is. Technique
allows you to extend your movement
vocabulary and express a message better.

Xanthe van Opstal (dance student aged 18+)

Jamie Henriks and Beau Delwel

Ton Lutgerink and Martinette Janmaat

Dance
&
voice

You extensions to our body to perform bining dance and voice? saw examples in the film. artistic dance gives us the opportunity to or rational. literature and poetry. voice the two ‘naked’ art forms. The possibilities are endless. ‘naked’ arts because we don’t need any What’s so fascinating about com­ JK: It’s different each time. be it spiritual. the most sublime of vocal arts. “what is the word. The poem Jiří Kylián is a very definite statement from FL: Why combine the two? a literary giant who actually says at the end of his life that language JK: Because they’re the oldest forms isn’t enough. It is complement each other greatly because double-bass player a double bass. That’s their beauty and the who found words for every human and sensitivity between them. a pantomime-like movements. Words are stereotypes but pression. breathing and whatever other strange sounds our vocal chords can produce. We can express ourselves through text. The voice can and grunting with movement. so I call this naked art. Samuel Beckett’s last poem What they are the most personal art forms. spirituality. combining the two: dancers talking on stage or moving to a recorded FL: How do you start when you opera or voice. The range is enormous. poetry and song. Some words to portray the spectrum of people say dance is the oldest art human feelings – suffering. so on. Many manifest itself in many ways. but if I want to express myself with is the Word. We saw different ways of are. bringing them together words. making grimaces and performing or painters brushes). This great man was a We thought it would be a good idea to dance or vocally I only need my body. His last poem put them together and create awareness don’t need any extensions to do is absolutely fascinating. Our bodies can growl and grunt in movement. There are many decide to work with words and I like to call dance and voice the ways to produce vocal sounds and voice? Do you write texts? many ways to present movement. in themselves. conducted by Friederike Lampert A film of extracts from choreo­ Friederike Lampert: This film physicality and abstraction. ritual. I think they Why? A painter needs a brush. choreographed to the words of a trumpeter a trumpet and so on. Tar and Feathers is a tragi-comic piece with (unlike musicians who need instruments Jiří Kylián: I like to call dance and dancers wearing funny black wigs. limitless. from people have done it so its effective- growling and grunting to heavy ness has been proved. The possibilities for physical expres- sion are just as limitless. as we wonder­ful juggler of language. Our bodies can express emotions. asks. literature. Creating a Third Dimension Podium interview with Jiří Kylián. William gave us some impressions of how our ‘naked’ means of expression Christian van Dijk Forsythe and Jiří Kylián was shown choreographers deal with dance have a great deal in common and before the interview.”. we don’t have enough of human artistic expression. and voice. vocal sounds and growling in unexpected ways. They can also produce literature through sign language. humans’ primary artistic ex. 60 61 . reason why I have chosen dance and expression and feeling suddenly voice as part of this lectureship. I think graphies by Pina Bausch. A man them. love and form. I wanted to combine fill in the gaps. which is why I think the two in order to appreciate their there’s legitimacy in combining diversity.

contemporary dance. It’s highly spiritual music. add another layer of adventure to is very important to understand that which is physically very stylised and our experiment. Tell me about the four short choreographies. I was very inspired by ing. They become and breakdance or hip-hop. Imagine playwright and a co-creator of four quiet obvious categories. There are other experiment you want to do? it’s finished. It I coupled it with classical dance. each from a JK: Yes. It isn’t gymnastics. kung fu medi- musical expression. The final coupling involves a contemporary dancer reacting to a Gregorian chant. I wrote the themes we thought about explor. which is some. an art form. a sublime art. have meditative music coupled with and maybe should be. Rap and breakdance is an- anyway. up in the workshop in a way that will it some kind of form and meaning. rap using technology. It would be fascinating to coupling. so I decided on combining dance and voice. I think it’s undertones in just that one sound. I’m interested text myself. Podium interview with Jiří Kylián. Classical a metaphoric art. They’re urban cultures of does vocal sound become music? human need. It’s singing is fascinating for its mysteri- not only an ahhhhh you hear but ous. You know breakdance. They will all be mixed whatsoever although we try to give expression of the human voice. You in creating a third dimension by Eugène Ionesco. the sounds of worry. we’re going to change examples. so I actors use the singing quality of thought it would be interesting to their voice. It’s so it’s music. tation. haunting quality – and I cou- an entire rainbow of aliquote tones. so you hear the absolutely nothing whatsoever. which expresses you know what a countertenor is? or the kung fu master moving to a the belief that life makes no sense It’s a kind of sublime but artificial countertenor. They developed from crime. absurdist theatre. roughly two minutes in background soundscape. for example my choreo­ the combinations. FL: How important is it for you to FL: Dancers and musicians will FL: So you’re going to experiment understand the meaning of spoken be coming together in pairs in with these different couplings and words. poverty and being critical of JK: The sound of a voice is music society. Do the ballerina dancing to a rap singer. It may not be appropriate. There’s a certain kind of spir- ituality in contemporary dance that can be coupled with the spirituality of the early Christian church. voice is music. 62 63 . We’re basically asking each understand every single word. Gregorian chant is one of the oldest voicebased musical forms there is. pointe. different discipline (Gregorian musician to prepare a short piece but words can be also used as a singing. rap. JK: The subject is huge. if at all? the upcoming Dance and Voice see what happens? workshop: four guest singers and JK: Sometimes it’s essential to four guest dancers. We also have a rap singer. The two don’t really belong together but I thought it was an interesting combination nonetheless. grew up more of a musical pattern. as were the look at what’s possible – what works thing of a pantomime. I male singer’s incredibly high voice Interview conducted in March 2011 also borrowed some text from Bram complemented by a ballerina en Stoker’s Dracula for this piece. the words in Claude Pascal mean just as extraordinary. of music. When more important. and what doesn’t. When together. length. Dance and voice is endless. countertenor singing. I’m not familiar with rap music – don’t FL: In your pieces. Then we have an overtone record a simple sound like ahhhhh singer – I have to say that Mongolian and analyse its range of tones. led by Friederike Lampert but it gives you something to think about. a great Romanian have to categorise. so I think voice can be. These two cultures. regarded as a kind of self-defence. it doesn’t matter what you other very obvious dance-and-voice do with it. We There are all kinds of overtones and talked about martial arts. I won’t rap for you – and a words are sometimes distorted breakdancer. as a base for something and kung fu). and then we’re going to it’s a human voice but you use it as classical dance. play around and graphy Claude Pascal. overtone singing work with the dancers to create wallpaper. pled him with a kung fu master.

Jay Tjon Jaw Chong .

Jiří Kylián 66 Hannah de Klein and Jorg Delfos 67 . for example a countertenor and a ballerina. We developed short choreographies (about two minutes in length) for each couple. The initial choreographies were for matching singers and dancers. We then mixed up the singer-dancer pairings and this became an extremely interesting experience. a breakdancer and a rapper or an overtone singer and a kung fu master.

disciplines gave one workshop each. are an sung. (2001) by Georges Aperghis. “composition week”). The session gained experience of working and/or voice. students illustrate the observers’ emotional learned to express different emo- and physical reactions when either tions by making movements and watching dance or listening to sounds without language. interesting research theme. Dancers and singers have one singers and scholars began in March (d­uring Codarts dance department’s thing in common: in that the chan. students Hannah de Klein (ballet dancer) nel of expression is their own body ject of Dance and Voice. These “naked” art that use the voice. In the last week of March 2013 music through my body. 2011 with a symposium on the sub. improvisations by the students. Borg Diem singing. learn from each other? These were Nijmegen) talked about the naked Renate Hoenselaar (a voice and some of the questions discussed in arts from a music philosophy point of dance therapist) gave a workshop Dance and Voice. Dancers The soprano Connie de Jongh (who may use their voices while perform. Kylián then explained why he chose teaches awareness in performing ing and singers cannot express the dance and voice theme in a arts at Codarts) explored the body- themselves without movements and podium interview with Friederike mind-voice connection using light g­estures. vocal techniques. I think by Friederike Lampert and Désirée Staverman it made my dancing more sensitive. William Forsythe. For me. to as the starting point. on voice therapy. that it made me listen more to the music to show the Dance and voice are primal art The exchange between dancers. The week ended with the students from each workshop presenting the results of their work to colleagues. They need no other was opened with a DVD of extracts with the voice. in various ways. forms. it was the experience of being more focused and Experimenting with really aware of where the singer Dance and Voice was the whole time. Drama teacher Pjotr Cieslak’s workshop focused on how to insert sounds in theatrical situations using different and sometimes uncomfort- able positions of the body. Vincent and soundscapes to stimulate vocal er and singers work together? Who Meelberg (a senior lecturer in cul. He used an experimental com. Lampert. with or without instrument to practise their art. either spoken or Four guest teachers from different forms. at from choreographies (by Pina movement. Using the question of Kylián’s One Of A Kind professor. the same time they have nothing Bausch. Artistic Manager of Codarts Groeneveld (an overtone singer) Muziektheater Academy Alberto ter helped the students become aware Doest then brought the symposium of their breathing and taught them to a close with an inspiring lecture how to use the movement of the that used the students and teachers breath to express the sound of the present to demonstrate a range of voice in different registers. Afterwards. as Jiří Kylián calls them. Jactations “Where is the sound in your body?” ship at Codarts. Jiří Kylián) to hide behind. position for baritone solo. the second project view. What happens when danc. inspires whom and what can they tural studies at Radboud University. Ederson Rodrigues Xavier and Borg Diem Groeneveld 69 .

we simply tried plines that have evolved in different veloped with input from the singer to stimulate creativity and sensibil- time periods. a c­lassical dancer (Hannah de Klein) and a counter­ tenor (Jorg Delfos). We also tried to spark a cer- The couples comprised profes.” singer (Marcel Zijlstra). 70 71 . Rather than describing the chant. a kung fu other. Both contemporary dance move- ment and Gregorian singing are well matched in terms of fluency. developments in the workshop various duets created more suspense laborations for the main experiment: noted the added value generated by than others but all the performers a nine-day workshop that coupled combining different dance forms and and spectators could appreciate the vocal styles with dance forms. the dancer ex- plored the space around his body. Moving one limb at a time. make works of art. Initial formations: Contemporary dancer Ederson R­odrigues Xavier and Gregorian singer Marcel Zijlstra: Gregorian chant is a form of mono- phonic. in different parts of the and dancer. At one point. cal and cultural boundaries and in so minutes in length) for each couple. choreographies (each about two tuned their powers of observation. unaccompanied and sacred song that developed mainly in western and central Europe during the 9th and 10th centuries with sub- sequent additions and adaptations. The spacing between the couple tain curio­sity for putting together art sional dancers and singers: a was carefully determined in order to forms that seemingly have nothing contemporary dancer (Ederson examine the various ways the two to do with each other. The vocal styles. close relationship between dance aim was to present students with and voice. art form. the other naked the overall choreographic structure. The initial pairs where then master (Jay Tjon Jaw Chong) and mixed up to experiment with more an overtone singer (Borg Diem radical formations. the performers interacted with each other. and a break- dancer (Christian van Dijk) and a rap singer (Rachel Raverty Manniesing). Some phrases were fixed ity that dance students can use to world and in different cultures. doing reveal the tension that can be Each piece began with a musical As Kylián said: “We didn’t try to created by bringing together disci. score and the choreography then de. merely to see Rodrigues Xavier) and a Gregorian participants could relate to each what happens. Groeneveld). the singer mov- ing the dancer’s head. which in turn enriched a wide range of dance and music Kylián and Schumacher created short their sense of perception and fine- combinations that cross both histori. Michael Schumacher and Jiří Kylián Kylián and Michael Schumacher The students observing the daily Some of the experiments with the organised the Dance and Voice col. while some were improvised within a­pproach the voice. the dancer’s response was to add another visual dynamic to the vocal sensation.

This naturally posed chal- lenges for Delfos. Breakdancer Christian van Dijk and rap singer Rachel “Raverty” Maniesing: Kung fu master Jay Tjon Jaw Chong This duet paired song and dance and overtone singer Borg Diem from similar cultural backgrounds. the singer and each one supports the other’s strong dancer moved without any physical rhythmic dynamic. two notes at the same time created a meditative sound that enhanced the spiritual dimension of the kung fu movements. it could nonetheless be translated into a dance context. Groeneveld’s ability to sing interaction between the two. contact. and the aural and visual harmony stood out. in Kylián’s words “like two the breakdancer’s movements were planets in their own world”. Observers both absorbed each other’s energy could imagine a short story involving and spectators were captivated the singer and the dancer. the narra- by the intense atmosphere they tive enhanced by the choreographed created. 72 73 . In this coupling. Classical dancer Hannah de Klein and countertenor Jorg Delfos: This mini-ballet comprising a countertenor and a ballerina. both of whom used their highly stylised classical idioms to an aria by Handel. Both art forms have their roots in roughly the same historical and cultural fields. They set in a narrative context. Groeneveld: Breakdancing and rapping work well together in hip-hop culture as In this coupling. for example it was extremely difficult for him to finish his final cadenza lying on his back. as he wasn’t able to support his breath. Kylián also choreographed movements for the singer so he could interact with the ballerina. Even though the kung fu movement vocabulary is regulated by rules and tradition. demonstrated the closest interac- tion possible between a singer and a dancer.

tradiction in styles created an almost ironic scene that ended with the singer disappearing into the corner followed by van Dijk popping and locking behind him. Groeneveld used walked in straight lines. de Klein used found himself in a totally different the singer as a support for her environment in this duet: dancing movements (like a barre). There was lots of recip- rocal interaction between the two. van Dijk gestures to illustrate his solemn tried to catch his attention moving singing. the singer even being carried by the dancer at one point. the interference altering his voice. In this combination. Breakdancer Christian van Dijk and Classical dancer Hannah de Klein Gregorian singer Marcel Zijlstra: and overtone singer Borg Diem Groeneveld: Van Dijk. the movement of his hands acrobatically around him. The con- counterpointing the ballerina’s steps. While the singer stable throughout. Remaining to Gregorian chant. 74 75 .Re-mixed formations: Contemporary dancer Ederson Rodrigues Xavier and overtone singer Borg Diem Groeneveld: The contemporary dancer was in- spired by the singer’s hand gestures and “wove himself into the music” (Groeneveld). who normally dances in shows and competitive “battles”.

Panta Rhei. Oefeningen. New York: Oxford University Press.” For the spectators. combining seemingly polarised dance and voice styles on stage created a kind of third dimension. it was a beautiful experience. Jones. Stem en Boventonen. Art performs life. 1998. The New Music Theater: Seeing the Voice. Bill T. Eric Salzman. I can’t tell you what that something is. 1993. improvisaties. According artistic expression merge to Kylián: “This was one of the most interesting formations: two very in an extraordinary way. Thomas Desi. Either way. klank­meditaties. making them slower/faster. Hearing the Body. 2008. Merce Cunningham. Minneapolis: Walker Art Center. that brings them together. 76 . why? –  What kind of relationships may emerge between movement and voice? –  How can you search for specific qualities of movement using the voice? Literature: Borg Diem Groeneveld. More to explore Short film: Dance & Voice Questions: –  Do you think that the tone of a voice influences dancers’ movements. Jiří Kylián Maybe Pascal’s phrase les extrémités se touchent (extremities touch) goes some way to explaining it. Meredith Monk. different forms of human expression There’s nothing more that were created thousands of miles apart and yet there is something beautiful than that. Kung fu master Jay Tjon Jaw Chong and countertenor Jorg Delfos: I love it when two Two art forms with extremely dif- ferent cultural backgrounds came original forms of human together in this coupling. or bigger/smaller? –  Does a dramatic melody imply dramatic expression and dramatic movement? –  Does musical support give dance more colour? If so.

I discovered everything I needed for my develop- them with his recorder and voice while performing ment: contemporary improvisation. including speech therapists and musicians. everyone. I didn’t want to be restricted by a conservatory. Jiří Kylián 79 . The third dimension evolved in spectators’ heads. He discovered overtones while working music. Ederson Rodrigues Xavier and Borg Diem Groeneveld They were moving in different time capsules in their own worlds. It was interesting to see the Report by an two try to push together Overtone Singer like magnets. fans of the New Age genre welcomed his were flabbergasted that you could sing two notes at “spiritual” music and his orientation towards Zen. Overtone singing is most common in the folk music of Mongolian and Tuvan singers who combine the articula- tion of overtones with a very strong drone of the vocal cords. The combination of one to three overtones (or “formants”) constitutes the configuration of a vowel. Zen meditation and Stockhausen’s contemporary compositions at the overtone singing. No musician in this part of the world German Pavilion at Expo ‘70 in Osaka. a German recorder player and for things that were out of the ordinary. I was looking I met Michael Vetter. for pioneers in Zen master. so spent ten years as a Zen monk in Japan from 1973-83. The techniques I learned from Vetter are narrowly linked to the European way of singing and speaking based on Germanic and Romance language. The phenomenon is well known today. but few people master the technique.g. but they by Borg Diem Groeneveld couldn’t do it because they were both the same pole. Vetter later had heard of overtone singing in the 80s and 90s. In with Karlheinz Stockhausen who asked him to produce Vetter. That’s what made the combination so powerful. we use overtones to recognise vowels. e. Japan. Overtones are implicit in many forms of (ethnic) music – for example in Indian music. They brought it all together themselves and this was really exciting. in the singing of (Sanskrit) mantras or in Gregorian chant – but explicit techniques are rare. which resonate in the mouth). The singing of overtones opens up the unconscious sound world and separates the earthly part (the tones we sing using the vocal cords) from the heavenly part (the overtones. the same time. the “oo” vowel sound consists mainly of very low over- tones combined with very high but soft overtones while the “ee” sound only has very high overtones. Connor Schumacher (dance student) My career as an overtone singer began in 1985 when As a musician at the start of my career. On his return. hence the name throat singing. In terms of our everyday perception.

as Jiří inspired her to do “lots of nothing” during the but there was also something absurd about it. Panta Rhei Vetter called this die Liebe zum Grundton or love of the ally carried me around like a musical instrument around to time and to create pauses in the singing. Gradually 1993).People generally lose their sense of space and time Another experiment was to link modern dance with If I attempt to characterise Jiří’s work. ing of my gestures gave these movements a completely different meaning. p­ossibilities while giving free reign to their voices. joy and humour had a natural place in the overtones exaggerated spatial and temporal disorien­ The combination of overtone singing with Hannnah improvisation with Ederson. The Handel aria sung by Jorg Delfos generated completely different possibilities for Jiří to develop a fixed choreography with the classical dancer. His suggestions are breath / voice therapist. improvisation. but when Jay took the place of the ballerina his unbelievable musicality was clear in his use of the singing as an orientation for movement. in the air. on which the overtones depend. klankmeditaties. students said the focus on breathing gave rise to new patterns of movement. he liter. His copy- made the music sound like the harmony of spheres. The interference with doing less generated more depth and increased the breath / voice therapy and vocal improvisation. I noticed how reciprocal effect. Jiří and Michael Schumacher came up to us after the Working with the dance students on breath and voice. improvisaties. was both tangible and visible in his movements. to illustrate my improvisations and Ederson Rodrigues unnecessary or blurs the image. Jiří and Michael really brought them to life. I would say that About the author: when listening to overtones. so it was a focus on the movements Jay made. first rehearsal to tell us how deeply moved they were by it was interesting to see how easily they were able to Working with Jiří and Michael on these experiments these initial experiments with their own concept. and the singing itself. The ing Jay’s unbelievable moves from the corner of my eye. encircling a kung fu master (Jay Tjon Jaw Chong) with Playfulness. to take away what is Borg Diem Groeneveld is an overtone singer and singing of overtones is a sign of contact with the gods. but it was nonetheless very exciting to back-to-back like Siamese twins and explore movement sing overtones in a solemn style while occasionally spy. He is currently the director of his own school for fundamental. There was something tragic tation: while Jay occasionally seemed to be hanging de Klein’s classical movement was also interesting. He has released several CDs of Singers have to be alert in order to maintain the balance Xavier used these movements in his dancing and in simple. It wasn’t hard participant. to stop from time Oefeningen. The released a lot of energy. creativity and joy. Vetter taught me how to use gestures he tries to make things simple. 80 81 . The connection He asked me to walk very slowly in a big circle around Overtones (Borg Diem Groeneveld: Stem en Boventonen. then he asked me to walk slower. As a use movement to produce breathing and singing. the singing. Hannah de Klein. Tibetan monks believe the overtone singing. In Jiří Kylián’s choreographic experiment. open and leave space for personal interpretation. my body also produced changes in the voice. his solo improvisations and written the book Voice and between overtones (as well as their embellishment) d­oing so wove himself into the music. and brought me to the ground. Jay. The other couplings were also amazing. as if I was dying. it isn’t so easy to get an impression of what best example of this was when I asked them to stand labour and seriousness – quite the opposite! we developed. about his putting me down on the floor. by creating a circle around him.

Borg Diem Groeneveld (overtone singer) Ederson Rodrigues Xavier and Borg Diem Groeneveld . I think both partners – the dancer and the singer – had to leave tradition behind and discover a new direction. That’s what made it so interesting.

longer phrases. You can still be musical and connected to your body and your music while making physical choices. as it makes my support a lot worse. as things I could sing standing. I had to make some choices in my phrasing. I couldn’t sing lying down or especially sitting down. Jay Tjon Jaw Chung (kung fu master) Jorg Delfos and Jay Tjon Jaw Chung . Jorg Delfos (countertenor) You have to open your mind to new influences.

too. vul-nerable Aperghis in 2001. Sometimes there was The Naked Art Forms: physical contact between the singer and the dancer. almost violent. but even then Introduction The violence of the voice you could still recognize a What does it mean to engage in a naked art form? In a Jactations for baritone voice. way. composed by Georges strong bond between the two. fully exposed to the beholder. I will suggest that such art forms bodily movements. I can only imagine the physical the body. is one example of a naked art form. the audience. there are no artefacts behind which the artist effort the singer has to make in order to create these might hide and the artist or performer is fully exposed to sounds. I will discuss what it might mean for an facial expressions. Jiří Kylián Borg Diem Groeneveld and Hannah de Klein 87 . sense. the piece does affect me in a very pro- found physical. art makes the body move. Nevertheless. the singer’s visual or rather physical performance. unless of course concealment is music also consists of bodily gestures not usually associ- part of the artwork itself. and growling voice. We can see the intensity of the physical activities required to execute the musical score in the singer’s In this essay. their referential meaning. Movement and Physicality and it was really powerful. nor are they an actual representation of violence. However. by Vincent Meelberg and sometimes there was no contact at all. The singing addresses my vulnerable body as if it. body. naked art forms do have specific character­ In Jactations. This piece attacks the singer’s entire foreground a very important aspect of all art: that it in. It is a piece in which all the sounds are produced by a single Romanie Bosman (student MA Dance therapy) to the interpretations and reactions of the audience. Art male voice but in addition to conventional singing the cannot be concealed. not just his vocal chords. speaking. aggressive. As a such art forms are practices that require no e­x tensions of listener and observer. volves the body. the violence he has to exert on his vocal chords. the sounds produced are as important as istics that make them unique. and here I mean both the artist’s and observer’s The sounds in Jactations generally appear violent and bodies. were naked. but why? They’re not aggressive because of again for both the artist and observer. Art always presents itself in all its vulnerability. More specifically. they do not depict any violent act. ated with vocal music. How can a naked voice be so physically violent towards both the listener and the singer himself? Jactations speaks to me on a very visceral level. According to Jiří Kylián. Voice. Awareness is the magic word – a dancer’s awareness of all the nuances in the music and a singer’s awareness of the dancer’s body. There appears to be no escape from the intensity created by this singing. all art is naked. These movements can often be quite violent. in the sweat on his forehead and in his art form to be naked.

and mirrors this movement. They motivate the listener to himself. In an interview from 2006. Sonic strokes are therefore an impetus ments which can affect a listener but also the singer form? It could be argued that dance is the foregrounding This implies that the listener’s body is involved in acts of to thinking and reflection. They inducing intensity within the singer. it is are no longer part of the singer’s individual body. So how does this relate to dance. Similarly. not necessarily because of musical movement that is meaningful. indicate remarkable moments in the music and enframe ments – his breathing. have so-called mirror neurons that fire when a subject performs movement or observes it in another subject. The body is moved. by the singer’s moving body. In this respect. I call sounds that elicit such a response to it. markers that help the listener recognise and interpret certain sound effects – are transformed into sonic move. sonic strokes and musical gestures effects. They state that human subjects tion that was at times quite violent towards him. literally. The sonic entities produced sonic strokes create motion in the listener’s body that Sound is a resonance in the body. mirrors the movements of the music.5 The piece. Instead. is a temporal unfolding of a succession of sounds that formed by a male singer. rather. Performing and observing movement activate the same brain areas. 3 Awareness is the magic word – a dancer’s awareness of all the nuances in the music and a singer’s awareness of the dancer’s body. vibrating entity the volume of the music but because the sound has par. Lionel Peintre. move. musical gestures. It says he regarded the music in Jactations as some kind of music and ultimately those in the observer’s own body. A musical gesture they have transcended into separate. he saw them as separate entities that this is not just another metaphorical way of talking that communicated with him (airealisation) in an interac- about musical listening. the baritone interactions. a sonic musical movements. hearing is more closely related to ment of sounds as meaningful gestures and sometimes singer for whom Jactations was originally written. describes how he felt when he first saw the musical Watching a dance performance means experiencing is involved in the listening process. Jactations is supposed to obstruct a singer from A stroke can be a slap but also a caress. feel this resonance literally. feels unified and meaningful because the body reacts that will interact with the human body from which they Whoever sings Jactations has to confront. sensing it kinaesthetically and enframing it. Cognitive scientists Rolf Pfeifer and Josh Bongard show a part of him. however. as outlined above. it accompanies the movement of sound. Music affects the listener’s body. both metaphorically and literally. as if the subject is actually performing the movement. as is the case in Jactations. its musical gestures. by musical gestures. as sound waves hit the eardrum and make it is confronted. touch than to any of the other senses. or perhaps more accurately physical cal sounds. The originated. singer produces this vibrating sonic entity with his own singing. It makes musical listening.6 He says he produced the sonic Despite – or perhaps because of – their nakedness. At the same time.2 And it is the cognitive musicologist Marc Leman who argues.4 In other words. the same vibrations in turn acting as sonic strokes order to confront him with both the opposite and other body. It is an incitement to interpret the move. But what is a musical gesture? A musical gesture in Jactations are the result of a specific activity per. with sound and music possible. blocks that constitute this music but as soon as they dance and singing are able to move the audience in were sounded he no longer considered them as being many ways. Sometimes. rather than being re. listener. as it senses score and how this musical piece affected him. perceives the dynamic and temporal flow of the music monster he had to face. arousing it in some way. in all his ticular qualities. the other naked art musical gestures. all these sonic and physical movements.The violence of sound Gestures created by the music and ultimately by the The violence of movement It is ultimately movement that is responsible for all these My experience of listening to Jactations suggests that performer’s physical activity result in movements in the The musical sounds. that is exactly the point of this the manner in which the listener’s body processes the Peter Szendy calls this the airealisation of a body. it involves the entire body. Jiří Kylián 88 89 .1 meaning of a musical phrase is therefore determined by According to Aperghis. you can may be interpreted as significant. side of singing. They can also be seen as acoustic and the movements he makes with his body to create through the acoustic phenomenon of sonic strokes. Peintre many different movements: those of the dancers and the gestures produced by the music kinaesthetically. either as a result of its volume or because the Sonic strokes play a crucial role in this process. so watching it can lead to sensing this movement in the subject’s own body. sonic strokes. of all movement inherent in musical experience. in other words unsingable sounds and sound is very soft or has a particular timbre or rhythm. nakedness. The entire body this motivation can be violent. consider the acoustic phenomena with which he or she physical reactions. Sonic strokes are movements of the air p­roduced music is primarily a physical event. The latter’s move. that the body senses and sub- sequently processes the dynamics and physical proper- ties of sound and music kinaesthetically.7 It is a monster that is created by the singer in stroke can be a sound that impacts on the listener’s body. The body is indeed touched by musi. the vibrations of his vocal chords something that is vital to all activity: movement. these stricted to the ears and mind.

How the Body Shapes the Way We Think: A New View of Intelligence. see Rolf Inge Godøy. of Sonic Studies. Technology. Cambridge. “Touched by Music: The Sonic Strokes of Sur Incises”. Marc Leman (eds. In addition to his academic activities. See the interview with Lionel Peintre in the documentary Georges Aperghis: Storm beneath a Skull (2006).). See Vincent Meelberg. Bongard. Marc Leman. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars University Nijmegen. Academy for Creative and Performing Arts in Leiden and 2. Minuit. 2002. Movement. Awareness is the magic word – a dancer’s awareness of all the nuances in the music and a singer’s awareness of the dancer’s body. 6. MA: MIT Press. Josh C. Paris: composer. 2010. 2007. in Sonic Mediations: Body. he is both a New York: Routledge. Rolf Pfeifer. Jiří Kylián 90 . and at the Publishing. 2006. He is founding editor of the online Journal 3. directed by Catherine Maximoff. ed. The Hague. relationship between musical creation. Musical Gestures: Sound. for an elaboration of the notion of sonic stroke. Membres fantômes: des corps musiciens. Embodied Music Cognition and Mediation Technology. 7.About the author: Notes: Vincent Meelberg is senior lecturer and researcher 1. Peter Szendy. directed by Catherine Maximoff. embodiment and 4. 2008. His current research focuses on the Cambridge. Anthony in the Department of Cultural Studies at Radboud Enns and Carolyn Birdsall: 61-76. affect. musician (a double bassist in several jazz groups) and a 5. the Netherlands. See the interview with Georges Aperghis in the documentary Georges Aperghis: Storm beneath a Skull (2006). MA: MIT Press. and Meaning. Sound. For an extensive discussion of musical gesture.

Teachers and students from Codarts at the Dance and Voice symposium .

Dance & music .

the Earth is dashing through the universe at incredible speed. so there’s always movement and there’s always sound. There’s no sound without movement and no movement without sound. Even if we are not consciously active. Jiří Kylián Ángel Perez Cantero and Chika Tatsumi in John Cage’s 4’33”. choreographed by Jiří Kylián . We’re constantly involved in some kind of movement and music all our lives.

by Friederike Lampert and Désirée Staverman Why is that? Well. research workshops planned by Jiří Kylián and Michael An improvisation workshop was set up to see whether Schumacher for this part of the lectureship. The workshop was designed as an experimental field that would allow participants to familiarise themselves with technological methods: try- ing them out. observing and researching them. and how an Jiří Kylián and music can be practised either as i­mprovisation appropriate dialogue could be created. using one’s ment observed the dance-music relationship when a fantasy and inspiration of the m­oment”) or as a fixed third medium (new technology) is involved. Both dance dancers followed musicians. Robin Eggers and Holger Werner 99 . but how does it work? The sound is always around you. Experiencing the Interaction What’s funny is that dancers are always aware of between Dance and Music music but musicians aren’t always aware of dance. shop. dance and music students worked together on a real-time composition involving motion tracking tech- nology and infrared light. the session was defined as work in progress. In this work- composition. the aim being to increase participants’ awareness of the specific requirements for working with technology as well as to deepen their experience of the dance-music collaboration. A second experi- (which Kylián describes as “being alert. or vice versa. but if you want to hear something you don’t need to turn anywhere. As work- ing with technology is time-consuming. The close relationship between dance and music and how the two interact formed the basis of the Interaction between dance and music requires an aural- visual dialogue. if you want to see something you need to turn your head.

for which the music and dance were created could move because it was never silent. (dance). The students had to attune their senses to support their own personal expression. The discussion emphasised the importance of equal interaction between the body and instrument You can learn many things when working with live accompaniment and of finding a common language between the two. Jiří did moments of interaction arise?” were two of the Kylián and Peter-Jan Wagemans (composer and teacher q­uestions discussed. The process required strong communication between musicians and differently. do it differently. Schumacher asked them to involve all five senses. the improvisation were also examined. Dr. although he points out that students Ángel Perez Cantero (piano) and Chika Tatsumi before.” The challenge in the process was dealing with people should use technology for their own purposes. rather than and equality of body and instrument when the two and awareness to the dialogue between sound and becoming a slave to it. at Codarts). who performs both improvised and composed music. When the musician made almost no sound and movement. The participants reflected on each session in a feed- The issue of live accompaniment was then discussed in back round. piano. Michael Schumacher and Mary Oliver digital artist and teacher at Codarts) experimented with in the space of a week. Ad Borsboom (anthropo­ and Master of Music degree programmes at Codarts. Other tasks aimed at structuring was a performance created in real time. coughs. dance following the music. “What happened in the music?” or “When a podium talk involving the harpist Lavinia Meijer. They were and an enhancement of human senses. but there were The workshops sparked in-depth dialogues between the ing of musician and dancer: by not playing the piano. for Dancers were able to experience the live effect of their example he asked the dancers to feel the sound with movements on the sound composition. also interactions when the musicians moved and the dancers and musicians while the improvised composi- the audience became very aware of the musician’s dancers reacted to it. sharpening them choreographed by Kylián and performed by Codarts suddenly transported to a place they had never been to or giving them new angles. which focused on dance and music In the second workshop. The performance underlined the common­ality the unexpected. focused on the use their skin and the musicians to smell the movements with their noses. of music by choreographers in western dance history. Jiri Kylian 100 101 . bass guitar and koto. given by Dr. interact. of the Master of Music degree programme at Codarts) thereby show their creativity. of electronic composition at Codarts). You have to live it. sound scores programmed by the composition students. As share it differently.” Michael Schumacher (dancer aged 40+) John Cage. Examples were shown and the lecture ended with an Schumacher: “One of our exercises was that you could one student said: “The technology was like a bridge link- extract from Beachbirds. November 2011 followed by two workshops carried out improvisation. It was clear that the different instruments the dancer barely moved. The symposium introduced the (violinist and performing artist) delved deeper into the six composition students (from the Master of Music Dance and Music theme and featured three lectures interaction between dancers and musicians in practice. The lectures were funny moment as it was very difficult for them to find a Kylián sees new technology as an enrichment of the arts followed by a live performance of John Cage’s 4’33’’. and by not moving. Dr. sound design with the help of René Uijlenhoet (teacher integral part of everyday life in aboriginal cultures. Six types of musical instrument were used: violin. Jan-Bas Bollen (composer. This was a very simultaneously but independently. If you have the chance and nent exchange. Schumacher encouraged then explained the relationship between Balinese dance both the dancers and musicians to release some habitual The result was a piece called Altered States in which and music and divided the dialogue into three forms: movement and behavioural structures and explore infrared cameras in the environment picked up on motion music following the dance.The project started with a one-day symposium in In the first workshop. the dancers expe­ Henrice Vonck (ethnomusicologist and research leader challenged the students to be free and improvise and rimented with motion tracking technologies. degree course) and six dance students (from the Bachelor on key aspects of the relationship between the two art The participants were students on the Bachelor of Dance of Dance in Education degree course) on the subject of forms. Oliver. for example when one dancer took tions and new technology raised awareness of the need movements. In order to prepare the students for tracking Wii remotes on the dancers’ bodies and triggered and music and dance following each other in a perma. so Altered States the opportunity to do it The third lecture. ment”. moment when there was actually no sound. something new. Stephanie Schroedter (dance scientist at the FU Berlin). bass clarinet. by Merce Cunningham and only move in silence – when there is silence – so no one ing dance and music. indivisible dance forms. the improvised dialogue between dance and music. live through it. According to dancers and opened up new aesthetic possibilities. generated a range of dance movements. etc. “new technologies generating sound through move- logist and Chair of Pacific Studies at Radboud University. but you can’t learn experience. this altered the typical mean. While the composition students developed the Nijmegen) pointed out how music and dance are an percussion. You should live intensely to have something to remember when you grow old. the audience became over the bow of the koto player or another grasped the to conduct a balanced exchange between the two very aware of the sounds surrounding the dancer (light hair of the bass guitarist. air conditioning.). In the first lecture.

102 Chika Tatsumi and Anna Mikhailova . bass clarinet More to explore Shortfilm: Dance & Music Questions: You can learn many things –  How do you see the interaction between dance and music? Who inspires whom? but you can’t learn experience. piano Holger Werner. Vincent van de Plas Roosmarijn Prins We didn’t know each other. 2000. 2002. Wisconsin: University of WI Press. live through it. New York: Oxford University Press.Participants in the Dance and Music Participants in the Dance and Music (Improvisation) workshop: (New Technology) workshop: Dance students Composition students Lorenzo Capodieci Meriç Artaç Patscharaporn Distakul Enis Gümus Sonia Egner Hugo Harmens Maurizio Giunti Jan Kuhr Michal Goral Evgenia Sereti Valeria Kuzmica Sam Wamper Jean Gabriel Maury Ivan Montis Dance students I think the biggest challenge Bukky Oduwale Laura Hastings Wessel van Oostrum Malou Koesoemo Joedo was not knowing what was Xanthe van Opstal Martina Orlandi Lisa Kapan Amber Monnickhof going to happen in the task. Moving Music. A choreographer’s score: fase. 2011. bass guitar collaboration would work. Bojana Cvejic. koto Ángel Perez Cantero. Jiri Kylian Rosas danst Rosas. Stephanie Jordan. Anna-Teresa de Keersmaeker. Katharine Teck. Yale: Yale University Press. Steve Reich. New York: Oxford University Press. Ewa Sikorska Aïda Read Mickey Smith the musicians and dancers Marijn Stijl Chika Tatsumi improvised and we didn’t know if or how the Music students Bernardo Addario. 2002. Dialogues with Music in Twentieth-Century Ballet. London: Dance Books Ltd. Making Music for Modern Dance. Elena’s Aria. –  Do you think the type of instrument used influences the interaction between a musician and a dancer? –  In what ways can dance relate to music? You should live intensely to have something to remember when Literature: you grow old. Robin Eggers. Fedor Lopukhov. Bartok. Writings on ballet and music. 2012. –  How does the sound quality/timbre of the music relate to the movement? You have to live it. edited and with an introduction by Stephanie Jordan. edited with an introduction by Paul Hillier.. percussion Wessel van Oostrum (dance student) Anna Mikhailova. Writings on Music 1965-2000.

structure and choreography in late-nineteenth century ballets and ple of which is Christoph Willibald described Wessel van Oostrum Petipa (dance as the “creator of student) von Gluck’s score for Don Juan. the structuring of musical themes. when and choreographer in order to Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky worked with fulfil common artistic intentions.1 ballet that premiered in Vienna in As a choreographer. stimulate openness to interesting solutions and help shape our own Dance and music are inseparable. a the choreographic sonata form”. the most significant exam- would work. who was a­rtistic director of the Mariinski fact it was not until theimprovised emergence andfrom T­heatre we1922-30 didn’t and again of full-evening ballets in the latter briefly in the 1940s and 50s. We didn’t know The Russian each other. Lopukhov 1761 and presented dance as an concentrated more on the formal autonomous art form independent aspects of choreography and saw of opera. I’m not saying that whatever we Glued Together: created is the right way to approach the ephemeral co-existence of Dance and Music music and dance. I think the biggest challenge the entr’actes of eighteenth century The idea was to translate music into was not knowing what was Baroque operas. in a As the virtuosity of ballet technique music relationship continued in relationship that has developed increased. as glued – or rather results you actually see. Adam or Coppélia by Léo Delibes. As Jiří Kylián says: If we look back to the beginnings of ballet at the court of Louis XIV In the nineteenth century. the over centuries. for such as La Sylphide by Jean This is far more important than the “No two art forms are example. Laphukov’s writings make it Lorenzo Capodieci. Giselle by Adolphe only wrote the music for the move. orchestration. scores were written for the ballets d’action. His aim was to combine choreography. Jiří Kylián like dance and music. The experiment by Friederike Lampert was designed to sharpen our senses. the choreographers Marius Petipa Professional dancers were now and Lev Ivanov to create famous appearing on stage rather than at classical ballets such as Swan Lake. counterpoint and harmony. developed between composer golden era of Russian ballet.” and there was no strict separation which meant they could be edited. both occasions and casts. for the curve of the dance to correspond with the curve in the music.and choreographer the musicians Ballet scores of the era regularly used existing well-known music. and choreogra- phers had to be able to read musical dance. initially in divertissements in The Nutcracker and Sleeping Beauty. studied half of the eighteenth centuryknow that iftheorrelationship how the between m­usical collaboration specific ballet scores started to be written. court. closer relationships the late-nineteenth century. in seventeenth century France. In and dancers w­riter Fedor Lopukhov. opinions about dance and music. By establishing rules (such as the need for unity of musical and choreographic forms. music as an opportunity to liberate dance from the narrative style. super-glued – together ment but also danced alongside the These ballets were quite flexible king: dance and music were united in terms of both steps and score. composers like Lully not S­chneitzhoeffer. scores and imagine the music ience of the highest quality. the embodiment of musical structures producing a visual exper­ going to happen in the task. The dance- historically and aesthetically. added to or remoulded for different The two are indeed linked. or for major keys to be equated with en dehors move- ments and minor keys with steps en dedans2). before they ever heard it live. between musician and dancer either. Chika Tatsumi and Anna Mikhailova 105 .

so that instead through movement. Arnold Schoenberg. group formations b­ecause the choreography was lary and instead tried to embody the Jiri Kylian and the appearance of the steps) always intended to be danced complicated rhythmic patterns in by playing down meaning and to music. going to happen in the task. with composer Dirk P. but this Émile Jaques-Dalcroze and his something to remember when Romantic idea of art as an expression doesn’t work in reverse. 106 107 . instead tending to ing the Swan Lake choreography gymnastics) in Hellerau. for example.” with different approaches. Bach. Cage also schooled in piano.7 You should live intensely to have Balanchine and Stravinsky also distanced themselves from the from Swan Lake can be performed on its own. especially of dance.g. his knowledge working with improvisation and Amadeus Mozart. Balanchine’s expert understanding of music scores made him a trailblazer for plotless ballets in which the interaction of music and movement is executed at a very sophisticated level. ing partnership between Martha example of their music-dance prepare him for choreographic work. as Chopin. What’s clear he was looking for an appro­p­ funny is that dancers At a time when it was believed that are always aware of The second half of the twentieth While Cunningham and Cage It is also important to mention that This may lead us to think that dance music riate translation of music in dance. Haubrich for the great conductor. dancers trigger sound based and plotless ballets – using Kylián has also embraced electronic “I was connected by every nerve in of Isadora Duncan. Lukas Foss and Steve Reich. without dance. music and dance were improvised Debussy.6 Tudor would mix with short wave Gershwin as well as stochastic and pop.The the feel the soundDoris Choreographer is always with their around dance. as he choreographed or dance was even performed Igor Stravinsky. As Kylián says: “There is no sound without movement and there between music and dance. live through it. often timing and replacing it. The fact of the matter is that Many choreographers throughout Why dealing is that? Meanwhile. c­horeographers had already been timing and rhythmic foundations. theatrical choreography. (such as rhythm. many versatile ballets – both story. effect music canthen have onyou have music a whole as a source of rhythm and graphy made American ballet a great musician collaborations. collaborations between with the ticking of a clock. but. with Pieter Wispelwey and Tomoko century turned the dance-music In Europe. positioned in the space produced (e. who composed music only for dance dance and his choreographic nota.8 One note­worthy of musical structures helping to life art. the musical score. i. Denis and Shawn had promoted know if or how the Forsythe and Tom Willems. interplay and d­evelopment of a new American. many in America. A with emotional their nose. ask anywhere. his approach was not for collaboration and the music was never performed would work.9 Both modernist thinkers. Balanchine had also been Church Artists. the emergence continued experimenting with the the development of mechanical needs music but music doesn’t need Dalcroze became very influential. ethnic. Balanchine was well known for his focus on musical was not knowing what was developed choreographic tools inspired by musical composition whose commissioning of contem. both be seen in the live improvisations in the first decades of the twentieth radios and sound equipment at the electronic music. the outbreak of the side of the stage. you. but it was his live and recorded. In addition. which St. for example. Maurice Ravel. in effect. for example William and we didn’t compositions were more complex and less common. impetus and relation to space. each of which relationship between dance and music is not to dance to the music IH­ments askand musicians to smell umphrey continued such experi­ also emphasised the Jiří Kyliánthe movement which C­unningham and Cage tried to emancipate dance from using emigrated to American in the 1930s. form and the orchestra conductor. Schubert. If to John turn ICage. Isadora mirroring the formal structure of the autonomy of both music and took the ballet tradition of his wider range of music from which to In this sense.Cunningham be working but with if you in want to hear dance works of the choreographer Merce and the composer favoured a more sophisticated a­pproach to the interaction between possibilities for choreographers. skin.10 Stravinsky challenged his choreo­ of music in the 1920s. In their performances. precomposed music. T­chaikovsky). has even synthesis of art forms) as envisioned by the impresario Serge Diaghilev. Gustav Mahler. relationship into a Gesamtkunstwerk Second World War disturbed the collaboration with Igor Stravinsky who is well known for her specific (i. an sounds that John Cage and David S­choenberg). Anton Webern and Arnold Choreographies could be created several dance pieces. His writings on of mirroring the music. tion of dance. there was also a strong connection nist Louis Horst. perform- school of eurythmics (or rhythmic you grow old. Laban. accompaniment”. Le Sacre du printemps or the suite Stravinsky’s Le Sacre du printemps (1913). Wessel van Oostrum (dance student) dance was Vaslav Nijinsky’s highly but you can’t learn experience. albeit something and visualmusic in dance. emerged. plotless/neo-classical ballets and the pher Anne Teresa de Keersmaeker. ment of the highest quality and G­raham and the composer and pia. for example success. brought new it depends on the dance-music rela- dance history have focused on you establishing a close correspondence neednormally you’d to turn your graphers Ruth St. theyou dancedon’t patterns need compositions. Mukaiyama. before. a piece but to instigate a dialogue music also has a concert existence. for exampleMichael Schumacher the work. twelve-tone music variety in the use of music for dance. new music collaborations can also The emergence of the Ballets Russes interpreter of the dance”. particularly eschewed t­raditional ballet vocabu. but to dance the music itself. working my body with the orchestra and with of a dancer molding choreography antennas and theremins that were (e. Ifdance youbut sprang musicians include from music. The choreogra. style collaboration between music and dance. Denis and Ted Shawn set out to make music head. of a very striking music-dance autonomy of dance and music. as it meant music was more easily tionship. Johann Sebastian between her interpretative dance this relationship “how the music for traditional notion of dance embody. Brahms. His modern­ist impact on choreo­ were motivated to investigate and discover new forms of dancer- has been considered differently throughout history. music and dance are Duncan. Expressionist dance dance world.5 expressiveness. counterpoint in dance). The Judson pioneer of American modern dance. Nijinsky focus on more concrete qualities without the music. with Well. from its dependence on musical forces”.e. It became clear in (1965) in which. (for example embodying musical porary composers such as Claude Debussy. composition driven by democratic thinking and includes musical works by W­olfgang concert music by past masters such choreographers and composers called for music to be “more than an and music theory. classical or new. ifmore you want the choreo­ parameters toseen relationship seeinthan something the early choreographer George Balanchine music recordings. both Anton Webern. much ballet relationship between music and important steps in the systematisa. songs by George for every type of music: folk.e. The peak of this Diaghilev-style You can learn many things tion method Labanotation became dance to imitate musical notes of separately. studied human an embodiment of the music by composer collaborations have also as the musical structures of the movement using the body’s own dancers. dancers Seeking to preserve the two. the autonomy. said that the to m­usic. the reproduction. Maurice Ravel or Igor experimenting with the idea of freeing dance from the dominance His declared intention to make the audience “see the music and We didn’t know each other. aren’t allJacques- five sensesalways centurythen aware you’re witnessed of dance. Proximity to music from Romantic composers The twentieth century brought huge music in the last decade. Leoš Janáček. for example. concept can be seen in Variations V Categorising his use of music is a and harmonised to the same extent Toru Takemitsu.g. Claude She enjoyed musical accompani.”3 to existing. choreographers inseparable entities. New. etc. that had the biggest impact on the I think the biggest challenge collaborations with music.4 Obviously influenced by structures. Russian-born Balanchine accessible and choreographers had a is no movement without sound. Rudolf von hear the dancing” indeed indicates the musicians and dancers Extraordinary choreographer- graphers to work in innovative ways. opera. in a reversal of the difficult task. without music. dance had changed since the time ing music. of emotions.if works in and the result produced home country with him when he choose. By contrast. were Kylián’s choreographic oeuvre Duncan used existing European intensedifferent field of possibilities. in contrast to the idea improvised been formed. It also liberated dance between “two independent which means that the music for controversial choreography to You have to live it. rules of dynamics. His interest in the composer became.

Elena’s Aria. ask musicians to smell but they all have one thing in Jiří Kyliánthe movement with Désirée Staverman. 123. See Rudolf von Laban/Lawrence. See Millicent Hodson. 1991. Stephanie Jordan. stick noises.music you don’t need compositions.. Grundlagen der Raum-Harmonielehre des Tanzes. 60. herself former fusing expressive and formal aspects in the choreography. Drumming – Part One (1971).. 14. and surprising ‘microvariations’ of personal nuance and psychological expression – often extremely amus- ing – that perfectly compliment all the small accents. aware ofmany ifmore these two you want art dancer. p. Nijinsky’s Crime against Grace. 1996. when dance andthen music you research associate for Jiří Kylián’s Onehave a whole Of A Kind research project at dancers to feel the sound with the formal organization of my early are used successfully together. New York. New York.). Wisconsin.Speaking of Kylián’s deep under- What’s funny is that dancers While Kylián is strengthening the are always aware of About the author: standing of music and his way of music but Ifdialogue you musicians include between dance aren’t allandfive music sensesalwaysthen Friederike aware you’re Lampert.). Tanzplan and Deutschland. saw both aspects different field of possibilities.C. 108 Bernado Addario and Ivan Montis 109 109 . See Anna-Teresa de Keersmaeker and Bojana Cvejic. Formative Years of New American Art. 3. Writings on ballet and music. their skin. 4. pp. London. p. p. You can learn many things 2. “Goal. 216. 2002. Wilhelmshaven. Dialogues with Music in Twentieth- Century Ballet. 7. 2011. Yale. 10. A choreogra- pher’s score: fase. Moving Music. New Dance”. there are sudden. you grow old. The music will then be more than an accompaniment. If I ask choreographers (and also a few music critics early on) focused on common: the high aesthetic tension with produced their nose. Katherine Teck (ed. New Music. p. Effort Economy of Human Move- ment. Writings on Music 1965 – 2000. says: “Of the many you neednormally you’d to turn your head. Steve Reich. then you have a whole on the other hand.. the composer Why in his work. Codarts Rotterdam. 11.atbut be working forms’ intermingled relationship. 4. it will be an integral part of the dance. F. to smell the movement with Michael Schumacher sive nuances that make my. Choreutik. p. undoubt- regardless of one’s own ideas about something and them. Rosas danst Rosas. their nose. of adance. Katherine Teck (ed. withif you in dancewant to hear theory and practice. Many Ibe. New York. “The form of the music-dance composition should be a necessary working-together of all materials used. 16. edited with an introduc- tion by Paul Hillier.ifTogether be working with in dance and Kylián’s Falling Angels (1989) done toa­pproaches to dance and music can their skin. “Music and Dance. You have to live it. 9. 5. 1989. Dance history has shown Hamburg University and was a If to turn I ask research anywhere. 2012. Katherine Teck (ed. 2000. Dhiagilev’s Ballets Russes. edited and with an introduction by Stephanie Jordan. Bartok. and if I ask musicians pieces to the unfortunate exclusion of all the interpretative and expres. come alive. future choreographers dealing is bethat? will also with Well.).”11 Notes: 1. live through it. something to remember when 6. music. in Making Music for Mod- ern Dance. She has worked you’re dealing with many more other choreographies that have been made to my music. Reconstruction You should live intensely to have Score of the original choreography for Le Sacre Du Printemps. London 1974. 45-46. . Jiri Kylian 8. The effect of his brilliant choreography was to capture in dance just the fusion of intellectual rigor. While the dancers Michael Schumacher often form straight lines and work in unison. Lynn Garafola. 214-215. she was a music compositions. The New Generation’s Change in Methods”. frequent. dancers assistant for educational parameters than you’d normally edly the most remarkable is Jiří how versatile and different the to feelThe the sound is withalways projects and dance techniques at around you. and Rudolf von Laban. Quoted in Making Music for Modern Dance: Collaboration in the but you can’t learn experience. different field of possibilities. Louis Horst. Lapukhov. and indeed all. 2002.” John Cage. Fedor Lopukhov. has a PhD in theatre science. Her mainto parameters worksee something than is teaching dance If you include all five senses then Steve Reich. Writings on ballet and music. at once and fused them perfectly in his choreography. rhythmic accuracy. in Making Music for Modern Dance. and unpredictable interpretive i­ndividuality that is at the heart of any successful performance of this music. pp. p. Kylián. and interpretive irregularities that happen in any performance of D­rumming – Part One.

enhancing them using technology. Dance student This programme is about enhancing the senses available to us as human beings. sharpening them or giving them other angles. Technology is like a bridge linking dance and music. Jiří Kylián Dance student Roosmarijn Prins in a real-time composition involving motion tracking technology and infrared light .

quite separate ways in terms of artistic direction before formers. Releasing some of the Introduction The starting point When I was asked to write a text for Jiří Kylián’s One Of A As I have been involved with the combination of the structures we usually work with Kind professorship at Codarts. and even if there is a subject upon which composers.] When you allow yourself to make a discovery. I’ll come back to this subject feels unusual for mebut at workit’s herethe best and inspiration. We didn’t know each other. briefly later on. and then trusting them. from the moment the Michael any particular order withoutSchumacher immediately thinking of the creators of the music and those of the choreography reverse. In the I often find myself puzzled by the mysterious turns that following article. stimulate openness between Dancers and Musicians to interesting solutions and help shape by Jan-Bas Bollen our own opinions about dance and music. I will instead reflect on several aspects collaborations can take. [.”1 structures we usually Indeed work there is a fine with line. This is the reason to collaborate. One would assume that long- of collab­oration between dancers and musicians from a distance artistic relationships. and dance text”. This is far more important than the results you actually see. […] In the student) gap between what you each agree with. then there is something for the audi- ence to discover. I’m not saying that whatever we created is the right way to approach the Organisation and Inspiration: ephemeral co-existence of music and Personal Reflections on Collaborations dance. when I made a little note in my diary about the deadline. the word “dancers” includes was not knowing what was find that there isn’t really a great deal of difference. however. the two disciplines can go there can be a big difference between makers and per. would more likely to suffer from artistic and interactive technologies have in this context. since for any scheme or process I can think of there are many alternatives. improvised and we didn’t As Jonathan Burrows states: know “Collaboration if orchoosing is about howthethe right people to collaboration would work. It will most likely be something you recognise when you see it. The experiment was designed to sharpen our senses. It also became apparent to me that making any start their artistic relationship. any form of collaboration definitive statements about collaboration between the is still imaginable. Even if you try to make the starting points of a project as clear choreographers and the word “musicians” includes going to happen in the task. but I Unless otherwise specified. You don’t. is a place where you might discover some- thing new. and I will especially touch upon with New Zealand-based choreographer and filmmaker some of the consequences the use of e­lectronic music Daniel Belton. I wrote “music experienced many different approaches in collabora- tions between dancers and musicians. the musicians and dancers they are joined together again in the form of a finished production. This slip of the pen made me aware of dance productions are initiated and financed by either a the fact that I cannot conceive of the two disciplines in dance venue or dance company. When you try to agree too much with your collaborators then there’s nothing new to discover. I think the biggest challenge disconnection than those based in one location. such as the one I maintain personal point of view. have to agree about everything.. Although most way to create something new. For now. the distinction is of minor importance for my reflections on the subject. let me say that the key elements are organisation way to create something new. work with. However. and what you disagree with. two disciplines would be futile. Although I am quite aware of the fact that both sides have agreed. the initial subject offered two disciplines from an early stage in my career.. as possible. Collaboration is some- timesWessel about finding the right van Oostrum way to (dance disagree. I have Jiří Kylián feels unusual but it’s the best to me was “dance and music”. Releasing some of the either for you or for the audience. but didn’t know that you knew. Michael Schumacher Dance student Malou Koesoemo experimenting with infrared light 113 .

a certain amount of tension ingfeels unusual the template butin it’s to work with: 3/4. The trilogy of sound. evenJiřífor Kylián many primary extensions of However. it will be very tempting for a dancer to let the movement to the nature of the movement. bandwidth ments that attempted to match the spirit of the sonic realms presented to them. 114 115 . 6 – 1. react. for already reside in our bodies. one can distinguish different types. I will expand on this in the com. For example. four measures in a simple predictable. either premeditated (composed) content exclusively. As pulse in the form of rhythm. what binds us with certainty is pulse and for any­ (reverb) and granular synthesis come to mind. movement and Form composer and choreographer). the numerous choices that have to be made. Although the historical enhancing them using technology. since the realm of possibilities is – practically at least - pulse. especially through the use of and pitch (filter). completed before work started on the choreography. etc. technical nor artistic agreements are made between a set work. example. “There are not many people in this world who you can to trigger electronic musical events directly through ing paragraphs. This can result Pulse . It is very likely that this way of counting can be fully explained by looking at the particular choreographic demands on body. it also has become I would like to suggest that. prior agreements work were made with concern- temperament. a best menuet. That is. personalto us astohuman sensitivity beings. and when you find one Although electronic music has a certain advantage in performers’ movements (such as in their work Variations you should treasure them. inspira. In modern performance practices. a more or less regular subdivision of frequently start their instant choreography without presenting any aural or visual clues that imply or suggest we will see when discussing interactive setups. not all electronic music is limited this way. Improvisation enables dancers and musicians to react itself at once into sound and movement. 2. When movement and livered. it is collaboration would work. 1. 2. emotions that determine the sensations peculiar to our Perfect agreement on taste and beliefs is not a necessary structures Quite we usually often. In dance. ThisThe programme more complex theis about enhancing combination of sound and move­ the The history of western classical dance has left us with from the world of electronic sound have never found a rhythm. Interactive setups the capacities of individuals. the relationship with the relatively simple musical counting here has become complex or polymetric. (although a graphical version might be produced as an possible to interact via movement tracking using (wire- tion behaves like a free-floating agent that can present after-thought as a means of communication between less) sensors attached to the dancer’s body or by using itself at any time.) have led dancers to create specific move­ senses available background. the musicians and dancers the content.) will music. space.(dance whichstudent) movements will trig- 4/4 time signature resulting in a total of 16 beats might patterns to follow. 5. the index-resource-pitch-amplitude (modulation). it is maybe less obvious In the past. combinations of these parameters have also thing beyond that. such as motion-tracking the element of form need an inspirational receptacle to During free improvisation sessions where neither composition in the form of a tape or a work on CD is still cameras. Digital technologies have developed rapidly to complete the creative process. there were many more formal conventions been around for decennia. Since the use of electronics in that organisation preceding performance is in my I would like to consider this in a larger perspective by that made it possible for a choreographer to commence music for contemporary dance is quite common. Because the character of highly developed electronic music is usually more timbral and know if or how the demands close collaboration and a great sense of aware- ness from both sides to become predictable. density.5 As going to happen in the task. 3. the more various factors (cultural a legacy of great choreographies and wonderful ballet permanent place in contemporary movement syntax. 2. 7 – 1. consciously them will or unconsciously. There limitless. source distance.e. thought-provoking descriptions of inspired musicians to deliver specific sonic results.”2 interesting artistic results. framework in which the aesthetics are amplified and this 2 – 1. 4. Over the last half- palates may however equally result in recognition of reason why both composer and choreographer can’t go century. 3. 3 – 1. 3. certain combinations of parameters. we are separate entities. the idea of LFO (low frequency modula- classifications of the different parameters of movement them or giving we. be counted like this: 1. it was not always the case that the music was are all wonderful. in fact. could opinion inevitable. tion). Michael through a lengthy period Schumacher of experimentation with or of interactivity. 3 – 1.the fundamental parameter tional practice in which music opens an event. the path of was not knowing what was relationships between motion and electronic sound - and projected images. a completed electronic environment-based devices. In dancing it must translate evolv­­­ing from conflicting preferences can lead to very a pas de deux. 3. inthe 4/4. 5. Careful consideration needs to be given to the count their beats. Musicians will then follow with musical actions. sharpening affect our individual perception of nuances within a specific piece of music or dance and the way in which pher and composer leading dancers and musicians has proven highly workable. collaborate with successfully. dynamics. timbre. as it can facilitate the synchronisation of rhythm and movement.3 When a musician starts to perform a pulse. ment: the dancer becomes a dancer/musician playing a musical instrument for which the composer provides time by means of beats. walking can be considered to be the equivalent of pulse and implies human motion itself. Yet. pitch. 2. 4. there is often an exhilarating and magical of electronic music. provide a 2. between musicians and dancers? which is composed of our natural rhythms and of the mutual investigation into each other’s aesthetic notions. John Cage and Merce Cunningham. Dancers collaboration ends right there. Attack-decay-sustain-release (envelope). variations. I often witness an approach that is opposite to the more tradi- within its completion lies the fact that there are no longer any means of changing its content. 4 might be used. 4. room size show less of a universal understanding than those in words. ment parameters. and thoroughly rehearsed or. may assume different forms according to precondition. at least temporarily. having decided which sounds will be most appropriate Independent of the format in which a composition is de. I think the biggest challenge the point where it is now relatively easy to set up direct the p­articipants prior to their activities on stage. especially Even if both art forms are familiar with the concept of moment. etc. In other written musical scores. etc.”4 that a written score is not essential for its execution V from 1965). action. or degrees. may be the main advantage of the use of these tech- nologies over more traditional collaborations. panorama position. These music. This awareness of different way many to create different something creative relationships new. other angles. improvised and we didn’t conceived in real time. Emile Jaques-Dalcroze writes in a saying that this solitary condition is symbolic of new working on a piece even when the musical score was not some of these concepts not serve as connection points rather dated manner: “The music that is within us and collaborations where there is nearly always a period of Releasing some of the yet available. artists have been trying to create another form The raw materials. Since the early nineties. However. articulation. Ironically. 2. musicians are often puzzled by the way dancers the aesthetic boundaries of the piece are not yet fully harder to link specific movements to sonic events. sound are introduced in this way at the beginning of a performance. There is no to each other in interactive ways. which is why it is very valuable for a composer who is collaborating closely with a choreographer to internalise at least some of the counting at hand. 6. Wessel van Oostrum i. The clear and efficient hierarchy of choreogra. We didn’t know each other. texture. we as human beings without preliminary sketches or improvisation sessions. the rejection of possibilities. as I have witnessed also. time and energy. in this environment. as formal aspects are evolving on the spot and textural than music for instrumentalists or singers. and this applies to our species pulse. are no melodies or functional harmonies for movement organisation of material. in enhanced synchronicity between sound and move- Our brains are hard-wired to move to the physical mani- festation of pulse. experimented with theremins in the sixties embody organisation. 2. But for the next 4 measures. 5 – 1. It is obvious that either approach follow it. devices and techniques that are still in use after having obvious as all this may seem. exist. for that matter. ger which sounds.towards inspiration The next level The traditional musical score versus electronic music I find it quite fascinating that certain technical concepts Combinations of the main musical parameters (pulse.The organisation of material . mutually incompatible aesthetics or opinions. just as much as a written score is.

In western art speak. University of North Texas. Only two weeks before the premiere of Looking for Peter in 1996. interactive situation such as the one described above I was commissioned to stay true to the tempi and atmospheres of the working music but a common aesthetic approach was never and. translated Lisa Kapan (dance student) all. this would be most appropriate for an ferent artists that was used during rehearsals.S. and available at: www. New York / London: G. Unless the mapping choices are really exciting. aboutinstrumentalist enhancing the It’s difficult working with between sound and gesture has remained an elusive problem. Yet. Rhythm. A Choreographer’s Handbook. Grahn. the Brain and Mind Institute and the Department of Psychology at Western University. perception in motor areas of the brain. A particu- larly good starting point is J. control the music—but in the sense that no one (except Putnam’s Sons.com/articles. with original material. Vol. I proposed that the creation of interactive setups should recognise the need for a combined gestural and sonic coherence that could lead to deeper connectivity between the two disciplines. a project ered what electronic music can mean for these collabo. Furthermore. Los Angeles. and Music Performance Environment: Seine hohle Form.archive. p. I refer to the publications of cognitive neuroscientist Dr.” and digital artist Jan-Bas Bollen has written music for senses manyavailable to us soloists. 19. is the future. Not in a technical sense—the movement will indeed from the French by Harold F. Jessica Grahn. The system should have choreographers including Ross Cooper (UK) and Daniel components (dance input. Document downloadable at: peo- rations and specifically how its parameters could also be ple. A listing of her writings can It is interesting to realise that although the term gestural be found on: http://www. No.A. sharpening frequently collaborates with dancers and developing the concept and is somewhat of a paradox. the musical composition and choreo­graphy can easily end up being slaves to the 1. but it was also must show a degree of cause-and-effect that creates a Jiří Kylián perceptual interaction. Jonathan Burrows. In some cases. music and education. A common practice worth mentioning here is the use of so-called clude both dance and music. discussed. report (2002). 2010.A. 236. Choreographic work on the piece was in an advanced Dancers checking the Wii remotes with Jan-Bas Ballen stage.jessicagrahn. 59 are centred around the notion of what he calls “gestural 4. Neuroscience. p. giving them teaches other composition andangles. “Rhythm and beat coherence suggests a movement or dance perspective. Joseph Butch Rovan. For extensive literature on this subject. 893-906. personal and societal factors.txt is going on!”6 Rovan then postulates several points that 3. It was a successful show I have stated above that the primary human organisa. 1921. He composers and dancers. for a collaboration. U.org/stream/rhythmmu- perhaps the performers) will notice that anything special siceduca00jaquiala/rhythmmusiceduca00jaquiala_djvu. Routledge UK.brunel. May 2007. pp. Codarts teacher Sanja Maier-Hasagic 116 Lisa Kapan . more generally.However. Burrows. in London. CEMI-Center for Experimental Music and Intermedia. tion of material is within our own bodies and that more gradually I started to realise that the restricted freedom itself had complex levels of organisation are affected by both provided me with an aesthetic framework juxtaposed with the given style of the choreographer. at Codarts Music Conservatory in Rotterdam. p. ensembles as human and theatre beings. Ontario. Digitised by the University of California. as is the case in many other “working music”. musical output) that are them or Bollen Belton (NZ). 5. P. I used a combination of recorded instruments and Conclusion sequenced tracks to produce a CD in time. ISBN 978-0-415-55530-2. the choreographer Gonnie Heggen invited me to vocabularies in the world. new media working with advanced obviously autonomous. 5. so there was no room for me to refine my electronic language to the movement repertoire within the choreography. but which. a collection of tracks by dif- languages. at the same time. system.doc of i­nterest to dance. As Joseph Butch About the author: ThisDutch Rovan describes: “[…] the cause and effect relationship programme composer. there is a hidden pitfall. assistant professor in coherence” and are to be used as guidelines. Rubinstein. for example in most African replace 60 minutes of working music. although not finished. Brett. sound isdesigner. M. we do not have a single word to in. 58. Emile Jaques-Dalcroze. He continues: “[…] designing an interactive system enhancing them using technology. technology. interaction might not occur at 2. However.html. I think this Notes: made with considerable care. productions.uk/bst/documents/josephbutchrovan. Artistic Collaboration in an Interactive Dance which dancers and musicians can connect and consid.” in the Journal of Cognitive it is in fact applied here to a synthesis of both disciplines. and at first I thought we must have had luck on our side.ac. I looked at various ways in 6.

32 Dance and music students from Codarts 37 .

Dance & Visual Techno­ logy .

Dance students working with a video feedback system created by Jason Akira Somma .

New technology in the film and dealt with this new dance dimension by focusing on world has indeed changed the face of dance. Jason Akira Somma and Michael Schumacher “ […] the affinity between the dance and the movies The fourth project in Jiří Kylián’s One Of A Kind professor- seems unquestionable […]”1 wrote the dance critic and ship at Codarts Rotterdam took place in February 2012 writer Walter Sorell in 1967. among them well-known choreographers and filmmakers. the interaction between dance and visual technology. An opening symposium saw Kylián. Thibault Desaules 125 . Editing Moving Images by Friederike Lampert and Désirée Staverman UmaMedia filming and interviewing Jiří Kylián. Michael Schumacher and Sabine Kupferberg discuss the topic with various guests.

and this gave them a new awareness of You have to live it. the effect of an artificial figure. The scene from Charlie Chaplin’s City Lights to show how images of the dancers were projected onto a screen via early silent movies can be seen as dance choreographies. who is the director of Scapino Ballet In the second workshop. The patterns made students aware that you grow old. The interaction between camera and performer in Pygmalion in which the dance student Wessel Oostrum If you have the chance and particular produced fascinating results in relation to the was mirrored by an artificial figure of himself. and David Hinton’s Strange fish with DV8 Physical t­heatre. The dance students experienced what it was like to work The visual artist Anna Henckel-Donnersmarck then gave with filmmakers and were able to experiment with an a lecture on choreographing the dialogue between the animation suit.Three examples of dance films were shown: Amelia by In the first workshop. when they were filmed facing the screen with their backs but you can’t learn experience. and Waltzing Jessica by Jason Akira Somma. Kylián talked about two dance-film examples (Jan Švankmajer’s Food and David Hinton’s Snow) in which non-human objects such as food or snow are “choreographed” in the editing room. Meanwhile You should live intensely to have analogue v­ideo technology used the images to create – on the screen – the kind of fractal patterns you often something to remember when see in n­ature. 126 127 . camera and editing in Hollywood musicals. agreed and Michael Schumacher worked on the interaction that dance had to be choreographed differently for film between live performance and live video. live through it. a non-stop motion technique in which a performer’s slight changes are recorded frame-by-frame differently. Kylián choreo- and that it should make the most of the opportunities of. Men (2003) by Boris Paval Conen and Jiří Kylián was in an animated film. Jason Akira Somma Rotterdam. the Somma. Both Wubbe. and Hinton. particularly in the sense of both dance (vice-dean of the art and design academy) Michel Gutlich and film as choreographed moving images. who was one of the dancers The working process showed how interdisciplinary Michael Schumacher (dancer aged 40+) in it. a director of dance films. h­ighlighted in a podium discussion with Paval Cohen. Students were able to manipulate the visual interaction between dance and visual technology. able to exercise their creativity in a collaborative setting. ports dance in a very specific way but also how dance techniques gave rise to new possibilities for directing Another result from the workshop was a film called films. The special working relationship that developed projects require all the disciplines involved to re-examine between Kylián and Paval Conen when making the film what they do and decide what to preserve and what to enriched their individual creative processes. the students worked with the choreographer and researcher Jack Gallagher to Extracts from two other dance-film examples were discuss dance film projects. Jiří Kylián also showed the b­oxing that was operated and controlled by Akira Somma. the body as an three-dimensional entity. which allows a dancer’s movements to performer. Modern film technology broadens the concept of dance and choreography to include moving images in addition to moving bodies. Anonymous by Jiří Kylián and Jason Akira the Academy of Art and Design St. graphed a short piece using a video feedback system fered by the medium. for example from behind. even a small movement can have a great impact. Gene Kelly and Busby mated figure performing the same actions. be c­aptured and transferred to a three-dimensional ani- Using examples from Fred Astaire. Kylián and Kupferberg. Oostrum was filmed the opportunity to do it The working process involved in the dance film Car u­sing pixelation. Jiří Kylián. Students were Berkeley films. Joost in Breda. to the camera. To produce perception of filmed dance. (art & technology co-ordinator at the academy). In a concluding session. The Netherlands. They were also able to see themselves in a way they had You can learn many things never seen themselves before. The workshop was led by René Bosma dance and film. animation film students from Édouard Lock. images with their bodies and were in turn manipulated by the moving images of themselves on the screen. transform. the challenge of transdiscipli- shown and discussed with their creators: Ed Wubbe’s Lost narity and how to sketch out a dance film. Finally. share it differently. do it differently. the experiment also demonstrated a form of motion capture using film technology and how it could be used for dance. a live video camera that not only filmed the dancers but Caspar Bik experimenting with an animation suit also its own projections that were beamed back onto The workshops that followed focused on the creative the screen. Jiri Kylian In a final feedback round with the participants. created short-film projects with dancers extracts demonstrated a high level of synergy between from Codarts. it became clear not only how film sup.

Film Choreographers and Dance Directors: An Illustrated Biographical Encyclopedia. Kylian 1997. 1893 Through 1995. how? –  What influence does film have on the structure and rhythm of choreography? You should live intensely to have –  Do you think film makes dance less or more physical? something to remember when Literature: you grow old. New York: Routledge. London: Thames & Hudson. Elizabeth Mitoma. –  Do you think visual technology can extend the borders of dance? If so. p. 2003. 291. London: Codarts students: Thames & Hudson. Dale Zimmer. Dancefilm: Choreography and the Moving Image. Joost Davey Bakker Pauline Briguet Students from the Academy of Art and Design Eva Calanni St. Jiří Kylián 128 Thijs Huizer and Gianmarco Stefanelli 129 . 2011. live through it. New York: training as dancers now Oxford University Press. Envisioning Dance on Film and because you can do everything Video. Larry Billman. –  How do you see the interaction between dancer and filmmaker? You have to live it. Walter Sorell. 1967. Do you think you can stop Erin Brannigan. Joost: Laura Casasola Fontseca Rezvan Abbaspour Thibault Pierre Desaules Charlotte Apers Thijs Huizer Laura Dumitru Myronne Rietbergen Olivia Ettema Gianmarco Stefanelli Setareh Goudarzi Angela Tampelloni Ruben Monteiro Adrian Wanliss Imge Ozbilge Guilia Wolthuis Marlyn Spaaij Wouter Zaman Notes: 1.Participants in the Experiments with Animation Suit Participants in the Mixing Live Performance and and Animation Film workshop Live Video workshop: In collaboration with the Academy of Art and Guido Badalamenti Design St.. With a History and Filmographies. The Dance Through the Ages. The Dance Through the Ages. Caspar Bik Sonia Egner Maurizio Giunti Asja Lorencic Wessel Oostrum Ewa Sikorska Emmely Tunders More to explore Short film: Dance & Film You can learn many things Questions: but you can’t learn experience. 1967. with technology? No way! Walter Sorell. Ann Stieber. North Carolina: McFarland &Jiri Co.

Thanks to the invention of film. As new technology developed. Film’s initial task was simply to record how people move. but dance is an art form that requires time to be created. understood and appreciated. sculptures and paintings. literature or any other art form. we can now see what people do physically. Humans express themselves primarily through their bodies. Dance is older than music. but we dancers and choreographers are underprivileged because dance records are very scarce. Jiří Kylián 32 Dance students working with the video feedback system created by Jason Akira Somma 37 . performed. we saw that dance and film could interact in such a way as to create a completely new art form. painting. There are some ancient drawings.

and. There is this deep con. For instance. working in of structure as something inherent to learn that you don’t always have to dance film remains largely a process in the performance (i. and a shot can be a very Michael Schumacher movement. films are made out of shots. dyna­ make an image and the dancer’s is to give shape to a sequence of mics – nothing translates directly desire to move. as something created in the cutting room (i. of an image. Once interesting way? Dancers. for me. dramas were records of theatrical relocates the viewer in relation to the performances. which will redefine dance to have different instincts about virtuosity in screen terms. It was also very a humbling experience evolution hasn’t been accomplished The choreographer is likely to think yet. of course. There’s also the problem that most I’m sure that screen dance will dance films are a collaboration eventually evolve away from theatre between a filmmaker and choreo­ towards cinematic sophistication in grapher. of course. but actors learned performer and the space. and you are in a shot. the edit is a crucial tool for making everyone simply takes it for granted structure. make their reputations in the theatre. the birth of cinema. seeing myself from behind while dancing made a huge impression on the Introduction Given these fundamental affinities. you are no longer So dancers are the most interest. The trouble is. energy. language is based on the edit. because ing people to put in front of the A lot of the qualities they value are you are also part of the composition camera.e. in a film. You nection between filmmaking and can’t make a “good film” simply by There is also the problem that film dance-making: they are both about filming “good theatre”. and possibly remains true. Who moves in the most They get their training in the theatre. For instance. required in a theatrical drama. between the filmmaker’s desire to age of action. Nowadays. Small movements of experiment and exploration. They are both used to all the ways that dramatic films have being in charge of the structure of done. confining thing for a dancer. disrupting very fast that what was effective on the flow of energy and the reada­ screen was quite different from what bility of the body. and they tend emerge. but for the dancer it can that what is required in a film drama easily become a blade that shreds is entirely different from what is their performance. was effective on stage. actions. Although there are some fundamen- why is dance film mostly an awkward tal affinities between dance and film. ties too. giving structure to action. for the moment. every edit the success of their rhythms.e. presence. This is what they thought at theatrical qualities. To edit shots together Time. To create a shot is to create an im. and also Dance and film were born to be and unsatisfactory form? The main there are some fundamental difficul- how I perceive dance in general. different from what works in a film. space. it you start to transform. development of my own dancing. So works in a theatre is mostly quite there is an immediate tension there. As soon as you move. make their living in the theatre. but. simply a figure in a space. together. I immediately noticed that the framing actually extended Dance Film my understanding of how I perceived by David Hinton myself as a three-dimensional being. that composition. Adrian Wanliss and Davey Bakker 133 . something created after Adrian Wanliss (dance student) shooting). something do big movements. and. For the filmmaker. New ways of performing will the work they make. What is a film camera after all? A machine that records problem is that almost all serious dance people are theatre people. But this where structure is going to happen. The earliest film fixed space. that what unbalance. When I started using a video camera Some Thoughts on to film dance. that exists prior to shooting) while the filmmaker is likely to think of it can have a great impact. And they Theatre dance is designed to be seen are both musical endeavours in the The drama learned this lesson a from a fixed position in relation to a sense that their success depends on hundred years ago. from one medium to the other.

but. so elegantly on screen is that the of theatre to be cumulative. Film is by its nature of the most beautiful ways in which a must perform in stops and starts. The camera is blunt and literally from stage to screen. – not only the performances. You can achieve a lot of when dancers are scattered in space ers. the more you break therefore be captured in a single. and it may be interesting to had just a single set. this is that the more carefully you construct a composition in the frame. mised and diminished version of a it diligently on video. although own head. It meant that what As far as the shooting went. you can achieve a lot of better with an emphatic action than musicality and its ritualistic quality. I think. details of what happened on stage. the dancers sustain as a composition. as a sort of physical script. The vision of the piece static. and much more linear For a filmmaker. like a football match. versions of dance took what I would these different kinds of spaces – so performance energy. the first part of achieving advance where all the cuts would be. development in the action. I’m talking about the approach I thought the task should be one of head successfully as a film. and it makes the films strangely up the flow of the dancer’s perfor. support. The hardest say something about each of them. and rhythms of movement are better ture. about what changes we had to make movement. I would say it is in the nature work – the emotional work of creat- I will write a little about my first very fast. I tried to make the For instance. Any way of shooting a theatrical – perhaps twelve dancers on stage were relentlessly tough in their Here. but less preci. and in ing those performances – was done e­xperience of each form. Here. separations ence in time. the same time. all is that of an interpreter rather than ing. on film. (1) Stage to screen: call “the football match approach”: the audience was not even aware of sion is possible in the shooting. My job on a work like this simply the residue of theatrical think. pace of movement is easier to fol. In other words. In other tion. theatrical event. neously. shot. The shots may fit together – with its leaps and lifts. in the end. I also tried to work out in do with the nature of it. the dance is about. it is a great film can move is that it can take you often just a few seconds at a time. are good ballet films. In fact. ultimately. then you have to without ever being able to work well with because they understood the filmmaking serves that pre-existing second-hand experience: a compro. An edit is always going to work drama. a soft one. they (2) Dance for camera: the action until it played out in my way. a creator. Making the shots.this then this then the performances. this was to invent a cinematic world so that the structure and rhythm of adapted to the language of shots demands a focus. for this. Dancers can have a great impact. From the the film. with the same simple elegance. and all about one thing belongs to the dancers who make and flow in the edit. Which sort of energy should you go in filming their work. Whenever TV version of the stage show Dead o­bvious real world counterparts – cinematic energy through precision and moving independently. their preoccupations are those of of screen dance work I do. The reason. because of its physicality. and film has a long history of story- Here. show. and one the actual shooting. but simply to the human eye. I studied shoot in one way. is largely economic. We must make the dance as film one shot at a time. had been as a theatrical event. If they were dancing ballet happening at once. to achieve a successful translation in the cutting room. and tends to be more confident with con. some kinds of theatri. bonus to inherit a lot of work that has on a journey through a progression Obvious­ly this can feel very alien to is one reason why there are more been done before you arrive on the of many different spaces. serve the and edits than others. Small movements derive from stage shows. because true to the meaning of the show did the film are conceived together. mance. This is nothing to do with the The camera has none of the agility of oration. cinematic grammar that can be used with no regard to how it is going to eras. like Dead Dreams lies in the convic- ways. Generally speaking. and film uses In other words. it’s much easier self very well to film is that. but translating In order for the film to be strong. DV8 were also great to work is inherent in the action. so there is a well-established where you make the dance first – dance and shoot it with six cam. down and mentally re-configuring then you have to shoot in a different things happening at the same time When we did Dead Dreams. to learn that you don’t always have to many of my theories to say it – many of the most powerful dance films the right atmosphere around every do big movements. mostly using you have to know where to put the as theatre. of course. gant take. also the composition and lighting of quality of the dance. and would this then this. We had to intensify thought each shot had to be strong cal dance work better on film than This made for an exhilarating collab- you use the camera simply as a what was there in the stage show. dancers who are used to the long good tap-dancing films than there It was also very a humbling experience scene. film is not very good at dealing with not mean that the film had to slav- meant not simply reproducing what many different things happening at ishly reproduce the actual physical (3) Documentary choreography: happened on stage. It all comes down to what translate successfully to film. my answer. It requires that you within which the action would un. and we shot the tion of that dance. I find their “Where is structure going to hap. and choreographers are usually paid to work much longer on a theatre Adrian Wanliss piece than on a(dance film. I ask myself: Dreams Of Monochrome Men by DV8 like a disco or a bathroom – while of shooting. I’m talking about any work they would simply run a theatrical the transitions – was one of the most subsequently in the editing. its of three categories: thing as a dance film culture. emotion. I then dance is. the structure of the dance and powerful as a television event as it a single camera. and can and within a space you can have the piece. and to do it well. this and this and this and this. film but at the core of it is storytelling. be filmed – and then decide how filmmaking point of view. con- I embark on a project. as though we were emphasis. This than theatre is. one thing that still picked up a camera. the structure this depressing. I Of course. This making a movie. If the readability of the body a hugely successful piece of theatre For me. breaking it tum of the body is more important dance depends on many different them more powerful cinematically. chose either a wide shot or a close In the end. therefore be impossible to shoot sequential. the real power of a piece I’ve worked in all these different fold. In such cases. interesting tasks involved in making with diverse and uneven action. Most TV action move seamlessly between move freely. I’m talking about work where it into film terms. full of passionate discussion means of harvesting unstructured not diminish it. but it is very hard to show. The stage show of Dead Dreams structure and rhythm of the action. sostudent) a film based on a theatre show benefits hugely from that. For me. Film is an experi. You can’t have both at once. For instance. up the visual interest of a single set whole film in my head before we Astaire and Ginger Rogers work In fact. Physical Theatre. In Stage to screen: Creating the cinematic world for I think there’s a fundamental conflict When dancers are working in clear One reason why DV8’s work lends it- order to avoid such confusion in my Dead Dreams of Monochrome Men Dead Dreams was particularly in all dance film work between “cine­ lines and in unison. If the dancers are unleashed to pace. but during and changes of pace – it would not after another . storyboarded it out. an interpreta. This might be beautiful emotional honesty of their stage the film at the same time. For me. 134 135 . long before I was involved in or a single location. An even drama: character. In those days – this others had to happen in purely ers must be constrained to suit the low with a camera than an uneven work more interesting than straight pen?” and I ascribe the work to one was in 1989 – there was no such psychological spaces. I found for? I don’t think there’s any single It is quite possible for a dance to be to film it. Of course. tained and repetitive action than it is telling. in the rehearsal room for the stage how often they use only a single set The difficulty with this method is tapping and waltzing – sustains as Theatre is an experience in a space. the edits would. surprises me about dance films is type of dancing they do – basically the nature of film to be selective. Dance is about movement. and then create structure each shot. but they realised that being words. ele. psychology. all doing different things simulta­ c­ommitment to the integrity and where you work out the dance and transformation rather than reproduc. good shots. one reason why Fred tion of the performances. which can simultane. Some shapes ously take in detail and a general pic. but others. the structure is created in the editing. and the you were offering the viewer was a method was to treat the stage show is more important. flict. the danc. some theatrical value of adapting things to make structure. I have invented my own interesting because some of the matic energy” and “performance to make strong compositions than the performers are all trained danc- terminology for the different kinds The first dance film I made was a scenes had to happen in spaces with energy”. and if the momen.This can cause a lot of confusion. And – although it goes against ing the meaning of the dance by creating the right environment and runs of theatrical performance.

Dead Dreams made a big impact Dance for camera: Once the film was finished. and mix the sounds so the audience can land before you leap. but it doesn’t in that. The space they are in can choreographer might devote their executives that no one had invented process of thinking and experimen. sustained for as long as about movement in ways that are m­ovies. the In theatre. in a performance can be a fragmentary angles. the viewer. language for film rather than the element in a wide shot. a performance con. you make it the dominant element or a jigsaw puzzle. Film. than liberating for choreographers. You can dispense with as a sideline. Before long. be sped up and slowed down. music. that dance. a look can be can change in a blink from two to Right now. Dance for camera hear. which the audience experi. Too often. This created a disorientating. How often we had to ask ourselves was: “If you the shot. leaving only until choreographers are working as I got together with choreographer all. TIme can live” dancing consist of exactly? For close-ups?” The close-up is a potent frame. a impossible in theatre. through their guts. I don’t see the same tion to work. and left re-thinking of what dance is. make it so. A live intimacy. The number of dancers beauty of it was that dance film was Maya Deren started addressing this in a close-up. That tation that she began still has far to take account of this fact. diligently and confidently Wendy Houstoun and we decided to essentially what you are doing is set. it is these freedoms that make film a different language from thea- tues. The teristics of that language?” Of course. and this is very important the peak moments. unique and adventurous films. tendency in television is to make dance performed in interesting loca. depend entirely on its relationship to means that a film dance can contain kinds of relationships between everything more and more wordy tions. at least. recorded music) and very closely. You can make a regularly. There doesn’t cal dance. ment around a dance film as there of television where. combining the perfor. body sounds. details and subtleties of the alert and imaginative about using visceral way. sophis- and did not explain itself. theatre is lum. social occasion. This cal dance. you can in time. because the people who movie for television that communi­ For a short time. and aim towards a more wholesale ment depends on its relationship to ting the performances together is ers and performance. presence and value ences a few seconds at a time. by its very nature. while dance film will be was too good to last. so that time becomes an the philosophical question: what is cinematic way. as well as choreo. is becomes very different from a atmosphere. but in a completely different process than dispense with gravity. I used to say that when it was first shown. drunken to learn that you don’t always have to me. movement content of the film. The beauty of dance for camera lies For a long time. In change in a blink from a cupboard whole life to thinking about theatri- any rules or formulas for it yet. and choreo­graphy. You me. Most dance films are still uneasy crucial. But one of the points we the p­erformer is on stage. and we felt that Touched was also a film where we did twenty. ting the viewer on the move. I don’t think we’ll see a dance films has now dried up – in cinematic ideas. but about the linear sometimes be disturbing rather is there the same buzz of excite- I had discovered in dance film an area were inventing a choreographic will feel feeble if you make it a tiny arrangement of fragments in time. the as dance. It also means that put. can have a great impact. so that the texture and density as novelties to be enjoyed briefly or performance has certain virtues. camera itself as a crucial part of the In other words. as it were. In a theatre. of course. not just ing a dance film that could have no a visceral aspect to this. but the bigger than a leap. it’s the emotional impact of a Our film was about several different was to create more than twenty here. tication and seriousness of the best room for the viewer’s own imagina. and it is in the theatre. when you move the camera. an accomplished so ignored and despised by senior question back in the 1940s. what would be the charac. A lot of the work film. This cuts. to work with small. for a studio recording has different vir- subtle actions. if you like. in the 1990s. I thought any serious attempt the camera. in a genuinely can be about choreographing the to be louder than the music. because all the physical practicalities is around a new theatrical work? it was possible to make one-off. but because the film p­arallel through the film (atmos­ seize on such freedoms to make There’s “live” music and “not live” ups led us to look at our performers was shot entirely in close-ups you pheres. which was appropriate do big movements. It is not about theatrical dance. We had Touched objection was soon made that the sists of a single unbroken flow of in all the freedoms it brings to think the best dance films were kung fu made something almost like a silent movement was too small to qualify energy. its a big part of the screen dance part of film language. the everyone understands the difference into emotional territory to do with The way we made connections be. But there’s also a visual aspect. You can even when I consider the power. the fixed space of the stage. added dimension within which the “dance”? graphing the performers. the freedoms of film than the sup- live in a very talky culture. and this quickly led us never saw them all in the same shot. no action has scale in and of thing. characters all taking part in the same different sound tracks that ran in Rarely have we seen choreographers least consider the analogy of music. we real- ised that our film was going to be a but once you apply it to dance the whole idea of what a performance ing. almost in secret. not apply to dance. There’s people through their guts. set ourselves the challenge of mak. the sound actually anything preparatory or transitional really mature screen dance culture Britain. body that are impossible in theatri. In film. fore different possibilities. You can think in Of course. most of the television money for hybrids between theatrical and We also saw the movement of the the body in a way that images can’t. because it quickly evolves into about dance anew. whereas the In Touched. The most muscular leap through a space. I’m not going to try to answer that ideas. Its weight. a lot of very good screen dance. After all. the idea of making the film in close. a film.e. The any movement of the camera itself bering. If you want the dancer’s breath can. It was refreshing for me at dance for camera had to go deep. of the sound was constantly chang. and go. smallest twitch will feel significant if mances was like assembling a mosaic that normally discipline their work no Almost never. in film as they do in theatre. but perhaps we should at film that matters to me most. dance back and forth fast. I thought the fundamental question everything depends on the size of orchestrating the flow of bodies I think the freedoms of film can qualities in dance film yet. In a film. what does “not to make a dance film entirely in movement of a performer in the is place every sound absolutely nimble as you like in time. in the tween them was by intercutting. the scale of a move. tracks cutting in and out on p­icture freedoms afforded by film are seen and no one sees any problem. a lot of action that is implied but sound and image. precisely in relation to the action. and the seemed to consist simply of theatrical itself. theatrical dance performance. really exist in theatre. and there. After has a visceral and physical effect on simply by cutting it out. longer apply. Small movements tre. We for Camera films. not seen. work of true cinematic rather than music (i. any serious dance for camera should a lot of work on the sound track. Time-wise. can be as to be “live”. movement. something that Much as I’m interested in formal One of the things we did on Touched doesn’t exist in theatre. if you want to communicate with dance full of ellipses in time. has a formal question: “Is it possible viewer far more powerfully than any film. when you move the camera. with different rules. I think there’s also probably a feeling existence as a piece of theatre. is a commonplace of film grammar. because sound can be felt in even have to be any continuity in the something they address occasionally. I see no reason why the same should dance of hands and faces. because through their eyes and intellect. It was also very a humbling experience played with light-heartedly. Here. which you can’t do in theatre. to the action in the film. and so on) and then we had d­ifferent theatrical complexity. A dance on film and it gets very interesting very challenge would force us to think through the action. Adrian Wanliss (dance student) 136 137 . on the other hand. But to make something that was mute er. there is no fixed space. eye of the viewer. or leave enterprise to answer that question. It’s obvious and unproblematic. in the sense that everything in some quarters of the dance world way we began was to ask ourselves is going to be felt in the body of the What you can do with sound in a has to unfold evenly in real time. n­on-­theatrical ways about perform. You can show made those movies were much more cated with the audience in a very BBC started to commission Dance were trying to make was that. of course. It also forced us. often in abrupt ways. so we felt this you are guiding the eye of the viewer hears exactly what you want them to before you arrive. But. You can make different posedly serious dance-film people. dancer can move. dance film the sound is particularly to a football pitch. a lot of people have made and explicit. theatre. effects.

Most of the time we worked two or four frames on the end of a any theatrical choreographer ever live dance ever could. you are the pattern of edits in the film. and I liked by eccentrics and enthusiasts. so making some- making was being created in the cut. one note and the next. in is quite different from the beauty of culture out there. simply by repeating and of this. lies in the fact that it is ing and expensive than it used to be. A lot ment than I ever dreamed existed. It would it leaps over all barriers of language. Documentary going to make dance film ever more choreography proposes that dancecan have a great impact. they will experi. one of the most exciting this way is a “pure” dance film. or hop-hop-jump-jump. and they still lots of territory to be explored. Mostly. If the bird went and can be filmed can become a making dance films or screen dance of finding beautiful movement is by hop-pause-hop. When Birds won the IMZ Dance performed. they were financed by thing that makes dance film an England. The birds have no All over the world there are people activity. and where I think the universality of dance is dance might be found. find beautiful or fascinating images one shot of a hopping bird and one movement that feels like a thousand dently of film technique but is some- of bird movement. because we felt that the between the hop and the jump. you have more control They went round the world. is largely a question of whether ment v­ocabularies. things about making dance on film is the “dance” and the “film” are one all intersecting much more than they the challenges of working on a film that it gives you access to all kinds of and the same thing: a single rhythm used to. and thereby impose my own content of a film dance. film. movement performed. birds taking off. But. of the beauty of bird movement. The worlds of thereby allow the bird to stay in its In fact. has now dried up. but if the edits are coming at entirely authentic. bine one action with another. this wholehearted inter­ so a good dance film on the Internet build structures of action. Unfortunately. including a wonderful doing. a city in the north of we weren’t going to cut images or a looser edit so there is a breath doing. The beauty of movement observed though there is a lively screen dance every other quality one might want First. structure. Lagos and New York. there is the rhythm to do movement possibilities that are not and a single structure. Birds does not count as legitimate a few stumbling steps towards relationships between actions. and so on. hop-hop-hop-jump. rhythm. for me. determined to create shot – but the magic of a film may lie has over the movement of even the most of the support from television use the movements of birds to make something that qualified as a dance in these subtleties. I was coming to the soon as you start editing. all the nineties. Small movements what a dance might be. One great thing about dance is that work lies in deciding how to com. There’s birds flocking over the town hall. and dance-film thinking fits like this lie in how you connect one Second. the technology I grew fascinated by the fact that as Fourth. I mean the rhythm order to achieve this rhythmic pulse. movement would acquire music and meaning and be transformed into A rhythm might start hop-jump- hop-jump. and I esting was deciding how much to people refused to accept that it was who don’t know they are dancing? adverts and YouTube sensations discovered more magical bird move. and choreo­graphy is that any film made tion in theatre shows. important in the increasingly global can be not just an activity done by culture of the future. has its own rhythm of Screen Award. allow the bird to move according a dance film at all. partly because so many of the BBC Natural History Unit. intention lies in the editing. It enlarges our sense of what a film might be. dance. They felt that a I have gone on to pursue this in other look like dance films to me. there is a rhythm to do with I have also heard the objection that Ending dance film has. unselfconscious actions. there was a certain Why not extend that idea to people? ing dance films all over the place hours of bird footage in the archive stops and starts. I see a lot of hope for the future in that. of course. of documentary observation and At the same time. the cameras and editing equipment realisation that more and more of immediately dealing with four differ. made only Birds Birds was rhythm. By this. I don’t consider the edits are coming at regular or movement qualities. results would be glib. there is imme. meaning and where the edits are placed at math. environment. tant to me about documentary combining screendance with live ac- than creating it in a studio. so far. What was inter. Why not? Birds have through its visual rhythms alone. movement. video in the art world are essentially stayed with me ever since: one way it through editing. there was no reason why I shouldn’t in silence. there’s a rhythm to do with film editing. This working with not only new move. diately an infinite number of different a thousand birds taking off. irregular intervals. The film does (I’m talking about real subtleties of cutting room. there are many sequences spite the lack of money. found-footage films like Snow and All of people who are working with That taught me a principle that has to impose my own rhythm upon My view is that anything that moves This Can Happen. rhythms is interesting. If I have available in the theatre. there is the rhythm inherent in ematically determined intervals. and it struck me that process. interesting form to work in. and lots of people are searching for it in the world. for the camera. sense of putting on a performance making no-budget dance films just the actions of birds. largely sustained in a dance? the shot. a choreographic could take the principles of Birds to of this. of the bird that is the subject of the the idea of making dances from un- That was the beginning of the film shot. but that’s one stop in Leeds. editing is. but also a way of looking at Adrian Wanliss (dance student) the world. and the rhythmic the way I actually make the edits. We I can make a tight edit so that the dance because the birds have no When I started making dance films. myself at all musically sophisticated. Birds opened up the is very hard to get money to make an extraordinarily rich vocabulary of irrespective of what the sound was exactly the right distance between possib­ility of making all kinds of dance films. I think… In Birds. of a piece of music may lie in finding For me. If you want a not something that exists indepen. how to films I could make with just those be perverse not to take advantage For me. I could cut out the legitimate part of the movement One thing that is particularly impor­ installations. or leave in the pause. or to learn that you don’t always have to up of opportunities. The dance is very happily into this new cultural image to the next. It dawned on me that film and I’m sure a more musical person the viewer is not consciously aware for instance. just as the magic most obedient dancer. and Moscow. I felt that two shots. It isn’t so hard to with the ordering of shots. to its own rhythm. but regular intervals. The demanding shot of a jumping bird. It was also very a humbling experience “film” represents a beautiful opening and be enjoyed equally in Shanghai. achieving “not live” dancing on a One evening I was standing at a bus decided from the beginning that hop comes right on top of the jump. you can use a shot of thing created by film technique. rather pause. and these days it a dance film. lots of ordinary dance. It pointed me towards you need to make screen work – At that time. dance intention in what they are in Britain in the late eighties and s­ophisticated level. because they want to. theatre and visual art are I also quickly discovered that all own rhythm. Why not make a dance from a much higher level than I did. A large part readily available. but that came late in the editing here – whether you leave over the movement of a bird than reached far bigger audiences than lots of challenges to be met. I certainly feel as though I’m see- Birds. In the television and shown on television.Practically speaking. using editing simply an awareness of these four ence this as a kind of rhythmic pulse. de- alone to give those actions form. dancers. of course. in itself. Somehow. I felt like I was watching an extra­ have music. I’d say that Documentary choreography: One particular preoccupation with Third. amount of scandal because some Why not make dances with people these days. it was through structure that the raw re-ordering them in different ways. it still feels as rhythm. in that dance. but also new – has become ever more cheap and the structure of the dance films I was ent kinds of rhythm. do big movements. A bird hopping along a branch. 138 139 . and how much dance film must have dancers in it. I went on to watch hundreds of for instance. section of the ideas of “dance” and can go round the world like wildfire.) films using the same combination ability to fly. watching thousands of to music. problems to be solved. thing for the screen is far less daunt- ting room.

and it needs to be refreshed stage shows and collaborated with by new ways of thinking. full of repetition and rected television versions of several cliché. and its fun to do. freedom is there to experiment as much as you like. John Cleese. He teaches There’s a huge amount of work to be dance film w­orkshops all over the done. Adrian Wanliss (dance student) 140 . nal dance works for the screen. He has twice won BAFTA awards for his I think for dance film in general documentaries. and his dance films these are still the pioneering days. He worked for ten years on The South tomed to watching fiction films than Bank Show where he made docu- dance performances. that dance film can cross over into including Francis Bacon. It was also a very humbling experience to learn that you don’t always have to do big movements.The success of Wim Wenders’ recent About the author film about Pina Bausch is also an David Hinton is a director of arts doc- interesting development. The masterpieces of dance film haven’t been made yet. Alan Bennett Mainstream filmmaking looks very and Little Richard. because the world. Bertolucci. have won many awards. I like the idea mentaries about artists of all kinds. played to audiences more accus. so the future looks very exciting and I’m very optimistic about it. He has also di- tired these days. Bernardo the territory of narrative cinema. Small movements can have a great impact. because it umentaries and performance films. Dance film many choreographers to create origi- might provide that.

There is another very simple reason why film and video have such an important place in our consciousness: whenever we see a film of a living artist. the only thing that seems to be alive is the film. but whenever we see a film about someone who has died.  Jiří Kylián 32 Guido Badalamenti and Thibault Desaules dancing with video feedback system created by Jason Akira Somma 37 . Moving pictures are one of the greatest ever inventions and they do exactly what they promise: they moved me when I was a child and they move me today. the film seems dead. This is something we felt as children.

Michael Schumacher: We’re going to see three e­xamples. One of the reasons why dance is less developed conducted by Michael Schumacher than other art forms is because there was no record of dancing for centuries and millennia. What we Wessel Oostrum just saw is the (dance student) actual speed they dance. You can use close-ups. The first we’re going to see is Édouard Lock’s dance film Amelia. minute. This was a new beginning for the dance era. you’re able to make some kind of sense from what you’ve experienced. Michael Schumacher. the main one being that you can record what has happened. Sabine Kupferberg. 145 . or video and dance. It was only with Three films were shown during the interview: Amelia by the introduction of film that there was suddenly the Édouard Lock. when you watch the old silent movies. because in a silent movie you can’t watch two people sitting at a table talking. I feel that this film lives more in your memory than in your experience of the moment while watching it. and then of course there’s the possibility of using the latest technological developments that turn dance into a completely new art form. and Waltzing Jessica by Jason danced. In a way. Ed Wubbe and David Hinton Turning Dance into a new Art Form Jiří Kylián: Film and dance. but there are many other aspects. but Michael assured me it wasn’t. It’s the way it’s filmed. New Perspectives on Dance Podium interviews with Jiří Kylián. but it’slanguage. the speed that’s so amazing. film and dance are important in the development of dance. of course. Akira Somma. Anonymous by Jiří Kylián in collaboration possibility of actually seeing how people moved and with Jason Akira Somma. you can look at dance from different angles. Later on. in which case the film becomes unique. There are many reasons why film and dance are important. There is the set and choreography. unrepeatable. You wouldn’t know what they were talking about because you can’t hear them. they’re more dance than film. Boris Paval Conen. They’re pantomime. It’s remarkable because the movement is so fast you can’t register it as it’s produced. There are prob- ably one thousand other reasons why video. Jason Akira Somma. In fact. Sometimes we were [Video is shown] talking about the same Waltzing Jessica by Jason Akira Somma thing in a different JK: This is a remarkable film. I was sure it had been sped up. you can make dance on location. It becomes increasingly more important by the Jiří Kylián and Jason Akira Somma. is of course something we have lived with for many years Podium interview with now.

We were there for four weeks in this huge brown coalmine. encourages anyone who’s interested in filmmaking to At the beginning. ‘Sorry. At that time. it was created bus. Every day literally destroying the architecture of the video in order Jiri Kylian we shot the ‘building of the scrap metal car’ again. then. I don’t frames created for the Holland Dance Festival two years ago. Don’t get blinded by of working for two days with a heap of scrap metal that it to be absolutely terrifying. can achieve without a budget and what they’re able to they performed the first twenty seconds of the piece. ‘Oh my God. ‘Good idea. the the JK: Yes. sped up later.thatIt was because originallyI’ll probably a stage fall’. your collaboration tion technique where the dancers move in small increments the interview. MS: Tell us a bit more about the collaboration on this JAS: Ten euros. was shown before something from scratch? Imagine a Carmen on a scrap MS: The next film is Anonymous. ‘I’m not going[Thetovideo doshows two dancers filmed in a kind of stop-mo. Choreographing for a camera on location is a totally dif- JAS: This is my first venture into dance film. We’re free to focus solely on what it is you’re question to me was. It took me a while before I actually found a way you grow old. but when we’re in the rehearsal room. then Jiří project? said. We did a few shots. ‘Well. Boris. I made it after earning some money bartending and make an adaptation of an existing stage piece.’ But we needed a Jason Akira Somma: Jiří had told me about the concept script to get the money together. shot it again. a film by Jason called The Making of Car Men Friederike Lampert: When did the idea of making a ently for a film project compared to a stage production? Waltzing Jessica. piece between individually photographed frames. live through it. vocals in a microphone. changed it. You will probably see it in the examples. within half a leged to be asked to do a piece for the opening of the JAS: We jumped about 3. Those rules don’t apply anymore. at the end of those two weeks. We Martinette felt very(dancer Janmaat privi. MS: That’s inspiring! we’re going to change everything. choreographed by Jiří Kylián and directed night. but look mostly from one side and in one direction only. The initial idea was to anymore. The dancers in it are Sabine Kupferberg. We needed something of this piece and asked if I would contribute the video JAS: But that’s the beauty of technology these days. and audio.’ and Many of you might see it happen when you’re speak. it would be an idea to put the camera here?’ Then suddenly the choreography developed shot by ing them and trying to find various ways to emulate this something to remember when shot. ‘Maybe we can do it this way?’ So this whole scene still limited to a bit of chaos and chance because you’re started to come alive as we were working. Then we travelled to the Czech Republic with the whole film crew. It concrete. He edited the edit. I don’t take risks. Sometimes the image gets distorted. I made it when I was 21 or 22 years old. Han Otten composed the music for the heap in the Czech Republic. JK: I have an enormous respect for someone like Jason. rehearsing all the other scenes and at the same time shooting and editing the film. They may be tormented and experiencing the most expand the timeframe of the creative process and you can only describe what it’s more or less about. one dance. but in the end we’re going to change everything. but they always try to sometimes bring radical changes to the actual story only really starts to become alive in the rehearsal be good. and he said. Theater project had been postponed for the future. It was made for two wonderful dancers. where people it. ‘Jason. We always try to bring some. I want do it. I filmed a shot with slowed-down music that we effect. Then suddenly. where are you going to put myAkira Waltzing Jessica by Jason ownSomma. said. A short “making of” video relating to the dance film Car Men (2006). FL: How did you start? Did you write a script or create video that is also shown in the film. I spent some time burning DVDs.] Barbuto. Jiri’s first him some of the manipulations I was doing. we had this scene. performance. the younger ones turn. but it’s said. starts to come alive. by the filmmaker Boris Paval Conen. Jiří called me and said. It expands the possibilities for the choreography. changed it again.’ So I went home. The third out of the audience. we had the money and could start working on the Korzo Theater and it was a wonderful experience. Our legs were very year. were writing the scripts is that I was always sent home [Video is shown] How much was the budget? with.’ I asked myself. We had two weeks’ rehearsing in The Hague. participation was of essential importance. ‘Okay. I’d love to do it. The horrendous scenes in their minds. as many of us do. dance film with Jiří Kylián come about? Podium interview with Jiří Kylián. microwav- You should live intensely to have say. ‘Let’s start. run isfor an illusion of dancers floating in the air when the series of played continuously. This creates film. I Wessel Oostrum (dance student) ing to someone via Skype. He was talking about this internal struggle. You have to live it. Anonymous is about a storyboard? two extraordinary humans who look like unreal. angelic MS: This is something that’s very different to a live people but you don’t know what’s happening inside performance on stage: the editing process can BPC: Writing a script for a dance film is very strange. then he said. Sometimes we were in the end was to become a child’s idea of a car. with Jason Akira Somma. and so slowly. You can learn many things trying to say and the medium that can help you do that. phones and it’s wonderful.’ I rewrote it. In this ferent ball game to a stage choreography. ‘Oh my God. thing in a different the camera?’ I looked at him puzzled and said. we to create it. I just don’t do it. getting friends together. The funny thing when Jiří and I He danced himself. distorting the sound. taking the frames of each jump and slicing them film you’re about to see and he created the corrupted together. thinking. I joined them with a small video camera.’ We began with the audio. It’s beautiful to see what they language.’ We probably spent one-and-a-half to two years developing the ideas alone. This is the message of the film we will see next. MS: How many times did you jump? drawing of how Jiří Kylián and I would be 120 years old Sabine Kupferberg and Cora Kroese. I edited them and Jiří to control how much you can distort an image. ‘I’m not so interested in re- digesting what I’ve made already. David Krügel and Karel Hruška. MS: Would you interact and work with dancers differ­ MS: Let’s see the next example. and that they can reach new audiences and expose people to new forms of dance. room when all the dancers are with Jiří and they start thing positive to the world no matter what is happening to mould all these rough ideas into something that inside. the dancers and Jiří had the possibility the two worlds that we have. There was no budget for Sabine Kupferberg and Boris Paval Conen. Maybe we should start I thought. conducted by Friederike Lampert Boris Paval Conen: The idea that Jiří and I should work together came about in 2002.000 times. 146 147 .aged 60+) when Car Men is finished. and he filmed and edited it himself. ‘Yes. a sort of digital corruption. Jason’s sore the next morning! The film was just as much fun to movie. It’s like not running for the bus JK: Definitely. what am I going to see?’ We looked at each other very puzzled for a long time. You should scare the shit the best equipment. so I made a in The Hague. this is interesting. edited it. ‘Yeah. a lot of them YouTube. but I showed him a video technique I’d been working on. Don’t get blinded by HD. I’ve seen some amazing films shot by people on their but you can’t learn experience. for the I wait opening of Korzofor the next one. Gioconda what do I think of this?’ and then I of course said. I sent especially with the new generation growing up with talking about the same day. I have to rewrite it all. as them.

These close-ups are hard moments in film. or a dance. you want to be honest. you ‘pull the strings’ in the film. but once you have a really good shot. but maybe we had to deal with people in a public space. We chose 25 loca- over your inventions at home every night. once it’s done. about how Car Men is filmed. choreographers. It was frightening. I think Boris and I were lucky that we dramatic or show more extreme aspects of the body? stage from a dancer’s point of view? kind of understood each other. a film I made with the DV8 Physical Theatre. The good thing about the camera Sabine Kupferberg: With a film. In this case. I still have problems concept of a girl walking through Rotterdam and seeing you wrote was brilliant. Waltzing Jessica by Jason having Akira Somma. as it’s exactly the same choreog- runbecause for they were already plastered with make- all the very small. The last It’s a confrontation you have to accept in the end and in the film. so we had to keep changing the choreography to fit the ever-chang- ing weather conditions. We rehearsed more [An extract from Strange Fish is shown] on location because the weather conditions were very different there and lots of problems arose. the younger ones turn. I don’t didn’t Jiří Kylián: I have not seen this ‘making of’ clip in its en- tirety and it’s strange. wanting to tell a story. The film Car Men was done with a very big film crew on location with a really large budget. SK: We rehearsed in the studio in The Hague and also Jiri Kylian on location in a surface coalmine. your face is which is rare for a dance film. We just wanted to catch the FL: Sabine. but I’m very tions. You see what exciting. There was one scene Jiří and Boris interesting experience. the camera angles and movements. just go with it. which is prob. are seen to be moving in fast motion. we wanted to see Rotterdam through we used for this film and for other films I’ve done before. so Podium interview with Ed Wubbe (director of Scapino Ballet) and David Hinton (filmmaker). it still has something magical. when ably obvious to all of you. The idea was for Han to make You want to be deep. which is very talking about the same acter because you see a lot of close-ups. conducted by Jiří Kylián and Friederike Lampert me if I would be interested in doing a dance film. It’s a live performance. as I said. The other thing we really appreciated self-critical. you are one of the protagonists. I just don’t do it. light and no equipment: I was running around with the Invery we’re this critical of ourselves when dancing or perform. certainly. when there are close-ups at around nine the morning after getting up at five o’clock director or television station approached me and asked me if I’d be interested in doing a project.all kinds of ups and downs and rehearsing You can learn many things stage. I only really choreographed the last part. but he the eyes of this girl. In this case. thing in a different it over and over again. What I think That’s really nice. Ed Wubbe: I actually don’t know. the filmmaker must know everything about EW: Well. It was hard work. FL: David Hinton. FL: Did you rehearse the choreography in the studios something to remember when David Hinton: Sure. camera like an idiot.the bus. and Sabine and I used to laugh looking at this scene. Let’s say The choreographer should understand that his work can atmosphere of the city. We wanted the public to take part so that they would sound like Bizet’s Carmen. But funnily enough. Occasionally. you see very fast choreography that is FL: What is the relationship between a choreographer totally synchronised with the fast music. It’s an extract from Strange Fish. which was a very look at the ‘making of’. ‘I’m not going to doin make-up until eight o’clock. the dancers are filmed moving slowly. trams or thing I want to say is about the trick. EW: Oh yes. like your role model be expanded. working she sees. is that you can get very close to the dancer. With performing. of course. so the dancers choreographer to influence each other in a positive way. in The Hague? Or did you rehearse it in the coalmine you grow old. editing. and a filmmaker? [Excerpts from the dance film Lost is shown] the music is played at half speed. This is just a two- minute extract. trains. It was a in the Czech Republic? 50-minute film made for television. enhanced and improved by creative film- Carmen plays her admirers in the opera. you’re happy and you don’t have to do it again. While filming. It’s a simple trick Of course. language. I started one I thought. up before they were even awake. you have different Sometimes we were is important in this film is that you follow the main char- nerves every night. There was no plot in the sense of should also study the intentions of the choreography. People started asking anymore. and then you speed up the music and JK: I think it’s really important for the filmmaker and FL: What did you want to communicate with this film? the filmed material to the correct tempo. We had a very simple raphy as in the film. but they European Capital of Culture in 2001 and the idea was to make a film about Rotterdam. I find that I amazing. They wanted Willem van de Sande Bakhuyzen. had the idea of starting with a close-up. It worked in the end. A positive influence will produce fine FL: Can film be used to make a dancer’s body more working process different for a film compared to the results. was shot with no the bus Dancers or performers are always visually trained. was not too obvious. 148 149 . Let’s start with an example. We had sounds from all kinds of manipulations of scrap-metal you’re not ready to be deep and honest at that time of to make sure the dance fitted into the public space and and then to tune these up with other realistic sounds the morning. My first film was directed by that because I’ll probably fall’. when did you start to get interested BPC: What I love about these two examples – the ‘mak. quite wait for the next The script one. in your long career as performing on stage where you have a gap between A genuine Duet between Dancer and Camera a choreographer. the girl is pulled into a café. You can emphasize that more in film than on a hard. How is the ing and editing. I couldn’t prepare a lot of cho- quite fantastic. but I like the sensation of film work. yourself and the audience? in film and dance? It’s like not running for SK: ing of’ and Car Men itself – is that the ‘making of’. o’clock inbut ing. because I know how I was feeling dance performed at several spots. You should live intensely to have Physical Theatre. including Lloyd Newson from DV8 Wessel Oostrum (dance student) your life. ordinary people walking by or cars. really like a mask. when I and being project without any knowledge at all. Martinette Janmaat were agedat60+) They(dancer the time. The but you can’t learn experience. expressive muscles to work. live through it. where we see the rehearsal in The Hague. you have often collaborated with camera really only witnesses one very short moment in You have to live it. reographic material as I didn’t know the locations and was Han Otten’s music. it’s done. Rotterdam was the I don’t take risks. [A clip from the film Car Men is shown] FL: Is being screened by the camera different to Dance Film: Friederike Lampert: Ed Wubbe.

But be- doing on stage. and then thinking about how to film it. You can learn many things every moment what the camera is doing in relation to have to decide every second where you want the viewer thing in a different the film is going to lie in the performers themselves. Then all the choreography lies in the way in which you edit them together. It’s not tre. Basically. It’s about giving structure to just a machine that records movement. performer and camera. So. So we have to find ways to help choreographers 150 151 . I’m a JK: David. which are very different from you set boundaries on how far you can trespass into to be there when the editing is happening. What’s great about what Kelly was doing all three jobs. just a Somebody like Busby Berkeley does completely the DH: It depends. of course!’ So if you look at a and happening in front of you. When the film camera was first invented. I wait for the next one. little movement in a very close composition right. all the rhythm and all the structure is going to lie involved has got to understand what kind of film it is ful. In the Charlie Chaplin film City Lights. what was it? It was I thought. so adapting to the way film works is a big stretch for good results that way. you’ll see that it’s a dance. hand it over to the performers. you’re just using the cam. all the energy and all You have to live it. you’re not only have to change everything you’re doing as a performer. In fact it’s just patterns of light. The reason why. trying to do is to find images that we like. screen. and then try to make them the other person’s medium. because all we’re themselves: ‘What do people want to see moving?’ The answer was: ‘Other people!’ And who moves in the most the bus. bits of movement in the world that I like. They come into the space and they perform. They have to make work. but dience. But the important thing is that everybody the idea of this leap is that it is supposed to be power- tivity. I don’t run for the magic of the living moment. and film it and say: ‘There’s a drama. just out of found footage. in the doing’ then everyone is fine. it works started off by filming the same thing that they were a choreography in film terms.’ He’s saying: ‘You’re the performer. if you. that’s where I need you in the frame to make the us is obviously very heavily dependent on spontaneity. and talking about the same Of course. In a theatre. powerful to have a tiny. they are dance films. interesting way? ‘Dancers. but if find images. I think a lot of this has to do with the fact that hundred years behind drama in this respect. But clearly. you also have pantomimes and choreographies because there’s the strengths of film are. guage of shots and edits. the frame. I can come into this space here. I just FL: So is dance film it’s own genre? anymore. Film is a com. ing. His mind is working behind the camera as well. and that’s how I came to working with dance in the first they tried to collaborate it would be a car crash because they both want to be in charge of what’s happening. This is what Gene Kelly was make a performance. Of course. pletely different thing. I mean. choreographing the action. what’s the point of it?’ They had to ask I don’t take risks. when they first made dramatic films. a good film. and it has a lot of spirit. I think it’s totally different making a film than JK: The film looks also like that. you can Sometimes we were ography out for the camera. we’re all here alive in a space together. So if opposite. I think Interview conducted in February 2012 that’s probably the most successful bit of dance film DH: Yes. He understands where he is in the composi- to be in relation to that performance. Just stand they are making. I really want to communicate with the audience. But in a film you much Waltzing Jessica by Jason Akirathe rhythm and the structure and the energy of Somma. all the rhythm. in the A lot of what you have to do all the time in film is to find cutting room. I understand about editing rhythms. That’s one way to knew what to do with it: ‘We’ve got a machine that re- that because I’ll probably fall’. They were planning it out as a performance and it works as a piece of film. want to be JK: Exactly. It is all entirely dependent on what the camera is doing in relation to the action. understand film language better. It’s weird because dance is a people. As a performer. there’s a short clip of Chaplin in the boxing ring. power of theatre has to do with the fact it’s alive and real work they’re making. realised that this wasn’t working very well. You have to find out what Jiří Kylián: Yes. He made it work on all years ago. Fred Astaire wants to reproduce that in films. In theatre. ‘I’m not going to do place.’ They very rapidly in relation to this action?’ Then: ‘How are we going to there’s no tension. He knows at they perform it. it’s going to be a very weak thing on screen. Another way to work is to plot everything out very watch the clip. It’s like not running for the bus DH: Yes. you’re choreographing Dancers still live their lives far more in the world of thea. A film is just images on as long as everybody understands that all the rhythm lot of the earliest films ever made. then it’s not working anymore. in a theatre. a film. live through it. not just in their brains. then you films still start from the idea of creating a choreography when you’re making a dance for film. I think there is. that’s ever been created in terms of the impact it has on performing for the theatre. Nobody really feel it in their guts. Then the what they’re creating actually makes sense in the lan- the end. he can see himself in but you can’t learn experience. A hundred DH: Yes. so they know that stage and on screen? movements. you are. There are many different ways of making tiny. DH: What I found fascinating about Car Men is that carefully in advance. I think the first silent movies are really ways to compensate for that. If you work for you. He’s saying: ‘I’m the filmmaker and all the crea. A film like the one Ed Wubbe showed power works in a film is different. this is what we are cords movement. You’ve got an infi- nite number of options. Somebody like You should live intensely to have knows when the camera is moving in on him. because I think film editing is itself it’s one of the most cinematic films you can make. and who’s going to control what. The dancers can improvise. That’s a perfectly legitimate way to make films and I’ve made films like that. how muchJiri Kylian space do you give to intuition? To manding the space that we’re sitting in. commanding thing. That’s a com. Boris and Jiří were doing: actually thinking the chore. in pher and a director get together. a lot of the physicality gets lost because you lose being in charge in their own worlds. and how much it is going to be created by the film- what he’s doing. What’s going to make my dance It’s about going out and shooting in a very documentary shot. When you’re doing that. which is what choreography is. One of the things that fascinates FL: How should dancers be prepared? Is the dancer’s they were actually working like Hollywood filmmakers me about Singin’ in the Rain is that Gene Kelly was the role different in a film? worked in 1910.’ the moment? there with a camera and I shoot that leap on a wide shot. as a filmmaker. They would just take a theatrical piece shot by shot. the strengths of theatre. No movement actually has any language. In this can achieve a very visceral communication with the au.’ That’s not what film is. So much of the it really clear between them who’s going to be respon- sible for what. DH: Well. and if everybody knows ‘Okay. dancer. he creates a dance that uses film language in a way you structure it has very much to do with the edit. That’s fine. as a choreographer. a choreographic activity. I just don’t do it. the choreographer and the film director. This is a genuine duet between he’s saying to the filmmaker: ‘You’ll be passive.agedFL: It’s all an(dancer Was it like this in Car Men? 60+) and all the structure is going to be created later. But if I’m back a brilliant film. me do all the work. little figure going ‘du-bi-du’ across the frame. the younger ones turn. I would say one of the reasons I’m into it is that dance. no dialogue. through cutting?’ The vast majority of dance A final thought in relation to Singin’ in the Rain is that to take advantage of what’s strong about it. He weight or any meaning in a film except in relation to the Wessel Oostrum (dance student) the structure is within the body of the performers. tion. Both Fred Astaire and Busby Berkeley are great. They’re both used to action. I like working with dance is because through dance you very sophisticated way. through cinematic pletely different language than theatre and if you want means. It might be much more there. because the way with me. they Boris and Jiří were doing is that they were thinking out three levels: it works as a piece of choreography. you can get really the eye of the viewer in relation to the action.Janmaat Martinette illusion. get from this action to the next one. something to remember when got space around him. thinking: ‘Where is the camera going to be cause all these things are happening in the same mind. maker. and the cameraman can improvise. there’s a constant issue in film about how doing in the clip from Singin’ in the Rain. I want to feel physicality and I want the viewers to This is a big issue in all dance films when a choreogra. but I think the future lies in what enough to make only the performance and say: ‘There a lot of them. and your job is done. in this kind of structure you have just de­ very powerful. In a piece of live theatre. because I am com- brilliant dancer so just take a shot of me and you’ll have scribed. just let you grow old.’ And in era as a way of harvesting movement material. FL: Is there a difference between physical presence on exciting is the fact that I understand about camera way. You respect each other’s medium and involved in the structure and the rhythm. He knows when he has space around him and when he hasn’t camera. All you’ve got to do is sit back there do a massive great leap across this space and that’s a with your camera and hold me in a full-length shot.

the younger ones turn. In this dance. You can learn many things thing in a different but you can’t learn experience. You have to live it. I don’t run for the bus. language. I don’t take risks. It’s like not running for the bus anymore. I wait for the next one. I just don’t do it. ‘I’m not going to do that because I’ll probably fall’. Martinette Janmaat (dancer aged 60+) Michael Schumacher working with Dance students from Codarts Sometimes we were talking about the same Waltzing Jessica by Jason Akira Somma. Jiri Kylian Q&A session at the Dance and Visual Technology presentation . Wessel Oostrum (dance student) You should live intensely to have something to remember when you grow old. live through it. but I thought.

New technology and multidisciplinary collaborations seem to give rise to debates about where we stand as animators and where we stand as dancers. René Bosma (professor of animation film) 32 Caspar Bik 37 . Marlyn Spaaij (animation film student) The dancer’s individual expression will always emerge. even if you’re working with an animated figure.

en floor and empty background. In Picture 2. This meant that combining good The performance space is limited moments from different takes was by the size of the camera frame. that won’t work. Tricks were also used during the shooting. for example.”1 In his and others. Choreographing the Dialogue between Performance and Camerawork in Fred Astaire’s and Gene Kelly’s Hollywood Musical Films by Anna Henckel-Donnersmarck One of the first records of dance on Fred Astaire continued this es- film is the Serpentine Dance. camera movements had to be subtle and were only allowed to The performance took place right in make sure that he and his partner 1: Serpentine Dance by Lina Esbrard (1902). It was a popular motif and we can “Either the camera will dance or I find recordings of it by Alice Guy.” he said. filming. The on stages (e. possible. The plot often Even at this time. there follows a simple pattern: boy meets were a few attempts to enhance girl. dance with an almost static camera. the camera is mounted on the ceiling with the performers lying on the floor. or even allowing continuous colour changes (Picture 1). 156 Dance students in the Mixing Live Performance and Live Video workshop 157 . for example by tinting the individual celluloid frames by hand and thereby adding colour. which mimicked were always in the centre of the by Alice Guy the situation of a seated theatregoer. “But both of us at the Lumière brothers. however. For not possible and he had to make technical reasons. All the camera only film can do. the camera had to sure his performance was the best be static on a tripod. in a ballroom it were a spectator and sometimes or pavilion). Neither colour nor sound Dance sequences often take place were possible at this time either. by Segundo de Chomón looks directly at it. boy a particular performance in a way wins girl by dancing. that pans or movements were not just like a performer in the theatre. Thomas Edison same time.g. opinion. plotlines of the film and are used to advance the story. This remained the that all song-and-dance routines standard mode of framing dance for be seamlessly integrated into the a long time.g. Astaire also insisted 2: Les Kiriki Acrobatas Japoneses (1907). girl gets annoyed by boy. the will. One way was to does is witness what Astaire would manipulate the material after the have been doing anyway. front of the camera. in a nightclub) or dancer performs for the camera as if stage-like settings (e. which meant from beginning to end in every take. The choreography c­reates an illusion that defies the laws of gravity. ing and was therefore to be avoided. frame. Editing was considered cheat- We see a stage defined by the wood. which tablished convention of filming was invented by Loie Fuller in 1891.

up and attached to the room so that for somebody else. who later became an im- by the physical performances of the stars of silent films. Then. The camera then jumps back with the photograph of a girl he Cyd Charisse. As the experi­ right. All three protagonists in this in the background continue to move he lifts you. his tool. Kelly says: “The conception of this dance came from the desire to do handle the smoke. as the common man. that have a life of their own and mental filmmaker Maya Deren says: but always showing him in full (5). on the other hand. rules and use special effects. In “Shoes with Wings On” from The more than just a recording device. The trick was ap. 7 takes a closer look at the three men. that Astaire’s In the film’s “Broadway Ballet” middle who is tossing a coin and coordination is better than number. His sense of rhythm is unfolds through dance. Graham. down at Kelly kneeling in front of The Barkleys of Broadway partner in person. and I had to cue her to exhale the 5 films. He can do anything – he the flirtatious but silent dialogue This shot tells us that this particular with My Baby” from Easter Parade is a fantastic drummer (and piano between two performers as it man is not merely a bystander but (1948). who had also her (8). When Astaire chose to break his own Kelly grew up in Pittsburgh (Steel The camera not only supports the The leg belongs to Cyd Charisse. she fell in love with an interested in ballet and folk dance. who danced with both trained as a dancer. as a partner would do to a new plot. stuck a hat on the end of her foot and handed her a cigarette holder. We 3: “You’re All the World to Me” from the 1951 example. he lifts you! Fred could scene have now been introduced at normal speed. the camera captures seems to be the one in charge (10). Astaire. it to the motion picture medium. who could stop a man by just stick- Royal Wedding (1951) is such an and other sports. He called it emotional struggle. dancing the two. in a family of Irish immi- It’s an interesting way of looking at how the human body can performer but also controls the gaze of the spectator as it defines the who Astaire described as “beautiful dynamite”. dance. because she couldn’t sister Adele with whom he used to perform as a child in vaudeville Harrington from whom he learnt in Pittsburgh. he did so in the most exquisite way. He was determined to but I did want to use the visual long legs. Instead of follow- walls. adapt Kelly is dancing alone. Kelly. takes in the cigarette in bring the joy of dance to the kind of medium in a way so as to express an her hand then moves up her body 6 In the song “You’re All the World people he grew up with.”4 across the floor directly towards from the world of backstage the camera. movements. 158 159 . 9 dance him through a battle with “The camera is a partner to the the conventional way of filming another seven pairs of shoes (4). and England until. or how your feelings can be enhanced through space around the dancer (wide angle the film. the scene. which is looking slyly 4: “Shoes with Wings On” from the 1949 film to Me”. Cyd was stunning. But front of it. When chosen props. as in Singin’ in the Rain ing Kelly and Charisse. in order to introduce ates him. some interest in him.”2 backdrop of a nightclub. maybe zooming in or out. slightly confused. film Royal Wedding portant co-director of Gene Kelly’s Buster Keaton and Charlie Chaplin. rather than dancing with a “dance for the common man”. He was influenced technological means. the camera shifts from While Astaire represented the the ballerina. will play an important role later on in Astaire is shown dancing in slow uncanny. probably using money as m­otion while the chorus of dancers is the stronger of the two. never do the lifts Gene did. (Astaire had also learned aesthetic and psychological resolution of the artistic product. It was directed by Stanley Donen.) Kelly was to do something that would be continues by following Kelly’s gaze age of 33. plied afterwards by combining two never wanted to. […] – without taking his point-of-view English Lord and her brother moved and modern dance à la Martha I didn’t want to do a ‘trick’ number. with Hermes Pan’s together. Towards the end of the song. only to be suddenly Broadway to ballroom parties and stopped by a leg that comes in from charming the ladies with singing the left.S. Jiří Kylián As the music changes. such as the point of view of the camera can have a decisive influence on the attention. the camera rotating barrel with the camera lined Kelly can create an entire number (1952). at the teacher. said: “Kelly is the perfect co-director for his vision. The camera follows his movements Barkleys of Broadway (1949). said: “We needed someone remained the centre of attention. I think. surprising both him and us 10 and dancing. gestures and the use of a few well. Astaire that it could actually enhance the by panning slightly to the left or tries on a pair of tap dance shoes e­xperience of dance. takes his literally head over heels. however. Donen then operated the hat from her foot (9) then follows on the ceiling and up and down the help. dancer and carries him. We see a man more inventive choreographer of They created the choreographies Kelly. In other words. to do new things with dance. This is something that is not possible on a theatre stage. and The scene takes place in the painted 8 with a portrait shot and a prop. (POV) – as it travels along Charisse’s on to Hollywood. the shot the U. Gene Kelly saw himself in the audience (6). or acceler. Bubbles. three suspicious men at her table.A. He spent much of his time be abstracted. player).”6 t­heatres and dance shows all over tap from an African-American a pure cine dance. witnessing to storytelling: Kelly epitome of male elegance and gressions and movements that are falls to his knees and slides rapidly casual style. Donen. John W. swirling speed film of the chorus of dancers. cides where to direct the audience’s ing up her leg. A few different shots in the same frame: people are sitting at tables scattered the slow-motion film of Astaire was Kelly himself once said: “I wanted around the dance floor on which superimposed onto the normal. me. who directed making sure that his skilful dancing grants.”3 and jumping energetically and He understood that the camera was completely absorbed by the music. as he did for especially the scar-faced man in the it rotated with it (Picture 3). runs into her. creates fabulous numbers camera while Kelly performed in her off screen. impossible in any other medium. making possible pro. Another example is “Stepping’ Out Kelly’s. It isn’t just about the obvious visual dimension. Kelly found the to a medium-long shot to reveal adores and who has just expressed Astaire and Kelly. Astaire dances In Stanley Donen. moving effortlessly impossible to the individual figure.”5 (7) to her face. always City) in the Midwest of the United States. The set was built inside a huge – for himself and his partner. The plot is loosely based on and by the African-American tap Talking about the number “Alter cigarette smoke for when Gene first the career of Fred Astaire and his dancers Dancing Dotson and Frank Ego” from the 1944 film Cover Girl. on the street or playing ice hockey shots or close-ups) and thereby de.

changes. When he stands. 12 18 13 19 14 20 15 16 160 161 . The camera Kelly himself in the frame (15). the middle of the frame (13). camera then follows Kelly as he gets for a heated pas-de-deux (18). just her gaze. almost paralysed. She blinds him by uses them to tease him and then rette Charisse has put in his mouth. The camera or an externalised POV of Kelly. and Again the camera follows Kelly’s jumps to a portrait shot and we see as we’ve seen it before (19). in the gaze by looking down while keeping two equal partners looking at each he pulls her back up to eye-level. He throws away the ciga. Kelly’s behaviour Charisse slides down Kelly’s body her derriere and looking at him over Charisse takes off Kelly’s glasses (14).Charisse circles around Kelly. depending 11 up and returns to eye-level with 17 repeated once more until the music on Charisse’s action. and ends up lying on the floor until her shoulder (11). trait shot because the two of them are just about to kiss (20). slows down and we return to a por- remains statically in front. The other with intensity in preparation camera moves down and returns to a switches or zooms between full. shaking The camera angle changes when At this moment. This pattern is figure and portrait shots. but always Charisse (16). her onto his chest (17). standard frontal shot. He finally drops them on the floor to takes her hand and brusquely lifts above them taking a bird’s eye view is too embarrassed to respond to kick them away with her long legs. he steps over her. let alone her actions. The camera is just blowing smoke in his eyes (12).

the director on with the rain / I’ve a smile on my of photography’s skill is measured face.”7 / Just singin’ / Singin’ in the rain. by separating each shape (be it a In front of a shop window (29). He walks out of the his own business and get back to puddles and streets as his dance show his big smile as he cuddles up frame with Charisse following him. ready to embrace peace. clear. he sings. protecting themselves with a news- movement. as Truffaut says. to ‘clean it’. “The sun’s her eyes on the object of her desire in my heart / And I’m ready for love!” (22) in the same way Kelly’s eyes Néstor Almendros. Kelly chooses the space to give him: zooming into the bracelet: the scar-faced man it clear to Kelly that he should mind rain. The and in love. to show that these story­teller but as a dance partner. captured by a camera that Charisse’s attention (21). the the lady of his heart to her house Charisse’s leg did at the beginning the frame unexpectedly from the s­tory is very simple: it’s a man sing. 24 28 29 30 162 163 . serenity. composition in the frame as follows: his emotions in dance form with the “Horizontal lines suggest repose. Curved compositions that the umbrella in his hand when he move circularly communicate feel. but Kelly doesn’t even need obstacles. the an intimate close-up on his face to tossing his coin. A couple walks by. over camera no longer functions as a rain (25). 25 to a lamppost and sings. in other words.An unexpected distraction suddenly When Kelly tries to run after her. person or an object) in relation to a framed by the camera panning left background or set. just as the man’s two companions enter number from the same film. 21 dancing (24). Truffaut’s (26). by his ability to organise a scene almost as if they were dancing a visually in front of the lens and avoid waltz together. arms wide open. in a close-up. The ing and dancing in the rain. “Let the stormy clouds chase 22 26 ings of exaltation. / Every one from the place / Come “In the art of cinema. described the effects of figure-shot to allow Kelly to express the b­eginning of the scene. crossing the frame evoke action. and right to follow his movements. Happy of this dance dialogue. This time sides and hold him back (23). he starts to dance in the it’s a diamond bracelet that catches camera jumps to a wide angle. is drenched by the rainwater falling from the gutter (30). “I walk 23 confusion by emphasising the vari. always knows exactly how much pans back to reveal the owner of men are also tossing coins. […] Diagonal lines the world (27). an umbrella. The camera Kelly’s shoulder. making In the scene itself. euphoria and joy. partners. 27 down the lane / With a happy refrain ous elements that are of interest. sings. and kissing her goodbye. the power to overcome paper.” and again we zoom into his by his capacity to keep an image big smile (28). then moving back to a full- followed her onto the dance floor at camera­man. In the famous “Singin’ in the Rain” The scene starts with Kelly escorting enters the frame from the left. the lamppost. He bows to the girl in the window and then.” Kelly twirls his umbrella like a dance partner or uses it to mimic playing a guitar.

com/ umbrella to a passer-by and then dis. youtube. technological means. 1987.” he com/watch?v=hgbNYmQKWGk (8/2/2014) sings politely to the policeman. and Warner Bros. short-film maker and also creates black too subtle.uk/features/796481/what-cyd- dren’s puppet show. 3. Astaire quoted in: Jenelle Porter. copyright: Turner Entertainment Co.com/watch?v=xJTq9a5BAmQ (8/2/2014) The last shot of him is a wide-angle Picture 3: “You’re All the World to Me” from shot of the street. Pennsylvania: University of panied by full orchestra music 33 Pennsylvania. small steps he a History and Filmographies. Jiří Kylián just enough colour and information the Berliner Philharmoniker. dancin’ and singin’ in the rain. Dance (31).13. Entertainment Inc. “I’m (1902). watch?v=i0g3g6AvLtM (8/2/2014) appears into the cityscape. stops him (33). there is in collaboration with. use of red or green. In any case.youtube. or how your feelings can be enhanced through palette is toned down to blue. face. Current Biography Yearbook. youtube. through the puddles – again accom­ 4. as if Picture 2: Les Kiriki Acrobatas Japoneses (1907). p. Film Choreographers and Dance Directors: An the diagonal that emphasises his Illustrated Biographical Encyclopedia.W. 6. for example. Almendros quoted in: Judy Mitoma (et The camera shows Kelly’s apologetic al. a lit shop window provides a Arts in Essen and the Pictoplasma backdrop. including camera moves up to a generous the Berlinale. 2010. birds-eye view and Kelly’s move- ments become wider and more and more playful. 222. The overall colour video installations for the stage and be abstracted. It is 2. Kelly quoted in: H. Kelly gives his the film Royal Wedding (1951). Envisioning Dance on Film and Video. 1995.. a diagonal through the frame. 2010.specta- b­efore Kelly does. by Segundo de Chomón.youtube. committees as well as the juries of v­arious short-film festivals in When the full orchestra kicks in. With speed and the quick. p. 2010.youtube. p.). by Alice Guy. Stanley Donen. 1997. It isn’t just about the obvious visual dimension. She runs work.He continues to tap through the About the author: puddles with his brown shoes – Anna Henckel-Donnersmarck is a It’s an interesting way of looking at how the human body can white would have been too bright. film The Barkleys of Broadway (1949). Donen quoted in: http://www. by Charles Walters.com/watch?v=7YWBOfsXsDA (8/2/2014) and http://www. 7. New York: McFarland &C. com/watch?v=7YWBOfsXsDA (8/2/2014). 1893 Through makes (32). almost childlike Notes: 32 1. p. by Stanley Donen. A Metro- Goldwyn-Mayer Picture. POV of an authority figure. http://www. turning Picture 4: “Shoes with Wings On” from the him back into a common man again. http://www. Deren quoted in: Jenelle Porter. 11. Kelly quoted in: Jenelle Porter.14. 68. just as in a chil. charissetold-me-about-singin-in-the-rain/ (10/10/2013). grey and brown. She to support the dance but never too is a member of the pre-selection much to distract attention from it. the window sometimes Academy in Berlin. Charisse quoted in: Larry Billman. New York: H. to say. http://www. p. p. During the violin solo. http://www. showing figurines or other depic. with the occasional exhibitions. 164 Jiří Kylián with dance students during the Mixing Live Performance and Live Video workshop 165 . – in front of a sign saying “Mount 5. 245. Every now and the Folkwang University of the the point of view of the camera can have a decisive influence on the then. aesthetic and psychological resolution of the artistic product. 2002. Pennsylvania: University of a policeman the audience notices Pennsylvania.W. filmed slightly from above (the London: Routledge. by Gene Kelly. Wilson He then splashes in big jumps Co.com/ just like you and me (35). higher in rank) with the policeman’s back like List of pictures: 34 Picture 1: Serpentine Dance by Lina Esbrard a solid wall in the foreground. DVD Singing in the Rain (1951).youtube. with Camera.co. http://www. tor. Kelly with Camera. 35 watch?v=qxDjPkb6QoI (8/2/2014) Pictures 5-35: Singing in the Rain (1952). the Germany and abroad. She teaches at various institutions including HTW Berlin. Wilson. Pennsylvania: University of b­alances on the kerbstone that cuts Pennsylvania. Dance with Camera. “What’s wrong with that?” (34). 31 shops for children and young adults tions of women. Dance Hollywood Art School”. Suddenly.

Dance & design .

but its surroundings can change its meaning. white on the other. and a duet performed with different arrangements of the panels. which were black on one side. Jiří Kylián 32 Dance students rehearsing the choreography Stonehenge. which was created by Jiří Kylián and Michael Schumacher during the Dance and Design workshops 37 . The formation of the panels also changed the direction of the choreography. The surroundings changed the meaning of the choreography completely. We had panels on wheels. The same story can be told many times.

and focused on architectural The topic was first addressed in broad terms in a sympo­ projects that explore spatial experiences using new Jouke Rouwenhorst. as it can have a supportive. researcher at the University of Arts in Berlin) then gave a lecture on body and space. Kylián and Michael Kylián lectureship at Codarts Rotterdam. dance students created for EXPO 2002 in Switzerland. Design is a key element of a dance Michael Simon) as well as a duet by Michael Schumacher performance. It’s really interesting how you can The topic extended beyond the boundaries of dance. Dr. Then. The symposium from Codarts could experience – in physical terms – the was concluded with a podium discussion involving impact of costume. Schumacher. light and set design on choreography. Kylián. the stage designer Ascon de Nijs. Nathalie Bredella (architect and even destructive influence on choreography. as its content is also of interest for students and teachers of the designer and choreographer Sjoerd Vreugdenhil and the costume designer Erika Turunen. It’s a new path of discovery. create a new dimension with costumes. light design choreo­graphy. in two workshops. The same choreography can look very different with a different costume. for example Diller + Scofidio’s Blur Building architecture. Some things happened that we didn’t expect or by Friederike Lampert and Désirée Staverman think would happen. It took place Schumacher introduced the topic using filmed record- in May 2013. Grey Timmers (dance student) The choreography was always the same. but there were different dancers with different personalities and different costumes that either enhanced the movement or restricted it. the two other Codarts academies: music and circus. Costume. light and stage design as well ings of the former’s dance works No More Play and One as architecture play significant and obvious roles in Of A Kind (stage design Atsushi Kitagawara. Jouke Rouwenhorst (dance student) 171 . Dancers as Architects The effect of the costumes surprised me. restrictive or and Han Bennink. costume by Karine Guizzo sium involving guests from the world of design and technologies. Jiří Kylián Jiří Kylián in a podium discussion with architect Atsushi Kitagawara and interpreter Keiko Taylor Design was the focus of the final project of the Jiří In the Dance and Design symposium.

Creating the space with set. which created a nice effect. Each student then put on their “They create the space instantly. In the latter case. the other. the panels were also used as There is also the risk and excite- long and it took us the first two days part of the image. Once another was a kind of dance in itself. For his part. we landscape. turning it. a performance – so the result was out that it was hard to move them spot (tilting it. white on the other. but used handles.” In One Of A Kind. this was an the panels created a mysterious amazing experience. the purpose each performance of the duet gave rise to surprising was possible to move them. or something else. Students experienced the effect of space On the first day. we prepared the minutes of the piece but it was used for mixing dance and set design. which was led by dance piece One Of A Kind. time to put it all into practice. and their mov. whose work in- Kylián and Schumacher. There is a huge range of ments of the dancer’s bodies interacted with the set and was a small platform that protruded but in other parts the panels were possibilities for using set design on lighting to produce an interwoven effect on stage. but also that movement transforms the look of costumes in unexpected and surprising ways. At one rehearsal period may take longer. the dancer and costume designer Karine Guizzo created eight The results of the workshops were shown in the final Dance and Design event. with the lighting designer Ellen Knops was responsible for the try to achieve something new that Schumacher used to create some seen and unseen. Guest had to allow our minds to open and panels that Jirí Kylián and Michael played with dark and light. innocence atmospheres and to create shadows black on one side. the point at which a costume allows you to one week – four working days and how could we move them. statement. and in particular the effect planning. The about 30cm to the front and back. The shapes and move. investigated the interaction cludes numerous architectural projects as well as urban Grey Timmers (dance student) between costume and dance. The four-day workshop. which were of interesting research. black on one side. For some also realised how a set is not only bodies and the movable panels. the duet was the décor but can also be part of the choreographic process is also a continuous dialogue meter. the dancers had set. Then it was I thought the result was fantastic. one for each of the participating of Jiří Kylián’s three-year professorship. while the dancer in the box costume could only execute a reduced spectrum of movement but this in turn gave rise to new One Of A Kind. it promoted playfulness. For the first workshop. It consisted of ten panels. lifted behind them so both she and performance. Each costume was based on a different base was the renowned architect Atsushi Kitagawara model. photo by Joris-Jan Bos movement. Special guest Some things happened that we didn’t students. At the base of each panel décor. Dance and Costume. man-woman. Schumacher focused on stage and light design. they learned how the one approximately two meters by 1 parts of the piece. described costumes can have on dance. Participants realised that costumes do indeed influence movement. landscape and furniture design. Kitagawara. each in many different ways. It was about a minute point. white on main element and the panels just movement and used to make a clear with the set and light design. Kylián respective costume and developed an individual inter. The workshop only lasted we could play with the colors and way we used the set: travelling with incarnation”. “The was clear even from this small over- moved by the other dancers either between or during duet was repeated for the whole ten view that there are many options each duet. woman-woman and dancers were moving them. design could influence the creation use the panels in the space: how material and set but also with the Jiří Kylián emphasised what he called “the moment of of a piece. For me.jp) who d­esigned the set for Kylián’s 1998 expect or think would happen. Lighting A second four-day workshop led by Kylián and happen when you incorporate set behind them. She also wheels to enable them to be moved on stage. 172 173 . which also marked the end The effect of the costumes surprised me. own style. There design into dance and vice versa. We not only played with a concluding feedback round in which the influence of and to discover how a given set started looking at how we could integrating ourselves into the dance costume design on movement was obvious.) and really just an overview of what can without the dancers being seen even making noise with it. lighting. so the next day we also played a really important role. for example the dancer wearing the “hairy” costume performed exagger- ated movement that allowed the hair to swing. It with different arrangements of the panels. I and lighting on a dance piece. stage but it should also be clear how dancers created lines and shapes with the panels and Each platform had four wheels so it ing and turning from one colour to and why it’s being used.co. The choreography developed for the workshop would either work or not in the end nice effects and positions they (Stonehenge) was a duet performed by different couples but would nonetheless be the result recorded with a camera. Each of the dance students his collaboration with Kylián in 1998 as “an unforget- learned a different choreography while wearing their table experience”. should be coherent. the set was ready. moving it on the become somebody else. “Dancers are architects. was made from different materials and had its (kitagawara. so the man-man. normal training clothes. When using a new formations. The possibilities and restrictions imposed by the costumes increased the students’ awareness of the inter­ action between movement and costume. Ellen Knops used it to create different were ten students involved as well as ten large panels. a dancer being ment of dealing with the set in a live to create it and clean it up. it is important to bear in mind ing a duet with different pairings: to work with the panels as the other that it takes time to arrange it. We We also had smaller versions of the and shapes with the panels. the main element. It turned it through space. Kitagawara’s set design of complex spatial structures and façades. and fitted with and childlike desire for discovery. on stage.” he said. Laura Casasola Fontseca (dance student) All students – including those who were also given the on the project Dance and Design: chance to experiment with dance and costume on the final day of the workshop – reported their discoveries in The goal of the project was to play At the end of the second day. different costumes. explores the possibi­lities and limitations of space within pretation of their dance. etc. we started creat.

1991. Dutton & Co..Participants in the Dance and Costume workshop: Dane Badal Eva Calanni Titel The effect of the costumes surprised me. Henri Lefebvre. Billy Klüver. New York: Rodopi. Inc.. costume by Karine Guizzo 174 175 . 1972. New York: E. Barbara Rose (eds. Jouke Rouwenhorst Gianmarco Stefanelli Grey Timmers (dance student) Grey Timmers Adrian Wanliss Participants in the Dance and Design workshop: Steven Pinheiro de Almeida Rodrigo Azevedo Davey Bakker Guido Badalamenti Pauline Briguet Laura Casasola Fontesca Peter Copek Thibault Desaules Alina Fejzo Myronne Rietbergen Gianmarco Stefanelli Angela Tampelloni More to explore Shortfilm: Dance & Stage Design Dance & Costume Final Event Questions: –  How do you see the interaction between costume designer and dancer? –  What influence does costume design have on choreography? –  What influence does light design have on choreography? –  In what ways can stage design and dancers interact? –  Can you imagine dancers creating their own set design? Literature: Jane Collins. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. The Production of Space.P. Grey Timmers. Julie Martin. 2010. Dance. Theatre and Performance Design: A Reader in Scenography. Andrew Nisbet.). Some things happened that we didn’t Laura Casasola Fontseca Jiri Kylian Izabela Orzelowska expect or think would happen. Amsterdam. Pavilion by Experiments in Art and Technology. Theatre. New York: Routledge. Performative Body Spaces: Corporeal Topographies in Literature. Markus Hallensleben. and the Visual Arts (Critical Studies Series). 2010.

Guido Badalamenti and Peter Copek rehearsing the choreograpy Stonehenge 37 . You don’t only deal with the shape you can create with your body but also how it combines with the other lines in the space. Alina Fejzo (dance student) 32 Angela Tampelloni. What I like about design and architecture on stage is that your brain is really active.

We kept saying. perfectly irregular. Everything you look at. an independent competition for design.gift the we’ve differently. Ascon de Nijs. Michael Simon did the lighting – he’s like a light- given. then stays on perfect. we now know what a random design is. this One Of A Kind (stage design by Atsushi Kitagawara). MS: How did you work with Atsushi Kitagawara? What Jiří Kylián was the dialogue that led to his producing this design for you? JK: He decided on a random design. the sun. and microphone. Friederike Lampert. and then I visited him in Tokyo. at eight o’clock Podium interview on Dance and Design.” share it differently. One Of A Kind is more than twenty years old and at that time random design was really new. design be art? Of course it can be. represents the to do it into the back of the stage. ‘This is again fantastic. No More Play and that everything is design: my jacket. I arrived at five o’clock in the morning. this com. It’s If you have the chance and across a bridge built over the orchestra pit. designed the do it differently. someone else. the lighting. but Michael Schumacher: How did the work for One Of A design isn’t necessarily art. so we bought a big book and went on a pilgrimage through the city. Can the Holland Dance Festival in 2003. If there were to be vidual has. Discussing Dance and Design Podium interviews with Jiří Kylián. He had some ideas with lasers and horizontal beams. It’s symbolic and stage for three acts and two intermissions before disap- Iit think wearing a costume is the Itopportunity has life within its shell. ‘Hello!’ That’s how it all began. from left to right. Of course. We rang the bell and said. Ascon de Nijs and Erika Turunen. Do you know Kind begin? what the most brilliant piece of design is? I’m not actually sure if it was designed by Jiří Kylián: I was asked by the Dutch government to make anybody. be other ‘Oh. Just a little anecdote about how the col- laboration started… Michael Simon and I were walking toKylián Jiří represent only ourselves through Michael Schumacher (dancer aged 40+) Tokyo. pearing a wonderful universe.’ we said. ing architect. I wrote him a nine-page letter asking for certain adjustments. Erika Turunen. gift been a great Japanese architect I really admire. 179 . by midnight we were finished and at five o’clock the next morning I left for the Netherlands. characters. I didn’t know what it was. Atsushi Kitagawara. I decided to do something about individuality and the rights an indi- designs around: an egg. but it’s one of the most perfect a piece based on the Dutch constitution. the floor. so he showed me. That’s the beauty and that one too!’ until we realised that all buildings we really loved were by Atsushi Kitagawara. other personalities. It means we don’t have so on. of procreation and stage. Michael Schumacher and Jiří Kylián we started working. the sofa. Everything that Michael Schumacher made with Han Bennink for is design. As we of becoming something or got closer. we realised it was Atsushi’s office. this is a fantastic building! And this one is fantastic. a duet (one of a series of three duets called Triple Dutch) puter. the She then dances her way through the spectators and egg would win everything hands down. Sjoerd Vreugdenhil. We finally of theatre. in between them. Sjoerd Vreugdenhil. conducted by Michael Schumacher and Friederike Lampert “The most obvious and strangest thing is Three clips from different works were shown before the interview: two pieces by Jiří Kylián. the seating. We knew it had some incredible twenti- on stage: we can take on eth century architecture. I always enjoy stumbled over an incredible building that looked like two concrete blocks with a golden harmonica squeezed that moment of incarnation. I loved the ideas but it didn’t work in practice. Finally. It starts with a woman sitting in the audience.

I also like things that are really connected with adding something on top of that. daily life. All your senses have to be on super and then it will be perfect. then there’s another very creative moment when every. thin iron figures. designing MS: I always have that moment you spoke about. I think that ugly add another layer to the movement. given. as if that 180 181 . on e­scalators. because design. it seemed as if the dancers were set design itself. each time. It’s a perfect chair. but I can dance. I don’t think I’m the greatest choreogra. Then I’m like. Jiří said everything was design. process? scale model. what the choreographer and I talked about. it’s about the product rather than me. It goes up and down a lot. either because of the costumes or because of the I would often use it in sets for Club Guy & Roni because the One Of A Kind clip. They really rectangles and curved shapes in it. who is a great Dutch musician and not really what I intended. does working on stones produce? I was very fortunate but also put something ugly in there. ‘Okay. We often use a lot of materials from tume making it even more difficult to move. It just comes… phers. Sometimes décor. You’re on your own in a room with a small. miscommunication. What do you find so interesting in the designed objects in the world. There’s also something I’ve been explor­ most striking characteristic of your work? other personalities. can only burn it. You’re only with the dancers. of theatre. Company. I noticed how much of a director Ellen was You can learn many things for musical theatre. but it’s fantastic.orIn 2010. use this chair because for me it represents something. you’re a stage designer. Costumes out onto a football field. or maybe the cos. I always wonder if the dialogue between the choreo­ white garden chair you see from the Indian Himalayas grapher. espe- characters. Beautiful things can appear. I have so much creative moment is when I’m half-asleep in the morning. Then suddenly I start to combine and add that the cellist in the piece is Pieter Wispelwey. and That’s when you have ideas because you’re still in a ET: Everybody’s work is really important: the sewers. how light can guide the eye Ascon de Nijs: My work has become quite diverse. objects that can work in a lot of different ways. Maybe that’s the characteristic I FL: What are the best moments in the process? choreo­graphic intent. Then suddenly comes the way of dividing the space. found. choreo­graphic process? MS: In the moment on the stairs that we just saw in tion. is also a master of movement in time and interpretation. Sjoerd Vreugdenhil: What’s so interesting is that the were the case why would everyone buy it? I wanted to FL: Do costumes develop throughout the whole dialogue between dance and design is actually a restric.That’s how this design actually came about. This is precisely what was exciting about the that we had to run to the other studio to work out the to destroy it. I keep a little notebook next to my bed and respect the dancers and the entire artistic group that is shapes in the lighting. and body’s really nervous and unsure. not a stage we could work with them. these are what it is to move through a space and change it by FL: Ascon de Nijs.’ and then seeing how you react. Erika Turunen. but my most FL: What are the worst moments of this work? by Alberto Giacometti. choreographers likeITero always Saarinenenjoy and many others. on stage. I love monoliths. Then I also do work for Club Guy that moment the Finnish of incarnation. we get time with the dialogue between body and design? very bad for the environment. that to somebody else completely and the whole narrative You have to live it. it’s a kind of automatic handwriting. you’re a costume designer and have collaborated with kind of movement it should support. Then we step into this and turn them on again. It’s light but you can manipulate or by taking it away or bringing it up in another place in ferent modern dance companies and I do different work You were the head of the costume department of put your hands inside it. I prefer to work with whatever aesthetic that arises Where do they happen? At home. space. It’s like learning to play basketball then you go we can’t see anything. You create a beautiful image. which is sometimes what my work with Club Guy movement growing with the costume. style is. National Opera for several years and also it looks when somebody’s moving. I think you always do your own thing wherever costumes also someone for individualelse. I found that fascinating. then you can see how different the room. I loved this change of dynamic. that you can use in a lot of different ways. ‘Okay. during live performances of the Magpie Music Dance & Roni. We’re all familiar with Giacometti. It’s at that moment. You learn from them and they inspire there’s the whole development stage where you talk to moment when the costumes are on stage and every- the space just as much as we used it to light up the space you. too. I reproduced those isn’t going to work. and I listen to music. He isn’t a trained dancer. But without light Jiri Kylian reality. We were dancing. I should work and vision. I would very often create something from the original material. I’ve had my dancers work on stones for me this chair comes straight out of reality. you have to change things you thought up sometimes be so nervous that they can’t see it. I start to think about of the transition that happens because it’s quite pro­ sibilities about how we can use light. What’s your experience of designing Jiří Kylián costumes for moving bodies? become reality. For me. and if we really wanted it. costumes and lighting. light designers and techni- JK: The piece was inspired by a small marble sculpture SV: Most of the playful moments are actually in the cians at the end. includes the fact there’s going to be a huge transition choreographer. thinking. This is really simple.] Et voilà. the lighting is also a me. I can often see that something MS: I have always said to Han Bennink. something to remember when that have a lot of different functions and also have a lot our work as dancers is done in a studio without stage [Gives a sign to the light technician to switch off the lights you grow old. It’s never a wholly JK: The design had to be re-adjusted to serve the to have one studio with stones in it. Between having all the something I really like. not very tailors and the people who cut the costumes. There’s this moment of hesitation and questioning. We used lighting to divide up amazing people. then the light would shift running through my work in order to discover what my you launched your own design studio. this blurry state of mind that’s not very rational. but you can use it everywhere. How does it change? What kind of different impulses It has a sort of honesty. which is very polluting. trying to work it all out. ET: There’s a moment that usually comes in the middle project. worst moment for me. and many oth­ sometimes I have an idea that I don’t explain clearly and the miscommunication gives rise to something else. has no FL: Are there any playful moments in the creative business. the rehearsal directors and the designers Friederike Lampert: Sjoerd. grapher has been giving me. This fun on my own. No More Play. of the of the night when I’m so tired I think you can’t work any to create with me. the highlight moments. FL: When do you have your most creative moments? more that day. ing dresses. sets too. There’s something about the perspec­ before. nor is he trained in is very important too. The architecture is created by the lighting alone. you’re a designer and to the gardens here in Rotterdam is one of the best. of different atmospheres and images on stage. What’s the the two most creative moments. and it could work if we practised it. Then I AdN: In a way. it’s about the product we all deliver together. I always wonder if designers are aware lights on and total darkness there are a million pos. I’ve never really looked for any kind of thread but you can’t learn experience. but he has a natural understanding of on stage: we can take on and the dancers are now used to them. You designers in the space. artists as well as even­ ‘troubled moment’ when all of the ideas and visions of the dance would change. then there was so much dust was trying to find. I have worked for a lot of dif. but maybe that makes it even more realistic. He knows so much about this aspect of perfor­ mance. What I find interesting is that most of JK: I was asked how important light is so I will show you. as it never goes away.’ A person’s or created in your beautiful small-scale model in order already see that there are just small things we have to fix improviser. when it comes genuinely from him or her. to represent only ourselves alert for two days because it’s too late to change any- thing afterwards – the lighting and set have been fixed FL: When do you decide which textiles to use? the theatre. that’s a wonderful gift we’ve been very quickly. be other out of the textile or material and then I think about the ing for quite a while with the light designer Ellen Knops: the power of light. in the park? mix things in my head. Everything always becomes a mess when it goes on stage so you have to be able to think will work. It’s not ET: They develop over a much longer period of time. What does this mean for the dance vocabulary? beautiful. so for ten minutes homogeneous image. It means we don’t have to make them work. to create a beautiful image and then designer. I think wearing a costume is thing goes on stage. of becoming something designed costumes for large-scale operas. choreogra. so you can’t say it’s a bad design. important. ET: I think about the kind of form I would like to create moving in it. It’s a very different world. and I think that’s the for the dancers. If we’re lucky. That’s the beauty FL: Let’s talk about costume design. This man. that he gave me my best lessons in but it’s the right aesthetic. pre-production stage. all the thoughts the choreo­ whose musical contribution was of essential importance. You work with make a very quick note of ideas to develop later on. Then working together with them. I enjoyed it tremendously. but the choreographer or dancer can er people besides. live through it. Of course. That’s Erika Turunen: For me. something and how you can create a narrative with light simply cially in the last few years. pher. I usually start with choreographers about a year before tive that makes it look as if the steps are moving. getting someone from outside the theatre world choreo­graphy. For considered. three-dimensional. but I also like highly stylised there’s the moving body and then the possibility of other world. but we only know those long. being a stage designer is a very solitary suddenly want to do something completely different to MS: The second piece we just saw. Atsushi is an architect. the premiere and we meet whenever we have the time. it’s always a challenge. but really & Roni represents. I mean. and they can even give you something through collaborators such as directors and choreographers. I like my solitude. You should live intensely to have you are. costume designers. the sculpture was a tiny piece of marble with all kinds of then coming into the studio and thinking. So it’s not about me.

they’re not a problem. This is something performance would be different. I could MS: Yes. to figure have to be able to react really fast. but you have to know it beforehand. else. The becomes something different. If I plan a piece and know it will take two years to have all the costumes ET: I have one strange dream as far as costumes are and the set. As long as I kept focusing piece. MS: Exactly. Maybe you need or performer improvises new steps or text. putting paint on canvas. JK: In the works I’ve done or am working on. So the set. Every need a space for dancers to walk on.’ In this way. You wiping the paint off then creating something new. I have this idea. The stage design I could never create my designs without any interaction on the costume and workshop should be next to the dance studio so you can with the choreographer or director. Your task AdN: Maybe it’s a kind of set-designers dream. being a choreographer is a multi-disciplinary job. Stage design is not a adjust things. Of course. impossible. it’s time. it’s sort of for future generations to figure out. but you can’t learn experience. but no one could while they’re creating the movement. You need costumes on bodies. choreography. MS: I was in a production years ago where we worked SV: Now that these three-dimensional printers are and worked but weren’t given the costumes until the coming out. they inform the movement. There are so many elements you have to work with. You can learn many things posed the idea and it requires a lot of research. the stage design is also developed dur- ing rehearsals and I think that’s the best way to make a AdN: It’s also beautiful that theatre is made together. it ET: I think it’s a question of how you cut the material. so you feel comfortable Is there something you’ve always dreamt of doing but of movement. live through it. ‘Oh. [Laughter] Time is the biggest problem we have. that I would like to do a contemporary Swan This is really a huge problem. but that’s what I dream about. I would like to create a kind of three- final week of rehearsals. I work [Silence] Izabela Orzelowska (dance student) with the entire set and all the costumes. seven or ten years or so. No one could lift their arms or their choreo­graphy. form of sculptural art you practise on your own. For me. the costumes and the set. Then. suddenly. costume by Karine Guizzo wake up in the morning and say. they all open their wings on and I write it down. But you still need painter. Then you can be flexible. costumes. would be a­mazing if the dancers were actually creating You have to live it. greyish and Izabela Orzelowska. The ideal situation is to have the studio. you can something Interview conducted into May remember 2013 when base the choreography on it. You react and the whole thing sets inside the studio. MS: Right. the physical items. They were made from real dimensional printer that allows dancers to create the set leather and they looked fabulous. of course. or I start writing or painting. I’ve already pro- legs. This is why I think you dancers should have time to make it work. then you can work with the restrictions. but it isn’t always possible. If you already begin with the restrictions. You should live intensely to have JK: But if you know what the restrictions are. I Lake in which all the swans look ruined. ‘Okay. the set. Jiri Kylian JK: I don’t think choreographers mind working with leather costumes. as it changes how people feel the space and how they feel inside the JK: I mean professionally not personally. you grow old. I don’t know. The problem isn’t money. like the move in them. but stage and start to shine… something like that. concerned. what is it? dancing in a box. but I would be able to change the set as a dancer lose your momentum or inspiration. so it was a crisis moment. even while with it. but I’d is to organise things cleverly and quickly so that you can like to be able to adjust the set live. then you can interact with it and integrate JK: I would like to ask our three guests a question… actually discover a lot yourself into it very well. I can’t move here so I’ll do something something else. especially with choreographies. with costumes you can’t fit your legs into. wet. starts from nothing. That’s the most workable situation. costume by Karine Guizzo 182 . as then it can lead to things out. have not yet had the chance to do it? If so. It might come true in five.’ forlorn. looking at it for a while. I will be a different human being by then. If I’m a writer or a painter. Eva Calanni. There would be a make costumes and sets at great speed so that you don’t base.AdN: What I always try to do – especially with sets that SV: But sometimes things change on both the choreo- interaction with the dancers – is to make most of the graphic and design sides. I’d be like a computer technology.

Davey Bakker (dance student) Laura Casasola Fontseca and Gianmarco Stefanelli rehearsing the choreography Stonehenge . Normally. but in these rehearsals the lighting grew with us. the lighting is one of the last things you see before you go on stage. when you’re performing.

according to Böhme. that something must be there. into extended fields and focusing atmospheres and feelings without Its atmosphere is crucial for my on visitors’ sensorial perception of any obligation to act. sensory perception as op- political terms. In the into the atmosphere I will eventually following. I will focus on visitors’ As Böhme notes. In order to perceive something. when entering that explore spatial experiences uti. art is atmosphere: “Whenever I step into a applications of technology while at needed. In developing a concept of aesthe­ According to Böhme. namely the theory of perception. it must be present. which is the presupposition for spaces) indicates that architecture is experiencing atmosphere. In for thinking about architecture in this way.”3 This implies that percep- logically advanced environments in how to create atmospheres. the plays an essential role in perception tion to some architectural projects philosopher Gernot Böhme defines and he stresses that. tune visitors’ bodies.1 Given that in German term Stimmung or gestimmt developments. he describes the effect of venting commercially orientated (unseren Befindlichkeiten). as a room. physically extant. their operation and functioning that characterised the first world exhibitions has shifted towards the production of environ- ments that encourage the visitors’ involvement. an insight speak. pay close attention to our e­motions tuned”). atmosphere phere. tics based on atmosphere. my mood will be set (tuned) in the same time pushing architecture realm where we can pay attention to some way or another by this room. too. first then later ascribe atmospheric in the context of world exhibitions ing that an aesthetic of atmosphere attributes to them but rather feel the or fairs. Only after having moved changes in the environment. And one can notice that the interest in objects. Thus. As Böhme also political. in spaces (which evoke emotional that directs our attention to the effects in viewers and users of these body. Tuning the Body. we do not perceive objects lising new technologies. Davey Bakker and Rodrigo Azevedo rehearsing the choreography Stonehenge 187 . the interest in the writes: “The aesthetics of atmos- mechanisms of creating an atmos. so to to produce certain atmospheres emotion and affection. Guido Badalamenti.2 feelings. must be present. architects as well recognize and identify one object or bodily interactions with the techno­ as designers and artists are skilled another. posed to judgment is rehabilitated in aesthetics and the term ‘aesthetic’ is restored to its original meaning. I would like to draw atten. stress. atmosphere as something between a room. Pavilions of such our everyday life we do not usually werden (in English “tuning or to be expositions are known for circum.”4 World exhibitions play a crucial role in allowing people to experience at first hand new technical inven- tions. Referring to the changes related to technological product or production. On World Exhibitions and Atmosphere by Nathalie Bredella Starting with the notion of atmos. to atmosphere can be a valid criterion the ‘how’ something is present. Particularly the subject and the object. And tion is more than just identifying of expositions as well as on the he stresses that architecture’s ability objects or sense data: it comprises creation of atmospheres that. architecture can act as a must mediate between the aesthet. the subject. phere shifts attention away from phere raises the question whether the ‘what’ something represents. atmosphere first and then identify medium that addresses cultural ics of reception and the aesthetics of individual objects.

Prevented pleasure can be attributed to atmos- Room upstairs. the rehabilitation of borative process that led to the simultaneity. Thinking through the body grammed by Experiments in Art a projection is misleading. with reference to architecture is nothing but a special In the Osaka Expo 1970. 188 189 . visitors interested in value judgments and inside the dome and visitors were as one of the first immersive art and an article entitled “I have seen the had to activate other senses in order in separating good art from bad immersed in the images created by technology projects of the 20th future . which inspired Jonathan watching and simultaneously feeling rejects aesthetics when mainly concerts and happenings took place Pavilion. The Pepsi Billy Klüver and Robert Whitman. atmos. constellations of things. whose synonyms connote the “airy”.”12 The building mist-nozzles creating a fog mass body. sense one’s being in an environ. the The creation of atmosphere by Pavilion water vapour sculpture.and it’s wet”.”10 Hence. enshrouded the exterior unpredictable. As with the Pepsi Pavilion.A. and world exhibitions. Yverdon-les-Bains. and tionship between atmosphere and Buckmintser Fuller geodesic dome ence. awareness of our dependency on arro­gance (Kritik des ästhetischen electronic music. phere. spilled Diller + Scofidio’s project Blur world exhibitions and fairs consti. Liz Diller characterises the © Roy Lichtenstein Foundation. Placed around the lakes of morphology enveloped its visitors in ments. the key insight on atmosphere means addressing to co-operations between artists. see an object is disturbed. means to sense how one feels to explore the artificial environment The dome of the pavilion. which derives pumped up from Lake Neuchâtel. all products of aesthetic activities. they emanate from effects machine” addresses the rela. each pavilion from seeing their surroundings.”11 For Diller. from producing some usable spaces. persons. and he points out.T. on the other hand aesthetic dome was fitted with Mylar mirror.A. which finds expression The Blur Building delivered a corporal man’s dependency on vision. subjective projection of the viewer. of the effects of the environment on and demands equal recognition for highlights the experience of the ment but also for creating the latter’s our bodies. be assailed architecture of atmosphere.17 ing device. which visitors are exposed to the our nature. They are not sites. When aesthetic of atmosphere.000 high-pressure presupposes the existence of the observer and observed. panels fixed onto a steel structure. “To corporally sense tried to eliminate the separation of and engineers from the US and also communicate with others. and their ability to of the dome (Figure 1). of architecture away from the idea of experiences – by creating an empty Notably. the envi. we experience them.13 to regain orientation. was built of white PVC facts (H. belief in atmospheres as a result of disturbs the senses. Heightened art Böhme’s critique of aesthetic mirror reflections and spatialised century depended on the partak. She In an age where emergent techno­ or so-called real art. The inside of the world. the cloud. as something quasi. focusing York-based organisation devoted things. While on the one hand aesthetic space called Clam Room with a Dome only in the subject but outside in the Neuchâtel.). The blurring of their raises the question whether aesthet- images suggesting a hologram. built for the Swiss National tute a special architectural genre in the pavilion. The Blur Building showcasing of oneself or Aus-sich- gered.5 they cannot be defined indepen. Its lightweight metal struc. The Blur Building was one of the the atmosphere emanating from it is only because we have bodies experience. Photo: Shunk-Kender Figure 2: Construction photograph of Blur Figure 3: Aerial view of Blur © Beat Widmer. stresses the communal and colla­ logies promise immediacy and for instance. whose existence we can word “atmosphere”. such as advertisement. Various through the atmosphere of the Pepsi experience. pheres emanate from things and pavilions built on the Arteplages the construction with its changing that we are tuned in certain environ- A slanting tunnel gave entrance to a can assault the viewers. in of atomised water. Yet directly from meteorology and filtered and shot out as a fine mist oneself means at the same time to the individual from the technological Japan. is that experiencing atmospheres space via the interaction between engineers and industry. over onto the public plaza in front of B­uilding. courtesy of Diller Scofidio courtesy of Diller Scofidio + Renfro environments and these provided As Böhme argues. they are not merely a “Aside from keeping the rain out and architectural concepts. by them.15 This which produced three-dimensional perceived are inherently interrelated. they are subjective artificial element.”14 Therefore. In our context. orientation. explored the which modern cultural phenomena the inside of the pavilion in motion tradition of world fair spectacles are on display and technological creates a shift in the understanding – namely to enable unexpected effects challenge the visitors’ senses. concept of architecture as “a special situated right in the lake and made ronment of the Blur Building can only As shown in the examples of national and Technology (E. through the high-pressure nozzles.9 Setting the outside and Exposition in 2002. tion and hesitation. In her lecture World War embraced a variety of me. the artificial fog (Figure 3). of as “body”. Böhme using interactive programs. visitors were in a way thrown back manipulation is also present. a mass ture housed 35. which architecture The ephemeral constructions of resembled a moving cloud. project as opposed to viewing art atmosphere. What came to be known Glancey of the Guardian to write the mist gradually break up. whose physical bodily senses as implied by the Blur H­ochmuts) acknowledges all the Pavilion as “a living responsive presence was the pre-condition not Building encourages us to be aware artefacts that satisfy human needs environment”. the architecture and the visitors’ having an impact on S­witzerland. progress. reminds us of the etymology of the that made the building. accessible via a pier. 120 feet affected by them. the Pepsi Hermann Schmitz. atmospheres are Blur Building in the following words: Roy Lichtenstein Foundation + Renfro a testing ground for deploying new produced. Initiated by can happen upon them. This reinforces Böhme’s point Pavilion expanded the role of the the project was led by a core design other words. Water was that human kind must be thought artist in contemporary society and team and a group of over 75 artists objective. dia in order to create multi-sensory machine”.16 This means. the The structure of the Blur Building. set design in a museum or gallery context. senting technological. Atmospheres create a new M­urten. a New pheres fill spaces. construction on water. resembled a be grasped through physical pres.8 Ever-changing densities of creates an artificial environment in Heraustreten as a typical feature of water fog. generated by an atomis. scientific and to themselves. critical importance. exhibitions after the Second a solid building towards an unex. reality in which the perceiver and the was faced with the challenge of pre.7 Barbara Rose also only for experiencing the environ. A technological device created an ment. we can say that forming his or her own personal in diameter. “Architecture is a special-effects Figure 1: The Pavilion. tics as a basic human need and the integrated sensorial response it trig. An It is precisely the oscillation between economic developments that were eyesight caused a loss of visual ics based on atmosphere can be of electronic environment was inte.’s Pepsi Designed by Fujiko Nakaya.T. that the current effects machine that delights and Pavilion was designed and pro. and Bienne. and here. courtesy of © Ennio Bettinelli. “Atmos. Visitors were encouraged dently from the persons emotionally “cloudy” or indefinite. Diller + Scofidio instead kitsch based on recognising aesthe­ evolution of its form as well as the use technology to produce interrup. Schmitz).6 Krüger describes ing of the visitor. which demonstrated hu. pected and provisional one.Atmosphere and E. The individual as a recipient emotions: “We wanted to make an (Figure 2). Arguing for an grated into the habitable structure emotions.

No. 11. Atmosphäre. New York: E. 3. 60. 6. Process”. Her current ourselves at a critical distance. 558-559. 5. Atmosphäre. “Atmosphere as an Aesthetic Concept”. 2. p. No. 12. 9. June 1998. x. in Daidalos. audience can decide for themselves Dutton & Co..D. in Daidalos. www.P. Technology and the Concept of the Body. June 1998. ing. 60-104.: Suhrkamp. Julie Martin. Dutton & Co.php/talks/liz_diller_plays_with_architecture. 68.. have to ask yourself what you’re seeing. 112-115. “The Pavilion” in Billy Klüver. Frankfurt/M. She is a research- However. 8. in that it accepts everything as ture at the Technical University in legitimate. 1995.The aesthetic of atmosphere cannot About the author: be considered as a critical perspec. Pavilion by Experiments in Art and Technology. Atmosphäre. the distinction between the legitimate and the illegitimate use of atmospheres proves difficult to identify. something in bright lighting. Environment.: Suhrkamp. Frankfurt/M. p. Gernot Böhme.com/culture/2002/jun/10/artsfeatures (23/09/2013). see footnote 6. media. 1972. 68. 1995. Barbara Rose (eds. For Böhme tectural theory with a dissertation on the creation of atmospheres can architecture and film: Architekturen and must be criticised when used des Zuschauens. Barbara Rose (eds. Yet. June 1998. 41. “Atmosphere as an Aesthetic Concept”. p. If you’re watching No. www. in archi- possesses a critical value.com/index. Pavilion by Experiments in Art and Technol- ogy. you can html (23/09/2013). 17. Gernot Böhme..114.theguardian. This project for the German Research is all the more necessary in an era of Foundation (DFG) investigates the aestheticisation of politics and the subject of architecture and new great economic power of advertis.: Suhrkamp. 10. Inc. it chal- lenges us to reflect on the ways we experience a place by making us aware of our senses. New York: E. 16. you have to look because I think the 7.] You have to focus on your own. Ellen Knops (light designer) in: Kari Jormakka et al.zakros. Yet within Böhme’s aesthetic of atmosphere. 15. 14.: Suhrkamp. She received a Ph. Gernot Böhme. 114. Julie Martin. Bauhaus University Weimar. in Daidalos. p. Gernot Böhne. Atmosphäre. Frankfurt/M.): Architektur der neuen Weltordnung.). er at the Institute for the History and pheres are produced is a critical act Theory of Design at the Universität in itself because it allows us to set der Künste Berlin (UdK). pp. 550-559. 31. see Billy Klüver. Nathalie Bredella studied architec- tive. Böhme points out Berlin and the Cooper Union. Pavilion by Experiments in Art and Technology. the text follows the author’s publication Architecture and Atmosphere. 190 Thibault Desaules. Gernot Böhne. Rather. Inc. x. p. pp. For a detailed account on the Pepsi Pavilion.com/projects/pavilion/original_new.).). Julie I don’t like it if the light dictates where Martin. Atmosphäre: Essays zur neuen Ästhetik. In particular. [Translation by the author. “Art as Experience. Billy Klüver. Ibid just let it in. 1995. 1995. forced to really watch. analysing how atmos.: Suhrkamp. 2011. Billy Klüver. 1972. www. 15. 1995. We therefore should pay close attention to the effects of atmospheres and under- stand what needs they really satisfy or fail to satisfy.. 112. ix-xvi. [Translation by the author. “Atmosphere as an Aesthetic Concept”. p. 17. you 13.] 4. pp. Dutton & Co. 42. 68.html (23/09/2013).. Notes: 1. p. pp. Gernot Böhme. p. Barbara Rose.P. p. Frankfurt/M. Gianmarco Stefanelli and Alina Fejzo rehearsing the choreography Stonehenge . She was a Research he refers to background music in Fellow at the Internationales Kolleg shopping malls and the imposition für Kulturtechnikforschung und of lifestyles. New York: E. (eds. There are no pre-given criteria to be found. in Billy what they think is interesting. If it’s in a dim light. pp. Here and in the following. Gernot Böhme. Gernot Böhme. 1972. p.. Imaginäre und reale to manipulate people.ted. Räume im Film. Frankfurt/M. Medienphilosophie (IKKM). p. Weimar: Verlag der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar.P. Inc. New how his aesthetic of atmosphere York. Barbara Rose (eds. I like darkness and light because then you’re Klüver.

Gianmarco Stefanelli. You could see the creativity of the dancers. costumes by Karine Guizzo 37 . Jiří Kylián Participants in the Dance and Costume workshop. how the costume influenced their performance of the choreography and what they made of it. Izabela Orzelowska. Adrian Wanliss. Dane Badal. Eva Calanni. 32 Laura Casasola Fontseca. from left to right. Jouke Rouwenhorst and Grey Timmers.

Rachel “Raverty” Maniesing. Jorg Delfos. Dr. Sjoerd Vreugdenhil. Dr. Stephanie Schrödter. Boris Paval Conen. Antien van Mierlo. Dr. secretary of the board Caroline Harder. Marcel Zijstra English language editor Nickolas Woods Photographers Joke Schot. Jason Akira Somma. Atsushi Kitagawara. Dr. Credits Thank you to all those involved in the project Codarts Rotterdam Samuel Wuersten. Jack Gallagher. Peter-Jan Wagemans. Keiko Taylor. Joris-Jan Bos Front cover photo Serge Ligtenberg Graphic design 75B. Désirée Staverman. Friederike Lampert UmaMedia Barbara van den Bogaard (direction.codarts. Anna Henckel-Donnersmarck. Mary Oliver. Wijnand Schouten. Rotterdam Printing Veenman+. Erika Turunen. Lavinia Meijer. Robbert van Kolck Co-authors Dr. Alberto ter Doest. Dr. head of the Bachelor of Dance programme Ingrid Stoepker. Henrice Vonck Research team Jiří Kylián. Piotr Cieslak. Ederson Rodrigues Xavier. head of the Bachelor of Dance in Education programme Hans Boerrigter. Christian van Dijk. Anandi Felter. Michel Gutlich. Jan-Bas Bollen. Michael Schumacher. editing). Jay Tjon Jaw Chong. Keith-Derrick Randolph Codarts teachers Jan-Bas Bollen. René Uijlenhoet. Malte Friedrich. David Hinton. Ascon de Nijs. Rotterdam 195 . Codarts students and teachers Guest researchers and artists Dr. Michael Schumacher. Dr. Karine Guizzo Renate Hoenselaar. Ad Borsboom. Hilke Diemer. Sarah Lugthart. Nathalie Bredella. 1st camera) Roos Breukel (2nd camera). Dr. Ed Wubbe. David Hinton. René Bosma. Hannah de Klein. Borg Diem Groeneveld. Sanja Maier-Hasagic. Gerbert Toes (direction.nl Jasper van der Hoeven. Connie de Jongh. Dr. Vincent Meelberg Interviewees Jiří Kylián. Sabine Kupferberg. Dr. communications & pr Co-ordination Ellen Dijkstra. director of dance / board member Patrick Cramers. Jasper Bruijns (3rd camera) Website oneofakind. Sabine Kupferberg.

Titel Jiri Kylian 197 .

Working with artists and experts from different disciplines. The book is also dedicated to the many people interested in Kylián’s work and the art of dance in general. Friederike Lampert and Dr. oneofakind. Interactive printing also allows readers to view short films showing the process for each workshop phase. Désirée Staverman.codarts. Jiří Kylián has been conducting research into a series of themes: Dance and Age. Dance and Music. The book is intended to inspire future dance students and is dedicated to the world of professional dancers as well as to the field of dance science. ONE Of A KIND – The Kylián Research Project This publication documents Jiří Kylián’s professorship from three different angles: the professor’s perspective. started in October 2010. ONE Of A KIND A professorship held by the choreographer Jiří Kylián at Codarts Rotterdam. Dance and Visual Technology. Students from various departments of Codarts Rotterdam participated in the research workshops. Dance and Voice.nl . and Dance and Design. as well as with associate researchers Dr. the experts’ view and finally student feedback. which were led by Jiří Kylián with Michael Schumacher and many other teachers and artists.