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Directorate of Distance Education

UNIVERSITY OF JAMMU
JAMMU

Study Material
FOR
GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING

Class : B.Ed. Unit I-V

Papaer :-V Lesson No. 1–24

Course Co-ordinator
Dr. Darshana Sharma

All copyright privileges of the material is reserved by the
Directorate of Distance Education, University of Jammu,
Jammu–180006

CONTENTS
LESSON NO. TOPIC WRITER PAGE NO.

1. Meaning of Guidance, Need for Guidance Dr. Prem Gupta 1
and Its Scope in India, Aims of Guidance
2. Foundation of Guidance Dr. Prem Gupta 24
(Philosophical, Psychological and Socio-cultural)
3. History of Guidance Movement in India and U.K. Dr. Prem Gupta 34
4. Types of Guidance (Education, Vocational Dr. Prem Gupta 45
and Personal)
5. Non-testing Techniques in Guidance : Dr. Prem Gupta 57
Interview, Observation
6. Non-testing Techniques in Guidance : Dr. Prem Gupta 70
Case Study, Cumulative Record,Sociometric Techniques
7. Role of Testing Techniques in Guidance Dr. Prem Gupta 86
8. Use of Psychological Tests, Appraisal of Dr. Prem Gupta 96
Intelligence and Personality Tests, Aptitude Tests
9. Purposes, Principles of Organisation of Guidance Dr. T.S. Sodhi 112
Services at Elementary and Secondary Levels
10. Individual Inventory Service & Placement Service Dr. T.S. Sodhi 124
11. Follow-up Service Dr. T.S. Sodhi 137
12. Role of Head of the Institution, Teacher & Dr. T.S. Sodhi 144
Counsellor
13. Career Information : Meaning & Components of Dr. T.S. Sodhi 157
Career Information

LESSON NO. TOPIC WRITER PAGE NO.

14. Sources of Career Information, Methods of Dr. T.S. Sodhi 165
Collecting, Filing of and Evaluation of Information
15. Sources of Career Information, Methods of Dr. T.S. Sodhi 175
Collection, Classification, Filling up and Evaluation
of Information
16. Data Gathering Techniques Job Analysis Dr. Prem Gupta 185
17. Data Gathering Techniques Survey Method Mrs. Supreet Kour 203
18. Occupational Information Mrs. Supreet Kour 213
19. Career Talks, Career Exhibitions and Class Talks Mrs. Supreet Kour 229
20. Career Resource Centre Mrs. Supreet Kour 241
21. Counselling Dr. Kuljeet Kour 256
22. Types of Counselling Dr. Kuljeet Kour 270
23. Counselling Interview Dr. Kuljeet Kour 286
24. Role of Counsellor Dr. Kuljeet Kour 301

University. L. Chandigarh . Kuljeet Kour Lecturer in Education Deptt. OUR CONTRIBUTORS ‹ Dr. Shimla ‹ Dr. of Correspondance Studies Punjab University. T. Sodhi Ex-Prof. H. P. S. Gupta Reader ICDEOL. Chandigarh ‹ Dr. of Correspondance Studies Punjab University. in Education 441-Urban Estate. P. Patiala ‹ Dr. Supreet Kaur Lecturer in Education Deptt.

A counsellor may be trained in counselling technique.1 Introduction 15.5 Classification and Filing System of Career Information 15.2 Objectives 15. For the scientific process of planning a career. In the present lesson.LESSON NO.7 Let Us Sum Up 15. CLASSIFICATION.3 Sources of Career Information 15.1 INTRODUCTION Dear pupil teachers. Information is an indispensable tool. what are the routine duties involved and what qualifications are necessary. No career planning is possible without the educational planning and the choice of appropriate courses. what kind of work they involve. we are going to 175 . METHODS OF COLLECTION.0 STRUCTURE 15.4 Methods of Collection of Information 15. For that we need to have detailed and accurate information regarding educational facilities available in different areas.6 Evaluation of Career Information 15. which enables the counsellor to bring about better adjustment between himself and his environment. We need to know what jobs are available.9 Suggested Further Readings 15. we need detailed and accurate descriptions of different occupations. but without adequate educational and occupational information his services resemble a beautifully wrapped but empty box.8 Unit End Exercises 15. FILLING UP AND EVALUATION OF INFORMATION 15. 15 UNIT-IV SOURCES OF CAREER INFORMATION.

filing and evaluation of the said information in a very systematic way. the content of training. 15. processed and used with the same 176 . (ii) Enable the students to acquire the image of occupations and society’s evaluation there of and to cross check or interpret the suitability or validity of their own tentative decisions (iii) Help in the educational and vocational planning (iv) Help revise the old courses and develop the new ones It is thus imperative that adequate up-to-date information is available to the guidance worker. evaluative and adjustive and thus helpful for the students. the average income. An important aspect of guidance work. where the training institutions are situated. It is the duty of the career counsellor to provide updating information regarding career selection. to make the service informative.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson the pupil teachers will be able to : z List the various sources of career information.3 SOURCES OF CAREER INFORMATION Career information is very important to the students. motivational. therefore. We will also acquaint you with the classification. the avenues of employment after training. work processes. The career information is needed to : (i) Make guidance informative : students need to know the jobs. assurative.status of the work and future prospects etc. exploratory. This information needs to be collected. is collection. filing and dissemination of information. classification.discuss with you all these aspects regarding sources of career information & various methods for the collection of this information. z Describe the various methods of collection information z Classify the Career information z Fill up and evaluate the career information 15.

Studies and Surveys conducted by different organizations. Advertisements of Union Public Service Commission.degree of accuracy and care that are characteristics of any scientific investigation in the field of social sciences. State and National levels. The prospectuses of different colleges.4 METHODS OF COLLECTION OF INFORMATION The needs and background of the students determine the kind and amount of information collected. 6. All teachers as well as parents need to be clear in their minds that with the technological changes and modernization process. The literature being produced by different departments and Ministries like Ministry of Health. trends at District. Ministry of Defence etc. Career in Army. 7. The Employment organization. 2. The publications of employment organization being published in career pamphlets like fitter. State Public Service Commission. Career in Navy etc. 15. census operations and vocational institutions. which through the power of Compulsory Notification of Vacancies Act. the career information is also fast changing with the birth of new occupations and also diminishing of traditional and old occupations. technical and professional institutions 3. Subordinate Service Commissions etc. which the students of a college 177 . They publish different pamphlets and also prepare charts and posters like career in Nursing. collect Employment Information quarterly. turner. It should normally cover occupations. Therefore. there is always a need that such information be kept up-to-date and fresh. Some of the sources of career information are as under : 1. The publications like training facilities in different states being brought out by the employment departments in India 5. which depicts the employment. universities. Occupation Information Unit of the Ministry of Employment and Labour 8. 4. electricians etc.

One of the most popular methods is survey. A mechanism needs to be developed to put the information collected in a usable form. The old and obsolete information should be weeded out Career information may be collected through a variety of methods. The procurement. the students of a college or university are contacted personally or by mail and are requested to provide information in the form of answers to specific questions. 178 . The continuous flow of information will help review and revive the information and make it up-to-date. information can be obtained about occupations in which the old students of a particular college or university are engaged. Such advertisements. The collection of information should be a continuous process. In a community Survey. The context may also alter or the query may be different in composition. are collected and information contained in them is analyzed and tabulated. study.up survey. storage. When requirements change. In an alumni follow. Through this method. the information changes. This is a good method as it provides current information about jobs.5 CLASSIFICATION AND FILING SYSTEM OF CAREER INFORMATION It is not enough to collect information and be contented. It should also cover information about the new openings. which may take one of the following three forms (i) Situations Vacant ad Survey (ii) Alumni Follow-up Survey (iii) Community Survey A survey of the situations vacant advertisements is one of the cheapest and the easiest methods of collecting information.or university have been entering in the previous years and are likely to enter in future. The method provides the latest information about the requirement and trends but is more expensive than the first two methods. which are rapidly coming up. which appear in newspapers over a period of six months of a year. the employing agencies and the educational training and professional institutions existing in the community served by the institutions are contacted personally or through mail. 15. It is obvious that this work has a technical aspect as it is usually associated with libraries.

Files may be used either exclusively by the career master or by both the career master and students. The method of filing to be adopted depends upon the use to which the information is to be put and the persons who will use it. Out of date information should be removed to avoid the problem of storage as well as ensuring easy access. In most of the schools. The use of a particular method will depend upon the technical competence and time available for guidance work. This will not consume much of the time. In order to avoid confusion. The first thing for the career master is to remember that he should classify and file the material as soon as he receives it. However. 179 . These aspects deserve the greatest consideration for effective use of the information collected. if any. The Filing system selected should give a clear-cut classification of occupations. display and dissemination are the five main stages which require a constant study of the techniques and ways if implementation. Some method of filing the information has to be followed to ensure its easy availability and effective use. and be so stored as to make it easily accessible. it is essential that the career master use some type of filing system. Occupations are classified under families. In order to facilitate the use of career information. it will become handy to be used appropriately. The classification in the NCO is by occupations. It is a good practice to review and scrutinize the information available at the beginning of every academic year. files should be carefully prepared and arranged systematically. Information must be able to meet the original as well as supplementary queries of the students. The system is helpful when the occupational information material is plentiful. and add amendments. There are eleven divisions consisting of 75 groups.referencing. Following are some of the important methods of classification and filing : (i) National Classification of Occupations Occupational information may be filed on the basis of the National Classification of Occupations (NCO). which are divided into 331 families under which occupations are classified. Families are ‘combined into groups and groups are assigned to divisions. delete the irrelevant information. indexing. it may not be possible for the career master to develop a filing system for the use of pupils.

if necessary. requires a thorough knowledge of the system on the part of the career master as codes are used as a basis for classifying and filing of the material. and • classifying occupational literature. This system may be very helpful for students who often go by their subjects. It has certain limitations also.1). home science. In every Employment Exchange in India the employment cards of the employment seekers are arranged in accordance with this system. scientific subjects. All this information is of particular help to employment officers in : • classifying applicants who call for employment assistance • classifying vacancies notified by employers • matching suitable applicants against demands • assessing the comparative skill and knowledge of workers within the same occupation • recording special qualifications against item 15 of index card (X. for instance occupations related to literary subjects. Material on related occupations can be grouped together unless numerous cross-reference cards are used when a student wants information relating to several occupationson the basis of his qualifications. fine arts. 180 . there may be further sub-classification under each. files are arranged to the names of the occupations in alphabetical order. the alphabetical system may be quite helpful. It will be difficult to pick out the requiredmaterial quickly. etc. (ii) Alphabetical System : In this system. (iii) Filing on the Basis of School Subjects : Occupations related to each school subject may be filed separately. It. When information is not much and classifications are few. • reporting statistical data concerning the employment market. A book entitled National Classification of Occupations is available in the office of Employment Exchanges. however. All material on anyone occupation is collected and filed together. The career master should adapt one which his purpose best. of course.

the reference card for graduate. the counselling / liasion officer should be able to locate information about all the opportunities open to him. Code numbers have been devised for each industrial group on what is known as the digit system for use in Employment Exchange Records. the family number of the occupations should be entered so that for details the relevant occupational information file and the family sheet can be referred to with ease. In the third column of the card.training should contain an exhaustive list of all the courses open to graduates. a reference card for training should also be maintained according to the education -level. If a graduate seeks individual guidance. Similarly. (vi) Group Techniques of Imparting Occupational Information The following group techniques may be imparted for disseminating occupational information to the students. will contain an exhaustive list of all occupations open to a graduate. it is necessary to maintain reference cards. For example. industry means that sector of economic activity in which the earner is. (a) through Subject Teacher 181 . or was engaged. This system is related to the international usage as recommended by the International Labour Office. The reference cards for graduate-occupations.. (v) Reference Cards In order to locate all the information in the files useful for a particular type of applicant. The National Industrial Classification (NIC) (1970) was prepared by the Government of India so that the information regarding employment and unemployment in various sectors of economy be more specifically studied by its various fact-finding agencies. the file number and page number should be entered. reference cards should be prepared according to educational levels and kept in a tray. for example. For this purpose. in the third column. For example.(iv) Filing on the Basis of Industrial Classification of Occupations : Like NCO is another type of classification is available in accordance with which information about career can be classified and filed. Two cards should be prepared for each level-one for occupations and the other for training facilities. Here also. textile industry or automobile industry.

6 EVALUATION OF CAREER INFORMATIONS The career information provided in the school / institute or by Employment Exchanges may be evaluated in terms of its objectives to see whether these objectives have been realized or not. The career master should see whether he has made the students: a. To help the students to narrow down their choices of occupations in the light of their interests and also the employment market information c. the working conditions. working facilities etc.(b) Career Education (c) Career Talks (d) Career Conferences (e) Career groups (f) Work-sample projects (g) Through visits to places of work (h) Films and Film Strips (i) Dramatization (j) Career Exhibitions (k) Bulletin Board announcements and other devices (1) Display of Important News-cuttings (m) Special Card Catalogue (n) Through Library (o) Through Industrial Contacts. b. 182 . To acquaint the students with the ‘World of Work’ i. 15. To get knowledge about different jobs. trained manpower occupation. the activities involved in them.e different typesof entry occupations. and occupations which require trainings after joining the job.

d. evaluative and adjustive and thus helpful to the students. 15. To explore the possibilities of self-employment. training and skill formation activities involved in different educational. in order to avoid frustration. exploratory. theavailability of stipends. the duration of the training. It helps the pupils not to go in for surplus occupations wherein a good deal of unemployment already exists. if job does not become very handy 15. What is the importance of Career information and what are its sources ? 183 . motivational. tools to be used risk involved in the career. check your progress by attempting the following exercises: 1. alumni follow-up survey. the expenditure involved. loans etc. It is needed to make guidance informative.7 LET US SUM UP Dear learners. Information may be collected through a variety of methods . for getting that training. and chances of employment g. To explore that with the type of technical and professional training. e. the transport facilities available in the job etc. To help the pupils to select the career which is most suitable to them in the light of their personality characteristics. h. the insurance cover. The information collected may be filed in the alphabetical order. information is vital for the success of any guidance and counselling programme. it will be possible to go in for Government Job. social environments. community survey. to know about different types of careers. f. division of occupations. To be able to understand the analysis of the job. training and professional trainings in different institutions along with the procedure of admission. It should be evaluated in terms of its objectives. i. assurative. subject-wise. national classification of occupations etc. private employment or foreign job in the advanced countries or in developing nations.8 UNIT END EXERCISES Dear distance Learners.situations vacant advertisement survey.

Prakashan Kendra Lucknow. Bawa Publications Patiala.9 SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS 1 Aggarwal J. and Crow (1962) : “An Introduction to Guidance Principles and Practices”. 3 Crow L. Nai Sarak Delhi. Pvt.2.C. (1984) : “Educational and Vocational Guidance in Secondary Schools” Revised and enlarged Edition. & Sodhi T. (1982) : “Principles and Techniques of Guidance”. How will you evaluate the career information / Write in brief. New-Delhi. New Delhi: Eurasia Publishing house. How will you classify and file the career information ? 3. Vikas Publishing House. 2 Chauhan S. (1997) :“Guidance and Counselling”.D.P.S. (1993) : “Educational Vocational Guidance and Counselling”.S. Sterling Publishers Pvt. 184 . 4 Jayaswal Sita Ram ((1993) : “Guidance and Counselling”. Ltd. Ltd. 15. Doaba House. 5 Kochhar S-K. 6 Suri S..

3.3 Conceptual Framework of Guidance 1.0 STRUCTURE 1.1 Meaning and Nature of Guidance 1.6 Aims of Guidance 1. industry. whether in educational. is sought from family elders.LESSON NO. Even today. guidance.in all places and at all levels has been a vital aspect of the educational process.4 Need for Guidance 1. in India. elders in the family offered guidance to the young and to persons in distress. revolutionary changes have taken place in the field of agriculture. With the passage of time.9 Suggested Further Readings 1.2 Objectives 1. Guidance - unorganised and informal .1 Introduction 1.1 INTRODUCTION Guidance is as old as civilisation. vocational or personal matters.8 Unit End Exercises 1. 1 UNIT-I MEANING OF GUIDANCE.7 Let Us Sum Up 1. NEED FOR GUIDANCE AND ITS SCOPE IN INDIA. Head of the family or leader of the community with a limited knowledge of the changed conditions is hardly competent in providing guidance and counselling to the youth 1 . In the primitive society. business and medicine etc. AIMS OF GUIDANCE 1. These changes in all walks of life coupled with extraordinary growth in our population has made the social structure very complex.5 Scope of Guidance in India 1.

2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson you will be able to : “ Describe the meaning of guidance. With the passage of time. 1. The variety of jobs. In this lesson. “ describe the need for guidance. There have always been people in the past who need occasional help from older or more experienced associates in meeting with their problems of daily life in the society. We find that majority of the people do not have either confidence or insight to solve their problems. Traditionally. its need and scope in India. Hence. “ Understand its conceptual and operational form by defining the term guidance. in our Indian society. Needless to mention. “ discuss the nature of guidance. too often informal advice given without a clear understanding of the problem involved was harmful and misleading to the individual. there is a need for specialised guidance services.3 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF GUIDANCE It is true that a very minor percentage of our total population is capable of handling its problems independently without the cooperation and guidance of others. liberalisation and consumerism is not capable of providing guidance to the youth of today. the leader of the family or the local community was supposed to provide the necessary guidance and advice whenever any member of the family or the community needed it. 2 . revolutionary and evolutionary changes have taken place in all walks of life. we will try to interact with you regarding the meaning and nature of guidance. high aspirations of the people and vocational specialisation have made the work of guidance very difficult. “ explain the scope of guidance in India.of today. “ Examine the Aims of Guidance 1. The head of the family or the leader of local community with the limited knowledge of changed conditions such as globalisation.

guidance movement has spread like a wild-fire through out the world and generated a great amount of enthusiasm and zeal among parents. buzzing.3. In that sense guidance is a life long process. From the mother.D. He needs it even from his infancy. 3 . It is not the imposition of one person’s point of view upon another person. All are convinced that proper provision of guidance services should be made for children at different age levels for the harmonious development of their personalities in the larger interest of the society and the individual. the world for him is big. he learns to walk and from the teacher. blooming confusion and he knows nothing. and carry out their own burden”. teachers and social workers who have devoted time to explore its feasibility and the utility for general population including school going adolescents. Man needs guidance throughout his life. The society guides the individual to learn. assistance. It is not making decisions for an individual. Crow and Alice Crow (1962) in “An Introduction to Guidance”. develop their own points of view. he learns how to stand on his feet. It is not carrying the burdens of another life”. 1. all learning takes place through guidance. and suggestions for progress and showing the way. To sum up we may say that guidance is a personal help rendered by the society to the individual so as to enable him to adjust to the physical and social environment and to solve the problems of life. Lester. Ordinary Meaning Ordinary meaning of guidance is help. then what is it really? To quote them again: “Guidance is an assistance made available by personally qualified and adequately trained men or women to an individual of any age to help them manage their own life activities. to adjust oneself to the physical and social environment. make their own decisions. he learns to seek knowledge and education. which he should make for himself. When a child is born. He learns everything from the society. from the father. In the last two decades.1 Meaning and Nature of Guidance What does guidance precisely mean ? Let us first see what it does not mean. If guidance is not all these. have aptly stated that “Guidance is not giving directions.

Guidance as a Sub-Process of education in which developmental needs of the learners are considered the basic points.” Downing (1964) points out towards a common problem in defining guidance that is one of keeping the definition short and sufficiently broad to be 4 .. informal and vocational etc. Now let us look at some selected definitions of the term guidance in a bid to understand its conceptual and operational form : The term guidance represents the concept that is neither simple nor easily comprehensible due to the complexity of the human nature. the individual differences and personal-social problems associated with changing environmental conditions and cultural traditions. 2. There are usually three connotations attached to the word guidance : 1. Guidance as a General Service and is considered to be synonymous with education and educational processes. Guidance as a Specialised Service whose primary concern is with the individual and to help them to solve their problems and take appropriate decisions in their choice-points. is a simple and practical but challenging concept of guidance. its purpose is to provide the growth of the individual in self-direction providing opportunity for self-realisation and self-direction is the key-note of guidance. and 3. which aims to adjust the individual in his environment in an effective way. Shirley Hamrin (1947) defined guidance as : “Helping John to see through himself in order that he may see himself through” . which includes all types of education such as formal. According to Jones (1951) : “The focus of guidance is the individual not his problem.Specific Meaning Guidance in India. non-formal. This is a wide meaning of the term. is comparatively a new field within the larger and more inclusive field of education and is used as a technical term as a specific meaning. It covers the whole spectrum of education. which starts from the birth of the child and continues till his death.

B. Jones (1963) : thinks that guidance is the help given by one person to another in making choices and adjustments and in solving problems.informative. Traxler (1957) : considers guidance as a help which enables each individual to understand his abilities and interests.wholesome adjustment and maximum accomplishments commensurate with their personalities. (ii) Guidance is a point of view that includes a positive attitude towards children and realisation that it is the supplement. Recently. and (2) the ultimate objective of all guidance is self-guidance. J. He has attempted it by giving definition of guidance in operational terms in two parts : (i) Guidance is an organised set of specialised services established as an integral part of the school environment designed to promote the development of the students and assist them toward a realisation of sound. to develop them as well as possible and to relate the life-goals. Arthur. According to the Secondary Education Commission (1964-66) : “ Guidance involves the difficult art of helping boys and girls to plan their own future wisely in the full light of all the factors that can be 5 . and finally to reach a state of complete and mature self-guidance as a desirable member of the social order. Mathewson (1962) : defines guidance as the systematic professional process of helping the individual through education and interpretative procedures to gain a better understanding of his own characteristics and potentialities and to relate himself more satisfactorily to social requirements and opportunities in accord with social and moral values. Ruth Strang (1937) explains that guidance is a process of helping every individual through his own efforts to discover and develop his potentialities for his personal happiness and social usefulness. Shepherd stated that (1) the immediate objective in guidance is to help each pupil meet and solve his problems as they arise.L. strengthen and make more meaningful all other phases of a youngster’s education.

It provides for the identification and development of talents and potentialities. motives. It helps children to develop and promote their ability to deal with their own problems. 6. 7. along with their differential requirements of abilities and attainments. 2. you have understood that guidance is a helping service. behaviour-patterns. It presupposes two-fold understanding. it is the understanding of the real nature of one’s environment and of the educational and vocational opportunities offered by that environment. Its major aim is the promotion of student development. It consists of specialised senices of testing. “ 6 . Guidance may be described as a process of relating these two types of understanding so that they become imbued with a new meaning in the life of the individual. The first is the understanding of one’s own abilities. The intangible elements of guidance are recognised as a point of view or as an attitude. 4. 5. Mohein has very lucidly put the nature of guidance in these words : “ Guidance seeks to create within the child the need and power to explore and understand himself in order to prepare a balance-sheet of his assets and liabilities so that he is able to plan out his future growth and activities in a manner that offers maximum likelihood of success and satisfaction. we will find the following elements in it: 1. Secondly. economic background. system and personnel. educational and vocational information. Nature of Guidance By now.mastered about themselves and about the world in which they are to live and work. cultural. interests. problem solving and multifaceted activity. skills and achievements up-to-date and social. It is by its very nature a self-oriented. 3. placement and follow-up scheme. Guidance programme is organised. It is an integral part of the school system. it has a structure. counselling. “ If we analyse the above definitions of guidance. aptitudes.

1. It is as old as man himself. emotional and social. guidance touches every aspect of an individual’s personality - physical. “As now interpreted. and (d) What he has with which to get there. educational and vocational. This fact indicates the importance of educational and vocational guidance. Crow and Crow have observed. and V. Placement Service. Educational guidance is dependent on vocational guidance. It is concerned with all of an individual’s attitudes and behaviour patterns.e. (c) Where he is going. Follow-up Service. Counselling Service IV. the need of guidance is universal. “There is hardly any individual who does not 7 . An effective guidance programme helps the youth to see clearly four things : (a) Where he has been. mental. It is based upon the fact that all human beings need help in one way or other way. Pupil Information or Appraisal Service II. It seeks to help the individual to integrate all of his activities in terms of his basic potentialities and environmental opportunities”. (b) Where he is now. i. In practice.4 NEED FOR GUIDANCE The need for guidance had existed at all times. The following services constitute the usual pattern of activities within a guidance programme and are called ‘basic elements’ I. find place in every list. A perusal of the different activities of guidance shows that two types of guidance. Moreover. Educational and Vocational Information Service III. the entire guidance is a unitary process.

need help”. Jones has rightly said, “Every one needs assistance at sometime in
his life. Some will need constantly and throughout their entire life, while others
need it only at rare intervals at times of great crisis. There always have been
and will continue to be people with an occasional need for the help of the
older or more experienced associates in meeting problem situation.” But there
is a greater need for guidance services now than ever before due to the rapid
advancement in technology, emerging of new world order, social change,
globalisation, liberalisation, the need for outstanding leadership, a shift in
standards of morality and integrity, people’s high aspirations etc. all contribute
to the need for guidance programme in the schools. We shall discuss the need
for guidance in India under four heads:

1. Educational Needs

Guidance is needed from educational point of view because of the following reasons:

i) Increase in the range of individual differences among school going children

Before independence, boys and girls in our country came to school only from the
more privileged section of the society. The admission in the schools was selective. But
after independence due to realization of Constitutional Directive of providing free and
compulsory education up to 14 years of age. education for all and the drive for mass
education, we find our schools are flooded with children from every section of society. The
classes are over-crowded and there is a tremendous increase in the number of schools
too. The result is that we find much wider range of individual differences in the abilities,
aspirations and achievement of the pupils. Understanding of the differential needs and
abilities of the children is essential for modifying the school programme for the best possible
unfoldment of the student’s potentialities. This is possible only through the introduction of
guidance services in our school programmes.

ii) Guidance as an Instrument for the Qualitative Improvement of Education

There has been a rapid expansion of educational facilities to cater to the needs of
increasing number of children in recent years. This has resulted to some extent in the fall of
educational standards. Consequently, there is a great need of providing guidance services
in the school for the qualitative improvement of education.

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iii) Knowledge Explosion or the increase in the types of courses offered in the
schools.

The domain of knowledge is like the number of wishes. The increased
knowledge is creeping into the course contents of our textbooks. It is not possible
for every student to learn all that is available in the field of knowledge. Single
track education for all is out-moded concept. At the secondary stage, the courses
of studies have been diversified to include several optional groups. Therefore, a
special type of service is badly needed in our schools which will assist the individual
pupil in the choice of course suiting to his needs and abilities that will help the
school authorities in the proper allocation of the diversified courses to the pupils
of the school.

iv) Expanding Educational Objectives

Everyone talks today about the all round development of the child through education.
We want a type of education that can provide for the development of the whole child. It is
now commonly accepted that education should also lead to the promotion of the emotional,
social and civic life of the student. Problems of social adjustment and personality orientation
require the services of a competent counsellor and availability of appropriate guidance
services.

v) Solution of Educational Problems

We are facing various types of educational problems in the schools
such as universal and compulsory education, increased enrolment, high
percentage of failures and dropout, wastage and stagnation etc. These
problems require the need of proper guidance services in the school. Special
guidance services are also required for the gifted, backward, handicapped
and delinquent children.

vi) Solving Discipline problems

Problem of discipline is becoming more and more acute in the educational
institutions. Even at higher stage of education it has taken a serious turn. Student strikes
and agitation have become a common scene of the day. Problems of discipline can be
solved with the help of guidance programme.
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vii) Optimum Achievement of the Students

Most of the students secure third division in the examinations due to the fact that they
have not developed the proper study habits and learning styles. The reason for the poor
achievement in the schools is because students do not make use of educational facilities
available in the school. Therefore, there is a great need to develop study habits among the
students. Proper guidance services can help in this direction.

2. Vocational Needs

In our country natural resources are not being properly utilized because of lack of
guidance services. The following are the vocational needs for introducing guidance
programme in the schools:

i) Vocationalisation of Education and Guidance

Improvement of vocational efficiency is one of the aims of education. Secondary
Education Commission has emphasized the need of introduction of crafts in addition
to the diversification of the courses at secondary stage so that a large number of
students may take up agriculture, technical, commercial or other practical courses to
enable them to go for vocational pursuits. All this calls for proper guidance services in
the school.

ii) Guidance as an Instrument of National Development

Guidance by helping, identifying and developing human potential which is the richest
source of a nation can help to reduce the wastage of educational facilities and abilities,
which is so prevalent in our country. Thus there is a need to establish a close link between
education and the manpower needs of the country. The sound guidance programme can
help to achieve this objective in a systematic way.

iii) Expanding Complexity of the World of Work

There has been a tremendous increase in the variety of jobs due to the development
of industrialization and mechanization in every aspect of life. Thus there is a problem of
choice. It is highly important to acquaint the secondary school students with this variety of
jobs and with their different requirements. This is possible only by providing organized
guidance services in the school system of our country.
10

To meet the rapidly rising demands of various types of personnel for the various developmental projects. The craze for white-collared jobs must come to an end.industrialists. Personal/Psychological Needs Today our youth is facing various types of personal problems at home and in the school. There fore. conservation of human resources and manpower planning is very important.iv) Increasing Need for Man-power Planning and Utilization For the planned development of a nation like ours. to meet the growing demands of the progressive country. vi) Changes in the Conditions of Industry and Labour Fast changes are taking place. A careful balance has to be struck between the manpower needs and the various educational and training programmes. Software Engineers. The students must be made aware of the various types of jobs available in the employment market so that they may be able to opt those courses during the secondary stage. Psychologically no two individuals are alike. the nation will remain poor and our youth will continue to be frustrated and disgusted. If proper guidance programme is not introduced at the secondary stage in the choice of studies and various vocations. vii) Changed Economic Pattern of the Country Our country is in the era of economic planning. Moreover. professions have multiplied in numbers that it has become difficult for a common man to make a right choice out of them. 3. today in the conditions of industry and labour. We require scientists. the younger generation of the country will have to be systematically guided into courses of training which will equip them for urgent national needs v) Occupational Awareness A well-organized guidance programme is essential for creating occupational awareness among the pupils of the country. Specialization has become the word of the present age. Bankers etc. Hence it has become essential to get help of guidance services in the school. They differ in various aspects on account of the following three kinds of differences: 11 .. assistance has to be given for making a right choice of the courses at the secondary stage.

To meet the high aspirations of the parents. – Different stages of development – Differences among persons – Differences in opportunities made available to various persons. conflicts and tensions and other stresses and strains. iv) Psychological Problems Many students face emotional problems. One needs different types of help to adjust with every stage. The individual needs help of one kind or the other from fellow beings to solve their problems to lead a happy life. The following are the personal and psychological reasons for the need of guidance: i) Guidance is the Basic Need of Man Psychologically. At this stage the proper guidance is to be provided to the student to make right choice of his future. They provide all types of facilities so that the children can be able to get good jobs. iii) From the Point of View of the Developmental Needs The individual passes from different stages of development in the life such as infancy. ii) Educational and Social Aspirations In the present age of competition the aspirations of the parents are very high. 12 . They want their wards to excel in all walks of life. These problems arise due to frustrations. It shows that all persons can not be fit for the same profession. It is essential to provide guidance to the youth to solve their personal problems. childhood. adolescence and adulthood. Hence guidance programme is needed in the school system. a well-organized guidance programme is needed to make them aware of the potentialities of their children so that they take up right decision at the right time. no person on this earth is totally independent. The adolescent period faces many types of developmental problems.

The education has been made child-centered. a well organized guidance programme is essential for the total development of personality. The provision of professions and promotions has also been made equal for all human beings. 13 . Changed conditions of living and a highly complex society with its demands have put the individual in constant social and emotional tension. it is highly desirable that school should provide some special service that can look after the emotional and social needs of school going children.v) Satisfactory Adjustment Guidance is needed to help the pupils in making satisfactory psychological adjustment with the environment. Hence all people need the help of guidance service for the right choice of education and occupation. Lack of adjustment adversely affects their physical and mental health. vi) Proper Development of Personality The all round development of personality is the aim of education. iv) Political Change and Extension of Democracy There is a revolution of democratization of political system throughout the world. As such. This calls for intensive and extensive guidance in the technique of planning. Our country is heading towards industrialization. ii) Changed Family Contexts The joint family system is disappearing rapidly and homes are getting disintegrated. 4. The changed family pattern has given rise to the various type of personal problems. urbanization and modernization. The proper guidance programme in the school is required to solve the personal problems of the children. iii) Explosion of Population & Expansion in Human Resources Our population has been increasing rapidly. Social Needs Following points highlight the Social Needs of Guidance :– i) Complex Nature of Society Industrialization is the slogan of the day.

Its scope is very vast in the light of modernisation and industrialisation and is ever increasing. guidance touches every aspect of an individual’s personality-physical. Guidance is needed to assist the individual to make the right use of leisure time that is at his disposal. aptitudes and capabilities. Crow and Crow have rightly quoted. home was an important agency of education that provided sufficient training in the family occupation and the children adopted the same profession. vii) Lack of Guidance at Home In the past. From the above “discussion we can conclude that complex social. Thus. to matters of prestige in occupations. there is a great need of occupational information services to be provided in the school. It seeks to help the individual to integrate all of his activities in terms of his basic potentialities and environmental opportunities. political and educational system has made the guidance and counselling programme a necessity. vi) Proper utilization of Leisure Time Universal leisure is the outcome of the technological advancement of modern world. to the broad field of social trends and economic development. As the life is getting complex day by day.” 14 .v) Change in the Concept of Education The concept of education has been changed.5 SCOPE OF GUIDANCE IN INDIA The scope of guidance is all pervading. economic. 1. But now this is not possible due to specialization and different type of occupations available in the job market. emotional and social. mental. The scope of guidance is extending horizontally to much of the social context. The students of today need guidance at every step of education since the education is to be provided according to their interests. “ As now interpreted. There are varieties of jobs and all the people are free to choose the profession they like. the problems for which expert help is needed are rapidly increasing. It is concerned with all aspects of an individual’s attitudes and behaviour patterns.

embracing all spheres of life and providing facilities for it. Kothari Commission has stressed the need of guidance services in the schools. workshops. use of libraries. vocational and personal. It also aims-. “ Guidance services have a much wider scope and function than merely that of assisting students in making educational and vocational choices. The aims of guidance are both adjustive and developmental: it helps the student in making the best possible adjustments to the situations in the educational institutions and in the home. Regarding scope of guidance. evaluation techniques and adjustment of school life with other activities. Even though the guidance programme is addressed to the whole individuals treated as an integral unit. (1) Educational Guidance It is a process concerned with bringing about a favourable setting for the individual’s education and includes the assistance in the choice of subjects. (2) Vocational Guidance It is the assistance rendered in meeting the problems : (i) relating to the choice of vocation (ii) preparing for it (iii) entering the job. therefore. While discussing the scope of guidance we may think of some specific or specialised areas of guidance.” The scope of guidance has been increasing with the advancement of science and technology. should be regarded as an integral part of education. It is possible to classify an individual’s problems broadly into educational. (b) to place at the disposal of the individual all possible aids in making correct appraisal of his strength and weaknesses in relation to the job requirements offered by his environment. and (iv) achieving adjustment to it.at helping individuals in the following specific areas: (a) making individuals familiar with the world of work and with its diverse requirements and. Therefore. it will be difficult to put a fence around it. laboratories. 15 . Guidance. Commission was of the view. development of effective study habits.

(3) Personal Guidance Personal guidance deals with the problems of personal adjustment in different spheres of life. Jones has put the following aims of personal guidance: (i) to assist the individual gradually to develop his life goals that are socially desirable and individually satisfying. but it is more a matter of practical convenience for making the concept clearer. (iv) to assist the individual to grow consistently in ability to live with others so effectively that he may promote their development and his own worthy purposes. (v) to help him grow in self-directive ability Thus the goal of personal guidance is self-directive and self realisation. Mathewson while discussing the focus and scope of guidance programme has very aptly stated that the focus of guidance is improving the capability of the individuals to understand and deal with self-situational relations in the light of social and moral values. (iii) to help him grow consistently in ability to adjust himself creatively to his developing life goals. (ii) to help him to plan his life so that these goals may be attained. Mainly it works for the individuals adjustment to his social and emotional problems. There is no real difference among the problems to which the different types of guidance services are addressed. and – relation of the individual to the educational and vocational requirements and opportunities. 16 . This three-fold division of guidance illustrating its scope should not be taken to form watertight compartments. The scope of guidance operation in school is to deal with: – personal and social relations of the individual in school – relation of the individual to the school curriculum.

To help the individual. From the point of view of the institution the aims of guidance can be stated as follows: (i) the guidance programme should encourage and stimulate teachers towards better teaching. The Kothari Education Commission (1964-66) has given the following aims of guidance at the secondary school stage : 17 . by his own efforts as far as possible to realise his potentialities and to make his maximum contribution to the society.6 AIMS OF GUIDANCE The aims of guidance are the same as those of education in a democratic society like ours. 3. (ii) The programme should aim at providing assistance to teachers in their efforts to understand their students.physical. 2. (iv) It should contribute to the mutual adjustment of children and school. (iii) It should provide teachers with systematic technical assistance and in-service training activities. To help the individual to lay a permanent foundation for sound and mature adjustment. 4. To help the individual to live a well-balanced life in all aspects. Specifically the aims of guidance may be laid as follows from the individuals point of view : 1. mental. To help the individual to meet and solve his own problems and make proper choice and adjustment. (v) It should provide for referral of students by teachers.1. guidance services are also based on the principle that the individual is of crucial importance in an educational institution. Just like education.The aims of guidance lend emphasis and strength to the educational programme and make it more dynamic. emotional and social.

(vi) Learn about the purpose and function of the school that he may wish to attend later. (c) To help pupils to make realistic educational and vocational choices. interests and future needs. (f) To help the school to understand their student. (v) Discover all that his school has to offer and plan a programme of studies accordingly. 1. (vii) Select try out courses in order to gain insight into learning areas that still lie ahead.1 Aims of Educational Guidance Crow and Crow have given the following aims of educational guidance at the high school level : (i) select the curriculum that best fits his abilities. (iii) Gain some experiences in learning areas outside the particular field of his special interests and talents. (b) To help pupils to understand their strengths and limitations and to do scholastic work at the level of their abilities. (viii) Participate in out-of-class activities in which he can develop potential leadership qualities- (ix) Appraise his fitness for continued study in a college or other school or in a particular vocation. (a) to help the adolescent pupils to know and develop their abilities and interests. (iv) Understand the purpose and the function of the school in relation to his needs. (ii) Develop work and study habits that enable him to achieve satisfactory success in his studies.6. (e) To help the pupils in personal and social adjustment. (d) To provide information of educational opportunities. 18 .

6. To enable students to find what general and specific abilities skills etc. to assist 19 . and his powers. To help the worker to adjust himself to occupation in which he is engaged. 8.. (x) Develop an attitude which will stimulate him to continue his education in a school selected for its worth to him in relation to his talents and training. his abilities. sex. for entering them. 7. 9. which will provide information about condition of work. It will assist the individual to discover his own abilities and help him in the development of his interests. his interests. To assist the student to acquire such knowledge of the characteristics and functions.2 Aims of Vocational Guidance According to Jones the specific aims of vocational guidance are the following : 1. 2. are required for the group of occupations under consideration and what are the qualifications of age. To assist the individual to acquire a technique of analysis of occupational information and to develop the habit of analysing such information before making a final choice. preparation. 5.6.. and (c) aptitude for the work required. 1. as he may need for choice. –general and specific. To assist the students to secure knowledge of the facilities offered by various educational institutions for vocational training and the requirements for admission to them. 3. To help the individual develop the point of view that all honest labour is worthy and that the most important bases for choice of an occupation are (a) the peculiar service that the individual can render to the society. the cost of attendance etc. To assist him secure such information about himself. (b) personal satisfaction in the occupation. To assist economically handicapped children to pursue their occupational choices. 4. the duties and rewards of the group of occupation within which his choice will probably lie as he may need for intelligent choice. etc. To give opportunities for experiences in school and out of school.

him to understand his relationship with workers in his own and related occupation and to society as a whole. To help in making emotional adjustments. 4. Aims of Personal Guidance at Secondary Stage The nature of personal guidance at the secondary stage can be understood keeping in mind the basic needs and interests of secondary school students. intellectual. class fellows and others. social and other types of personality development are laid at this stage. The childhood period is the period of growth and development. To help in the development of self discipline. There should be a regular medical check-up. heightened emotionality and hyper-suggestibility. Purposes of personal guidance at this stage are: 20 . 3. To enable the students to secure reliable information about the danger of alluring shortcut to fortune through short training courses and selling propositions of such unscientific methods. The basic foundations of physical. It is the stage of stress and strain. To help the children to form desirable attitudes towards his self. 2. storm and strife. Aims of Personal Guidance at Elementary Stage Personal guidance at the elementary stage can be described keeping in view the basic needs of children. 1. The following are the aims of personal guidance at this stage: 1. This is the most critical stage of individual’s development. 10.6. anxieties and worries. To help the pupils to build a good physique.3 Aims of Personal Guidance The nature and purpose of personal guidance will be clearly understood when we take into consideration the different stages of child education. parents teachers. emotional. Sympathy and affection should be used for achieving this end. conflicts and frustrations.

emotionality and mental health. its scope is widened with a view to develop in young adults a sense of social service. with the changing environment. patriotism and tolerance. The students at this stage need personal guidance to enable them have a satisfactory personal and social adjustment in their new environment. (i) To help the students to solve the problems concerning physical health. (d) To help the students in participating in social activities and community services. (c) To help the students in developing healthy ideas and building a new philosophy of life. (iv) To help the school children in making social adjustment including adjustment with the school. (f) To enable the pupils to have mutual respect and regard for people belonging to different faiths. sex problems and other personal problems. Aims of Personal Guidance at College and University Stage Personal guidance at the college and university level is a continuation of the personal guidance at the secondary stage. 21 . college environment and environment of the society at large. (ii) To help the pupils to solve problems concerning sex. (iii) To help the adolescents in making family adjustments. (vi) To provide the opportunity for community service. (b) To help the pupils in making adjustments with the new environment i. The following are the aims of personal guidance at this stage : (a) To help the pupils in solving all types of emotional problems. But. (v) To organise wholesome recreational activities in the school. (e) To help the students in their ethical and moral development and inculcate right type of values.e. social responsibility.

Educational guidance is concerned with helping the individual to plan wisely his educational programme and to put himself in position to carry forward successfully according to the aspirations of the society. entering upon and progressing in it. But the scope is widened with a view to develop a sense of social service. At the college level. The purpose of personal guidance is to help the individual in his physical. Personal guidance is assistance offered to the individual to solve his emotional. treated as an integral unit. which is given to an individual not only in the selection of an occupation but also in preparation as well as for progress. professional process of assisting individual pupils with particular needs and problems in the areas of school progress. moral and spiritual development as well as adjustment. The objectives of guidance are synonymous with the objectives of education. it is possible to classify the individual’s problems broadly into educational. The aims of personal guidance will be clearly understood when we take into consideration the different stages of child education such as : Elementary stage. discipline and leisure time activities. 22 . Personal guidance at the secondary stage is concerned with mostly the problem of personal and social adjustment. Secondary stage and College or University stage. emotional. preparing for it.(g) To help young men and women to appreciate the importance of religious and moral values in life. feeling of security. ethical and moral problems. personal-social relations and educational-vocational orientation. it is continuation of the personal guidance at the secondary stage. But the main aim of vocational guidance is to assist the individual in choosing an occupation. Vocational guidance is a kind of assistance. Personal guidance at the elementary stage takes into account the problems of health. social acceptance. continuous. There are ten aims of vocational guidance as given by Jones. Even though the guidance programme is addressed to the whole individual. social responsibility etc.7 LET US SUM UP Guidance is a systematic. vocational and personal. 1. social.

3. (1993) : “Educational Vocational Guidance and Counselling”. Ltd. Jayaswal Sita Ram (1993): “Guidance and Counselling”.8 UNIT END EXERCISES Dear learners. Kochhar S. 4. & Sodhi T.S. (1984) : “Educational and Vocational Guidance in Secondary Schools” Revised and enlarged Edition. Prakashan Kendra. New-Delhi.S.9 SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS Aggarwal J. What is educational guidance ? Describe the aims of educational guidance. Lucknow. State the aims of vocational guidance at various stages of education. 2. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Patiala. Suri S. : “Guidance and Counselling”. 1. vocational and personal guidance. Ltd.P. Establish the relationship between the aims of educational.. Chauhan S. New Delhi: Eurasia Publishing House. please check you progress by attempting the following exercises: 1. and Crow (1962): “An Introduction to Guidance Principles and Practices”. Differentiate the aims of educational and vocational guidance. Pvt.C. (1982) : “Principles and Techniques of Guidance”. Vikas Publishing House. Doaba House. Bawa (1997) Publications.K.1.D. 23 . Nai Sarak Delhi. Crow L.

6 Suggested Further Readings 2.1 INTRODUCTION Dear learners.5 Unit End Exercises 2.2 Objectives 2.0 STRUCTURE 2. Still some more of them are related with social ethics.1 Philosophical 2. These different aspects have different roots.3. ethics. In the present lesson.1 Introduction 2. because one has to keep in view the fast coming up changes in the society. Society is dynamic.3 Socio-cultural 2. Some have more close relationship with philosophy as it aims at the full development of the individual so as to be significantly useful members of the society. some of them are more closely related to the discipline of psychology as there are individual differences in abilities. The problem lies in the selection of the right type of courses which suit the interests of the individuals.3 Foundations of Guidance 2. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIO-CULTURAL) 2. aptitudes and interests. we 24 . If we put all these together. morals. Modern science & technology has given various vocations to the individual. like all other disciplines guidance and counselling is also based on pre-supposed situations.3.3. personality patterns.LESSON NO.2 Psychological 2. and values. formulate the foundations / bases of guidance and counselling. 2 UNIT-I FOUNDATIONS OF GUIDANCE (PHILOSOPHICAL.4 Let Us Sum Up 2.

sociological and cultural perspectives. which education must provide for. equality and individual differences.3 FOUNDATIONS OF GUIDANCE The basic nature of guidance can be analysed from philosophical.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson you will be able to : “ describe the Philosophical Foundations of Guidance “ discuss the nature of Psychological Foundations of Guidance. psychological and socio-cultural in detail. Some of the important bases are described below : (i) Democratic Values as the Basis of Guidance The roots of guidance and counselling lay in democratic principles of equity. psychological.1 Philosophical Bases of Guidance Philosophy is the mother of all sciences and education or guidance is no exception to it. race and relationship. It recognizes the individual differences. Thus. the philosophy of democracy is the basis of the philosophy of 25 . which are based on psychological basis rather than caste. Therefore. the aim of guidance is self-realisation and self-direction. it is mandatory for the state to provide each individual the freedom of choice and equal opportunity. 2. “ Examine the Socio-Cultural Foundations of Guidance 2. creed. These are known as the foundations of guidance. to choose from. democracy is the way of life of the people rather than a system of politics. Guidance is intended to enable an individual to help him to understand himself. Respect and dignity for each individual has been enshrined in our Constitution under ‘Fundamental Rights’. which are the fundamental principles of democratic way of life.are going to discuss these bases of guidance & counselling such as philosophical. Freedom involves awareness of the alternatives. This is possible through guidance since all guidance programmes are based on the assumption of freedom of choice. Philosophically.3. The detailed description of each has been discussed as below : 2. which students learn by operating in a truly democratic atmosphere.

while doing so it is to be ensured that an individual goes in for such an occupation which is appropriate to one’s personality. In a simple way. information about the individual and his environment is scientifically collected. This is why that guidance worker tries to peep into the internal abilities and shortcomings of individual by the use of testing and non-testing techniques. the techniques of guidance are to be used to achieve these aims. Therefore. needs. interests and aptitudes. (iv) Individual’s Study is Basic Every individual is unique in himself. Many areas of education i. fundamentally. administration. in order to take him on the path of optimum development. supervision. Therefore. Every body is capable of bringing changes in his behaviour and guidance and education can provide avenues for it. In this way. It is on the basis of it that he is rendered assistance to become wiser to decide his own line of action.e. which is the same for guidance. (iii) Use of Scientific Methods for Study of the Individual The principle of guidance is that it is possible to bring reform in every individual after studying his behaviour in a scientific way and finding out reasons of his problems. So. However. it is essential that he should be studied in a systematic way. 26 . For this purpose.guidance and counselling. (ii) Everyone is Responsible Fundamentally. guidance helps the individuals to get better knowledge of themselves and become wiser to make their own decisions in life. (v) Guidance a Recognized Source of Education All guidance can be termed as education in the broader sense. but not all education is guidance in any sense. it is clear that the basis of democracy is the respect and regard of individuality. guidance provides choices for the individual success and development. In a democratic society there are many and varied types of occupations for which suitable manpower is to be cultivated for healthy development of society and optimum utilization of economic resources. attitudes. guidance is based on the principle of pragmatic philosophy that every person is reformative and his behaviour can be modified in a systematic way. In this process. both democracy and guidance have the same philosophical basis.

The number of problem children is increasing in our schools at rapid speed. in taste and temperament. 27 . Guidance is to help us to apply new psychological insights into the nature of the individual. Guidance is based on the assumption of individual differences.putting right man for the right job are some philosophical thoughts which lay the foundation stone of the process of guidance and counselling services. If right man is placed in the right job.3. trained and mature person to make his social. who can not do any job. curriculum etc. provides assistance to immature individual. the thought that every one is reformable. It can be said that. there are no reasons. Therefore. personality of the individual. However. except. democratic set up and values. guidance contributes in such areas of education. scientific methods of studying individuals. vocational and educational adjustment in an easy and effective way. It is through the process of education with efficient vocational and counselling service. Youth of today is subjected to much greater emotional strain in the home and in the community than the youth of a generation ago. Researches have established the fact that no two individuals are alike. which prepares one for spending and enjoying democratic way of life. those who are insane and not educable. it not only increases his efficiency. They differ from one another in body and mind. become good citizens of the society and may be in a position to make maximum adjustment with themselves and with the society at large. Thus. Education is thought to be total action. all men can not do all jobs with the same efficiency and effectiveness.2 Psychological Bases of Guidance Psychologically. that this target can be achieved. (vi) Right Man for the Right Job The thought underlying this dictum is.management. However. 2. but gives pleasure to his family members. there is a need for an analysis of individual potentialities for the purpose of education. guidance is a professional work and . guidance helps not only for solving problem of maladjusted children but also for the normal children so that they may lead a better family life. neighbours and society. which prepares him to face his problems of life in a successful way in administrative set up. guidance is an interactive process in which an experienced. lay outside the sphere of guidance. the ideas that guidance can not be thrust upon individuals.

Individuals differ in physical. It is essential to provide guidance to the youth to save them from stresses and strains of a developing society. A well organized guidance programme is essential for the total / all round development of personality. backward. and handicapped children. conflicts and tensions and other stresses and strains. one’s developmental pattern guides his role in dealing with different problems of life. (v) Proper Development of Personality Total development of personality is an important aim of education. and social nature. (iii) Satisfactory Adjustment Guidance helps the individuals in making satisfactory psychological adjustment. Personality is the sum total of physical. intellectual. physical. Effective guidance is imperative for helping the individuals in making the best use of leisure time. emotional and social traits which is expressed in terms of behaviour. (ii) Psychological Problems Many students face emotional problems. It is also a fact that there are differences in the intellectual development of different students which mostly become visible in the achievements of their 28 . beliefs and temperaments. Lack of adjustment adversely affects physical and mental health. In brief following points highlight psychological basis of guidance : (i) Individual Differences No two individuals are alike. In this. gifted. (vi) Differences in the Speed of Growth Different individuals have different patterns of development of intellectual. emotional. and emotional characteristics. attitudes. To provide for the maximum development of individuality. particularly for exceptional children viz. values. social. intellectual. (iv) Right Use of Leisure time An empty mind is a devil’s workshop is a well-known saying. gestures. problem. These problems arise due to frustration. delinquent. guidance is essentially required.

. it will be easy to provide him with guidance services and to lower or raise his self-concept as the case might be and to make him wiser to take his decisions in the light of it. (viii) Testing and Non-Testing Techniques A thorough study of the individual is fundamental for any guidance programme. Thus. In this way. At times. technology. many others have lower self-concept than their personality built up. and values. It becomes pertinent that the new teacher should arrange his activities in accordance with the intellectual needs of the children. cumulative record. in fact all the problems of guidance are ultimately the problems of clarification of self-concept.studies and other intellectual work such as co-curricular activities. which it does with the knowledge of psychology.3. It. becomes essential to study the self-concept of the individual in order to help him to adjust to his day-to-day problems. even when it might be more profitable for them. it is done with the help of non-testing techniques i.e. guidance is to help us to apply new psychological insights into the nature of the individual. thus. they face the problems of adjustment. However. they also suffer from hardship in the process of adjustment. wherein counsellor is to depend upon his psychological background. Some have self-concept higher than their actual possession of the traits of their personalities. Both these types of students suffer from inferiority complex. In the same way. For this purpose. In the light of it. guidance becomes quite handy to him in arranging his activities and other programme of academics. which guides his behaviour in all aspects of life. which mars their behaviour. which are in accordance with his abilities. observation. clarification of self-concept becomes one of the fundamental functions of guidance. 2.3 Socio-Cultural Foundations of Guidance There are very strong socio-cultural aspects and bases of guidance and counselling programme. (vii) Clarification of Self-Concept Every body forms his own self-concept. The progress of any society is based on the fact that it becomes essential that every individual should be able to work in accordance with his capacities. interview etc. It becomes quite difficult to work on the problems against one’s self- concept. explosion of population and revolution in the area of knowledge. and science have created such a situation for many people that they have not 29 . possibilities and potentialities. points of view.

but a global problem too. explosion of knowledge. All this reflects not only upon their individual adjustment but on their family life also. The social aspect of the guidance programme is so strong that one can never think of it without its social bases as individual is ultimately to be guided for his social adjustments. In order to help such individuals. People’s aspirations have shoot up. However. globalisation etc.2 crores which has now increased to more than 102 30 . consumerism. population explosion. If people will be left to themselves. Guidance is based upon the principle of conservation of energy. Increased industrialisation. (b) Conservation of Human Energy Life is precious. Human energy is to be saved and used for the betterment of society. The explosion of rising expectations has given rise to unprecedented problems of adjustments. production. In 1951 our population was 36. (c) Explosion of Population The explosion of population is not only a national problem. We have problems and it has become very difficult for the individual to achieve satisfactory results without the help of guidance. Guidance can conserve this precious human energy. These problems must be solved satisfactorily to avoid maladjustment and to equip the individual properly and adequately. Lives are to be spent purposefully and this can be done with the help of guidance.been able to cope with the changes brought in the social set up and are involved in many types of problematic situations. guidance is considered as a social process under which individuals help one another for the extension of opportunities of the welfare of the society. the human energy will be wasted. The fact remains that. guidance. economic and political system. technological advancement. and counselling becomes quite handy. some of the pertinent social bases of guidance are enlisted below : (a) Complex Nature of Society Drastic changes have taken place in our entire social. All these factors necessitate the need for expert guidance to help the person to make his adjustment adequate. it can not be dealt with in details for want of space and time In the perspective of sociology. have changed the entire social pattern. liberalisation. which are of a very delicate nature. distribution and exchange has become very complex. The process of consumption.

Thus. international mobility. which is deep rooted in our social set-up. (d) Increasing Trend towards Crime and Delinquency In no country of the World. It is high time that our country should pay proper attention towards them and save the society from going it to dogs. youth of today are feeling rather frustrated and is going towards wrong direction and many of them adopt the path of drug-addiction which is on the increase in our society. from the above discussion on the bases of guidance. The national mobility has also created the problem of providing education in different languages as ours is a multilingual country. urbanization. In such a situation. there is a strong social base for guidance and counselling programmes in the schools. it is clear that guidance aims at preparing an individual for future life. It is not to decide something for him. there is total absence of crime and delinquency. corruption. maltreatment with the education system etc. (e) Problem of Drug Addiction Due to so many factors like population explosion. Hence. language along with mixture of customs and traditions. national mobility. favouritism. it is contained to a limit and the social fibre is not affected by it. However. there is an intense need for counselling programme. It will establish a strong base for national integration. in many other countries it crosses limits and creates huge problem for the society. we can 31 . but to make him wiser to make his own decisions and follow his own path. This has created the problem of schools. multi-racial and multi-lingual society which highlights a strong background to educate our youth that it needs to remain united in an effective way. Thus. It helps him to acquire essential abilities and capacities for the tasks to be accomplished in future.crores in 2001. in some countries. One of the methods to deal with such problems is to establish a strong guidance service in schools. It poses the problem of adjustment for students whose parents migrate to other states. mis use of treasury funds by the political leaders for non-productive purposes. with trained professionals. There is an urgent need that a strong guidance and counselling programme be established in our social set up so that our youth may not be mislead. However. (f) Problem of National Integration Ours is a multi-religious.

wherein every individual is to be so developed that he is in a position to convert his potentialities into capacities and thus to become a partner in the development of social set-up. please check your progress by attempting the following exercises: 1. Ltd.conclude that complex social. Crow L. the psychology and socio- cultural set up of the people.6 SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS Aggarwal J. and Crow (1962) : “An Introduction to Guidance Principles and Practices”.D. Doaba House. 2. (1982) : “Principle and Techniques of Guidance”. psychological and socio-cultural bases of guidance.5 UNIT END EXERCISES Dear learners. in the present lesson we have discussed with you the philosophical. Nai Sarak Delhi. 2. 32 . political and educational structure has made guidance and counselling a necessity.S. Elaborate the Socio-cultural bases of Guidance programme. New Delhi: Eurasia Publishing house. economic. 2. 2. Discuss the Psychological bases of Guidance Programme 3.C. Describe the Philosophical bases of Guidance Programme. (1993) : “Educational Vocational Guidance and Counselling”.4 LET US SUM UP Dear Learners. Vikas Publishing House. The above stated essentials have made it clear that guidance and counselling is thus to be helpful in solving problems relating to various relevant areas. In order to play its role in making him wiser to do all this. guidance and counselling needs to have its roots in the philosophy. Pvt. Chauhan S. You have come to know that guidance and counselling are very effectively linked with the democratic way of life.

& Sodhi T. (1997) : “Guidance and Counselling”.P. Bawa Publications. Kochhar S. Suri S.S.Jayaswal Sita Ram (1993) : “Guidance and Counselling”. Sterling Publishers Pvt. 33 . Ltd. Prakashan Kendra Lucknow. New-Delhi. (1984) : “Educational and Vocational Guidance in Secondary Schools” Revised and enlarged Edition.K.. Patiala.

0 STRUCTURE 3. arts and industry is. 3. Suggested Further Readings 3.K.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson you will be able to : “ describe the history of guidance movement in India 34 . Canada. we will trace the history of guidance services in India and U. the result of proper organization and utilization of their guidance services.6.unorganized and informal.7. India.1. 3. Programmes of organized guidance were undertaken in America towards the close of the nineteenth century. Germany.1. Let Us Sum Up 3. Unit End Exercises 3. In the primitive society. 3.3. science. Introduction 3.K. 3 UNIT-I HISTORY OF GUIDANCE MOVEMENT IN INDIA AND U. In the present lesson. guidance was offered to the young by elders in the family and to persons in distress by the family priest. in detail. the movement spread to other countries including Australia. INTRODUCTION Guidance is as old as human civilization. Japan. Sri Lanka. Norway and Switzerland. France. Britain. From America . to a large extent. History of Guidance Movement in U. The remarkable progress made during the present century by people in the west in the fields of education.K.4.2 Objectives 3.5. Guidance . History of Guidance Movement in India 3.has at all places and at all levels been a vital aspect of the educational process.LESSON NO.

Bose. Dr. the techniques of guidance . Dr. parables and question-answer techniques in learning. Calcutta University has the privilege of introducing the guidance movement in this country. In 1952. W.informal and incidental . H. the then Head of the Department. published the journal of Vocational and Educational Guidance for the first time. in India it began as an academic discipline.“ discuss the history of guidance services in U. these were used in India. the Vocational Guidance Association of Bombay was formed to coordinate the efforts of various individuals and agencies in the field of guidance in Bombay. a separate section of research in Applied Psychology was opened under the direction of Dr. The first attempt to coordinate the work of persons and agencies working in the field of guidance all over the country was made in March 1953.S.the word Guru meaning ‘the one who guides’ Guidance. The Panchtantra and Jataka tales are well known for their moral stories. is more than half a century old in our country. Next came Patna University. its first Director. It set up the first Psychological laboratory in India in the year 1915. In 1950. In 1947. The first State Government to take interest was the Uttar Pradesh Government. While in America the guidance movement started as an attempt to fulfill the practical needs of employers and teachers. as an organized professional activity. The teacher-taught relationship was that of Guru-Shishya . 3. Bamette. Even before the time of Socrates. psychologist from Calcutta University.L.P. which established a Department of Psychological Services and Research in 1945. an 35 .can be traced far back to ancient times. which officially recognized the guidance movement by setting up a Bureau of Psychology at Allahabad on the recommendation of Acharya Narcndra Deo Committee. In 1936. In 1941 Batliboi Vocational Guidance bureau was established in Bombay with the efforts of a retired accountant practicing in Calcutta and Mukerjee. the Trustees of the Parsi Panchayat Funds and Properties established the Parsi Panchayat Vocational Guidance Bureau. This was done with a view to adopting psychological tests prepared in America to suit the Indian conditions and to evolving procedures to satisfy the vocational needs of Indian students.3 HISTORY OF GUIDANCE MOVEMENT IN INDIA As far as India is concerned. G.K.Mehta. the Bombay Government set up the Vocational Guidance Bureau in Bombay which was renamed as Institute of Vocational Guidance in 1957.

It was decided to form of All India Educational and Vocational Guidance Association and to affiliate it to the International Association for Vocational Guidance. it is not the work of a few specialists. another work in an aeroplane factory. It covers the -whole gamut of youth problems and should be provided in an appropriate form at all stages of education through the cooperative endeavour of understanding parents. 36 . there was a need of guidance at this stage. The students were supposed to choose the courses at the delta stage (VIII Class).American Fullbright Professor. The Commission recommended the introduction of guidance services in these words: “ Educational and Vocational guidance is not to be regarded as a mechanical process whereby the advisers and teachers sort out boys and girls as a grading machine sorts out apples ! it is not a question of just deciding that one boy should stay in the farm. held a workshop of guidance workers in the country at the Central Institute of Education. Guidance involves the difficult art of helping boys and girls to plan their own future wisely in the full light of all the factors that can be mustered about themselves and about the world in which they are to live and work Naturally. principals and guidance officers. which was unilateral in character. the old education system. Therefore. was replaced by a scheme of seven diversified courses. Guidance. a third become a teacher and the fourth take to the management of garage. Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) and Guidance programme An important factor. Delhi. A second seminar was held in November 1954. which influenced the development of guidance movement in India. was the appointment of the Secondary Education Commission in 1952. in this sense. As a result of the recommendations of this Commission. again at the Central Institute of Education. is not confined to the vocational field only. but rather a service in which the entire school staff must cooperate under the guidance of some person with special knowledge and skill in this particular field.” Following is the summary of the recommendations of the Commission : • Educational Guidance should receive much greater attention on the part of the educational authorities. therefore. headmasters. Delhi.

the Commission provided guidelines. Establishment of Central Bureau of Educational and Vocational Guidance A definite shape to the guidance movement was given when the Ministry of Education. films should be prepared to show the nature of the work in various industries and this should be supplemented by actual visits. both for the centre and the states. set up the Central Bureau of Educational and Vocational Guidance in 1954. particularly psychologists and counsellors (iv) Coordinating guidance activities throughout the country (v) Preparation of manuals dealing with educational and vocational guidance careers and occupations (vi) Co-ordinating with the Occupational Information Unit of the Directorate 37 . The nationwide guidance and counselling programme during the first decade following the publication of the Report of the Secondary Education Commission was the result of this progressive National Policy on Secondary Education. The following were the specific functions of the Bureau: (i) Production and distribution of tools and aids serviceable for guidance work in schools. • The services of trained Guidance Officers and Career Masters should be made available gradually and in an increasing measure to all educational institutions. (ii) Technical assistance in setting up educational and vocational guidance bureaus in the State (iii) Training guidance personnel. For the implementation of these recommendations. of India.• In order to broaden the pupil’s understanding of the scope. and the result was the creation of an infrastructure of guidance programme in the multipurpose schools. nature and significance of various occupations of industries. Govt. • The Centre should take up the responsibility of opening in different regions centres of training and Guidance officers and Career Masters to which each State may send a number of teachers or other suitable persons for training.

General of Resettlement and Employment in the preparation of occupational information material and its distribution in schools Since the establishment. Financial assistance and technical advice were given to the States by the Govt of India under a Centrally sponsored scheme of the Ministry of Education. the Central Bureau had been -rendering a valuable and useful service in the field of guidance. which dealt with the employment of people at lower level was further strengthened with the passing of compulsory Notification of Vacancies Act 1960.With the setting up of the All India Educational and Vocational Guidance Association in 1956. Some universities also began to offer courses in guidance as optional papers for master’s degree in education and psychology. Vocational Guidance Services in Employment Exchanges The Ministry of Labour. (ii) The strengthening of the existing State Bureaus . The guidance movement received a further fillip during the Third Plan period. (iii) The establishment of guidance services with a full time counsellor in 170 multi- purpose schools. the guidance movement assumed an all India character. and (iv) The establishment of an occupational information service in 2500 schools. The scheme provided for : (i) The establishment of State Bureaus of Guidance in the States where they did not already exist. the scheme had little impact on the development of guidance services. This was later taken over by the All India Educational and Vocational Guidance Association. The financial assistance offered being meagre. It offered assistance to the State Governments to establish their own State Bureaus and to provide guidance services in their secondary schools. which made the Government organisations to fill in their vacancies through the 38 . Soon private agencies and universities started evincing interest in the field and the Journal of Educational and Vocational Guidance was started by a private agency in 1954.

-which is peripheral to educational purpose. 39 . Education Commission 1964-66 The Education Commission (1964-66) considered that the “Guidance services have a much wider scope and function than merely that of assisting students in making educational and vocational choices.. made it compulsory for organized sector employing more than 25 persons to notify their vacancies through Employment Exchanges. After having made a strong case for guidance as contributory to a student’s all round development. Guidance.Employment Exchanges by an executive order. Government of India (1979) is silent on the guidance and counselling service and the words ‘Guidance’ and “Counselling’ are nowhere mentioned in the National Policy note. The aims of guidance are both adjustive and developmental: it helps the student in making the best possible adjustments to the situations in the educational institutions and in the home and at the same time facilitates the development of all aspects of his personality.K. to help them to go in for different types of training programmes and to go in for self employment. should be regarded as an integral part of education and not a special psychological or social service. It is also a continuous process aimed at assisting the individual to make decisions and adjustments from time to time. not just for those who deviate from the norm in one direction or the other. It is meant for all students. It scrapped the recommendations of the Secondary Education Commission as a result of which the multipurpose system gave place to the traditional system of a unitary type. The Draft National Policy on Education of the Ministry of Education. The Commission had thrown cold water on the hopes and aspirations of guidance workers. the Commission recommended that it was not counsellors but teachers who would have to take the responsibility for guidance for the next twenty years. therefore. it started providing Vocational Guidance facilities to the registrants to facilitate their employment. However. On the pattern of U.” The Commission emphasised that educational and vocational guidance could play a significant and useful role in the qualitative improvement of educational standards at all levels and suggested a new policy on education from the primary to the university stages. The scheme bid farewell to the objective of vocationally oriented education envisaged in the previous system.

8. However. has so well organized her education system that no nation in the world can compete with her. and the Junior Chamber of Baroda. the 10+2+3 system of education has been adopted by the All States of India. Only 37 schools in the country have full time counsellors. vocational education. and compulsions. trade lines.e. culture. after the inclusion of education in the Concurrent List of our Constitution with the efforts of the Central Government. According to the information collected by the Department of Psychology and Foundations of Education in 1976. Bureaus are functioning in all the States except Jammu & Kashmir. Y. 40 . U. it secures that the State Governments have not very seriously implemented the +2 i. State Bureaus of Guidance and the Guidance units of the National Employment Service. a number of voluntary organizations are also providing guidance facilities of different types. 258 schools have part-time counselors and the rest of the schools have career masters.The Present Position At present two major establishments are developing guidance programmes for school-going children in our country . Nagaland.K. the National Council for Educational Research and Training. However.M. effective guidance service is rare in the schools.Government Organisations and Private agencies. of Calcutta. 3. In addition. The beauty of the educational programme of U.732 (29 per cent) have a programme of guidance.. As the impact of guidance is not immediately perceptible. it is predicted that their pattern will have to be taken seriously. the Lions Club.C.K.K. Among the Union Territories. The Government agencies include the Department of Educational Psychology and Foundations of Education. Private agencies include Vocational Guidance Society at Calcutta. This system has its deep roots in the guidance programme and will be difficult to function without it.4 HISTORY OF GUIDANCE MOVEMENT IN U. No text. it can be said that there is no escape from the serious implementation of Educational and Vocational Programme. the Rotary Club of Bombay. Sikkim and Tamil Nadu.A.328 secondary schools in the country. In accordance with the modified National Policy of Education 1992. out of 30. Gujarat Research Society at Bombay. is that it has grown out of her own needs. only Chandigarh and Delhi have guidance bureaus. In nutshell.

The class teacher watches all the students at Elementary level keenly..K. There are three types of the schools i. In this way.they take a lot of time to change and change only when they are fully convinced of the merits of the change. Career Guidance The part time teachers are appointed in the schools. Vocational Schools. and Modern Schools. or mechanical types of work are guided to go in for such trainings and only a very good few are allowed to go in for university education. yet they have made guidance programme as one of the important constituent of the education process.. Local Education Authorities (LEAs) and The Ministry of Labour share responsibility of providing career guidance. those who want to go in some professional. School Guidance Programme In U. The services of the school counsellor are provided in almost all the schools. yet it can be definitely said that it developed her own policy to adopt it rather than transplanting from other nations. The supporting staff also assists them. and psychological guidance at school level for the selection of the subjects after the end of the secondary education.K. LEA is responsible to organize the schooling programme and also organizes the guidance programme. technical. there is a very good tradition that when the students pass out school education. it may be difficult to say when it started . Now. there is a strong guidance and counselling programme. there is good type of guidance and counselling programme organized in their schools. they fully absorb it into their process. The Youth Employment Officers keep in touch with schools and places of employment and co- operate with teachers and others concerned in the transition from school to work. In U.e Grammar Schools. In some schools. their cumulative record is handed over to the Employment Exchange for his placement in some job. there are full time guidance counsellors. All types of guidance is provided to all of them. Students are provided educational. Even they take some help to clarify their concepts on some educational problem from some other culture. 41 . The Elementary education is well planned. a different type of secondary education in the shape of comprehensive system has been adopted and all the three types of schools are combined in the same pattern. The cumulative record of all the students are prepared and kept up-to-date right from the day the child enters the school and all types of records are maintained in it. vocational.

He acts as leader of a team of local education welfare officers or school attendance officers of a team. such interests are developed through the organization of co-curricular activities. Children Care Committees A unique system of child-care has been developed in London where the Inner London Education Authorities employ trained social workers as organizers of voluntary care committees. as well as by homes. The annual house-to-house census undertaken by the officers ensures that no child of compulsory school age is over-looked. The services of Psychologists are taken for investigation of children with emotional or psychological disturbances and they give talks and advice to the parents and teachers on the management of children and their behavioural problems.Child Guidance Clinics Child guidance centres or clinics for the treatment of children with emotional or behaviour problems are provided by many local education authorities. which are quite well organized. Guidance programme is an essential part of democratic pattern of 42 . In the school. 3. it has grown out of their own needs and is of different pattern.A. They look after their areas in the district and make a liaison between the schools and the children homes.5 LET US SUM UP Dear learners.. Concluding Remarks The guidance programme in U. is unique and she developed her own system of guidance programme although it has also been influenced by the Guidance Programme of U. These consist of voluntary workers and are attached to both primary and secondary schools or groups or such schools. hospitals or voluntary organisations. Historically. School Welfare Officers LEA usually employs a school welfare Superintendent.S. It places more emphasis in educational guidance programme and most of the vocational training is provided in the form of further education outside the schooling process of academic type.K. Clinics provided by LEAs are part of the School Health Services and generally co-operate closely with the National Health Services.

Crow L. please check you progress by attempting the following exercises: 1.society.. 2.D.6 UNIT END EXERCISES Dear learners.7 SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS Aggarwal J.Needless to say that it is providing a good service for channelizing the students in different channels in academic as well as in vocational streams. and Crow (1962) : “An Introduction to Guidance Principles and Practices”. (1993) : “Educational Vocational Guidance and Counselling”. where it is well established. 43 . Discuss the History of Development of Guidance Programme in U. Jayaswal Sita Ram ((1993) : “Guidance and Counselling”. the organization of guidance services have not got their roots in Indian situation.K. a good many Vocational Guidance Units in Employment Exchanges and University Employment and Information Bureaus in Universities.K. The policy planners and political leaders have not taken it seriously. 3. New Delhi. Write its important features. Eurasia Publishing house.have been created in different places in Educational Departments at district level in some schools. In U. However. the guidance programme is well organized both in schools and in Youth Employment Services. The guidance programme has taken its birth in U. Describe the History of Development of Guidance Movement in India in your own words. in spite of the fact that a good many posts of counsellors.K. 3.K. Establishment of State Bureaus of Educational and Vocational Guidance.A. Prakashan Kendra Lucknow. Nai Sarak Delhi. Bring out its important features. Doaba House. As such.S.C.A. it is not as well organized as in U. It has grown out of the needs of the educational system ofU.S. this is an essential part of educational process in India and U. In our country.

& Sodhi T.P. Bawa Publications Patiala..K. (1997) : “Guidance and Counselling”. 44 . New-Delhi. (1984) : “Educational and Vocational Guidance in Secondary Schools” Revised and enlarged Edition.S.Kochhar S. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. Suri S.

2Vocational Guidance 4.K.1Educational Guidance 4.3. which need educational guidance 45 .LESSON NO. In the present Lesson we will be discussing.1 INTRODUCTION Dear students .2 OBJECTIVES : After reading this lesson you should be able to : “ Explain the nature of student’s problems.6 Suggested Further Readings 4. need. organized assistance for choosing appropriate occupation in life and personal Guidance which deals with all aspects of life.3Personal Guidance 4. scope and history of guidance movement in India and U. Educational guidance which is concerned with helping the individual to plan wisely his educational programme . its meaning.5 Unit End Exercises 4.2 Objectives 4.4 Let Us Sum Up 4.3.3 Types of Guidance 4. 4 UNIT-II TYPES OF GUIDANCE (EDUCATION. 4. VOCATIONAL AND PERSONAL) 4. with you these three types of guidance in detail.3.e.0 STRUCTURE 4. There are mainly three types of Guidance i.1 Introduction 4. vocational guidance is a long continuing process. in the previous lessons you have studied the conceptual framework of Guidance .

Many of them do not agree on the number and types of guidance.“ Describe nature and scope of vocational guidance “ Describe nature of personal guidance “ Discuss the various types of behavioural problems of students at school stage “ Explain the place of counselling in personal guidance 4. It is an interesting phenomenon that educationists and guidance workers have been describing types of guidance in diversified ways.3 Types of Guidance: Guidance is the help given by one person to another in making choices and adjustments and in solving problems. W. Paterson has grouped them into five types: (1) Educational Guidance (2) Vocational Guidance (3) Personal guidance (4) Health Guidance (5) Economic Guidance 46 . or personal. vocational.M.Prestor described six types of guidance (a) Educational Guidance (b) Vocational Guidance (c ) Guidance is Social and Civic activities (d) Guidance in Health and Physical activities (e) Guidance in worthy use of leisure time (f) Guidance in character building. Guidance functions in all sorts of problem situations. there are different types of guidance programmes depending upon the nature of a problem. Thus. may be in educational.

1 Educational Guidance According to Arthur J. which have been discussed by Brewer in his book “Educational guidance”. which has to be followed by a pupil”.e. vocational education. Keeping this in view. courses. (i) Educational Guidance (ii) Vocational Guidance (iii) Personal Guidance 4. For the first time the term.3. Educational career is obviously “the path of learning. educational guidance was noticed in the Reader’s guidance in 1912. Different types of individual and a number of choices open to make any combination suitable to them. There are various problems of educational guidance. which must come up for any guidance activity. Brewer is of the view that educational guidance is concerned strictly with the pupil’s success in his educational career. or assistance but cannot be called guidance in any sense of scientific terminology. he stated a number of problems pertaining to educational guidance.Jones. aptitudes interest. these are. and school life.” It means that educational guidance is mainly concerned with such problems of education as are faced by students engaged in the study of different subjects for their vocational preparation. one of the main problems is to help the individual to make desirable progress in his educational career. curriculum. intelligence. attitudes . “Educational Guidance is concerned with assistance given to pupils in their choices and adjustment with relation to schools. In the field of educational guidance it will be possible to do so if firstly there are number of individuals and each individual has different personality characteristics i. If such a situation does not exist then the activity can be termed anything like education. it is essential that there must be two sets of different characteristics. physical 47 . personality patterns. In educational guidance. If we examine the classification of all the psychologists a common thread passes through mainly three types of guidance. Educational Guidance: Nature and Concept There is a definite type of situation. For any guidance activity.

make-up etc. Out of all these characteristics, the individual who comes up must be
unique personality, which would fundamentally be quite different from other human
personalities. Secondly there should be different types of educational activities i.e.
school subjects, streams and combinations. The individual who is to be unique
embodiment is to decide about his choices in education. He is to decide it for himself
with the help or guidance of some other persons, may be a teacher, counsellor, parents,
headmaster or a guidance worker who is to assist him in deciding things for himself.
Until such a situation of the different sets of things arisen of the outcome will be a
guidance activity.

Educational guidance thus may be said to be the process of assisting an individual
pupil to determine and understand his own abilities, aptitudes’, interests, opportunities,
needs, problems and limitations and to make a proper study successfully and adjust himself
to his environment, so that he can serve the society properly and enjoy a happy life. This
type of guidance will have to be related as a functional part of the school programme and
is definitely related to the school curriculum.

In order to explain educational guidance activities, Ruth Strong says that it must
include the following:

1. Helping a student to adjust his academic load to his ability

2. Substituting a more suitable course for one in which the student has failed, instead
of requiring him to repeat the subject

3. Adopting methods of teaching to the individual in a class

4. Scheduling opportunities for counselling students as an intrinsic part of their
curriculum

5. Placing the responsibility for learning with the students

6. Re-organizing student’s real interest and providing opportunities for each student’s
participation in the student activities, which unless carried to access seem to have
a benefit effect on scholarship.

One of the speciality of educational guidance is that it is almost always influenced
by the vocational guidance. In the way, there are diversified courses of studies, which
48

prepare individuals for different type of occupation, so are the differences among
individuals as regards their abilities or capacities so that there are different persons
suitable for different courses of studies. That is why that mostly educational guidance
is dominated by vocational guidance. At times, the occupation or profession of the
individual is decided by the points and educational guidance cannot have any other
role to play but the role of assisting the process of vocational guidance. It may not
always be true.

Kothari Commission is of the view that “One of the main functions of guidance
at Secondary level is to aid in the identification and development of the abilities and interests
of adolescent pupil. It helps these pupils to understand their own strength and limitation
and to do scholastic work at the level of their ability, to gain information about educational
and vocational choices and plans”based on the consideration of all relevant factors; and to
find solution to their problem of personal and social adjustment in the school and at home.”

Guidance and Education

The aims and objectives of guidance are so close to each other and people confuse
them at times. Even guidance scholars the Jones have said, “Whatever in the learning
process the teacher assists the child to learn, guidance is present.....choices in methods (of
learning) are often, if not always possible. The efficient teacher is continually trying to help
the pupil to find the method that is best suited to him. Such assistance is guidance...Teaching
conceived of as assistance the pupil to learn is all essential guidance.” Similarly, Wrinkle
and Gilchrist has said, “Without good teaching guidance is incomplete. Teaching and
guidance are inseparable.” Education, in one sense, means aiming at proper development
of the child so that he becomes a good citizen and enjoys happiness in life. It is hoped that
it will be through education that people will acquire sound health, grow capacity to face
difficulties realistically, develop power to solve problems in life, have the best functioning
of their intelligence, and also establish good relationship with other people of the society.
According to Proctor, Guidance is a process “assistance given to individual, of making
necessary adjustment to their environment and in distributing themselves to suitable vocation
recreational health and social civic opportunities.” In brief, the purpose of guidance seems
to be self-realization and personality development. It also helps people to make necessary
adjustment to this environment.

49

It needs to be kept in mind that instruction is not guidance and must be carefully
distinguished from it. At times, guidance does make use of instruction, but it is not self-
instruction. We should be able to conceive that even when the aims and objectives of
guidance are the same, which are that of education, the method used by these two, differs
largely. That is why Jone once said that all assistance in learning is guidance and at an other
place said that “all guidance is education but some aspects of education are not guidance,
their objectives are the same in the development of individual but the methods used in
education are by no means the same as used in guidance”. Agreeing with Jones, Myers has
said, “Adopting teaching methods to individual needs is not educational guidance. It is just
good teaching.”

4.3.2 Vocational Guidance

It was for the first time that the term “Guidance” came into prominence along with
adjective Vocational. All have not universally described the term. In the same way, different
scholars have visualized them in different modes. Some have considered it as “getting a job
for the child” while others visualized it as “keeping the individual happy at his work,” while
still others considered it as “fitting the occupation to the individual”. The National Vocational
Guidance‘Association of USA’ in 1924 defined it : “The process of assisting the individual`
to choose an occupation, prepare for it, enter upon it and make a progress in it.” In
accordance with this definition, the vocational guidance counselor or the vocational guidance
officer is to do everything for the pupil. This is all against the spirit of guidance service as in
this process the pupil is to be assisted to decide for himself and some one else is not to
decide for him. Keeping all this in view the Association revised the definition in 1937 and
said, “Vocational Guidance is the process of assisting the individual to choose an occupation,
prepare for it, enters upon it and progress in it.” It is concerned primarily with helping
individual to make decisions and choices involved in planning a future and building career
decisions and choices necessarily in affecting satisfactory vocational adjustment.

As is essential with every form of guidance there are two sets of different traits
in the process of vocational guidance? One set is embodied in the individuals who
possess different levels of intelligence, physical characteristics, aptitudes, attitudes,
interests, personality traits, and academic attainments. On the other hand, there are
different vocations requiring different types of theoretical and practical qualifications

50

These objectives are as follows : 51 .and a good number of vocations with different requirements and opportunities. Specifically. Maladjustment-may lead to undesirable consequences to various kinds ranging from mild job dissatisfaction to serious mental and physical illness. Vocational Education means the actual preparation. Vocational Guidance and Vocational Education Both these terms. vocational guidance is a means of promoting the general well-being of the individual. However. From a more positive point of view. which has already been selected. through information service a guidance worker may help his client to select a suitable vocational goal. Keeping in view his intelligence. Some of the guidance scholars are of the view that vocational guidance is a part of the vocational education. no doubt. attitudes. through education and training. and last of all to prepare in it.. “ Vocational guidance is an integral part of an organized educational programme and not as something apart from education that is being wished upon the schools by a group of enthusiasts because there is no other agency to handle it” Place of Occupational Information in Guidance The aim of vocational guidance is to serve the individual and society. Certain basic objectives can be laid down for the information service in vocational guidance programme of a school. That is why even Myers has said. Vocational Guidance consists of the assistance given in choosing the vocation and in making of the plan for the preparation or training for the vocation. aptitudes etc. The vocation thus selected should be the one. Briefly speaking it is the job of the vocational guidance worker to assist an individual who possesses certain kinds of assets and liabilities in his behaviour to select one vocation from the large number of available vocations. very closely interlinked with each other do not mean exactly the same thing. for the future occupation. informing him about the training he will need to reach that goal. in the same way in which all educational guidance is a part of education. enter into it. interests. and the vocational guidance worker should help the individual to prepare himself for it. For the individual the objectives are to prevent unfortunate consequences arising from maladjustment an occupation and to contribute to his total well-being and happiness. “which is regarded to be the most suitable and appropriate for the pupil”.

to create an awareness of the need and an active desire for accurate and valid occupational. They are to be provided with information about the various vocational possibilities through career conferences. These days individuals are facing emotional problems. educational and personal social information 4. Personal social guidance has become relevant under existing problem conditions. and career corner in schools. This type of guidance starts from early childhood and continues throughout the life of an individual.health.3. 1. to help a pupil in proper self-appraisal and development of his interests and personality 5. changing values towards social system and superstition.3 Personal Guidance Personal guidance is meant to provide assistance to all problems. the information service is very essential for helping the students make successful curricular and vocational choices at the end of the period of general education at class X level. mental ill. “Personal guidance is more important in modern India as new Indians may still talk proudly of their spiritual heritage and sucker their lips at our 52 . attitudes towards social evils. occupational information exhibitions. to develop a broad and realistic view of opportunities in life and problems at all levels of training 3. which do not come within the purview of educational and vocational guidance. Such problems necessitate the importance of personal guidance. to provide assistance in narrowing down choices progressively to specific activities which are appropriate to aptitudes Under the new pattern of education (10 + 2 + 3). 4. to assist in the mastery of the techniques of obtaining and interpreting information for progressive self-directedness 7. to provide occupational orientation and an understanding of the world of work and related activities 6. to convey to pupils the importance of an occupational choice and the necessity of a sensible and realistic approach 2.

In matters of social development. social and moral guidance. health guidance. It may provide for recreational guidance. The purpose of personal guidance is to help the individual in his physical. a terrible hurry. Yet the same champions of Indian timelessness are in a hurry. problems of adjustment are explained to be the result of the nature of the psycho-sexual development of the individual. in the nature of personal guidance we find a concern for individual and social problems. social. From the psycho-analytic point of view. moral. we notice that the term personal guidance is rather comprehensive and it permits to the whole life of the individual. ethical. social. Personal guidance may be defined as the assistance offered to the individual to solve his emotional. the personal type of guidance is devoted to the needs and interests of the individual in society. As regards physical development. emotional. They are hankering after the material progress of the west and determined that in India and in Asia it will be shared more broadly among men. another important point in regard to personal guidance is that we consider the term personal as one side of the coin whose other side is social. In all social activities.materialism and too rapid tempo of life. In this way. Individuals are the units of society and society is made of individuals. and spiritual development and adjustment. Behavioural Problems of Students Most human problems arise from life situations and significantly affect the development of individuals. play activities of the children have to be properly organized likewise for emotional development. the person or persons are involved with their individual differences and uniqueness of their personalities. children have to be provided with opportunities for self-expression. to develop and catch. It may include guidance pertaining to social and civic activities. Thus. Thus. and moral as well as health problems. According to this view complexes arise when the libido is blocked or fixated at any particular stage. According to the accepted meaning of the term a person is said to be adjusted when he is in harmony 53 . children have to plan to get along with others. which are not generally dealt with under educational and vocational guidance. Such fixation in unfavourable circumstances may precipitate personality problems and lead to problems of adjustment. community service guidance etc.

By maladjustment. he remains absent’ The following are the some common behavioural problems at school stage which needs personal guidance : (a) Truancy (b) Stealing (c) Cheating (d) Bullying (e) Lying 54 . he is cut off from the group 9. defective discipline. environmental factors which include home environment. poverty of parents and lack of suitable recreational facilities.with a reasonably adequate environment. the student remains absent in the school 7. efficient and has a proper degree of social feeling. unwanted home atmosphere. he is shy by nature 8. adolescent period. head scratching. other factors are physical abnormalities. he shows frequent nervousness 4. school environment etc. thumb-sucking etc. he fails in the examination 3. we mean the degree of disharmony between the individual and the environment. 10. he does not show interest in studies 5. There may be hereditary. the pupil may project emotional disturbances through nail-biting. the student is attracted towards anti-social elements 2. The following are the symptoms of behaviour problems at school stage : 1. There are various reasons of behaviour problems among the students. he is relatively happy. the student make false excuses in the school 6.

How to control Behaviour Problems ?

There are two methods to control behaviour problems (a) Prevention
and (b) Punishment

School can do a lot to prevent behaviour problems by providing the following
facilities in the school:

(i) Atmosphere : atmosphere of the school should be free from emotional
tensions

(ii) Facilities for co-curricular activities

(iii) Teachers behaviour

(iv) Curriculum

(v) Developing good reading habits

4.4 LET US SUM UP

Dear Learners, we have studied in this lesson the various types of guidance. The
educationists and psychologists have classified guidance according to different purposes.
Mainly there are three types of guidance. These are Educational Guidance, which is
concerned with the educational problems such as teaching-learning process. Second is
vocational which is concerned with the problems of selection, training and choice of vocations
in the life of the individuals where as Personal guidance is related with the behavioral
problems of the individuals. The teacher plays an important role in understanding and the
solution of the problems’ in the areas of educational, vocational and personal guidance.

4.5 UNIT-END EXERCISES

Dear Pupil teachers, please check your progress by attempting the following
questions:

1. Describe the nature of Educational guidance.

2. Explain the place of occupational information in guidance.

3. Discuss the various types of behavioral problems among the students at school
stage.
55

4.6 SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS

1. Aggarwal, J.C. (1993) : “Educational Vocational Guidance and
Counselling” . Doaba House New Delhi

2. Bernard, Harold W “Principles of Guidance : A brief Text “
& Daniel, W( 19690: Allied Publishers New Delhi

3. Chauhan S.S (1982) : “Principles and Techniques of Guidance “.
Vikas Publishing House, Delhi.

4. Kochhar. S.K. (1993) : “Educational and Vocational Guidance in
Secondary Schools “ , Sterling Publishers New
Delhi

5. Pandey, K..P (1987) : “The Bases of Educational and Vocational
Guidance “, Abhilash Prakshan.

6. Sodhi, T.S and “ Guidance and Counselling “ , Bawa
Suri. S.P. (2006) : Publications, Patiala

7. Strang Rath (I960): “Educational Guidance : Its Principles
and Practices”, Mc Millan Company , New York.

56

LESSON NO. 5 UNIT-II

NON-TESTING TECHNIQUES IN GUIDANCE : INTERVIEW,
OBSERVATION

5.0 STRUCTURE

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Objectives

5.3 Non-Testing Techniques in Guidance & Counselling

5.3.1 Interview

5.3.2 Observation

5.4 Let Us Sum Up

5.5 Unit End Exercises

5.6 Suggested Further Readings

5.1 INTRODUCTION

The aim of guidance is to help the individual. It can be done by understanding
him. We can not understand a person unless, we know him. Therefore, the first
thing guidance workers must do is to get to know the individual. If he has reliable,
accurate, significant, and comprehensive information regarding the individual, he
can understand him better and guide him effectively. The better the exploration of
the individual, the more effective the guidance, and complete exploration of the
individual may be achieved by various testing and non-testing devices. In this lesson,
we will discuss only two non-testing techniques i.e interview and observation in
detail.

5.2 OBJECTIVES

After going through this lesson, the students will be able to :

57

1 Understand the need of studying and appraising an individual. his basic needs and the real circumstances surrounding the decisions. data and information pertaining to all aspects of life are required. These techniques are developed by psychologists.”Assistance in making choices should be based on as through an understanding as is possible of the individuals. 4 Discuss Observation as non-testing technique in guidance programme.” Jones emphasises. we study and appraise the individual. Techniques for studying and appraising individuals In studying and appraising the individual. They can be classified into (i) Testing Techniques and (ii) Non-Testing Techniques Non-Testing Techniques These techniques are also known as non-standardized techniques. A number of techniques are used for this purpose. an important purpose of appraisal service is to gather information about student that will aid them in understanding himself or herself and make meaningful decisions about their future career. 5. in any guidance programme. Non-testing techniques for studying and appraising an individual are : (i) Interview (ii) Observation (iii) Case Study (iv) Cumulative Record (v) Socio-metric Techniques (vi) Questionnaire (vii) Rating Scales 58 . While emphasizing the importance of studying and appraising the individual Reavis and Judd write.” Thus. Therefore.3 NON-TESTING TECHNIQUES IN GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING The centre of all guidance and counselling is the individual. “ To attempt to guide the development of the pupil without an intimate knowledge of his background and the sum total of experience is to attempt the impossible. 2 Describe the non-testing techniques in guidance and counselling 3 Describe interview as non-testing technique.

(iv) Admission Interview : Here the purpose is to determine the fitness of a candidate for a particular course.1 Interview Interview is one of the most important techniques used to collect data in guidance and counselling.(viii) Anecdotal Record (ix) Autobiography We will discuss first two non-testing techniques in detail 5. It is called “conversation with a purpose. Here the purpose is to self explanation. (vii) Counselling Interview : Here the purpose is to help the individual (counsellee) to solve the problems. Here in this lesson we are concerned with the Counselling Interview : Functions of Counselling Interview o To have a face to face contact with the interviewee and to assist him o To collect information from the interviewee o To impart information to the interviewee 59 .” It is face to face relationship between the interviewer and the interviewee.3. to warn. (v) Informative Interview : Here the purpose is to impart information to the interviewee (vi) Research Interview : Here the purpose is to discover facts and figures for the purpose of research. Various types of interviews are used to understand the individual. to punish or to modify behaviour (iii) Employment Interview : Here the purpose is to determine the fitness of candidate for a particular job. These are : (i) Diagnostic Interview : Here the purpose is to secure information about the individual (ii) Administrative Interview : A student misbehaves and principal calls him and warns him.

Unfolding the problem 3.” The essential feature of the interview is a dynamic face-to- face relationship in which the counsellee is helped to develop insights that lead to self- realization. He should be clear in his mind about the technique and purpose of the interview. Before the interview takes place. Preparation and establishment of rapport 2. Closing of the Interview 5. o To motivate the interviewee and enable him to take interest in himself o To help the interviewee in solving educational. It is essential that interviewee should have come voluntarily of his own and without any compulsion. it is essential that interviewer must be clear in mind about the person who is to be interviewed. Evaluation and 6. vocational and psychological problems and making adjustments The counselling interview is a face-to face situation involving two persons. his environment and his merits and weaknesses. the following steps are followed : 1. He should select the proper place and atmosphere for the interview and arrange its secrecy. his background. Ruth Strang describes the interview as the heart of counselling process in which other techniques are contributory. “ A counselling interview is a person-to-person relationship in which one individual with problems and needs turns to another person for assistance. It is a type of person-to-person relationship and communication to explore the problem of the client. Joint working on the Problem 4. Follow up 60 . Steps in Counselling Interview In order to make the interview meaningful and effective. in which counsellor helps the counsellee in gaining insight into his problems and assists him in solving the same. In the words of Erickson. The interviewee needs to be properly motivated.

The date and time of interview of each pupil in the class should be notified. suitable and limited questions. Questions should be well worded. Rapport is characterized by mutual respect. (a) Physical reaction of the client . sincerity and mutual confidence. Appropriate topics for discussion for pre- interview are hobbies or school events. Even the opening sentence must be thought of (iv) Pre-Interview Conversation : Pre-interview conversation is essential where the interviewee is bashful or reserved.it may be in the form of bodily tension. (ii) Physical Setting : An essential preparation for an effective interview is the proper physical setting and environment. A properly lighted room with suitable temperature condition and a comfortable seat for the counsellee must be ensured. Methods of unfolding the problems are : (i) Observation : Two things should be observed. Preparation and the Establishment of the Rapport It includes: (i) Schedule of Interview programme : Schedule of interview should be prepared in advance. excitement or blushing (b) Observation of clues for understanding the problem (ii) Listening : Interviewer should ask important. cooperation. distraction or disturbance. (iii) Organised Material : Material required for the interview should be organized and planned. 2. Unfolding the Problem Unfolding the problem means to arrive at the problem.1. (iii) Talking : Problem can also be unfolded with the help of talking or mutual conversation between the counsellor and the counsellee 61 . friendliness. (v) Establishing Rapport : Rapport should be established. It should be conducted in a private room free from noise.

(iv) Personal References : Give personal references to the” client to illustrate the point of view (v) Non-Personal References : Give non-personal references about other persons who had similar problems (vi) Reference to Consellee’s words : Sometime start new topic for discussion by referring to the statement made by the counsellee. pros and cons are explained to him and the situation is arrived at through joint efforts. (iii) Humour : Make use of humour in order to remove the tension to illustrate his point of view. Closing the Interview Interview should not be closed abruptly. The counsellor should increase rapport with the help of the following techniques : (i) Sympathy : Show sympathy to the client or interviewee (ii) Assurance : Give assurance to the counsellee that the problem will be solved. 4. Evaluation Interview may be evaluated under the following four headings and the points of merits given above be kept in view: 62 . (vii) Threat : Sometime try to show to the interviewee the grave consequences that may result if he follows a wrong course of action. 5. (viii) Approval : Temporary approval of the action of the counsellee should be given in order to encourage the feelings. Interviewer should see that he has recorded all the necessary facts so that he can prepare a report. Joint working on the Problem Here the counsellee is taken into confidence. Fix time if there is need for another interview. See that the client is satisfied and summarise the whole issue in a few sentences.3.

It is also essential for the improvement of the interview process on the basis of the results shown by it. Follow Up The follow up should be made to find out if the problem of the counsellee has been solved and if he is moving in the right direction. (i) Regarding the setting of the interview (ii) Regarding the interviewer (iii) Regarding the Interviewee (iv) Regarding the outcome of the interview 6. abilities and personality Advantages of Interview The following are the advantages of the interview : • It is the most flexible and dynamic way of understanding the individual as a whole 63 . Subject Matter covered during the Interview The following subject matter should be covered during the interview: • The problem or reason for coming for interview • Previous work history • Educational history • Hobbies. vocational and background • Interests • Family situation and background • Social Activities • Physical conditions • Self-evaluation of appearance. This should be a continuous process.

specific. It must be observed very carefully. observation must be organized or planned. however. it must be supplemented by other techniques. reliable. Rousseuu wrote. Limitations of Interview The following are the limitations of the Counselling Interview.• It is natural like conversation • It can be used for variety of purposes • It helps the counsellee to understand himself and solve his problems • It can be practiced on illiterate persons • Interview is relatively easy to conduct.” Behaviour is a reflection of personality. qualitative. “Watch nature long and observe your pupil carefully before you say a word to him. • It is subjective • It is time consuming • It needs experts which are generally not available • It is placed in an artificial situation • Depression may take place during the interview and may spoil our results • Sometimes it is difficult to interpret the results of the interview To conclude we can say that interview is essential in counselling process.Although it has some limitations. and quantitative. scientific. intelligently and scientifically as observation of behaviour has been recognized as basic to other techniques.3. directed. 64 . In guidance and counselling. objective. For reliable and dependable observation. observation is the most commonly employed of all individual techniques. systematic. 5.2 Observation Observation is one of the important techniques of collecting information about the individual.

one way screen is used to observe the behaviour of deviant children. but makes the students conscious and are also difficult at times. number of periods and intervals decided upon. Requisites of Good Observation Observation should have four characteristics : (i) Proper Planning : Specific activities or units of behaviour i. The proper physical position for observing involves focusing attention on the units of behaviour specific activities. we observe the specific behavioural characteristics of children or adults in natural setting. The time of each observation period. Proper tools for recording observation should be obtained and used. and proper handling of the recording instrument used for observation. (iii) Recording of Observation : It can be done in either of the two methods (a) The first method is to record the observation simultaneously. In child clinic. 65 . It avoids time gap. the observer can observe the behaviour of children but they can not see the observer. single or group to be observed must be clearly defined. The instruments to be used for recording should be decided. number of observations and interval between periods should be decided. (ii) Participant Observation : It is that type of observation in which the observer becomes the part of the group which he wants to observe. He establishes perfect rapport with the group of children or adolescents so that they may not become conscious of his presence and may not hide their actual behaviour.e. Two important types of observation are : (i) Natural Observation: In natural observation. (ii) Proper Execution : an expert execution demands cultivated skills and resourcefulness on the part of the investigators. Subjects do not become conscious of the fact that someone is observing their behaviour. observing discreetly the length area. The teacher can observe the behaviour of the students on the playground or in any other social situation when students may not become conscious of his presence.

Of course. sampling or procedure. 2. It is not restricted to a test situation but it is applied to the naturally occurring situations of life. or rating scales or score cards. (b) Facts may be recorded soon after the observation is over. valid. it is more reliable. This method can be used with little training and almost all teachers can use it for understanding the behaviour of problem children. Hence. the easier it is to observe him. observation is a scientific technique of collecting data whose results can be verified and relied upon to locate 66 . the method of observation has wide applications for studying individuals in normal non-testing situations. delinquent children. 5. gifted children and other types of children. blank form of tallying frequencies are generally used. objective and scientific. 6. It is economical as it needs no laboratory and costly apparatus 3. (iv) Interpretation : Results should be interpreted cautiously and judiciously after taking into account various limitations of planning. No doubt. This method has been found very useful with shy children. Being a record of actual behaviour of the child. It has the following advantages: 1. backward children. 7. 4. As it is difficult to record the minute details so check lists. It can be applied to observe the behaviour of children of all ages. Merits of Systematic Observation Observational studies are particularly very important and yield significant results on developmental characteristics of children. the younger the child. It may not be accurate due to time gap while it has the merit of not distracting the mind of the student. It can be applied to observe the behaviour of individuals as well as of a group. It is flexible and can be used in gathering data in many situations.

Observer may become lenient i.e. he may give concessions and allowances at one time and may be strict at another time. With the help of observation. Some personal problems and experiences can not be observed i.. The observer’s error may be due to the knowledge and background of the situation to be observed. 2. 4. 3.4 LET US SUM UP Dear learners. we can observe the external behaviour of the individual. behavioural problems of different types but it suffers from the following limitations: Limitations of Observation 1. crocodile tears or behaviour of hippocrats. 5. for observing the behaviour of an angry child. There is some time lag. we have non-testing devices. For example. Record may not be written with hundred per cent accuracy as the observation is recorded after the actions of the observer. Internal behaviour of the individual can not be studied. We havemade 67 . in the present lesson we have studied how the individual is studied and appraised. It is very difficult to get trained observers. sex experiences. For appraising the individual which is the centre of any guidance and counselling programme. Observation is subject to two kinds of errors. It is subjective. Untrained observers may gather superfluous and irrelevant data. Sometimes the observer is not familiar with the total situation and hence he may commit error. sampling error and observer’s error. 5. Sometimes we have to wait for long time for the occurrence of events. 8.e. we have to wait when he will become angry. The first error occurs because of inadequacies of selecting situation to be observed. Sometimes artificiality comes in the behaviour e.g. 7. 6.

Jayaswal Sita Ram ((1993) : “Guidance and Counselling”. New Delhi. Bombay. This technique is helpful in encouraging thinking and self-understanding the client. check your progress by attempting the following questions: 1.K. New York. The technique of interview is an essential part of guidance and counselling. Crow L. As you have come to know that interview is the core of counselling process. a skilled interviewer can overcome these limitations. Sterling Publishers Private Ltd.6 SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS 1.5 UNIT END EXERCISES Dear Distance Learners.you acquainted with interview and observation non-testing techniques. 5. Jones J. Kochhar S. How observation technique is useful in appraising the individual ? Discuss in detail by giving its advantages and limitations. Bernard & Daniel : Thomas Y Crowell Company. Harold W. (1993) : “Educational Vocational Guidance and Counselling”.C. Describe the interview technique. 5. Fullmer. 1969 W. Aggarwal J. 2. : Guidance and Counselling in Colleges and Universities. Tata McGraw 6. 5. Prakashan Kendra Lucknow. and Crow (1962) : “An Introduction to Guidance Principles and Practices”. advantages and limitations. As regards limitations. New Delhi: Eurasia Publishing house..A. : Principles of Guidance . Doaba House.D. 3. Nai Sarak Delhi. Principles of Guidance 4. Discuss its procedure. 1981 68 . 2. However. it is stated that the interview is time consuming and the data are mostly subjective and unreliable.

Harper & Rows. Vishwa Vidyalaya Prakashan Chowk.: Techniques of Guidance. Bawa Publications Patiala. D. Schmdt. McGraw Hill. New York.P.E. Nair. : Appraising Vocational Fitness by Means of Psychological Testing. 8. F.P. 12. New York. Psychological Bases of Vocational Guidance. Suri S.2000 10. 69 . 1962 11. Pandey K. Varanasi . New York. Super.W. Miller.7. Meenakshi Prakashan. & Sodhi T. McGraw Hill. 1972 9. : Educational and Vocational Guidance in India . : Guidance & Principles of Guidance. (1997) : “Guidance and Counselling”. Taxler A.E.S.

interview and observation in detail.4 Let Us Sum Up 6. 70 .3 Non-Testing Techniques in Guidance 6.2 Cumulative Records 6. CUMULATIVE RECORD.2 Objectives 6. 6 UNIT-II NON-TESTING TECHNIQUES IN GUIDANCE : CASE STUDY.e.1 Introduction 6.LESSON NO. Cumulative Record and Socio-metric techniques. 6.6 Suggested Further Readings 6.1 INTRODUCTION Dear Pupil teachers.5 Unit End Exercises 6.3.0 STRUCTURE 6. These are : Case Study. We have discussed two non-testing techniques i.3. in the previous lesson we have acquainted you with the concept of non-testing devices used in the guidance and counselling process.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson you will be able to : 1 describe the Case Study as Non-Testing Device 2 discuss the Cumulative Record and its importance in Guidance programme. SOCIOMETRIC TECHNIQUES 6.3 Socio-metric Techniques 6. In the present lesson we will take up three more non-testing devices.3.1 Case Study 6.

sex. In the words of Ruth Strang “The case study or history is a synthesis and interpretation of information about a person and his relationship to his environment collected by means of many techniques. 6. complete and intensive study of the pupil . parents. education.his family background. teacher.1 Case Study The case study is an old method. age. besides making a case study of the patient’s present conditions and symptoms. his health and physical state from the beginning and many other factors in the past. 71 . emotional and intellectual environment. The psychologist or the teacher as the case may be collect detailed information on the problem of a maladjusted or deviant case and analyses and interprets the data to find out the causes of the problem. recommendations and reports in follow up work. The method is specifically followed in learning difficulties. parent’s age. his physical. A case study contains interpretations. income. social status etc.3.3 NON-TESTING TECHNIQUES IN GUIDANCE 6. his family and friends. The case study method was originally used in medicine to examine the patient. This technique has been borrowed from medical science in social sciences. The complete information of past history and present condition is collected. number of children. his previous development. Freud used case study method to assist his subjects to solve his personality problems. medical man and psychologist. delinquency and other behaviour problems. The preparation of a case study is not the work of a single individual but the combined venture of social worker. 3 Explain the Socio-metric technique used in Guidance programme. which has been re-discovered and adapted to the complex process of modern counselling. In preparing a case study the information is collected from the following sources : (1) Preliminary Information : Name. The developmental history is reconstructed from the memories of the case (individual). Case study means systematic. occupation. social. emotional disturbances.

failure. parents death.illness. attitude etc. teachers. emotional. Analysis of data i. Location of the case 2. application of remedial or adjustment measures 72 . social. friends and their types. achievement of the child. home and neighbourhood.e. relation between parents and other members of the family. parents. fear. social. mental.(2) Past History : Condition of mother during pregnancy. temperament. Removing the causes i. we can summarize that case study method helps to understand the root causes of maladjustment and is a very valuable method in suggesting remedial measures for the rehabilitation of maladjusted cases. The sources of information can vary in individual cases depending upon the type of behaviour problems of the case. vocational and special aptitude. social environment in school. (iv) Emotional: Anxiety. friends.e. headmaster and community at large. special abilities. physical. birth order etc. (v) Interest: Personal. Formulation of hypotheses 3. We have given above a tentative list of various sources from which information may be collected to prepare a case study. Steps involved in Case Study The following steps are followed in case study : 1. (ii) Medical: I. special achievement etc. 4. identification of causal factors as a basis for remedial treatment 5. (vi) School Achievement : Position in school. general intelligence (iii) Social : House environment. any incident. Collection of data from pupils. child’s development after birth. (3) Present Condition : The information may be collected under the following heads: (i) Physical: Results of medical examination of any diseases. Briefly.Q..

Types of Cases (i) Problem children (ii) Delinquent children (iii) Backward Children or slow learner (iv) Maladjusted children (v) Gifted Children (vi) Children with exceptional talent in a particular skill. Follow up of the case to determine the effectiveness of remedial or adjustmental measure applied. removes points of discussion. thinking without reasoning and faulty information and helps in knowing the differences in practical and organic difficulties. o Useful research technique : Case study is a very useful research technique of 73 .6. (vii) Children with educational difficulty (viii) Children with vocational difficulty Characteristics of a Good Case Study The following are the characteristics of a good case study : (i) Completeness of data (ii) Continuity of data (iii) Validity of data (iv) Confidential recording of data (v) Scientific synthesis and analysis of data Advantages of Case Study The following are the uses of case study : o Bases for diagnosis and treatment : case study clarifies diagnostic relationships.

attitudes. The cumulative records serve as a well arranged store-house of all the information regarding the students. o Suitable Adjustments : Case study is used as a method for specifically giving assistance to students for making adequate adjustments. These informations are essential to the guidance and counselling of the students. It supplies data about an individual and his general and specific characteristics are also known.technique. ideas. plans. assessing the personality of an individual. may not cooperate • We need experts and trained persons preparing case history. values and the like into the report • It is very time-consuming technique • It is difficult to prepare case history. Parents and teachers etc. Ruth Strang has suggested the following uses of cumulative records for the guidance programme 74 . which is collected from different sources over a period of time. A person who prepares case history may project his own problems. Experts are generally not available • It is very difficult to interpret the results objectively In spite of these limitations case study is an important and useful technique for collection of data in guidance programme. problems. o For Social Workers : Case studies are specially prepared and used for training social workers. and frustrations of the students through the analysis of the data provided by the cumulative record. 6.2 Cumulative Record The cumulative record is a device for recording information about the student. Limitations of Case Study The following are the limitations of Case Study • It is a subjective ‘. Since it contains all information about the student’s past and present.3. the cumulative record helps the counsellor in understanding the needs and aspirations.

address and other related information (ii) Family data (iii) Health data (iv) School History and Achievement (v) Mental and achievement test data (vi) Special activities and co-curricular activities (vii) Interests and talents (viii) Educational plans (ix) Vocational plans. cumulative records have sections for the following information (i) Personal Data : name. home or society (f) Supplying information to the youth employment service regarding student’s suitability for certain type of jobs. students needs. Contents of Cumulative Record Generally. (iii) Helping students to make important choices or decisions such as : (a) Choice of courses (b) Change of courses (c) Choice of vocational field (d) Decision to leave school (e) Helping students in solving their problems of adjustment in the school. abilities and interests.(i) Holding conferences with parents about the student’s progress (ii) Adapting instruction in the classroom. and (x) Records of counselling 75 .

(ii) While filling in information about a particular child they should be careful to use that their judgement about the child is not distorted due to the halo effect. once the system of maintaining cards has been established. as a rule. Hahn and Maclean have very aptly listed five principles of preparing cumulative records: (a) It should demand a minimum of clerical time (b) It should be designed to suit the institutional needs (c) It should contain only those items used frequently enough to justify their inclusion (d) Summarizing forms should be supplemented by other records valuable to counsellors (e) These records in schools and colleges should be built and maintained within reasonable limits for students A few points of caution for filling the Record At the time of entering the information counsellors should remember the following points: (i) Information which presents a child in an unfavourable situation and is likely to prejudice other persons against him such as isolated instances of bad behaviour of one. However. 76 . it should be kept in a separate file. it would be advisable to have certain factual information such as identifying data. If any confidential material has to be maintained. home backgrounds. the task of recording will be easier if it is done for small groups of pupils at different settings rather than the entire lot at one setting. not be entered on the record card. school marks. (iii) No doubtful information should be entered on the cumulative record card. recorded for all pupils within the first few days after the school reopens. should. etc. than to fill them in with unreliable data. It is better to leave certain entries blank if objective and reliable information is not available. teacher’s poor opinion of the child. (iv) During the first year after cards are introduced.

gaps in information have to be filled through further questionnaires.Use and interpretation of Records The cumulative record should be used as a unified account of the child’s personality. if necessary. interviews. While dealing with an individual case. Taking together. The different items of information are not to be read and interpreted in isolation. observations. the main aim should always be to understand the pupil and promote his development. they should aid in understanding and interpreting any particular aspect of the child’s behaviour and personality make-up. testing and home visits. Problems in the Maintenance and Use of Cumulative Records The following problems are encountered while maintaining the cumulative records: (i) Who should maintain the record ? : Subject teacher or Class teacher (ii) Where to keep Cumulative Record Cards ? (iii) When to fill up Cumulative Record Cards ? (iv) How to check the maintenance of the Cumulative Records ? (v) What should be the design of records ? (vi) Problem of new admissions and migrations (vii) Problem of teachers in discharging the function : Teachers should be helped in discharging their function by the following ways : (a) Providing training (b) Providing model forms (c) Providing adequate time (d) Providing provisions of safe custody (e) Adequate inspection 77 .

it is important to note that his peers inhibit one of the most significant parts of the world and their thinking may influence his functioning. sit next to. children that they would invite to a party. what he needs is clear direction. One of the major techniques for such study is the sociometry. it becomes necessary to see him the way his fellow pupils see him. Meaning of Sociometry According to John W. the teachers will be able to discharge their duties to the satisfaction of all. that they would least like to invite to a party. To study an individual. it is also common to ask the children to name the children. The Secondary Education Commission feels that with training and certain amount of practice and with an occasional check-up by the Head of the institution and by the Inspectors. 78 . therefore. encouragement. structure and development through measuring the extent of acceptance or rejection between individuals in groups. sit next to . the average Indian teacher does not yield to any teacher in any other country. Although some researchers object to the method.3 Socio-metric Techniques In order to understand the status of the individual. Sociometric technique was devised by Moreno and adapted by Jenning for study of students in class-room situation. eat lunch with.Best : Sociometry is a technique/or describing the social relationships among individuals in a group. It should be noted that in his responsibility.3. and sympathy. eat lunch with. describing and evaluating social status. and so forth. Children in a school classroom may be asked to name in order of preference (usually two or three) the child. Andrew and Willcy were of the view that A Sociogram is a graphic drawing using certain symbols and marks to indicate the pattern of social acceptance and rejection among members of a social group. 6. work on a class project with. In an indirect way it attempts to describe attractions or repulsions between individuals by asking them to indicate whom they would choose or reject in various situations. Bronfenbrenner remarked that Sociometry is the method for discovering. or have as a close friend. again in order of preference.

Negative questions may also be given to show social rejection. which will enhance the usefulness of the test. In the light of above definitions. The following might serve for that purpose :- 79 . Whom would you like to sit next to you in the class. Sociometric devices. With whom do you enjoy most in social gathering ? All these questions are positive questions and hence show social acceptance. such as the sociogram. attempt to discover the patterns of choice and rejection among the individuals is making up the group. each pupil in the group is asked to write his first. second and sometimes his third choices about various significant types of social setting. Such a list will remind the students of any who are absent on that day. (iii) Phrase the question carefully so that it is clear. (v) Distribute cards on which choices are to be indicated. Procedure of Preparing Sociometry In sociometric method. we can say that sociometry is the measurement of interpersonal relationships prevailing among the members of a group. For example he may be asked questions like the following: 1. (iv) Distribute a list of names of all students in the class. He has to select name from the group itself. Negative questions may be who are the people you dislike most ? How to Administer Sociometric Test ? The following procedure may be adopted for administration of the test: (i) Build a relationship with the class. Who would you like to be the president of your dramatic club ? 2. With whom would you like to work in the science laboratory ? 4. (ii) Decide what information you want and how you will use it. in the bus or while going for a picnic ? 3.

An individual may be isolated for several reasons : (a) He may be of shy nature 80 .... check marks may be shown...... How to interpret Sociogram ? The following procedure may be adopted to interpret the sociogram : (i) One student may be concentrated upon at a time..... but not so much time that they will reveal their choices to each other.... (d) Let ‘F’ stand for First...... tell the group that the findings will not be revealed to the other children.............. Your Third Choice:..... (vi) Set the stage for best results........ Your Name:. (ii) A detailed study of the choices made and received should be made.. efforts should be made to discover the causes for such selections............ Your First Choice : . (iv) After identifying the ‘stars’ and isolates’. be sure to give the children sufficient time to make their choices........ Your Second Choice:. A ‘star’ is a member of the group who receives most of the choices.... Finally.... ‘S’ for Second and ‘T’ for third choices respectively... During the administration explain the purpose of the test to minimize jealousies and fears..... (c) In the cells....... An ‘isolate’ is one who is not choosen by anybody..... How to tabulate the Data Data may be tabulated as under as shown in Table (a) Let the members of the group be numbered from A to J (b) Write “choosers” in the vertical column and ‘choosen’ in the horizontal column... (iii) The “stars’ and the ‘isolates’ may be looked for...... (e) Add the number of each choice.........

(a) Common interests (b) Close relations (c) Neighbours Discover Triangles A triangle shows three persons selecting one another.(b) He may not try to make friendship with others (c) He may be a new member of the group (d) He may belong to a lower or upper socio-economic level TABLE Question : Whom would you like to be the President of your Dramatic Club ? (v) Discover individuals who select each other. It shows evidence of sharp divisions or cliques in the group/ 81 . This reciprocal choice may be due to the following factors .

Advantages of Sociometry The following are the advantages of Sociometry : (i) Sociometry helps in discovering the patterns of choice and rejection among the individuals making up the group (ii) It facilitates the appraisal of the school adjustment of the individuals within the group. SOCIOGRAM The above sociogram shows the pattern of choices of 10 students. the classroom management of these individuals. 82 .Every student was asked to choose the two students with whom he would like to study and whether he would give first or second place. and screening of them for individual counselling or other remedial work in the area of social skills.

a family. Cumulative record card is one document which contains the history of the child from the day he enters the school i. a school. The researcher examines the individual in depth. at one place. He gathers pertinent data about the present. It is very useful document in the hands of counselors who can help the child in the selection of particular subject. course or vocation. a group of delinquents. Case Study is an intensive investigation of a social unit.4 LET US SUM UP Dear Learners. drop outs or any other teenage gang. may be pre-primary or primary class. Cumulative Record and Sociometry. till he leaves the school finally. 83 . The social unit may be an individual. 6. It is a document in which useful and reliable information is recorded cumulatively about a particular pupil. It also assists us in knowing the qualities of leadership as being appreciated by a particular group.e. past experiences and environmental forces that contribute to the behaviour of the individual. we have discussed with you three non-testing devices such as Case Study.(iii) It helps in identifying : (a) Leaders (b) Isolates (c) Mutual Choices (d) Cliques (e) Rejections (iv) It helps us to have an idea of group at a glance (v) It helps us to form appropriate groups of students for carrying out various activities and projects (vi) It helps us to understand the characteristics of an individual who is liked or disliked by the group.

Fullmer . 2. New York. What is Sociometric Technique ? Describe its importance and procedure of administration.C. 6. (1993) : “Educational Vocational Guidance and Counselling”. New Delhi: Eurasia Publishing house. check your progress by attempting the following questions 1. Jayaswal Sita Ram ((1993) : “Guidance and Counselling”. “cliques’ etc. 2. Sociometric technique is a means of presenting simply and graphically the entire structure of relations existing at a given instance among members of a given group. Harold W. 1981 5.6 SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS 1. Best (1992): “Research in Education”. Crow L.5 UNIT END EXERCISES Dear learners. 7 John W.D. 1969 4. Prentice Hall of India. Prakashan Kendra Lucknow. Nai Sarak Delhi. 3. Bernard & Daniel W. New Delhi. Principles of Guidance. Jones J. It helps in the identification of‘isolates’.A. and Crow (1962) : “An Introduction to Guidance Principles and Practices”. Thomas Y Crowell Company. ‘star’. New Delhi 84 . 3. Bombay. Sterling Publishers Private Ltd. What do you understand by cumulative record ? Describe its advantages.K. Describe the Case Study method. Kochhar S. 6. Aggarwal J. are made readily comprehensive at a glance. Tata McGraw 6. : Guidance and Counselling in Colleges and Universities.: Principles of Guidance . The major lines of communication or the pattern of attraction or rejection in its full scope. Doaba House. The data furnished by the sociometric method are extremely useful in the guidance programme.

: Educational and Vocational Guidance in India .. Suri S. Varanasi . & Sodhi T. Vishwa Vidyalaya Prakashan Chowk.P.P. Pandey K. Bawa Publications Patiala.8.2000 9. 85 . (1997) : “Guidance and Counselling”.S.

accurate. and complete exploration of the individual may be achieved by various testing and non-testing devices. the first thing guidance workers must do is to get to know the individual. In this lesson we will discuss the use of tests in guidance programme. Therefore.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson you will be able to : 1 Describe the Testing Techniques in Guidance 2 Discuss the Role of Testing Techniques in Guidance 86 . significant. we know him.3 Role of Testing Techniques in Guidance 7. We can not understand a person unless.4 Let Us Sum Up 7.LESSON NO.1 INTRODUCTION The aim of guidance is to help the individual. he can understand him better and guide him effectively. the more effective the guidance. and comprehensive information regarding the individual. It can be done by understanding him. 7.1 Introduction 7.0 STRUCTURE 7.6 Suggested Further Readings 7. The better the exploration of the individual.2 Objectives 7.5 Unit End Exercises 7. If he has reliable. 7 UNIT-II ROLE OF TESTING TECHNIQUES IN GUIDANCE 7.

A few of the main purposes are enumerated below:- 1. To improve instruction 6. To know his aptitudes 4. Miscellaneous Techniques Test Techniques Psychological tests are administered to the individuals as one of the means of collecting information. To ascertain social adjustment 8. which evoke such responses in the testee as reveal some well-defined characteristics possessed by him. To obtain data for diagnostic purposes 3. A test consists of a set of standardized stimuli. To determine the individual pupil’s achievement level and progress 2. The information we get from the tests can be used mainly for obtaining a better understanding of an individual and his needs.3 ROLE OF TESTING TECHNIQUES IN GUIDANCE Testing There are several methods or techniques used in the guidance programme for collecting information about the person from the various sources. These methods or techniques may be broadly classified under four heads. 1. Self-Report Techniques 4. To provide for the identification 5.7. To determine his existing self-concept. The testing service has specific purposes and aims which it wants to achieve by using standardized tests. Psychological Test Techniques 2. attitudes and personality pattern 7. Observational Techniques 3. To identify under-achievers and over-achievers 87 .

the objective factual evidence provided by tests can be used by counsellors in interviews with parents to help them 88 .Types of Tests used in Guidance The psychological characteristics that an individual possesses may be divided into five broad categories. (iii) Conferences with parents. whatever its type and measure . Reliability speaks about the consistency and accuracy of the measurement. and (5) Tests of achievement Characteristics of a good Test: Any test. Uses of the Test-Techniques The data obtained by this technique may be used for the following : (i) Educational guidance–an understanding of their assets and limitation will help students in planning their school programmes. (1) Tests of Intelligence (2) Test of abilities (3) Tests of interests (4) Tests of personality. The validity of a test lies in the fact that it measures what it intends to measure. can be selected as a guidance tool only when it is known to possess three characteristics: (a) Validity (b) Reliability (c) Practically or Usability. A test must be valid. a reliable test should consistently measure what it measures- A good test is one that can be easily administered and scored and is neither very costly nor very time-consuming. (ii) Vocational planning-knowledge of their abilities and weakness will enable students to make better occupational choices. We have thus to use these five types of test. each one of which is measurable by a test or a set of tests. In other words.

The assumption is that most abilities and interests are of some importance. Tests are recommended in a guidance programme because they have the following advantages in comparison to the other techniques :- (i) They are handy and economical methods of collecting information. The testing should take place to four basic approaches. (iv) They provide significant means of comparing individuals. how. Hopson points out towards five basic questions on the introduction of school testing programme : these are why. where and how questions of the testing programme. (ii) They are less time-consuming. ? Now we have discussed the first and fifth questions. Issues in Test Administration Having discussed the purposes and the utilities of tests in guidance programme . we should now think of few important points surroundings the test administration.? (v) Which tests are to be used. (i) Why are tests to be used at all ? (ii) When should they be given ? (iii) Where should they be given ? (iv) How are the results to be used . and which questions of the testing programme. when . (iii) They are objective. where . understand and accept their offspring abilities. 89 . achievements and interest. Hopson has given four approaches to answer this question as follows : (a) Saturation Testing In this approach the counsellor administers to one or a group of students a battery of tests selected to cover everything that is likely to be of importance for counselling. We have to think now about when. and the best way to consider them is to test them all at once and transmit the information to the students.

with the consequent lack of client participation and motivation.Disadvantages In appropriate and unnecessary testing no characterization.) Disadvantages The same as for all group testing Advantages Economical use of time and materials. Advantages It is tailored to the individual’s needs. and individually tailored (d) Precision Testing Tests are given with in the counselling process . For some students this might provide enough information to make whatever decision it is that needs to be made (selection. characteristics and expressed goals. but these may not necessary be same tests as those being taken by others in the group. It is programme of sequential measurement which could mean in practice that a short test would firstly. be given to all. (c) Preliminary Screening Battery Another approach is of preliminary screening battery. classification etc. As discussion of a pupil’s problem. difficulty of arousing client motivation Advantages Economy of time and administration (b) Individualized Batten testing In this each student takes-all his tests in a group. make it clear that 90 . to encourage client participation and to further develop rapport. Disadvantages Testing is still separated from counselling.

Test results should not be taken in isolation. Therefore. Advantages Client participation and motivation is maximum.certain specific data should be considered. The place where a test is to be administered should meet the following requirements. Then comes the question of where should be test be given ? This question has been partly covered by the last question. mainly whether the result are to be used for institutional decision making. The question of how the results are to be used depends upon the original purposes of the testing programme . Disadvantages This is the most time consuming. Thus a test may be given. (b) Be fairly quiet and free from disturbance. and discussed during the course of one interview. (c) Have adequate space for the students who are to be tested. However. scored interpreted. At the time of interpreting the individual test scores the counsellor is specially essential. Further tests may than be planned or not. How to use Test Results with Students ? Testing programme aims at developing students understanding about themselves and to assist them in their educational and vocational planning and adjustment. depending upon the needs defined by further interviewing. It is through integration and would do well to remember that the results may be influenced by many factors such as :- (i) The physical and emotional condition of the pupil at the time of taking the test 91 . (a) Have adequate lighting. students should be given an opportunity to know about their own strengths always being ready to interpret the test results to them. the physical conditions accompanying testing are of vital importance. but counsellor should consider these data in relation to other information obtained about students from different sources while counselling the students.

For example. treatment and the like. 3. which may be too limited or different from that demanded by test items (iv) Errors in administering or scoring the test (v) The validity. and norms of the test The methods and materials of interpretation have to be decided. classifying students on thebasis of aptitude. methods. where as in other cases they may give very valuable insights. if the test has been used for individual decision- making.(ii) The cultural experience of the pupil. Prediction : Various types of tests are given to individuals to obtain solid basis upon which decisions can be made. Decisions involve predictions of how well individuals will do at a later time. interest and mental abilities. 92 . Need and Importance of Standardized Tests in Educational and Vocational Guidance (i) Accurate and Reliable : Standardized tests are used because they are objective. Some training in psycho matrix and test interpretations in organization of all the available data about a student. the counsellor gains real insight into the problems of the students. In some cases. he may find that in the light of all the other information he has about a counsellee the test scores of that individual give a misleading picture. 4. Selection : Tests are also used in selection of candidates for admission. jobs or some training. Uses. as well as the rationale of the counselling procedure. reliability. Role of Testing Techniques in Guidance and Counselling Cronbach gives the following four purposes of psychological tests : 1. 2. Classification : Tests are also used for the purpose of classification of students. It is assumed that predictions based on quantitative data are more accurate and reliable and provide a balance against wishful thinking. Evaluation : Tests are used to assess and evaluate programmes. Classification means to divide students into classes or groups on the basis of some criteria.

(viii) Evaluation : Counsellors use tests to help them evaluate the outcomes of guidance and counselling. Thus. (v) Improved basis for Prediction : Counsellor may take use of test results for future performance. they have the same meaning and significance for all.cases particularly the shy children. These tests measure what they are supposed to measure and measurement by them is correct to the utmost extent. growth and development may be identified and plans for their betterment may be mutually discussed and determined. they are interpreted in the same way by all workers. By understanding each student’s strength and weaknesses. Tests can provide an improved basis for prediction regarding the likelihood of success in those activities in which prospective performance can be measured. problems of academic deficiency. In subjective observation we may overlook many problem. autobiographies etc. (iii) Same Interpretation : Since test results are usually expressed in percentiles or standard scores. adjustment problems in order to give proper guidance to the individual. Tests would discover such cases also. Thus. (vi) Decisions for planning: Guidance workers (Counsellors) may use tests to help students arrive at decisions basic to plan their educational and vocational future. For instance. thus. they measure those aspects of the behaviour which otherwise could not be measured. social adjustment. Much more information about the ability. the counsellor can provide better assistance to the individual. achievement. (iv) More Information : The information gained from tests tell about more traits of the individual than any other method would do. observation. can be gathered in a relatively short time by means of tests than is possible by means of other methods like interview. (ii) Time — saving Device : Tests are time-saving devices.accurate and reliable. 93 . The counsellors may use tests to secure accurate and reliable information about student’s abilities. standardized tests are economical in terms of time and energy. interests. interests etc. (vii) Diagnosing Problems : Guidance Counsellors use tests to diagnose problems of students.

94 . Make a comprehensive list of Testing and Non-Testing techniques for studying and appraising an Individual. tests are shadowed with the following limitations :- (i) Indifference. It should be kept in view that the techniques and tests are merely means of collecting information and no guidance worker should neglect the human factor that is the individual under study. Techniques and tests merely provide the data and information. These are testing and non-testing devices or we may call them as standardized and non-standardized tests. (iv) The unavailability of local norms (v) Heavy weighing of vertical ability in many tests (vi) Undue influence of socio-cultural conditions or environment conditions upon test results (vii) Failure to follow the directions of the tester 7. in attention.4 LET US SUM UP Dear learners. What are the purposes of testing techniques ? 3. low commitment and generally low motivation of the individuals tend to invalidate the test results (ii) Relative narrowness of the traits measured by the tests (iii) Low validity and reliability for some pupils. State the need and importance of standardized tests in guidance.5 UNIT END EXERCISES Dear learners. Interpretation of the data and information needs insight 7. there are two types of techniques for collecting information about the individual.Limitations of Testing In spite of the above advantages. 2. attempt the following questions : 1.

: Principles of Guidance . 8. : Educational and Vocational Guidance in India . 1969 4. Nai Sarak Delhi. Prakashan Kendra Lucknow. John W. Fullmer . Thomas Y Crowell Company. Jones J.S. Pandey K. Varanasi . (1997) : “Guidance and Counselling”.D. and Crow (1962) : “An Introduction to Guidance Principles and Practices”.A.P. Bawa Publications Patiala.K. (1993) : “Educational Vocational Guidance and Counselling”. Tata McGraw 5. 2. Crow L. Kochhar S.6 SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS 1.P. Harold W. 1981 9. 3. Aggarwal J.2000 95 . Principles of Guidance. Suri S. New Delhi 7. Jayaswal Sita Ram ((1993) : “Guidance and Counselling”. Bernard & Daniel W. Doaba House. & Sodhi T. New York. New Delhi: Eurasia Publishing house. New Delhi. Vishwa Vidyalaya Prakashan Chowk.C.7. Bombay. Prentice Hall of India. 6. Sterling Publishers Private Ltd. : Guidance and Counselling in Colleges and Universities. Best (1992): “Research in Education”.

In the coming pages we will share the ideas of aptitude testing in guidance programme.3 Use of Psychological Tests 8. In the present lesson we are going to discuss the use of psychological tests in guidance and counselling.2 Objectives 8. APPRAISAL OF INTELLIGENCE AND PERSONALITY TESTS. the main function of tests is to collect reliable data about the individual for making decisions about his educational.1 Introduction 8.6 Let Us Sum Up 8. Guidance workers use various psychological tests for getting the information about the individual. 96 . INTRODUCTION Dear Distance Learners.5 Aptitude Tests 8. 8 UNIT-II USE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS.8 Suggested Further Readings 8.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson you will be able to : 1 Describe the meaning and purposes of psychological tests. vocational or personal plan in his life.1 .0 STRUCTURE 8.4 Appraisal of Intelligence and Personality Tests 8. 8.7 Unit End Exercises 8. APTITUDE TESTS 8. Mainly we will also acquaint you with regard to appraisal of Intelligence and Personality tests.LESSON NO.

” Freeman writes. or by means of other behaviour.3 USE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS A psychological test has been defined in varied ways.2 Discuss the Intelligence tests used in any guidance programme 3 Describe the Personality tests used in guidance and counselling 4 Explain the aptitude testing in guidance and counselling. In this respect. examines his performance with a representative set of problems. It is obvious that a psychological test is the quantitative measurement of the various aspects of behaviour of the individual for making generalized statements about the total performance and behaviour. “A psychological test is a standardized instrument designed to measure objectively one or more aspects of a total personality by means of samples of verbal or non-verbal response. the psychologist who wishes to test the extent of a student’s mechanical comprehension. According to Anastasi. 8.” Psychologists are of the opinion that a psychological test is a pattern of stimuli selected and organized to elicit responses which will reveal certain psychological characteristics in the person who makes them The observation in a psychological test are made upon a small but carefully chosen sample of an individual’s behaviour. The diagnostic or predictive value of a psychological test depends upon the degree to which it serves as an indicator of a relatively broad and significant area of behaviour. the psychologist proceeds in much the same way as the chemist who tests the supply of water by using one or more samples of it. For example. it “is essentially an objective and standardized measure of a sample of behaviour. A good psychological test must possess the following essential characteristics :– (i) Validity (ii) Reliability (iii) Objectivity 97 .

4 APPRAISAL OF INTELLIGENCE AND PERSONALITY TESTS Intelligence and its meaning It is acknowledged by all teachers that one of the most important single variables. The usefulness of psychological tests depends upon their proper implementation. which implies proper selection. careful administration. is the quality of behaviour called intelligence. which affect the schooling. help them evaluate the outcome of guidance and counselling and plan further remedial programme. the dictionary says. diagnose student’s problems like social adjustment. (iv) Standardization (v) Norms (vi) Simplicity (vii) Economy (viii) Interesting Counsellor’s Use of Psychological Tests The counsellor may use the tests to : 1. help students arrive at decisions basic to plan their educational and vocational future. Intelligence. and 5. is: “the capacity to acquire and apply knowledge”. interests and adjustment problems in order to give him guidance and counselling 2. 8. objective scoring and sensible interpretation. 4. Psychologists according 98 . growth and development or academic deficiencies and determining plans for their amelioration. 3. secure accurate and reliable information about each student’s abilities. make use of test results for further performance through improved basis for prediction regarding the likelihood of success in activities for which prospective performance can be measured.

People with bigger heads. facial feature. According to him “ Intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully.” All the definitions have been systematized by Vernon and Freeman under three categories such as biological. Scientific measurement began in 1905 when Simon and Binet two French persons published their first test of measuring intelligence. Boring defined “Intelligence is what intelligence tests test. They prepared questions for each age group from 3 to 15 year and also gave the concept of 99 .WeschIer has given comprehensive definition.to their own concept of the term intelligence have evolved a number of definitions. These are – Faculty Theory – Two-factor theory by Spearman – Multi-factor theory by Thorndike – Group Factor Structure of Intelligence by Thurstone – Structure of Intellect (SOI) by Guilford. – Burt and Vernon’s Hierarchy Theory etc. broader foreheads and with sharp feature were considered more intelligent. psychological and operational.Thorndike has classified intelligence into three categories as (i) Concrete Intelligence (ii) Abstract Intelligence (iii) Social Intelligence There are different theories. and beauty of the face. Being dissatisfied by the number of definitions and their interpretation. which have discussed the nature of Intelligence.L. Intelligence Tests Earlier attempts to measure intelligence concerned the measurement of the side of the head.” E. D. to think rationally and to deal with his environment effectively.

(ii) Group Tests Group-tests may be verbal. By 1911. the tests prepared by them began to be used all over the world. In 1960. came the Stanford-Binet revised scale. Goddard revised the scale and produced an English Version. there are tests of different types and for different age levels. Performance-based and Mixed. intelligence testing became a world phenomenon and a large number of intelligence tests were prepared. they produced a good test of intelligence. The Simon-Binet scale was first modified by the authors and in 1911. performance-based and mixed These tests may be power and speed tests.mental age. In 1916 Tel-man of Stanford University (America) produced American Version. Non-Verbal. There are two types of Intelligence tests (i) Individual Tests Individual Tests may be verbal. called the Standford Binet Test. Non-verbal. After 1960. At present. Examples of Intelligence Tests Verbal Individual Tests (a) Standard Binet 1960 Scale (b) Standard Hindustani Revision (c) Allahabad Intelligence tests(11+) Non-Verbal Individual Tests (a) Meril-Palmer Scale (b) Gessal Development Schedule Performance Tests (i) Pinter Paterson Performance Scale 100 .

M. The Verbal scale has 6 sub-scale.Bhatia’s Battery of performance tests. The second scale called performace scale consists 5 tests.Alexander Pass along Test 101 .(ii) Good enough Draw a Man test (iii) Form Board tests (iv) Heavy picture completion test (v) Koh’s Block Design Test (vi) Alexander’s Pass Along test Verbal Group Tests (i) Pinter Paterson Performance scale (ii) Army Alpha tests (iii) Army General Classification tests (iv) Ottis Mental Ability Test (v) Hundel Mental Ability Test (vi) Tandon/Jalota General Ability test Non-Verbal Group Tests (a) Army Beta Test (b) Reven’s Progressive Matrices (c) Cartels Culture Free Test Mixed Test Weschler (WAIS) scale consists of 11 sub-tests which are grouped into two scales. It consists of 5 tests: . Test Battery C.Kobs Block Design Test .

Civil Services etc.Picture construction Test. and . (v) Promotion of students to higher classes (vi) Prediction of academic success (vii) Understanding the causes of backwardness. teaching etc. superior. law. medals etc. Uses of Intelligence Tests for Guidance and Counselling In the words of Prof.Q of students (ii) Selection of students for admission to schools in different classes (iii) Classification of students as bright. To be specific following are the uses of Intelligence tests: (i) Allocation of students for different courses can be done on the basis of I. depending upon their I. Students can select the courses/subjects and the institutions in the light of their I. 102 .Q like wise vocational choices can also be done on the basis of test results”. V. .Immediate Memory Test. Test results are used for educational and vocational guidance. honours .Pattern Drawing Test . dull etc. Police.Q. as they are predictors of success in school. They can choose the different stream of education like medicine . average.R Taneja “ Measurement of Intelligence tells us differences among-individuals and those differences have practical importance in life. slow learners etc. engineering. (ix) For purpose of educational and vocational guidance (x) Used in Research (xi) For finding underachievers . delinquency and problematic behaviour (viii) For selection in Army. college and occupation. can be done on the basis of intelligence tests (iv) Award of scholarships.

Being a dynamic organization. motives. helps the teacher and the counsellor 4. Allport writes. Techniques of Testing personality The following techniques are used for testing personality : 1. helps the employer in proper selection of the personnel 5. Observation : observation is one of the finest and easiest techniques of testing 103 . (b) It is easier to compare interviews when all interviewers have covered the same topics.” Purpose of Personality Testing In our daily lives. thoughts and attitudes with which an individual consistently reacts to the environment. it refers to the characteristic behaviour patterns. helps the students in proper educational and vocational choice 2. interests. The structured interview has certain advantages : (a) it ensures that essential topics will be covered and thus lessens the probability that an unskillful interviewer will ignore many important areas of inquiry. thoughts. The Interview : An interview is a conversation during which an interviewer seeks to elicit information about another person and to evaluate him in general terms. Both type of interviews i.e structured and unstructured are used in personality testing. helps the clinical psychologist to chose best therapy for his patients. we are constantly assessing peoples personalities in an informal way. It is a composite of mental abilities. “Personality is a dynamic organization within the individual of those psycho-physical systems that determine the unique adjustment to his environment.Appraisal of Personality Tests Personality is the sum of biological innate and acquired dispositions. feelings and behaviour. 2. helps the individuals in resolving emotional conflicts 3. emotions. Personality testing 1.

Direct observation as a technique of personality testing is useful in many ways: (i) The observer sees the person’s behaviour at first hand and does not have to rely on the person’s own description. the composite picture of the individual’s personality can be quite accurate. feelings and wishes can be a good source of information about his personality. (ii) If several careful observers provide unbiased . Some important Personality Inventories The following are the some personality inventories which are used for the appraisal of the individual: (i) The ascendance-submission reaction study by W.Allport and Floyd H. personality.Allport (ii) Bemreuter personality inventory by Bemreuter and Hindi version by D.U. Self-ratings can be done through personality inventories and paper & pencil tests both of which serve as excellent basis for later interviews.Mirchandant (iii) Bell’s Adjustment Inventory (iv) Boyd’s Personality Questionnaire (v) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by Starke R. Hathaway and J. Chamley Mckinley (vi) Comrey Personality Scales (vii) California Psychological Inventory (viii) Self-Analysis Form by R-B. Self-ratings and Personality Inventories An individual has written account of the past behaviour. factual account’s of a person’s behaviour over a period of time.Cattell (ix) Self-disclosure Inventory for Adolescents by Verindra Sinha 104 . 3.

teachers. Singh (xv) D. Thomdike (xii) Cattels Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (xiii) Study of values by Gordon W.Eysenk’s Maudsley Personality Inventory by S.L.Dutt (xvii) Aligarh Adjustment Inventory by A. It has a great advantage of being applicable without taking up the time of the subjects. usually being based on a scale of 0-5 or very poor to excellent.Qadri (xviii) Adjustment Inventory by H.Bhalla (xvi) Dutt Personality Inventory by N. A rater can record judgements of another person or of himself upon the traits defined by the scale by a device.Tiwari and H. It is less descriptive and more subjective. Saxena (xx) Kundu’s Neurotic Personality Inventory by Rama Nath Kundu 4. Jalota and S.K. Rating Scales Rating is a sample of the ‘reputation’ of the subject in the eyes of the raters - counsellors.(x) H. Checklists In a checklist the subject has to check items which are applicable to him Given below are some Checklists : (i) Student’s Problem Checklist (ii) Money Problem Checklist 5. Kapoor (xi) Dimensions of temperament by Robert L.K.S. It covers a much wider range of more natural behaviour than any practicable battery of personality tests.J. Allport (xiv) Security -Insecurity Inventory by G.M. even without their knowing anything about it. A number of rating techniques are available : 105 .J. Inventory by Pratibha Deo and S.I. parents or others.S.Asthana (xix) Vyaktitva Parakh Prashnavali (Hindi) by M. D.

needs.L. The following are some of the major projective techniques : 1.T. values.Pannar (b) Social Maturity Scale by P. Free word association 2.Ravat (c) Primary School Pupils Personality Traits Rating Scale by M.Rastogi (d) Sharma Manifest Anxiety Scale by Sagar Sharma (e) Anxiety Scale by S.Kapoor (f) Self-Concept Scale for Children by H. are concerned with complex mental processes.D.Sherry and K.(i) Ranking and Paired Comparisons (ii) Numerical Ratings (iii) Man-to-man Scales (iv) Graphic Rating Scales Few examples of Rating Scales used frequently are mentioned as below: (a) Personality Rating Scale by G.H. Word Connection 3. P.M.Singh and S. Rozenweig picture-frustration study 5. Completion Test 4. or wishes to an external object.attitudes.P.Singh (g) Personality Word List by Pratibha Deo 6.Ranji. and portray the complete personality. Drawing Painting and Sculpture 106 .P. They aim at getting at the core rather than the circumference of the personality structure. Projective Techniques Projective techniques enable a subject to project his internal feelings.Das Gupta and N.

Play 7. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) 9. Anecdotal record is a description of the student’s conduct and personality in terms of frequent. counsellor or administrator. The Children Apperception Test (CAT) 7. The diary being very personal can contain the record of such events. 9. which can prove useful in obtaining information about his personality dynamics. will give an insight into the personality of the individual. brief. concrete observations of the student made and recorded by the teacher.6. thoughts and feelings as are of great importance to the student. thus. If properly kept and made available 107 . This device can be used more for gaining understanding of a student’s ‘inner world’ than for ascertaining the facts regarding the ‘outer world. a fair account of the personality of the student can be built up. in response to which he gives expression to his feelings for other persons. If these observations are summarized chronologically. 8. Autobiography It is a personal and comprehensive document of an individual. The Daily Diary The daily diary kept by students can also serve as a good device for a measure of personality. 10. Anecdotal Records This is also a promising approach to the investigation of pupil personality. A proper interpretation of autobiography.It gives a dynamic picture of the student in diverse situations and thus is a good device for the assessment of personality. The subject reveals some of his personality traits through his preference for or against certain contacts with others and through his spontaneous methods of dealing with life-situations that confront him. Rorschach Ink-blot test 8. Situational or Behavioural Tests This is a test in which the behaviour of the individual is evaluated in action by judges or by his peers or he is confronted with the situations related to his own life.

or in such activities as playing the violin or learning a language. (Jones) According to Traxler “ Aptitude is a present condition which is indicative of an individual’s potentialities for the future. If the authorities of various schools and colleges wish to reduce the number of probable failures among those who enter the schools. Difficulties in Personality Testing The difficulties encountered in personality testing are the subject’s reluctance to disclose sensitive information.” In the words of Bingham “ Aptitude is a condition or set of characteristics regarded as symptomatic of an individual’s ability to acquire with training some usually specified 108 . They can fairly predict success in the course of study or career. An individuals personality reflects his characteristic behaviour traits and the way he consistently reacts to his environment. By testing aptitude. A person who is being questioned about his personality may be reluctant to disclose information that will show in an unfavourable light. they should make the selection on the basis of some aptitude tests along with other measures or tests. We occasionally alter our behaviour patterns in times of illness. In assessing personality we are not interested in a person’s best behaviour but want to find out his typical behaviour in ordinary situations.5 Aptitude Tests It is usually asserted that next to intelligence. must take into account the possibility that the person being assessed may not be displaying his characteristic way of behaving. the diary can serve as a useful medium of throwing light upon many aspects of the personality of the individual. a good musician or a good teacher. Defining Aptitude Aptitude has been defined as a measure of the probability of the success of an individual. 8. therefore. personal misfortune or family troubles. Any measurement of personality. with training.to the counsellor and used by him in confidence. in school. aptitudes are related to professional and vocational success of an individual. we are able to know to a great extent whether an individual will become a good leader. in a certain type of situation . But most of us also want to appear at our best before others.a job.

knowledge, skill or set of responses, such as the ability to speak language, to produce
music”.

Characteristics of an Aptitude

Super thinks an aptitude in terms of four characteristics :

1. Specificity

2. Unitary composition

3. Facilitation of learning activity or type of activity

4. Constancy

Assumptions regarding Concept of Aptitude

Bingham states that the concept of aptitude rests upon three assumptions :

1. An individuals potentialities are not equally strong

2. Individuals differ from one another in their potentialities

3. Many of these differences are stable

Nature of Aptitudes

1. An aptitude is a unique combination of abilities and personality characteristics,
which predisposes a person to do one kind of work better than another and
increases his chances of success at it

2. An aptitude, therefore, is not a unitary trait of human personality. For example,
aptitude for science involves basic intellectual qualities like logical reasoning,
abstract reasoning, arithmetical reasoning, certain temperamental qualities like
interest in experimentation and initiative for invention, personality characteristics
like persistence and hard work.

3. An aptitude is largely acquired, though in many cases it has an innate basis.

The measurement of aptitudes for specific vocational pursuits becomes a
complicated process, as there are thousands of occupations.

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Specific Areas of Aptitude Tests

Among the tests available, the following category of tests is oftenly used:

1. Art Aptitude Test
2. Clerical Aptitude Test
3. Manual Aptitude Test
4. Mechanical Aptitude Test
5. Medical Aptitude Test
6. Musical Aptitude Test
7. Scholarly Aptitude Test
8. Scientific Aptitude Test
9. Teachers Aptitude Test

Use of Aptitude Tests in Guidance

(i) These are used for purpose of guidance in selecting subjects for studying, for use
to help the students to select the profession or occupation of his choice.

(ii) Employers can use it for making selection of his employees.

(iii) Different aptitude tests can be used in admitting candidates for different professional
trainings such as Law, Medicine, Engineering etc.

8.6 LET US SUM UP

Dear Learners, in this lesson we have discussed with you that the job of counsellor
is to use the various types of psychological tests to secure accurate and reliable information
about students. These tests are intelligence, achievement, personality, aptitude, attitude,
and interest etc. The usefulness of psychological tests depends upon their proper use.
Only those tests should be selected for use, which are valid, reliable, accurate, practical,
and standardized. They should be not very lengthy, time consuming and costly.

The administration of psychological tests requires careful planning and preparation.
Instructions should be thoroughly studied. Test material should be adequate and in fit

110

condition. Procedure should be rehearsed. For Scoring, the manual of the test should be
followed and interpreted accordingly

8.7 UNIT END EXERCISES

Dear Learners, check the progress by attempting the following questions:

1. What is a Psychological test ? Discuss the need for psychological tests in Guidance
and Counselling ?

2. Discuss the Intelligence testing and its uses in Guidance and counseling ?

3. Describe the appraisal of Personality Testing in Guidance.

4. Describe Aptitude Tests used in Guidance.

8.8 SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS

1 Aggarwal, J.C. (1993) : “ Educational Vocational Guidance and Counselling”
Doaba House New Delhi

2 Bernard, Harold W & Daniel, W( 19690: “.Principles Guidance : A brief Text”.
Allied Publishers New Delhi

3 Chauhan S.S (1982) : “ Principles and Techniques of Guidance “, Vikas
Publishing House, Delhi.

4 Jayaswal SitaRam(1993) : “ Guidance and Counselling” , Prakashan Kendra
Lucknow.

5 Kochhar, S.K. (1993) : “ Educational and Vocational Guidance in Secondary
Schools” . Sterling Publishers New Delhi

6 Pandey, K-P (1987) : “The Bases of Educational and Vocational Guidance”,
Abhilash Prakshan.

7 Sodhi, T.S and Sun, S.P. (2006) : “Guidance and Counselling” , Bawa
Publications, Patiala

111

9.1. 112 . to put proper persons at the proper place.2.2 Objectives 9.4. Let Us Sum Up 9. INTRODUCTION Dear Students.7.4. It provides needed Information and proper guidance to the students.1Organization of Guidance Services at Elementary Level 9. Unit End Exercises 9.1.LESSON NO. Introduction 9. 2 To explain the specific organisation of guidance services.It helps in the maximum utilization of resources. Suggested Further Readings 9.0. STRUCTURE 9. the main function of guidance services at various level to carry out certain functions in a simplified way i. OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. PRINCIPLES OF ORGANISATION OF GUIDANCE SERVICES AT ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY LEVELS 9. Self Evaluation Questions 9. Organisation and Administration of Guidance Services 9.5. Purposes of Organisation of Guidance Services 9.2Organization of Guidance Services at Secondary Level 9.3. the student will be able to do the following : 1 To explain the importance of organisation of guidance services.4.6.9 UNIT-III PURPOSES.e to determine the needs of the students more accurately.8.

a function that is shared by all and should be so administered.” 113 . “Guidance is not something that can be separated from the general life of the school. It is a party to every school activity. 3 To classify the organisation of guidance services at primary level of education. It is meant for all the students and not just for those who deviate from the norms in one direction or the other. to determine the needs of the students more accurately. should be required as an integral part of education and not special psychological and social services which are peripheral to educational purposes. some form of guidance is the duty and the responsibility of every teacher in the system. It cannot be tucked away in the office of the counsellor or in the employment bureau. It opens the door to attain the objects of one’s life. nor is it something that can be located only in some particular part of the school. The aims of guidance are most adjustive and developmental. Guidance. It is then. Indian Education Commission (1964-66) has laid down. “Guidance services has a much wider scope and function than merely that of assisting students in making educational and vocational choices. It helps to make use of the expert services.e. in the proper manner and at the proper time. It provides needed information and proper guidance. It helps to put proper persons at the proper place. therefore. It helps the students in making the best possible adjustment to the situation in the educational institutions and at the same time it facilitates the adjustment of all aspects of personality. It co-ordinates all activities suitably. 5 To distinguish between the organisation of guidance services at primary and secondary levels. 4 To clearly explain the organisation of guidance services of secondary level. It is also a continuous process aimed at assisting the individual to make decisions from time to time.3 PURPOSES OF GUIDANCE PROGRAMMES IN SCHOOLS The main purpose of Guidance Programmes is carrying out certain functions in a simplified way i.” Jones observes. to define individual responsibilities with a fair degree of accuracy and to make the staff more readily accept the responsibilities. It helps in the maximum utilization of resources. 9. It provides promise for success and motivation.

so as to plan it on firm footings. Physical Facilities. (b) Programme Planning : It is to be a co-operative show of organization. (d) Physical i.e. philanthropists and service clubs such as Lions Club. ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF GUIDANCE SERVICES A guidance scheme cannot be launched on the same pattern in a small school as in a large school. Some fundamental principles to work as basis are 5 P’s i. public leaders. (e) Public Support : It includes the support of parents.3. governing bodies. (a) Personnel : Guidance worker must be properly qualified and trained provided with such facilities that his knowledge is kept fresh and up-to-date. (a) Personnel. (b) Programme Planning. (x) It should be directed towards improved pupil self-knowledge and self-direction as ultimately he is to make his own decisions. Junior Chambers etc.4. 9. (viii) Better staff unity (ix) Adequate and up-to-date information regarding occupational and educational requirements and opportunities should be secured. Counsellor as Secretary and all teachers as members. so while planning all those who are associated should be involved in it.e.1 SPECIFIC PURPOSE OF ORGANISING GUIDANCE SERVICES IN SCHOOLS (i) Co-ordinating guidance work (ii) Consolidation of individual efforts by all the staff (iii) Economic use of time and it provides equal opportunities for all (iv) Better understanding of pupil traits and location of his problem (v) Better understanding of pupil needs and interest (vi) Healthy class room relations (vii) Better utilisation of community resources for testing etc. It is better to form a committee of the Principal as President. Rotary Club. 114 . (c) Proper Budgeting.9.

(c) Proper Budgeting : It can only be organised on firm footing when proper budget provision is made both in form of time and money. (e) Public Support : All local public and private organizations need to be involved in it. However.1.4. It is thus essential that all the elementary school teachers should during their training. However. at this period of time the child is so immature that any type of systematic guidance is difficult to be provided to him. All these informations are further strengthened during the further years of schooling. a special care needs to be taken that funds provided for guidance services must not be diverted to other channels. However. It should have facilities to sit and read. 9. It is also here that the proper foundation of the guidance programme will be laid down. but not to the students. (b) Two Types of Approaches Preventive and Developmental Approach : (i) Preventive Approach of Guidance : The elementary teacher is to look after and involve many preventive and protective services such as classroom guidance. to encourage the student to strengthen his intrinsic interests and aptitudes and also to provide them guidance if they are not adjusting with the class as well as the school. Even when it is a fact that much of the guidance need not be provided to the students at this stage it is also a bare fact that the qualities of the students can best be located when he is studying at this level of schooling and encouraged to be further developed so that his original interest crystalise at latest stage. ORGANIZATION OF GUIDANCE SERVICES AT ELEMENTARY LEVEL (a) The age of elementary class students is the most impressive period during the schooling of the child. (d) Physical Facilities : It needs proper privacy and a place to keep the record of the students like cumulative record. be acquainted with guidance programme so that they are in a position to keep proper record and help other experts if need be. so that it is assessable to the teachers. An occupational information room will be the dire necessity. keeping proper record of such students in the procedural record and cumulative record proves to be of great help during the further schooling programme used also providing some training guidance to him. group 115 . What teacher needs to do is to keep a proper record of it.

This includes offering pre-social classroom guidance lesson in group. The cumulative record is to be maintained in a systematic way. In case the teacher is in a position to locate any alignment with the behaviour of the student. establishing healthy boy-girl relationships and learning time. others and curricular development. In order to be able to provide effective guidance programme the assessment of their needs is done. In order to provide such facilities in the Elementary Schools in USA. their parents and other teachers. making. consultation etc. schooling by emphasizing activities counselling service. The counsellor addresses mothers on matters of common concern and teach new ways of handling old problem by getting many people committed to work in cooperative manner. (ii) Developmental Approach of Guidance : The guidance worker is to see that children’s experience and exchange socialization skill and positive self-concept. If need be the help of the doctor as specialist can also be arranged. In order to achieve these goals the counsellor will organize service with teachers/ administrators and parents. In this way. If need he can discuss the problem with the school counsellor and seek his help. It becomes the duty of the teacher to provide guidance. Myrick has recommended a projective. This type of assessment is generally done with the cooperation of fellow 116 . co-ordination of activities. The teacher is to observe the child minutely and help him to adjust with the classroom environment with other students with the teaching material etc. discuss large classroom.counselling. The teacher of primary level can have some sessions with these students who have one type or the other problem and examine the causes and remedies to help him to adjust in a better way. This information is to be collected from the students. The activities force on structured team up activities. It includes large classroom meetings and the equal number of small group meetings. the guidance programme will help the problem children by identifying them and providing them individual guidance. he can discuss it with parents as both the school and the house can help to smoothen the growth for the proper development of the child. such as understanding on self. problem solving. get along with teacher and how to make friends. developmental comprehensive approach to guidance programme.

They need to be made acquainted with these services established in developed nations. Play therapy and bibliography are two strategic inversions that help counsellor’s establishment rapport with young children and facilities their self- understanding. ORGANIZATIONS OF GUIDANCE PROGRAMME AT SECONDARY LEVEL When the guidance services are to be recognised in secondary schools. Play therapy is a specialized way of working with children that requires skill based training.teachers. For the time being.2. thus seeing themselves through loving eyes. self-concept. it will help in the establishment of such services at secondary level. After drawings are complete children pretend to be special persons on whom they have drawn.e. If the practice of providing guidance services is established at elementary school level. a counsellor can be appointed to co- ordinate this working in a cluster of schools. academic competencies. self- confidence and social and academic possibilities. It is covered more frequently in the counsellor’s education programme. In this treatment modality children pretend to be artist. school. drawing special people in their lives who love them.e. relationship with others and the self.4. counsellor needs to focus on helping children to improve upon the critical areas of school i. Through the drawings children improve their self-concept. First of all the senior officers of the school administration need to be provided with complete knowledge of this service and their interests cultivated in it. family relation. researches carried 117 . Counsellor can also enhance self-esteem by having children look at themselves through the eyes of this special person. It has been worked out that this need assessment is concentrated in four main areas i. coping ability and control. it becomes essential that all the members of the staff properly understand that it is team work and it can only be organized if all of them actively participate in it. Needless to say that we will have to make our Elementary Teacher Training Programme (ETT) more guidance oriented and increase the guidance content in it along with some practical training to be imparted. In order to enhance self-esteem. 9. communication skill. Young children often respond best to the counselling strategies build around a technique that requires active participation. community and students.

(ii) Headmaster of the School : The Headmaster should have full faith in the guidance services and his philosophy of education be clear about its relationship with guidance. administrating of psychological list.out its uses in human resources development. All this will not only help him to cultivate his real interest in it. but make him. He must call the meeting of the guidance committee maintain its record and have democratic discussion. This committee should frame the policy fix its targets. I. research and to suggest changes in the light of research finding. ORGANIZATION OF FACULTY (i) Faculty Guidance Committees : At the time of organizing guidance service in school first of all a permanent faculty committee be organized with Headmaster as the President. He should introduce cumulative records and train class teachers about mode of filing proper information in it and maintain it. counsellor as the Secretary and all those teacher who have had some training as its member. parents and students with the benefits of its services. teachers. As a rule when the guidance services are established in a high school at first a career makers is appointed in it. The career master is capable of performing only a few of these services even when he understands all these services. district level officers and Principals of colleges etc. the leader of the team for providing guidance facilities to the students. (iv) Teacher : The counsellors in high school environments are to concentrate on the following four tasks : 118 . It will be better if the council is made the incharge of the programme and it should involve all the teachers in it. need to be further made clear to them. its uses in the progress of development. to get the expert advise for the organization of guidance services and to act upon it and to evaluate guidance service and to bring requisite changes in it. acquaint all the staff members. social workers. new developments in this field and expenditure made by such nations in it. (iii) Counsellors and Career Master : The work of counsellor can be done by a teacher who has undergone at least one years special training of counsellor. He is to perform all the services including counselling. employment officers. He should work as Public Relations Officer and maintain good relations with students. In order to give proper representation on the committee.

occupational information and provide necessary help to students for their use. the teacher should provide occupational information to the students by correlating it with his subjects as and when these are an occasion for it. Teacher is a friend guide and leader of the students. He is supposed to provide full co-operation to the counsellors about the students. (d) Providing remedial interventions for students needing special help. Even when guidance services are not established in a school. (viii) Co-operation of Parents : The social conditions in our country are such that parents needs to be enlightened that children should be allowed to make their 119 . (a) Organising and making available to students comprehensive information systems necessary for educational and vocational planning and decision-making. the teacher does provide certain aspects of guidance services. (c) Helping students to assess the personal characteristics. journal and pamphlets on guidance. so at times in each school. a psycholinguist and nurse. It has been well said that all guidance is education. (vi) Health Department of School : As a rule every large school should have a full time doctor. till this stage is not ripe the Government must ensure that doctors appointed in hospital visit the schools and provide needed medical aid to the students. He is always to be of great help to the counsellors. a dentist. While teaching his own subject. While teaching his own subject. but all education is not guidance. (b) Organising and presenting classroom curricula that focus development of adolescents. health and economic problems etc. (v) School Psychologist : The school counsellor is to be busy with so many multipurpose activities. He needs to be well acquainted with the different types of information. or in a group of schools a psychologist is appointed who conducts the needed psychological test and interpret them. The work being of highly technical native only a qualified person is appointed on it. (vii) Librarian : The librarian can be helpful to the extent that he collects the books. which affects his studies such as intelligence level. social interaction level. However. the teacher can provide occupational information to them.

filing cabinet etc. the numbers of his brothers and sisters and his relationship with the types of educational facilities available at home. organize different types of services for the students such as medical aid. teachers parent associations. religious and labour organizations etc. if the guidance is to be established on firm failings. They should be dealt with psychologically. shortage occupations. separate room with the above facilities will have to be made for the guidance workers to shoulder his responsibilities. 9. achievements in co-curricular activities and important developments etc. The parents should be encouraged to express their views in a free and frank manner. doctors. is a must to be established. LET US SUM UP Our schools generally and specifically when GATs have been made applicable 120 . In this way. professional loans. In actual practice a good many types of entries such as school achievements. (a) Student Welfare Services : Organizations like Teacher Parent Associations. organizations of industrialists. economic help etc. Lion’s club. employment exchange. Rotary clubs etc. which is becoming a necessity i. In the same way this cummulative record will have to be maintained in good conditions as these are to be used for quite a longer time. It is better to prepare a checklist of the needed information such as what parents expect of their wards. students unions.e. training facilities.own decisions about their problems. There can be of immense help to the school and associated to solve their problems of many students. (b) Accommodations : In every school a guidance corner with extensive information about occupations. etc. surplus occupations.5. can be made in it time and again so it will have to be suitably placed under the supervision of the counsellor for which proper accommodation is to be provided along with other requisite material such as cummulative recording material. (ix) Co-operation of Other Organizations : In order to establish guidance services on firm footing it is essential to get the cooperation of guidance clinics.

The children at this stage demonstrate their personal interest while playing. their concepts about themselves become quite clear by bringing their merits and weaknesses. All guidance is education but all education is not guidance. So that they respect the preferences and also personality built up of their wards and do not impose their own values upon them. It is very important from the point of view of preparing ground for effective guidance at later stages. Every teacher is competent to provide all types of guidance to the students. 9. dealing with their equals and also developing relations with others. SELF EVALUATION QUESTIONS 1. need proper guidance services as they will now be able to compete with human resources of the advanced nation only when they will properly cultivated and groomed in this educational treatment.6. (Yes/No) 3. In the Indian situation it becomes quite clear that parents will have to be involved in a bigger way in it. (Yes/No) 4. A poor country like India can better do without guidance programme. At the same time. Both the preventive and development approaches be used to provide them their facilities. so that their knowledge about the world of work becomes quite clear for them. (Yes/No) 121 . In order to provide guidance to the students specific guidance services will have to be adopted. At secondary level the students should be given different types of tests of need by and their cummulative records be so prepared that it becomes every for the students to clarify their concepts for going in for some type of training in different types or to go in for further academic. (Yes/No) 2. it must be provided in a systematic way. For all this it becomes absolutely necessary to provide them the facilities guidance services right from the primary education level. At primary level. sharing their toys. also for which cummulated record be prepared. In fact at this age the students be provided the good deal of experience.in 2005.

2.8. 1971. : Education as Guidance. The real stage to start with the building up of the guidance resources is elementary education. George E. No. McMillon Company. Yes. J. 1941. In elementary school the children are so young that no guidance can be provided to them. McGraw Hill Book Company Inc. Yes. 7. (Yes/No) 8. 5. Arther : Principles of Guidance. Bring out the importance of organising guidance services at secondary level..M. Yes. New York. No. 6. 10. Browen. Yes. 3. : Principles and Techniques of Vocational Guidance. 3. Cummulative records must be started to be build up right from the day the student enter the school. 122 . 9. 9. 2.. (Yes/No) 6. 8. (Yes/No) Key : 1. (Yes/No) 10. Jones. New York. Yes. 1963. Describe the significance of organising education guidance at primary stage of education. Myers. SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS 1. (Yes/No) 9. Explain it by giving examples. Both educational and vocational guidance are essential at secondary stage of education. Guidance of secondary education can never be disposed with in the times of GATs. 5. Yes. No. (Yes/No) 7. Describe the importance of cummulative records in it. New York. Both the preventive and developmental type of approaches be used to provide guidance to the students.7. 9. 4. No. UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. McGraw Hill Book Company Inc.

Asia Publishing House. Sinha. The McMillon Company.P. 1960. New York. S. Ruth : Educational Guidance : Its Principles and Practices. 2005. T. : Dynamics of Vocational Behaviour. Bawa Publications. Strang. Suri. & Sodhi.4. : Guidance and Counselling.N. 5. 1973 6.S. Patiala. Japan. 123 . S.

1 INTRODUCTION Dear Learners. OBJECTIVES After going through the lesson.5. Individual Inventory Service 10.LESSON NO.2.3.Self Evalution Questions 10. Administration of Individual Inventory Service 10. 124 .Unit End Exercises 10. the student will be able to : 1 Know different types of guidance services.7. Administration of Placement Service 10. importance and evaluation of Individual Inventory Service.3.Suggested Further Readings 10.4.Let Us Sum up 10.1.6.3. 2 Explain about the need.Different Services of Guidance 10. In the present lesson we will come to know the need. 10.2. in the previous lesson we have acquainted you with the main functioning of guidance services at various school level.3.1.2 Objectives 10.10 UNIT-III INDIVIDUAL INVENTORY SERVICE & PLACEMENT SERVICE 10.0 STRUCTURE 10. importance and evaluation of individual inventory service.3.Introduction 10.

Needless to say that guidance services will have to be analysed in the light of the obligation that the guidance programme assumes for each pupil. (iii) To furnish to the individual such information that is not given in the conventional education system and which will make his next steps more realistic and meaningful. (v) To assist the individual in a complete analysis of all factors which will be helpful to him. (iv) To interpret the information to the individual and the family so that maximum of benefit from the information may be expected. in order to reach a more objective solutions to the problems. Hatch and Dressel have summed them up into the following eight types : (i) To collect all the significant information of an individual which will be of assistance in furthering his adjustment. “The guidance process consists of a group of services to individuals to assist them in securing the knowledge and skill needed in making adequate choice. Some guidance scholars like Smith have put two of the terms i. 3 Make others clear. about the need and expansion of placement services. terms such as ‘guidance’ or ‘guidance process’ is used for ‘guidance services’. These services are designed to result with efficiency in areas which require that the individual make adjustment in order that he may be an effective member of the society”. 10. (vi) To alter the environment of the individual. in his adjustment to his environment. 125 . guidance and services together.3. so as to enhance the speed of adjustment. whenever possible. whenever such information is needed. (ii) To interpret that information to the individual and members of his family. plans and interpretations essential to satisfactory adjustment in a variety of areas. DIFFERENT SERVICES OF GUIDANCE Generally.e.

their occupation. Three types of criteria to be used for the collection of such information: (a) Objectivity : This is to use the techniques. INDIVIDUAL INVENTORY SERVICE This service emphasizes the collection of information that will identify each pupil as a unique individual. personality rating etc. evidence for verification of date of birth. (b) Behaviour : The information is collected about the individual from many sources. rank in class. rating in home environments. honours won. (ii) Home and Community : Name of the parents and guardians. date of birth. ways and means of collecting information that will result in the accurate inventory of the individual in an objective way. (vii) To follow-up the individual after he leaves the school in order to evaluate his adjustment and to obtain information which may be used to alter and improve the school environment. birth place of the parents. education. (iv) Test Scores : Achievement in test scores. sex. In this lesson we will discuss only two of these services : (i) The Individual Inventory Service (ii) The Placement Service 10. A good quantity of information must be available before the accuracy of the pattern takes on such significance. place of birth. (iii) Scholarship : School marks by years and subjects. (c) Identification : The main aim of collecting such an information is to establish the uniqueness of the individual as he is aware of the dissimilarities. 126 . I. names.3. age. residence. It must concentrate upon the behaviour pattern. language. COLLECTION OF INDIVIDUAL INVENTORY INFORMATION (i) Personal Identification : Name. special report on achievements. results of interest inventory. It is of no use collecting the information which is common with all the pupils. siblings i.e.1. marital status of the parents. aptitude test.

earning duties) employer’s report. reason. physical disabilities. (ii) Guidance Record : ‘Cumulative Record’ This is the record for each pupil of the kind of information that will make it possible to identify him as unique individual. year-wise attendance and absentees. The age of keeping this type of record is fixed up. (ix) Anecdotal Records : It is usually collected on special forms pertaining to different aspects of important incidents. Separate form be used to report the incidence of behaviour indicating success and problem experience. date. (vii) Employment : Part-time job or summer job (with dates. (vi) Health : Maintenance of height and weight by semiconneal measurements. student day (officer and activities). However some are temporary. vision. It has the following advantages from the point of view of effectiveness for its recording and maintenance. date. Many of these are of permanent nature. (x) Interview Notes : Separate report of each interview be prepared i. station. vaccination record. (viii) Activity Record : Athletics. clubs. The administrative record is maintained by the clerk and is preserved for many years. recommendation by school doctors on these different aspect. It also includes various types of information mentioned under administrative record above. 127 . II. work experience etc. hobbies and leisure time activities to be collected from the students and school. interests and plan discussed. (xi) Follow-up Record : It should contain periodic reports of employment. education. Hearings. satisfaction and problems. (v) School Attendance : Systematic record of attendance.e. condition of teeth. non-school clubs and activities. nature of the problem discussed etc. RECORD KEEPING It is of two types : (i) Administrative Record : It is of two types.

e. (i) Uniqueness of Information : In order to make the information that tends to identity the characteristics of the pupils upto-date. The first element can be evaluated by inspecting some of the cumulative records. parents. IV. secondary and higher secondary then it causes a definite break in its continuation and also adds the cost of maintaining it. (iv) Systematically Maintain : As it is to be used for a period of 12 years so it should be maintained in a heavy card-board of the standard file drawer. employers and other schools. old health reported of little use be removed. old tests. easy to complete and organized logically for its completion. outdated anecdotes. the outdated material which is of no use i.e. elementary. All this information should be so shared with the staff for the improvement of the service. (ii) Continuing Record : It should contain continuous folding of pupils experience at all grade levels. ADVANTAGES OF CUMULATIVE RECORD It should be maintained on a specific type of foulder and kept at a safe place. Obtaining wide use of the data by the staff. it goes with the students. 2. It is of great value when it is introduced at the time the pupil enters the school and is maintained for the span of time in which he is enroled. If record is maintained for different levels i. parent notes. (iii) Simplicity : The record is simple. It can be done by the committee by random sampling method. In case of the change of schools. EVALUATION OF INVENTORY SERVICE Generally survey method is used to evaluate it by isolating these elements : 1. 3. objective. It travels with this student.III. Sharing information in the files with students. Maintaining complete and up-to-date files. It is easily maintained in such a file which is adaptable to variations of information at various grade levels. 128 .

3. It may be collected from brouchers. social attitudes etc. increased population. I. charts. 129 .2 ADMINISTRATION OF INFORMATION SERVICE It is essential for the individual to understand the environments in which he is to live. outlines. The information like World of work. film strips and films. books. The individual needs to be kept abreast to adjust with the frustrations of the nature of occupations. technological innovations. methods of filing and useful techniques of interpreting the information of these three major kinds. The service does not deal only with the interpretation of the information but is concerned with sources. ADMINISTRATIVE PROBLEMS OF THE INFORMATION SERVICES It pertains to three major inter-related categories : (i) Relating to Collection and Preparation of Information (ii) Relating to Housing the Information (iii) Relating to Presenting the Information (1) Collection and Preparation of Information : It concentrates upon the selection of material. (c) Personal Information. Thus the information services make use of the major part of the group activities of the guidance programme. Generally three identifiable but closely correlated phases of information. work and progress. economic demand.10. inventions. The information is mostly meant for groups and is exploratory rather than highly definitive. training opportunities and technique of getting alongwith others is of general value for all the pupils. It may be prepared as under. Due to such factors this service is to be a major part of the programme of guidance services. The factors which add to the complexity of the society continue to increase due to industrial specializations. every individual must be aided to understand the ever-changing requirements of his present and future environments. education and social aspects in particular. agreed to by the guidance workers are : (a) Occupational Information (b) Educational Information. If adjustment is to be made satisfactory. for all the three categories. One brochure may be primarily devoted to discussion of given information and also contain training facilities related to it.

Counsellor. (ii) Educational : College and University catalogues. educational opportunities and social life. co-ordinator and librarian in the execution of the responsibility. (d) Film strips or slides of local industry. booklets with study habit suggestions. directories of technical schools. summaries of scholarships and loans. (2) Responsibility for Collection of Information : It must be remembered for all types of activities that even when it is a fact that guidance is a specialized service to be handled by the experts. brouchers with suggestions for good grooming and variety of material on personal hygiene. 130 . (e) Supplement readings on local opportunities. wall charts. directories of institutes of higher education. (iii) Supplying educational. (c) Charts emphasizing local information. film strips. social and occupational information. wall charts. (i) Occupational : Occupational abstracts. films and periodicals and news papers. films. wall charts. The following additional information of the following types be prepared : (a) Parent hand-book. guides or monographs. (ii) Supplementary printing material with first hand contact with people in occupations be considered. films. He needs the assistance and the co-operation of all the other members of the staff. books describing one or more occupation in details. the fact remains that it cannot be carried out by him alone. briefs. (b) Junior and senior high school hand-book. directories of private schools. (iii) Personal and Social : Booklets designed to help students to understand themselves and other work book with reading guides. (3) Evaluation of Information Services : The following elements are essential for evaluating the information service : (i) Making available all the information they need. In the same way he needs the help of the teachers.

(d) No. The extent to which this element is present should be measured by application of the standards for occupational literature to be developed to contain information of the following aspects : (a) History of the occupation. (p) Supplementary information. library work. 131 . (g) Methods of entering. (h) Time required to obtain skill. In evaluating the available occupational material in the school it would be worthwhile to use the complete report from which it is quoted. In addition it should contain : (a) It should have the sponsoring authority and the competency of the staff who gathered the information. (i) Advancement. unbiased and timely information. (c) Dates.3. Many guides like to include the changing of the classroom environment in the service of placement while there are many who like to include only the job placement as placement. number of organisations visited.3.e. (e) Qualification. (k) Earning. (I) Conditions of work. (e) It should have been tried on some consumers. (j) Related occupations. (iv) Placing the responsibility for the success of this service on the total staff. THE ADMINISTRATION OF PLACEMENT SERVICE The assistance provided to a student to obtain employment or additional training if that part of the guidance programme which is known as placement service. 10. (n) Typical place of employment. (c) Must indicate the method used to gather the information i. of workers engaged in the occupation. (v) Using only accurate. (d) It should be validated and procedure of validation given. kinds of organisations visited and number of persons interviewed. (f) Preparation. (m) Organisations. (o) Advantages and disadvantages. (b) Date and year of preparation. (b) Importance of the occupation and its relationship to society.

A centralized placement officer is appointed. (i) The prospective employer has one contact. (iv) The staff members with personal placement contacts may be used in a referral capacity from the central office. It is important that the person should have interest in it and should have the requisite qualifications to perform the job. (iii) Educational placement transcripts may be prepared from the same records by some person responsible for job placement. centralized and decentralized service or combination of the two services. it has the advantage to be adopted when required. II. which make it virtually impossible for an employer or institution to obtain prospective adjustment from several student categories. (ii) The placement record can be put at one place. Every teacher has a group of students for whom he undertakes the service and staff members also develop relations with given group of employers or representatives of training institutions. Counsellor or Vice-Principal or Vocational Coordinator looks after it. Its disadvantage is the duplication of efforts and dissipation of responsibility.e.I. (vii) It is easier to develop an effective working relationship with other placement agencies. (v) One set of forms may be used throughout the community. (vi) The Central Placement Director may maintain constant contact with all employers and the registrars of training institutions. but little effort is made to undertake uniform approach to perform or relate the service to one and other. (a) Decentralised Service : In the decentralized form of the service every effort is made to ensure a placement service for every youngster. STAFFING OF PLACEMENT SERVICE Generally. It is not important as to who looks after this job. (b) Centralised Service : Because of the following merits. SOME ADMINISTRATIVE PROBLEMS In Indian institutions the organized programme can be of two types i. 132 .

In order to organize the placement service on firm footings. Under these circumstances. (e) Prepare study units in the selection of a college and related information. the school administrator may find it desirable to work closely with the representatives of placement groups in the community in the earlier stages of school placement programme. CO-ORDINATION OF THE WORK OF THE STAFF The entire school staff has to contribute towards this service. (b) Organisational ability. (d) Prepare units in courses of job-finding and related information. The placement officer must also feel obliged. (d) A reputation for maintaining good relationship with other. the school placement service is not in direct competition with other placement agencies but is rather a supplement service. III. It is important for all the placement agencies to find out ways and means of increasing the effectiveness of all placement agencies. report of the work of the central placement officer. Once 133 . or some of the minimum effort to fulfil that obligation. (c) Maintain contact with employers. so as to allow requests to be forwarded to the central office. (a) Some training in guidance. (b) Assist in the location of special opportunities. IV. The staff members may be expected to do the following : (a) Provide information about the students to be used in placement. good acquaintance with the community. new requirements and recognition of certain staff members for their contribution to placement. DEVELOPING RELATIONS WITH OTHER PLACEMENT AGENCIES The school placement agency will be primarily concerned with part-time placement and initial job placement when the student terminates his training. (c) Reasonably. a list of opportunities. He should prepare.

LET US SUM UP There are a good many types of services of guidance. aptitudes. it becomes the responsibility of the placement director to maintain and further strengthen the relationship that will result in maximum service for the students. this record is inversably transferred to that school. It helps both the school and the employees and make the education community-centered and involves the community to help the school. which contains the information about the individual from the day. All this information is generally recorded in cummulative record. Inventory service is to know the measure about the individual has personal identity. The placement service is also organised in most of the schools for giving the job experience and also providing how job in the long run for this purpose the Counsellor. In case the student changes the school. 10. (Yes/No) 134 . However. (Yes/No) 3. the student enters the school to the day of his passing of the last examination of the school. most accepted ones are five only out of which we have delimited ourselves to Inventory Service and Placement Service.5 SELF EVALUATION QUESTIONS 1. In addition. activity etc. 10. test scores. interests and personality assessment is also needed. school teachers and the Principal of the school maintains good relations with the employees of the area and supply to them the requisite types of manpower. There are only five most important services of Guidance. (Yes/No) 2. The school counsellor looks after that and ensures that it is kept upto date in all respects. scholarships. The record is contained on the perform a specifically provided for that purposes in the school. Guidance remains incomplete without the individual inventory service. employment. home and community. It is essential to know the details of the individual students.the programme is established. the record of attitudes.4.

(Yes/No) 7. Placement service is not the headache of the school.P. Individual information can be maintained by the clerks of the school. New York. New York. (Yes/No) 10. Patiala. Placement service should not be organised by the school. 2. 8. : Education as Guidance.M.S. (Yes/No) 5. Myers. T. 1941. (Yes/No) 9. Arther : Principles of Guidance. McGraw Hill Book Company Inc. Discuss and explain how it can be most useful? 10. : Principles and Techniques of Vocational Guidance. McMillon Company. J. 4. 1963. Placement service is one of the important service of schools guidance programme. (Yes/No) Key : (1) Yes (2) Yes (3) Yes (4) No (5) Yes (6) No (7) No (8) No (9) No (10) Yes 10. 2.. Suri. UNIT END EXERCISES 1. George E. The information about the individual is maintained by the Counsellor. : Guidance & Counselling. S. Placement in job is one of the functions of the school. Jones. Bawa Publications. 4. McGraw Hill Company Inc. 1971. New York. SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS 1. Browen. & Sodhi. Cumulative record is of no use to the school. Write an essay on Individual Inventory Service in the field of guidance..6. 2005. Cumulative record does not explain the identification data of the individual school.(Yes/No) 6.7. 3. 135 .

1960. Strang. Japan.N. S. : Dynamics of Vocational Behaviour. Sinha.5. 1973 136 . Asia Publishing House. 6. Ruth : Educational Guidance : Its Principles and Practices. The McMillon Company. New York.

2. 137 .3. the student will be able to : z Explain the Follow-up Service. Unit End Exercises 11.7.LESSON NO.1. Let Us Sum Up 11. Methods of Reporting Results of Follow-Up 11.2. Suggested Further Readings 11.3. z Clarify the steps in the Follow-up Service. in the Previous Lesson you have studied the concept of Inventory and Placement Services.0. Objectives 11. The students need to be followed in orde to determine the nature and extent of their need for assistance.6. Now in this lesson we will study follow-up service.1 INTRODUCTION Dear Learners. 11. Follow-up Service 11. STRUCTURE 11. Evaluation of Follow-Up Service 11.1 Introduction 11. OBJECTIVES After the study of the lesson.3. Follow- up is that review or systematic evaluation which is carried out to know whether guidance service in particular and educational programme in general satisfy the needs of the students.5. Self Evaluation Questions 11.2.11 UNIT-III FOLLOW-UP SERVICE 11.4.

limitations of other approaches.S. However. 11. Many a time.e. be observed. it overcomes. Suggestions about specific forms i. z To evaluate the Follow up Service. FOLLOW-UP SERVICE (a) THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE FOLLOW-UP SERVICE It is through the constant touch with the former students. post-card survey or questionnaire or personal contact. In order to make this service more useful the issues may be divided as under : (i) The technique to be used in conducting the follow-up programme. (iii) Methods of reporting the results to the students. z To explain the methods of Follow-up Service. reported according to regular pattern and bringing about alterations in the school programme. (c) STAFF RESPONSIBLE FOR FOLLOW-UP SERVICE It should be the secondary responsibility of the instructional staff. follow-up programme is a yardstick by which the school programme is measured from year to year. in U. accomplishes some of the objectives of the other techniques and in part. (ii) The staff responsible for the surveys. it includes regular activities scheduled at regular periods. The post-card survey is easy and less expensive. In fact. The technique of interview provides most valid information. As it involves quite a lengthy duration of the period so it could better be done by selected the follow up committee which should be the best method to do so that if some body leaves the job.A. the 138 . which is called follow-up service. (iv) Establishment of effective school community relationship. but is time consuming and expensive.3. questionnaire frequency of survey and general philosophy are to be found appropriate. (b) THE TECHNIQUE OF FOLLOW-UP The follow-up technique can make use of interview. Each of these has its own advantages and limitations. There can be some information which either the subject will be able to reveal when convicted in person or can otherwise. staff and parents. z Explain the importance of Follow-up Service.. it is used to refer to some specific type of survey.

It increases staff attention to identify the drop-out types of students. Michigan State University has prepared a list of follow-up services with the cooperation of Guidance and Counsellor training staff. (iii) Increasing the Values of the Guidance Service : (a) Add scheduled time for Counselling as a result of follow-up as a result of follow-up some deficiencies come to light. (c) To emphasise the extent of career information provided to the subject. (b) Procuring additional personnel with professional training in guidance and counselling. if the results depicted are not upto the mark. social living. It is used to change content material in subject-matter area. In case the students are not properly adjusted. 11.3. It is used to emphasis on the importance of in-service training activities.work continued. It can be done in so many ways and with a good number of motives. In this committee. general arts. (ii) Stimulating Better Teaching : It is used to change the school philosophy towards emphasis on meeting individual needs.1. speech and distributive education on the bases of the results observed as a result of follow-up. the personnel specialist should be the consultant member. All this can be possible when programme. METHODS OF REPORTING RESULTS The follow-up service is concerned with the interpretation of the results of placement service. while chairman can be any other senior member of the group. for the use of the follow-up information. in case it is found that the results depicted as a result of follow up programme are such that the students are not properly adjusted. college preparatory English. It helps to improve social adjustment of the individual. (d) To make more purposeful use of cumulative records. at times the Counsellor in special efforts to work with the detects of cummulative record. which might provide a deep insight for adjustment. 139 . (i) Improving the Curriculum : It is used to expand course offered such as commercial training. It will enhance the value of total guidance programme. general mathematics. industrial arts. sociology.

ESTABLISHMENT OF BETTER SCHOOL COMMUNICATION RELATIONSHIP It is used to make specific plans for closer co-operation among teachers. (ii) Brief review of the survey design. However. (b) It is used to initiate business-industry-education days. 140 . To maintain contact with former students through a continuous follow-up programme. (a) Parents and students through scheduled conferences. STEPS FOR REPORTING RESULTS This may vary in every individual case. (g) It is used to provide time for non-credited remedial classes in school areas such as reading and writing improvement. The business-men are in a positive need if the requisite type of man-power and also give suggestions for the improvement of school programme for the betterment of placement. In Indian situation it could happen that proper adjustment is not found when the guidance programme is not fully integrated with the school programme of educational guidance or in other words. (iii) Limitation of the results. the recommended outline is as follows : (i) Presenting values of follow-up information. open-house home programmes and school bulletins. All this becomes possible when the follow-up programmes is more effective. the industrialists and business-men are actively involved in the affairs of the school which proves very effective in so many way. the both are not properly inter-woven. In USA. (e) Integrating guidance into total school programme. (f) To establish placement service on firm footings especially in case of vocational guidance. (h) It is used to utilize local occupational information.

In an interesting study. Its functions are modified and classified in the light of the results of its findings. This will reveal the usefulness of the service. The follow-up programme shows the path for the change in the curriculum and co-curriculum activities in schools. It can be done in a number of ways i. A very closely linked problem with the follow-up service is the research findings of this type of programme. EVALUATION OF FOLLOW-UP SERVICES It can best be done by periodical checking. In order to make this service universally accepted. The method by which the information is presented is conditioned by time. 11.4. imagination and materials available.3. the organization of these services in schools. It can be done by bringing out some publications. (iv) Major findings.2. Such studies make sound judgement about the present functioning of the programme and clearly point out steps to be taken to improve upon it. by giving a ring. It is for the committee to identify the technique to be used for reporting the results and that it continues on the same line in a circle. it has been revealed that many more girls than boys had been accelerated in school and many more boys than restarted. It can be done by preparing charts. LET US SUM UP Out of five guidance services to be organised for the establishment of the programme. The placement service would be a study to determine amount of ‘over-ageness’ and ‘under-ageness’ in a school system. 11. This service is to be organised to have a look into how will the process take place when we have guided in finding the new solutions. employment exchanges and enhancement of the skill of the Voluntary Organisations to do this type of welfare service.e. organising 141 . The main aim is to present the information to obtain maximum results. (v) Implementation for improvement. Guidance movement is a functional and applied movement. film strips and slides to be used to interpret the results. the research finding need to be highlighted to the community. The sampling of students who are working will reveal the percentage who obtained their jobs through the placement service. follow-up service is very important from a number of points of views.

but the most effective is to go in person to contact with person the subject and know his difficulties and to work to remove those and able to improve upon the guidance programme in the light of it. Yes/No (6) Follow-up service establishes better relationship between the school and the employees.5. 11. Yes/No (5) Follow-up service can best be provided by posting letters only. It can also be used as a tool to rope in the industrialists in the functioning of the school. It need not be left to the hands of the Government or NGO’s only. industry and also employees.an interview. Yes/No (8) Follow-up service is used for creating remedial teaching also.Yes/No (10) Without Follow-up service the guidance programme remain incomplete. which help both the employees and also employers. Key : (1) No (2) Yes (3) No (4) Yes (5) No (6) Yes (7) Yes (8) Yes (9) Yes (10) Yes 142 . It bring close contact between the school. It is on the bases of the results of follow up that the total guidance programme is put up on firm-footings. Yes/No (9) Follow-up service is useful for the purpose of total learning process. (4) Follow up service is needed from the research point of view. It has been worked out that it improves the curriculum. Yes/No (2) Follow-up programme plays a constructive role in the organisation of guidance services. SELF EVALUATION QUESTIONS (1) Follow-up service need not be organised for the students. (7) Follow-up service creates better understanding between teachers and parents. stimulates better teaching and also increases the value of guidance from so many angles. Yes/No (3) Follow-up service need not be provided by appointing special staff for it. It can best be done if some staff is appointed rather than doing it in spare time and doing the job half heartedly. getting a questionnaire filled in etc. community and parents. The school should also play a constructive role in it.

Which one will you recommend and why? 11.N. 1941. New York.M. 1971. 1963.P. : Education as Guidance. UNIT END EXERCISES (1) Bring out the administration of Follow-up programme. New York. New York. 5. 1973 143 . 3. Arthur : Principles of Guidance.. McMillon Company. Myers. New York. Jones. : Principles and Techniques of Vocational Guidance. 2. 2005. Ruth : Educational Guidance : Its Principles and Practices. McGraw Hill Book Company Inc.11. Asia Publishing House. Bawa Publications. The McMillon Company. SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS 1. How will you make it more effective? (2) Describe different modes of Follow-up programme. Sodhi : Guidance and Counselling. George E. 1960.7. : Dynamics of Vocational Behaviour. 4 Suri S.. 6. Patiala.S.6. Brown. & T. J. Strang. S. McGraw Hill Book Company Inc. Sinha. Japan.

Role of Counsellor 12.0 STRUCTURE 12.Let Us Sum Up 12.Role of Head of the Institution 12.LESSON NO. In this chapter you will come to know the role of head of the Institution. teacher & counsellor. OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson the student will be able to : 144 . TEACHER & COUNSELLOR 12.7. Teacher & Counsellor.2.4.11.1 Introduction 12.Guidance a Joint Venture 12.3.12 UNIT-III ROLE OF HEAD OF THE INSTITUTION.12.9.1 INTRODUCTION Dear Students.Objectives 12.2. introduced in any school.Role of Parents 12. 12.10. As the things exist in India.5.Unit End Exercises 12.Role of Teacher 12. without the help of the Principal of the school.Self Evaluation Questions 12.Suggested Further Readings 12. no programme of any type can be successfully.6.Outline of Guidance 12.8.

3. is the apathy of Principals towards it. To make it a success he is to perform three types of duties : 145 . ROLE OF HEAD OF THE INSTITUTION According to the Manual of Educational and Vocational Guidance. lack of the knowledge of guidance.e.” As the things exist in India. To understand and describe that even when guidance programme is a specified specialist job. fixed teaching schedule. One of the reasons of the poor establishment of guidance services in India. no programme of any type can be successfully. It is more so because the guidance programme is a joint venture of the school and it can be successful only if all the staff of the school actively participate in it. introduced in any school. Describe the role of the Principal in the organisation of guidance services in school and to make it more effective. It has been hypothesised that the tendency at the end of the heads of Schools is to give less importance to the guidance work and use even the staff meant for it for other school activities.3. without the help of the Principal of the school and guidance in no way can be an exception to the Principal. To suggest steps to make the role of the counsellor more effective. he will be successful only when he is in a position to get the operation of all the staff of the school. 2. issued by the Ministry of Education. which will be possible only when the programme is stimulated with the active participation of the Head of the institution. old knowledge. it can hardly deliver the goods till the teacher is not involved in it both in words and spirit. lesser faith in guidance etc. 5. To clarify the concept that even when the Counsellor is the key person to organise the guidance programme. There might be many reasons for i. “the Principal or the Headmaster is the Keyman of the guidance programme within his school. To understand the role of the Counsellor in the establishment of guidance programme in schools. 12. 1. He must be in sympathy with its purposes and give it his whole-hearted support. 4. Guidance work will continue to be very poor till all the teachers are not involved in it role in word and spirit.

This can best be recognised by the staff that lesser co- operation in the guidance programme will earn the bad values and will in no way be appreciated by him. This will improve upon the total functioning of the school guidance programme which will play a major role in making this programme a success. He is helped by the counsellor to do so as he is the Chairman of the committee. the subject expert. to provide teachers the facilities to enable them to efficiency organize the guidance work and to maintain good working relation with other agencies i. 12. to get a counsellor appointed.e. to keep parents informed about the guidance services. In this age of globalisation. (a) Ethical Role : He must recognize the positive role of guidance services and plan a time bound programme to achieve it. ROLE OF COUNSELLOR In the schooling process. in the guidance programme.4. In fact the total responsibility of providing all types of guidance facilities fall upon his shoulders. the psychologist etc. he will never be in a position to do the needful till he gets the cooperation 146 . which he performs. only if things are well versed in their studies and also groomed systematically with the tools of guidance. to provide him with requisite facilities and material. who help him to perform his duties in an effective way. With the active guidance programme. counsellor has the most dominent role to play. The maximum role of the principal is to be the captain of the team and to help every individual to play its role best. doctor. He should realise that guidance movement is the future of education. It is for him to see that all the players play their role well. (b) Administrative Role : He is to get the approval to establish a guidance unit. with the help of the team of workers. therapist. liberalisation and modernisation. the fact remains that which so ever is the training and competency of the counsellor. the counsellor. to form committee on guidance and to involve all the teachers in it and to allot proper duties to all persons. the evaluation process is followed by adequate follow up and improved which is a continuous process. Our students will be able to become efficient workers so as to face the competition at international level. However. (c) Committee Role : Principal is the captain of the team of guidance workers which comprises the teacher. will make every body to put in his best into it. under the supervision of the head of the institution. employment exchange etc. psychiatric.

of all the members of the staff. school and the community. In this purpose. to confer with parents and arrange group meeting of parents as the needs arise. to take up follow-up work with a view to assessing the outcome of guidance services in regard to students who have received guidance. films and activities to promote social adjustment etc. to refer difficulties to available specialists. to obtain the knowledge of the relevant aspects of a student’s home environment. When he faces some student or some problem which is queer and he can not himself handle. to aid potential drop-outs to make the school experience as profitable as possible. The 147 . economic status and personality. he is to refer the case to the proper agency i.e. He is to establish links with the doctor. to obtain close contact with the school doctor in all health problem of students. (a) Functions of the Counsellor : He is supposed to deal with the problem of the normal pupils as well as the pupils who face abnormal tendencies. to arrange excursions for pupils with a view to providing them with realistic educational and occupational information. group guidance through class meetings. interests. All this is enough to describe as to how complicated and multifarious duties he is to perform in the school. to obtain as much of an objective measurement of a pupil’s abilities. to assist pupils to develop initiative and independence so that may progress in self-direction. aptitudes and physical characteristics as possible. to give assistance and counselling through interviews with each pupil to enable him understand himself and his problems. psychiatric etc. to assist in familiarizing new teacher with guidance services available. to arrange carrier conferences when considered appropriate. to develop feeling of national integration and development. He is to be clear in his mind that he can get the co-operation of his colleagues not with the orders of the principal. but with his skill to do so as this is a joint venture and of will be successful till all help in performing his duties will to the students. sessions with guest speakers. He is to assist teachers to solve pupil problems which the teachers find difficult. This can be no way be the work of a single individual. to arrange to organize an Occupational Information Room. to assist National Employment Service for the placement of pupils in various jobs . to assist students in making vocational choices commensurate with their ability and skill. to deal with the signs of emotional difficulties. to arrange case conferences about an individual student who is experiencing some type of queer difficulty.

It goes to indicate that he must be a well balanced personality. He serves as a link between school on one hand and parents and community on the other hands. but these services are utilised for other than guidance work. these have been posted. He also assists them to solve individual problems and to provide group guidance activities. he needs perfect grooming in his professional life. As the knowledge is expanding fast. In order to be able to perform all these functions in the spirit. In addition. he is to participate in hygienic techniques and school service training programmes. parents and teachers. This is a huge job. Jones gave the following characteristics of a counsellor : (i) Broader Interests : (a) The counsellor should be able to get the real problem. All these qualities are very difficult to to perform till. Walter B. the techniques and task of guidance are undergoing a rapid charge. these are not allowed by the Heads of the institution to perform their exclusive duties. He provides leadership to the guidance activities. so he is to keep his knowledge fresh and abreast with regard to professional techniques.main difficulty with the guidance programme in India is firstly the Counsellors have not been appointed in schools and secondly where ever. he is not wedded to her profession. 148 . observation. these needs to be performed. (c) He co-operates with employers social workers. He is also to contribute leadership to organize orientation programme for new students. (b) He lives for huamnity. (c) He should be interested in various types of people. (d) He should be equally interested in pupil’s community home and school life. (b) Characteristics of a Successful School Counsellor : In addition. he is expected to assist the other teachers to secure pertinent information about the students which will help them to conduct their classes smoothly. (ii) Cooperation : (a) He bears the burden of extra work in a cheerful manner. He makes use of adequate techniques such as interview. which he is to perform. He is also supposed to conduct case studies of some difficult students. (b) he should be considerate considerate and sympathetic with prospective drop-outs as well as with college preparatory pupils. When the perfection of guidance work demands that all the teachers of the school should venture it as a team work and put in their efforts in it whole heartedly. testing etc.

at first his stress is maltreated in a systematic way by establishing rapport. he should have an accurate knowledge of occupational opportunities and their requirements. Such qualities become difficult to cultivate till the man is professionally trained to cultivate this type of spirit. parents and employers and he must be fully familiar with the purpose and programme of the school and have the capacity to work in close cooperation with the teachers. All the above qualities indicate that counsellor is the pivot of guidance programme in the game of it.” According to Secondary Education Commission. “The counsellor is like a gardener who prepares the soil and does everything he can. He is to be so attractive and tactful that he insists his confidence in the 149 . (iii) Refinement : (a) He is democratic. The fact. (b) He inspires confidence at interview. remains that guidance can neither be provided and nor received when the person is under a great stress.” At another place. (b) He is never too cocksure of the wisdom of his own judgement. It can only be put into practice only when the individual is considered to be more important than others aspects of life. however. He must have an understanding of young people and their problems based on scientific knowledge but inspired with sympathy and the ability to look at life through the eyes of boys and girls. He should have special training in good counselling methods. “if he is emotionally mature and feels fairly secure in his social and professional relationships. the same author writes. “A good guidance officer possesses many good qualities. In the field of vocational guidance. He is himself not tense under any circumstances and the result is that he makes others to feel easy. It goes without saying that he is democratic in spirit. He must have ample time for conferences with pupils. (c) He makes pupils feet that they are always welcome to see him and that they will be provided with the requisite help. mental hygiene and in the discriminating use of tests and school records. In the words of Ruth Strang. to help each plant to grow in its own best way. (iv) Magnificent : (a) He puts others at ease. he is able to convey a certain sense of confidence to the counsellee. It is the duty of the Counsellor to see that when some body comes to him for guidance. Guidance service is to be the product of democracy in a big way.

” Bojkin states. ROLE OF TEACHER (a) Teacher – A First Hand Source in Guidance : The teacher is directly and intimately involved in all the class-room activities and guidance programme. their adjustment and development. who have become acquainted with the new techniques of teaching and who deals with people.e.” In the words of Emergy Stoops. to have deep insight about pupils and their experience. Whenever there is some case in which he needs some help from the experts i. to make proper use of the school or college library. but rather are the two aspects of the same educational process. he does not hesitate to almost that he does not have the competency to solve his problem and seeks the help of other experts. the decisions made as a result of the pupil’s contact with counsellors. not occasional interviews with specialized counsellors. He is at the some item be sure that he does not have any situation ready made for all the types of schedule. (b) Guidance Work by the Teacher : The teachers are primarily concerned with the problems and needs of their students. “Good teaching has emotional and moral as well as intellectual objectives. psychologists. It aims at the growth of the whole person as well as the mastery of the subject in hand.5. The titles are not mutually exclusive. to guide them in giving short talks. to refer problem cases to the counsellor and to organize the co-curricular 150 . while they are still in the process of ‘becoming’ and can take initiative in putting the views in active co-operation.” Teachers study the nature of individual growth. to guide their students in the taking of notes. In most of the cases the teacher becomes the first to recognize the problem or the child and then studies him and go on for a definite programme of the change. to develop contacts with parents and community agencies. doctors or sociologists. 12. According to Bojkin.counsellee and he opens his head to him and comes out will his real problem. “Every teacher is a guidance worker and every guidance worker is a teacher. Needless to say that the more important is the counsellor the better is the guidance programme organised. He is to implement in right earnest. “The principle of student’s personnel work is teacher-student relationship.

habits and study conditions.activities which are closely allied to their subject-matter fields. In fact. exceptional experiences and also his behaviour. there is no forbidden ground dividing his instruction and guidance responsibilities. opinion of other teachers. many of the problems of the counsellor become easier. select 151 . The difficulty with the guidance programme in India is that either the teacher is so busy that he can not find time to do so or otherwise. teacher knows the student well. to give them proper direction and to help them to make their educational and vocational plants. (c) With respect to pupil counselling. In some cases. “In the school in which the class-room teacher assumes responsibility for guidance. to provide them requisite type of experiences. Chisholm points out. merits and demerits. The teacher helps pupils study their own abilities. A class-room teacher who practices good mental health and who is willing to contribute to the specific services of a guidance programme is a valuable member of the guidance team. (d) With respect to pupil evaluation. The problem is as to how to actively involve the teacher in the process of guidance. vocational plans. In this way. (b) With respect to the class-room teaching. liking disliking health. Next to parents. social circle. as many of the preliminaries of guidance process are covered by him. Recreational activities. he is in a position to understand everyone of his students in a perfect way. study habits. All the above four duties provide him opportunities with respect to the guidance programme. The duties of the teacher can be divided : (a) With respect to the pupils. leisure time activities. economic status. peer group. hobbies. his knowledge is more than the knowledge of parents as he is in a position to be objective and also to manipulate the circumstances for the advantage of the student. to know their capabilities and also capacities. if the teacher can be involved in the process of guidance in a genuine way. A teacher well acquainted with student’s academic ability academic history. he is not interested in it. home life. educational goals.

Many times the parents try to reflect their own feelings upon their children and try that their children stand. Such incidents are not so uncommon in Indian culture. In the actual class-room work. He tries that now his son must become a doctor without caring about his capabilities and capacities to become a doctor and without attaching much importance to his personality characteristics. In the same way many of the entries in the cummulative record are to be made in the cummulative record and keep that upto date. of their wards and provide them 152 . For example a man wanted to be a doctor.6.” When the teacher is perfectly well involved in the process of guidance many of the problems of the students are identified by him and some of them can be solved at his level also. and the other things necessary in an adequate programme of guidance. apprise with their own progress. ROLE OF PARENTS The role of parents in the field of guidance is prominant. attitudes and aptitudes etc. The teacher can make him set on the first time and also inform the parents and influence them to go for its treatment. It will only be the teacher who will be instrumental to make it a success. he is bound to become careless and shirker if he is not identified and helped in an effective way. they should try to understand the interests. satisfy the failures of themselves in their children.work. then. the role of the teacher can hardly be over emphasised in the guidance programme of the school. For example if a student is shortsighted or a bit hard of hearing. 12. The counsellor will be as effective as he is supported and helped by the class teachers. All this make the situation very difficult. Almost eye view of the programmes of the teacher and his observation of the cummulative record considers his entire programme of studies also. the teacher is sensitive to and understands the level of interest and ability of the pupils and adopt the work to individual needs or helps the student revise his choice of school activities so as to get those experiences in harmony with his needs. Thus. he could not fulfill her desire to do so in any way. In accordance with the philosophy of guidance. Needless to say that parents should not make their children tools to satisfy their own fulfilled desired.

In case. should not he understood that they have lesser important role to play. They are equally involved in the cases where in their expertise is to be used in a dignified way. then it is called personal guidance. it consists of five types of guidance services. Counsellor and the Teacher makes it amply clear that guidance is in no way the total game of the Counsellor. we have not discussed them in this place firstly because of this parsity of time and space and partly that these three important utilise their sources. or Principal or the Teacher. Needless to say that it is not everybody’s cup of tea. It has been explained in an earlier lesson. 12. The role of parents. it is rendered in the school for the selection of their subjects or to improve upon their scores. or to tacle the same. the fact remains that all these types guidance are inter-related with one and other directly or indirectly except a few exceptions here and there. This. under any circumstances will continue to be of higher significance. 153 . OUTLINE OF GUIDANCE Guidance is a specialised service rendered to the persons to enable them to deal with their own problems. Here one needs to be clear that there are some other players in their game. However. community. GUIDANCE A JOINT VENTURE The above discussed role of the Principal. but all the staff of the school and even the parents are to play their constructive job in the solution of problems through the media of guidance.8. then it is termed as vocational guidance. who have their important role to play in the game such as parents. Counsellor and the teacher have to go in for full time involvement in it. however. Thus. whatever the type of guidance. however remain that guidance is a joint venture in which parents has to play as eminent role.opportunities to go in for their education and employment in the lighting. The fact. This is a joint game in which no doubt these three players have very important part to play and the game will be termed as perfect only when all these players put in their best in the job of guidance. In case it is provided to give some type of guidance in the area of vocation.only the guidance programme will prove be a sucess. 12. the fact remains that guidance is the joint venture of so many factors both Headmaster or Principal. it is termed as Educational Guidance. such of and get this co-operation in the performance of their duties in the game of guidance. doctors and physiotherapists etc. psychologists. However. If it pertain to some personal problems.7.

The Principal of the school has nothing to do with the guidance programme of the school. He is to ensure that the services of the counsellor are utilised only for the purpose of guidance and not for other types of activities. Counsellor and the Teacher.e. Yes/No 154 . SELF EVALUATION QUESTIONS 1. but these game players i. Yes/No 3. unless he is in position to fully involved in it. he is to actively involve all the school staff in it. LET US SUM UP Even when guidance is a specified and specialised job which needs experts like Counsellor to deal with the problem of the students and teachers. who is the pivot around whom the whole of the guidance programme involves has the most important role to play.9. can in no case be titled. He continues to be the man. Needless. the fact remains that it is product of the democratic set-up of the society and as such is the joint venture in which many other individuals are also involved and the success of the programme can best be understood by understanding their rules. He is always be one of the most important function to be recognised to go in for it i. to come across the situation which reveal the problem of the students. Principal.e. The role of the Counsellor. who is always available to the students for solving their problems. He has to be a perfect worker leading the team of teachers to play the game. He is the first to know about the problems of the students and to take them on the right path. to say that there are certain other professionals who are to play their role in the game. the programme can not in any case be a success.12. It is with his blessings that all where cooperation is needed to be involved is provided in a dignified way.10. Yes/No 2. Whatsoever the circumstances the role of the teachers in the programme of guidance. One of the reason for the non-functioning programme of Guidance in India is the apathy of the Principal towards this programme. The role of the Principal is most important. In addition to the technical aspect of providing all the types of services. make the parents concerned about it and also to involve the community in it. utilise the expertise of these whenever that is needed. 12. The Principal of the school will be ultimatly responsible for the proper guidance programme in the school.

2. McMillon Company. Arther : Principles of Guidance.M. Teacher has nothing to do with the guidance programme. 2. Jones. New York. the effects with the Counsellor to solve the problems of the students. McGraw Hill Book Company Inc. Yes/No 5. Yes/No Key : (1) No (2) Yes (3) Yes (4) No (5) Yes (6) Yes (7) No (8) Yes (9) Yes (10) Yes 12. SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS 1. J. 12.. Brown. Counsellor must be properly trained to properly establish a guidance programme. New York. New York. 1971. UNIT END EXERCISES 1. can be organised by the school teacher. McGraw Hill Book Company Inc. 155 . 1963. Yes/No 6. 4. Describe his qualities for making it a success. School guidance programme is a team work. Yes/No 10. Yes/No 9. Yes/No 7.. Teacher will have to co-ordinate. “No guidance programme can be a success without the co-ordination of all the members of the school. Yes/No 8. : Education as Guidance. Myers.12. 1941. Counsellor alone can not organise the guidance programme. In your own language describe the role of Counsellor in the guidance programme.” Discuss.11. George E. Some of the guidance programme. 3. No guidance programme can function without a Counsellor in every school. : Principles and Techniques of Vocational Guidance.

Sinha.P. Strang Ruth : Educational Guidance : Its Principles and Practices. 2005. 1973 156 . S. Patiala.S.N. & T.4. The McMillon Company. New York. : Dynamics of Vocational Behaviour. 6. Bawa Publications. 1960. Suri S. Japan. Sodhi : Guidance & Counselling. Asia Publishing House. 5.

Let Us Sum Up 13.Components of Career Information 13.0 STRUCTURE 13. OBJECTIVES After going through the lesson.4.2. the student will be able to : 1.3.Suggested Further Readings 13.Unit End Exercises 13.8.LESSON NO. Explain career information. Explain the components of career information.2.Objectives 13.7. 13.1 INTRODUCTION The aim of career information is to help the Individual in his career making progress career planning is getting the occupational information.6. Define career.5.1 Introduction 13. 157 . 3. Here the main emphasis is to provide him with the occupational information of the type one needs. 13 UNIT-IV CAREER INFORMATION : MEANING & COMPONENTS OF CAREER INFORMATION 13.Meaning of Career Information 13.Self Evaluation Questions 13. 2.

in a school. were not known. For example. whether it is day duty or night duty or transportation along with the duty hours. In the past. so it is termed as an occupation. It also needs to know the timings of the job. cosmetics. participation preparation. It is not enough to know about the occupation to have only occupational information. it will also have to be known as to what are the avenues of promotion and the grades etc. A few decades ago the job of television repair. the portion to be maintained during the performance of a job. but he needs to be enriched to know about the career promotional avenues. the emoluments and other benefits such as free transport. For making an occupation a career. dresses. there is a headmaster. but now they are so common both in India and abroad. One of the functions of Vocational Guidance is to prepare a person for an occupation and to help him to do so of his own realising his capacities. television serial actress etc. in fact. it was practically impossible to know about the world of work well there to 158 .3. while planning a career. it is essential for the candidate to know the type of the work he is to do in that occupation. capabilities and potentialities. it is not enough to go in or the occupational information of the job. is to prepare him for a career. but it will be necessary to enter the occupation or a career.13. MEANING OF CAREER In career information. This. which were comparatively unknown now are becoming very popular. The ultimate decision is made by the candidate himself and not by the guidance worker or Counsellor. Similarly. 13. 12 teachers. According to an estimate. one is going to make it a career. fashion technology. Job of a clerk can happen in a school. there are a number of jobs. Many new occupations are now coming up. one peon and one chaukidar.3. the timings of the job.1. there are more than forty thousand occupations in it and that this bank is getting tremendously rich with the passing of time due to technological changes which are fast coming up in our social circle. in a bank or in a municipal committee.e. MEANING OF CAREER INFORMATION The world of work is very rich. In this way in all there are 16 jobs. free residence or accommodation etc. one clerk. of their promotional avenues etc. He needs to get all such types of information to enter into it. television technology. In this way. i.

e.e. the fees the type of scholarship and loans etc. so that he delimits his area of career and gets deep information in that occupation. All this is essential for career planning and has been discussed in earlier lessons. so as to make him fully comfortable to limit his aspiration of some career. At the initial stages it becomes essential to acquaint the students to as many types of occupation as is possible in an informal way and then by and by going on the tempting of the one of occupation. It is here that the student is helped to crystalise his interest and the career counsellor is to make sure that the selection is made on the basis of intrinsic interests rather than extrinsic interests. The counsellor is not to make some judgement about the candidate and to inform him about that but to motivate him to make his judgement. The problem in Indian culture at this stage of educational leads is due to the lack of guidance service in schools. Here the main emphasis is to provide him with the occupational information of the type one needs. Career planning is getting the occupational information. so that at higher secondary and secondary level the student is in a position to make the correct decision of school subjects in the light of it. At school level. attitudes etc. the subject is to be enlightened about his own capacities. he is going to make for him is such as it suits to his personality characteristics.e. career pamphlets etc. College and Universities where such facilities are available. available for that and also the capacities and potentialities 159 . those who want to go in for medicine should go in for medical related subjects and those who want to go in for administrative jobs should select humanities subjects and so on. This is most important part of the service. aptitudes. it becomes essential to go to enrich the type of education which leads to their career planning i. After they have correctly selected the school subjects. First of all. The students do not go in getting such wisdom but fall prey to the suggestion given either by parents or friends or some other non-scientific type guidance activity and thus make a decision which moves their career planning.adopt it as a career. providing literature. For example. it becomes the responsibility of the school to expose him so as to make by the career information about the world of work. so as to make sure that the career. her interests. capabilities and potentialities i. for which proper career information is to be provided to him by so many ways i. to earn his livlihood and also to be a success and progress in that career.

the news about jobs opportunities. for it.V. positions etc. for under taking a career the student needs to be educated not to be self centred as all jobs are inter-related and also meant to extend the social services. In the way of entry jobs. Radio and some such coverage of newspaper also proves to be helpful in this direction. It becomes thus essential that “Career Information Room”. Here one needs to be clear about the meaning of Career Information that in this process the information about the world of work is as important as in the information about the individual.for all this. 160 .4 COMPONENTS OF CAREER INFORMATION SERVICE The eminent Guidance thinker Jones is of the view that important characteristics of Career Information Service are the following : (i) Sustainability to the Occupation : The individual should posses the competency to deal with the occupation for which both physical and intellectual abilities be worked out. he established in every high and higher secondary school in which cuttings of newspaper about admission be displayed along with prospectus of such colleges and universities along with the hand books of those institutions and the career maker he helps the students to read that. the students be made to visit such institutions. Any error in it or misjudged about it can create a number of problems.. It also become essential to know about the mode of getting admission on the basis of marks obtained in the examination. (ii) Social Service : Right from the very beginning of education. 13. by way of completition or by paying some donation so that one prepares for it. Some Career Information weeks be organised before the final examination which same important career is to be arranged for the benefit of the students. are also to be developed in the school. Generally such Occupational Information Rooms are organised in almost all Employment Exchanges and also University Employment and Information Bureaus for the benefit of the public. All this highlights the need for organisation of guidance service in schools and also colleges and organisation of Career Information Room in the schools etc. Similar features on T. so he must keep in mind the concept of social service. marks obtained.

One is to decide of the time of the entry career that he is to go in for local environment or for higher salaried jobs in some foreign lands. with a few exceptions of one goes in for such job where in more avenues are open i. dressing and speaking are of his own type. in which avenues are open to pass departmental examination and got further promotions. As a rule. However. However. On the other hand. he get right from the job at the entry and also the promotion of avenues. shortage occupation. Hard working people can go in for these types of job- sets. (vii) Health Hazards : At the time of adopting a career one important factor to be kept in view is that the job effects the health of individuals there are some jobs i. flying. While adopting such a career one needs to keep in view has personal position of health and the hardship. (viii) Social Environment : Generally people want to work in environment of his own type i. He must have complete insight to these aspects as he will get it from the satisfaction from an early stage of going in for the career. For example. now a recent trend is to move to foreign countries to go in for high salaried jobs. driving of trucks which tell upon the health of the individual.e. the financial aspects is essential to link them with the financial gains. one gets promotion. a success as a matter of rule one mark go in for a job which have rich promotional avenues. 161 .e. where the habits of eating. the intelligent and hard working persons should go in for such jobs.e.e. the fact remains that one must be aware of the limitations of higher salaried jobs i. one must be concerned about the job avenues in that area. x- rays. (iii) Job Satisfaction : The career to be adopted must lend to the individual the source of job satisfaction. (iv) Financial Relaxes : In the present set up of capitalist out-look. It is greater importance for those who do not have good health. However. (vi) Promotional Prospective : In order to make the career. it needs to be looked into from the point of view of the emoluments and fringe benefits. which can be got from the salary one gets. It is skill of more important in a country like India. wherein the job opportunities are rather scarce. he will have to face in future. (v) Employment Opportunities : At the time of adopting a career. unscrupulous foreign travel agents as thousands of people are being cheated. the work he enjoys with the job or encouragement provided by the organisation in which he works. there are some jobs.

It is heartening to note that on the average an American changes seven jobs in his life. the strains of the job. at home and also in the social set-up. As all this matter in the type of a man. Gone are the days when a person used to stick the job for the whole of his life. 13. It becomes the duty of the school to provide him a good deal of information about the world of work and to let him expose to it in school. It is always better to go in for a job which is available but to go on looking for the job of interest and change it as and when the opportunities for it are available. one must look into the nature of the job number of hours of work. social environments. At a later stage. However. he should be provided with opportunities to get detailed information about different types of careers and the professional and technical type of facilities available. interest etc. when proper job opportunities are available. job satisfaction. At high and higher secondary stage. the availability of scurcial of files may compel him to go in for a job. However. employment prospectus. 13. For career planning school is to play a prominent role. health hazards. which does not suit to his personality get up. Now the change of job is so frequent that on an average an American changes seven jobs in his life. he must keep in view the suitability of the job. interest in the career. (Yes/No) 162 . (Yes/No) 2. LET US SUM UP In order to go in for a career one is to be consider that it is going to reflect upon his whole life and also all aspects of life. A wrong selection of school subjects at this stage create a good deal of difficult problem. his own capacity to go in for it. motive of job etc. the availability of facilities etc. co-operation. his economic resources. in countries like India the question is the availability of jobs. Career planning is most important in the life of a man. banking facilities available and the types of scholarship to be available for by it.6. but he must continue to tend avenues change the job. SELF-EVALUATION QUESTIONS 1. outside the school. All this will facilitate to clarify his concepts about his expectation. (ix) Interest in the Occupation : Needless to say that one can give his performance in a perfect way only when he does a job in which one has intrinsic interest. (x) Nature of Job : At the time of going in for a career.5. chances of promotion. night shifts or not.

(Yes/No) 7. 3. (Yes/No) 6. Brown. UNIT END EXERCISES 1. : Principles and Techniques of Vocational Guidance. For going in a career. 13.M. J.. Highlight the aspect of the career. Career planning is important where to many jobs are available that person. 1941.7. (Yes/No) Key : (1) Yes (2) Yes (3) Yes (4) No (5) No (6) Yes (7) No (8) Yes (9) No (10) Yes 13. 2. New York. 163 . Myers. (Yes/No) 10.8. George E. New York. New York. Jones. McGraw Hill Book Company Inc. Arther : Principles of Guidance.. 1963. makes him happy. one should go in for a job. SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS 1. 2. (Yes/No) 4. India is full of unemployed people. McMillon Company. which is available and stick to it.(Yes/No) 8. which are essential for making it a success. Career planning is significant role to make a man happy. McGraw Hill Company Inc. The avenues of promotion should also be kept in view while making a career. 1971. (Yes/No) 9. One must not care for the risks but go to foreign countries for making a good life. 3. “The adjustment in the career of a man. (Yes/No) 5. : Education as Guidance. one must keep his interest in view. every one adjust to that atmosphere.” Discuss. One must got into a job. A thrust career help nothing but to make individual’s life difficult.

S. : Dynamics of Vocational Behaviour. Japan. 6. 1960. Strang. S.N. T.4.P. 1973 164 . Bawa Publications. Asia Publishing House. Patiala. Suri. New York. & Sodhi. 5. : Guidance & Counselling. Ruth : Educational Guidance : Its Principles and Practices. 2005. Sinha. The McMillon Company.S.

Suggested Further Readings 14. 14 UNIT-IV SOURCES OF CAREER INFORMATION.0 STRUCTURE 14.1 Introduction 14.4.2.3. OBJECTIVES After the study of this lesson.7. FILING OF AND EVALUATION OF INFORMATION 14. In this chapter we will study the various sources of Carreer Information. Filing of Career Information 14.Self-Evaluation Questions 14. 165 .1.3. Methods of Collecting Information 14.2 Data Gathering Technology 14. We will also study the details of methods of collecting Information. Sources of Career Information 14.5.1 INTRODUCTION Dear Learners.4.8. 14. METHODS OF COLLECTING.4.4. Objectives 14.3.Let Us Sum Up 14.1 Developing a Job Folder 14. the student will be able to : z Explain the sources of career information.2. Evaluation of Career Information 14.LESSON NO.6.Unit End Exercises 14.

However. 14. Thirdly with the coming in of the process of modernisation. one needs to set his concepts about Career Information clear. electronics and mechanical research the new occupations are becoming even more complicated and sophisticated. which in no case provides a complete test. the number of occupation in the world of work does not remain the same. now a clerk in a bank can not function without it. while some new occupations are born and new additions are made to it. Secondly. the area of the new occupation is fast increasing making the situation even more complicated. Fourthly. which always provides a service for the collection of career information.3. but will always have to be kept up-to-date. the accuracy of the man going from ground to the moon is to be watched with such a precision that even the smallest mistake can result in missing the target in a big way. Some of the old occupations become obsolete and thus are considered as dead. SOURCES OF THE COLLECTION OF CAREER INFORMATION At the out set. which makes it compulsory for the government organisations and also provide employers employing more than 25 persons compulsory to notify all the vacancies to the employment exchange. (i) The Employment Organisation : There is an Act of Parliament known as Compulsory Notification of Vacancies Act. z Give the scheme of filing of career information. industralisation and globalisation on the world scene. the following sources can be tapped to collect it. For example about 25 years ago computer literacy was not compulsory or desirable to become a clerk in a bank. due to the technological innovation. along with job requirements and also educational qualification. It goes on changing with the passage of time. z To evaluate the career information. because at first the information contained in an occupation always does not remain the same for all the times to come. what highlights the need for the collection of career information. For example. z Give the details of methods of collecting information. 166 . Keeping all these difficulties in view.

State Public Service Commission.e. so often brings out different types of publications and charts etc. A number of publications brought out by these units provide a good source of career planning information. Subordinate Services Selection Board. published the vacancies for different organisation and institution in their department. (viii) Foreign Employment and Information Bureau : In some states such bureaus have been established to assist such aspirants who want to go to foreign land. Air Force. These units go on collecting information of different new occupation and go on providing guidance facilities to the aspirant both for under going some training and also getting specialist for these jobs. (iii) Publications of Employment Organisation : The employment organisation has got an Occupational Information Unit attached to it. what continues to be an important source of career information. Positions and Charts of Different Government Departments : Different big departments of the Government such as Military. Moulder. Universities etc. Fotter. Army. (iv) Volumes of Training Facilities in Different States and also India’s Level : Publications pertaining to the availability of different types of training facilities available in different states and also of national level are periodically published. Health etc. The area of employment is fast increasing. 167 . career in Navy. which provides a useful sources to collect useful information.e. Nursing as a Career etc. (vii) Studies and Surveys Conducted by Government and Non- Government Organisation : Many government departments and also NGO’s conduct some surveys pertaining to the world of work which can prove to be a useful source of career information. Navy. which provides the rich and correct type of information for the world of work i. It provides as a useful channel to provide career information to it. (ii) Prospectuses of Educational Institution : The university calender and prospectuses of college and other institutions which always reflect very useful career information provide a noble source for it. (vi) Advertisements of Resettlement of Different Organisations : In India. which undertakes certain prospectus pertaining to all types of information pertaining to occupation in details and publish it for the benefit of the public and students i. (v) Publications. Stenographer etc. Union Pubic service Commission.

The fact remains that the employer and employees can hide that information which they want to hide. One can open the window and know about the detailed information pertaining to different type of institution. when they are performing a job and prepare a record of it. which continues to be the first hand information for the world of work. and information pertaining to them completed in systematic way. which is being collected even at informational level also.1. promotional avenue etc. (iii) Questionnaire Technique : In this technique. (ii) Observation : A job analysist observes the good many workers. For example computer has become now the richest source of providing such information. (iv) Group Interview : In this technique. responsibilities. However. a number of employees working in some specific jobs are collected and different questions pertaining to their occupation are posed to them and also got answer for the personal qualities. It also provides information pertaining to promotional avenues etc.14. Many of these are being run on business lines. neither the teachers and nor the employees will come up with correct information. which continue to be a useful method of collecting relevant information for the benefit of all. the limitations attached to are that it lacks sociological and psychological aspects of the job. It has many merits as some one of them comes out with the truth. Even when it remains a fact that much useful information will come up as a result of it. duties. in the present days a good number of Colleges of Education have come up and are also coming-up daily. Whatever questionnaire is sent to them. but in actual practice they pay them much less. some sources already used for this purpose are : (i) Job Analysis : In this technique all the information for the operations which are to be performed in some jobs. job opportunities etc. METHODS OF COLLECTING CAREER INFORMATION The list of the sources of collection of career information can never be complete as so many new sources are fast coming up. along with all other information pertaining to different jobs are compiled. the employees and also workers are provided with some questionnaires also to provided detailed information about some occupation and other important information with regard to the pertaining. The colleges appoint teachers at higher salaries as is laid down in rules. facilities. salary. However. 168 . For example.3. benefits etc.

requires a thorough knowledge of the system on the part of the career master as codes are used as a basis for classifying and filling of the material. In most of the schools it may not be possible for the career master to develop a filing system for the use of pupils. however. 169 . Files may be used either exclusively by the career master or by both the career master and students. However. Families are combined into groups and groups are assigned to divisions. The system is helpful when the occupational information material is plentiful. The method of filing to be adopted depends upon the use to which the information is to be put and the persons who will use it. some technical conference pertaining to some technical job is organised in which technical discussions are made and the useful information. it is essential that some type of filing system is used by the career master. (v) Individual Interview : In this technique a good many individuals are either observed on the job or interviewed one by one and important information collected and compiled systematically. (vi) Technical Conference : At times. Following are some of the important methods of classification and filing : (i) National Classification of Occupations : Occupational information may be filed on the basis of the National Classification of Occupations (NCO). In every Employment Exchange in India the employment cards of the employment seekers are arranged in accordance with this system. it will become handy to be used appropriately. The classification in the NCO is by occupations. A book entitled National Classification of Occupation is available in the office of the Employment Offices. In order to avoid confusion.4. 14. This will not consume much of his time. thrown by them discussions are compiled and recorded to be used as career information. files should be carefully prepared and arranged systematically. The filing system chosen should give a clear-cut classification of occupations. CLASSIFICATION AND FILING SYSTEM OF CAREER INFORMATION In order to facilitate the use of career information material. Occupations are classified under families. There are eleven divisions consisting of 75 groups which are divided into 331 families under which occupations are classified. It. The first thing for the career master to remember is that he should classify and file the material as soon as he receives it.

etc. All material on anyone occupation is collected and filed together. home science. for instance occupations related to literary subjects. salary. the personal qualities and educational requirements for the job. Material on related occupations can not be grouped together unless numerous cross-reference cards are used. it will be difficult to pick out the required material quickly.1. duties are responsibilities of the job. This system may be very helpful for students who often go by their subjects. etc. DEVELOPING A JOB FOLDER One of the important and useful ways of organizing job information material is to prepare a job folder in which relevant information about a particular job is filed at one place. When a student wants information relating to occupations on the basis of his qualifications. files are arranged according to the names of the occupations in alphabetical order. (ii) Jobs available in the community in which students live. employment outlook. scientific subjects. prospects for advancement. if necessary. if any. The career master should adapt one which suits his purpose best. For selecting jobs to be included in the job folder the following points should be kept in view : (i) Jobs in which most of the students are interested. (iii) Filing on the Basis of School Subjects : Occupations related to each school subject may be filed separately.4. (iv) Filling on the Basis of Industrial Classification of Occupation : Like NCO is an other type of classification is available in accordance with which information about career can be classified and filed. (iv) Jobs in which large number of openings are available for school leaves. fine arts. details about special training requirements. there may be further sub-classifications under each. (iii) Jobs which students can take up soon after they leave school. It has certain limitations also. Of course. 170 . When information is not much and classifications are few the alphabetical system may be quite helpful. 14. A good job folder describes the activities. (ii) Alphabetical System : In this system.

It is more useful 171 . With the help of students for collecting information the career master should decide whether students are to work individually or in groups. Each group should have its leader who should be responsible for organizing the collected information in the form of a report. Students should be sufficiently guided to collect the relevant information if they are working in groups.4. (iii) Group Interview : In this technique the opinion of a group of employees is got about some job by posing questions and getting answers. but limitations of being subjective. the following survey techniques are generally used. (i) Observation : The analyst directly observes the workers at work. (iii) Use of questionnaires of collecting information. (ii) Questionnaire : In this method the employees are given a questionnaire to give information about the job.2.e. (2) Survey Method : In order to gether formation about an occupation so as to be helpful for career planning. It allows the coverage of psychological and sociological aspects. 14. The information about the job folder can be collected by the following method : (i) Occupational survey of the locality. (ii) Contact with the employers. DATA GATHERING TECHNOLOGY Broadly can be done in two ways i. (1) Job Analysis (2) Survey Method (1) Job Analysis : This has been dealt with in some other lesson. It has the limitation of not observing the psychological and sociological aspects of the job or worker. as worker may give the information. he wants to give. He observes a good many workers in order to collect career information and maintain a record of it. The arrangement decided upon should be made known to each participating student. and hide what he does not want to reveal.

with the coming up of GATS programme. (v) Technical Conference : It involves technical discussion with the group of experts on the job. It also needs to be noted that some occupation. duties. Out of all these methods. Moreover. continue to be the need to go on in its self- evaluation and make it upto that.5. LET US SUM UP In order to go in for a career information one should know that this Information is going to reflect upon his whole life and also will make effect on his whole life. responsibilities pay. What is needed is to evaluate the information is that it should go on improving upon it on a systematic way. 14. promotion and safety etc. the information will have to be modified and improved upon it. The world is moving towards “World Village” in which occupations are bound to cross the barriers of different cultures and data will be moving from one culture to the other one frequently as these will always. 14. EVALUATION OF CAREER INFORMATION It is a matter of general understanding that the collection of career information process is a never ending process as the information will never be complete.3. the details of the information will also change at time. 14. as it throws light on determining the requirements of the job in terms of personal qualities.4. become obsolete such cards be removed from the last such information and placed in separate files as their occupation will continue to be of historical importance only. New occupation will always be coming-up and at times. Yes/No 172 .6 SELF EVALUATION QUESTIONS (1) Career information programme never ends. Yes/No (2) Career information need not be established in schools. (iv) Individual Interview : In this method several individuals are contacted one by one for preparing job analysis on the basis of information collected. the interview method is more preferred to some time and energy.

the work of collection of career information has become more important . Yes/No (4) The number of occupations in the world are increasing.7. Yes/No (7) Interview technique is the most appropriate technique to get career information. George E. J. Myers. (3) Career information need not contain information about Colleges and Universities. McMillon Company. Arther : Principles of Guidance. New York. Yes/No Key : (1) Yes (2) No (3) No (4) Yes (5) Yes (6) Yes (7) Yes (8) Yes (9) No (10) Yes 14. Yes/No (8) In order to handle the career information service. 1971. SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS 1. 3.. UNIT END EXERCISES (1) Bring out the case for the importance of Career Information and its uses. 1941. New York.Yes/No (5) Directorate General of Employment is the most important source of career information. 2. (2) Describe the methods of collecting Career Information and making it upto date.M. Yes/No (6) With coming in GATS. 173 .8. Brown. 1963. Jones. New York. : Education as Guidance. McGraw Hill Book Company Inc.. Yes/No (10) Career information can best be compiled in computers. it needs to be filed systematically. Yes/No (9) There is only one method of filing of career information. 14. McGraw Hill Book Company Inc. : Principles and Techniques of Vocational Guidance.

The McMillon Company. 5.P. & T. Asia Publishing House. Strang Ruth : Educational Guidance : Its Principles and Practices. 1960. Bawa Publications.S. New York. 2005. : Dynamics of Vocational Behaviour. Suri S.4. 6. Sodhi : Guidance & Counselling. S.N. Patiala. 1973 174 . Sinha. Japan.