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We updated this document last on April 05, 2017

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Contents

International : Treaties and Agreements

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Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia (CGPCS) Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Hague Code-of-Conduct International Chemical Weapons Convention International Grains Council MTCR North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Pelindaba Treaty Sendai Framework The Australia Group Trade Facilitation Agreement National Committee on Trade Facilitation (NCTF) TRIPS Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations Wassenaar Arrangement

International Governance

Asian Development Bank (ADB) Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) Financial Action Task Force (FATF) Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) International Astronomical Union International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

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International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) International Court of Justice (ICJ) International Criminal Court (ICC) International Development Association (IDA) International Energy Agency (IEA)

International Labor Organization (ILO)

International Maritime Organisation

International Seabed Authority

International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea New Development Bank Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) UN Convention on the Law of the Sea UNHRC United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) World Health Organization (WHO) World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) World Bank World Food Programme

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International Groups

APEC

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ASEAN

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ASEM

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BBIN

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BCIM

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BIMSTEC

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ASEM 16 BBIN 16 BCIM 16 BIMSTEC 17 This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes
ASEM 16 BBIN 16 BCIM 16 BIMSTEC 17 This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes

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BRICS

17

Commonwealth of Nations

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East Asia Summit

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Eurasian Economic Union (EEU)

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G4

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G7

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G20

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India-Africa Forum

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IBSA

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IORA

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Mekong-Ganga Cooperation

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OPEC

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OECD

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RCEP

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SAARC

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Shanghai Cooperation Organisation

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Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP)

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Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP)

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International NGOs and Others

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African Development Bank European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness
African Development Bank
European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN)
Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI)
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27
Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR)27
Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS)
EU vs EEA
International Consortium of Investigative Journalists
International Vaccine Institute (IVI)
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)
SARTTAC
World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)
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National : Constitutional

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CAG

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CEC

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Central Administrative Tribunal (CAT)

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National Commission for SC

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National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST)

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National Commission for Socially and Educationally Backward Classes (NSEBC)

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National : Non Constitutional

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Archaeological Survey of India (ASI)

33

BCI- Bar Council of India

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Bureau of Civil Aviation Security

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CCI

33

Central

Electricity Authority

34

Central

Pollution Control Board

34

Central

Silk Board

34

Central Water Commission (CWC)

35

CIC

35

Chief Vigilance Commission (CVC)

35

CSIR

35

Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB)

36

35 Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) 36 This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes |
35 Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) 36 This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes |

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FSSAI

Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)

Indian Council of Historical Research (ICHR)

Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid-Tropics (ICRISAT) Law Commission of India National Commission for Safai Karamcharis (NCSK) National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) National Council of Senior Citizens National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) National Industrial Corridor Development & Implementation Trust (NICDIT)

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National

Innovation

Foundation

National

Regulatory

Authority of India

National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA)

National Water Development Agency National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC) Press Council of India SHRC Securities Appellate Tribunal Tea Board of India Technology Development Board (TDB) UGC Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (WCCB)

43 Wildlife Institute of India (WII) 43 43 Bombay Natural History Society (BHNS) 43 National
43
Wildlife
Institute of India (WII)
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43
Bombay Natural History Society (BHNS)
43
National
Anti-Doping
Agency
43
National Productivity Council (NPC)
The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI)
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44

National : NGOs

National : PSUs and Companies

44

NABARD

44

National Hydroelectric Power Corporation (NHPC)

44

NHAI

45

Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI)

45

Solar Energy Corporation India (SECI)

45

Telecom Regulatory Authority

of India

(TRAI)

45

Uranium Corporation of India (UCIL)

45

National : Security and Forces

46

Border Road Organisation (BRO)

46

Border Security Force (BSF)

46

Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)

46

CERT-In

46

CRPF

47

Indian Coast Guard

47

National Security Council

47

Nuclear Command Authority (NCA)

47

Strategic Forces Command (SFC)

47

(NCA) 47 Strategic Forces Command (SFC) 47 This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes |
(NCA) 47 Strategic Forces Command (SFC) 47 This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes |

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International : Treaties and Agreements

Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia (CGPCS)

It is an international governance mechanism

Established in 2009

Aims to facilitate the discussion and coordination of actions among states and organizations to suppress maritime piracy near Somali

So far more than 60 countries and international organizations have become part of this forum to work collectively for the prevention of piracy off the Somali coast.

Seychelles is the current chairman of the CGPCS for the biennium 2016-17

Why in news? India has become the co-chair of Working Group on Maritime Situational Awareness (WG- MSA) under CGPCS

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o
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Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage
Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage What is Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear

What is Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage?

It sets parameters on a nuclear operator’s financial liability.

It Seeks to establish a uniform global legal regime for compensation to victims in the unlikely event of a nuclear accident.

It provides a uniform framework for channelling liability and providing speedy compensation after the nuclear accident.

It protects nuclear suppliers from liability for an acciden

Why in news? India ratified it

Hague Code-of-Conduct

What is Hague Code of Conduct?

It is a voluntary

It is legally non-binding

It is a confidence building and transparency measure

It seeks to prevent the proliferation of ballistic missiles that are capable of delivering weapons of mass destruction (WMD).

Established in 2002

It does not ban ballistic missiles, but it calls for restraining their production, testing, and export.

It is the only normative instrument to verify the spread of ballistic missiles.

Austria is the administrative centre coordinating the information exchange under HCOC.

What is the difference between HCoC and MTCR? MTCR is an informal and voluntary partnership to prevent the proliferation of missile and UAV technology. Therefore, the aim of both HCoC and MTCR are same. However, membership of HCoC is not restricted while the membership of MTCR is limited to only 34 export group members.

of MTCR is limited to only 34 export group members. This document is a part of
of MTCR is limited to only 34 export group members. This document is a part of

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International Chemical Weapons Convention

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is a multilateral treaty that bans chemical weapons and requires their destruction within a specified period of time

CWC is an arms control treaty which outlaws the production, stockpiling, and use of chemical weapons and their precursors and entered into force in 1997

CWC negotiations started in 1980 in the UN Conference on Disarmament. The convention opened for signature on January 13, 1993, and entered into force on April 29, 1997.

The CWC is implemented by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), which is headquartered in The Hague.

The OPCW receives states-parties’ declarations detailing chemical weapons-related activities or materials and relevant industrial activities. After receiving declarations, the OPCW inspects and monitors states-parties’ facilities and activities that are relevant to the convention, to ensure compliance.

The CWC is open to all nations and currently has 192 states-parties. Israel has signed but has yet to ratify the convention. A key non-signatory includes North Korea.

Most recently, Angola deposited its instrument of accession to the CWC on 16 September 2015.

As of October 2016, about 93% of the world’s declared stockpile of chemical weapons had been destroyed.

The Chemical Weapons Convention prohibits:

Developing, producing, acquiring, stockpiling, or retaining chemical weapons.

The direct or indirect transfer of chemical weapons.

Chemical weapons use or military preparation for use.

Assisting, encouraging, or inducing other states to engage in CWC-prohibited activity.

The use of riot control agents “as a method of warfare.”

The use of riot control agents “as a method of warfare.” International Grains Council International Grains
International Grains Council
International Grains Council

International Grains Council

India is a member of the IGC which was previously known as International Wheat Council.

IGC is an intergovernmental forum of exporting and importing countries, for co-operation in wheat and coarse grain matters. It administers the Grains Trade Convention 1995.

The IGC Secretariat, based in London, also services the Food Aid Committee, established under the Food Aid Convention.

International Grains Agreement comprises of Grains Trade Convention (GTC) and Food Aid Convention (FAC).

India is a signatory to the International Grains Agreement (IGA), 1995 and its Grain Trade Convention (GTC), 1995 which is effective from July 1, 1995.

India has been included in the category of exporting members in July, 2003 and represented in the meetings/session of the council held from time to time.

MTCR

35 nation (India is 35th member) grouping that controls export of missile technology, including drones.

Setup in 1987 by the G7 countries

Aims to limit the proliferation of missile and other unmanned delivery systems that could be used for chemical or nuclear attacks.

It is an informal and voluntary partnership between 35 countries which urge each other to restrict their missile export and technologies capable of carrying a 500-kilogram payload a minimum of 300 kilometres

India has become 35th member of MTCR in June 2016

Benefits to India:

Would help India in getting access to world-class technology

It would have also allowed India to export its own technology to countries that comply with MTCR

MTCR membership would improve India’s stature among world nations, especially because India is a non- signatory of both NPT and CTBT that are necessary for membership

India will get to play a role in decision making process of the global body; it would help India to address some of our concerns especially with Pakistan’s nuclear program and promote our interest.

India can also sell Thorium which is abundant in India

India can also sell Thorium which is abundant in India This document is a part of
India can also sell Thorium which is abundant in India This document is a part of

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It will be a big step in opening doors for India’s entry into other nuclear regimes it is eyeing for (NSG, Australia Group and Wassenaar Group)

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

The NATO is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty signed in April 1949.

It consists of 28 independent member countries across North America and Europe.

It is based on a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party.

NATO’s headquarters are located in Brussels, Belgium.

Its headquarters of Allied Command Operations is near Mons.

The combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the global defence spending.

Why in news? Montenegro will become 29th member if all 28 members agree

Pelindaba Treaty

It is also known as African Nuclear Weapons Free Zone Treaty

It was signed in 1996 and came into force in 2009

Treaty has been ratified by 40 countries.

The treaty aims to prevent nuclear proliferation in Africa and also stops unchecked supply of Uranium to the nuclear powers of the world.

The Treaty prohibits the research, development, manufacture, stockpiling, acquisition, testing, possession, control or stationing of nuclear explosive devices in the territory of parties to the Treaty and the dumping of radioactive wastes in the African zone by Treaty parties

The Treaty also prohibits any attack against nuclear installations in the zone by Treaty parties and requires them to maintain the highest standards of physical protection of nuclear material, facilities and equipment, which are to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes

o Indian wants to import Uranium from African nations and thus wants relaxation in it.
o
Indian wants to import Uranium from African nations and thus wants relaxation in it.
o
India Civil Nuclear Agreement with Namibia is in limbo because of this treaty.
o
Namibia has not ratified the agreement due to this treaty

All African Union members are the signatories of the treaty

It also requires all parties to apply full-scope International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards to all their peaceful nuclear activities

Why in news?

Sendai Framework

Sendai Framework

It is a 15 year agreement

Voluntary

Non-binding

It recognizes that the State has the primary role to reduce disaster risk but that responsibility should be shared with other stakeholders including local government, the private sector and other stakeholders.

The Australia Group

The Australia Group is an informal forum of countries that seeks to ensure that exports do not contribute to the development of chemical or biological weapons.

It was established in 1985 and presently has 42 members.

India is not a member.

Trade Facilitation Agreement

Under WTO. Negotiations for it completed at Bali summit, 2013

It is for both developing and developed countries

Aims to remove "Red Tape" at customs i.e. to make import/export hassle free and less cumbersome

Also have provisions of technical assistance and capacity building

Issue? India wants TFA for services too.

building  Issue? India wants TFA for services too. This document is a part of IAS4Sure
building  Issue? India wants TFA for services too. This document is a part of IAS4Sure

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National Committee on Trade Facilitation (NCTF)

The NCTF is a mandatory requirement under the WTOs Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA).

It is a national level body to facilitate domestic co-ordination and implementation of TFA provisions.

It aims to develop the pan-India road map for trade facilitation.

It will have three tier structure with main national committee for monitoring implementation of TFA

TRIPS

TRIPS is an international agreement administered by the World Trade Organization (WTO), which sets down minimum standards for many forms of intellectual property (IP) regulations as applied to the nationals of other WTO Members.

It was negotiated at the end of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in

1994.

TRIPS requires WTO members to provide copyright rights, covering content producers including performers, producers of sound recordings and broadcasting organizations; geographical indications, including appellations of origin; industrial designs; integrated circuit layout-designs; patents; new plant varieties; trademarks; trade dress; and undisclosed or confidential information.

The agreement also specifies enforcement procedures, remedies, and dispute resolution procedures.

Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations

It is a treaty that came into force in 1964

It lays out the rules and regulations for diplomatic relations between countries as well as the various privileges that diplomats and diplomatic missions enjoy.

privileges that diplomats and diplomatic missions enjoy.  One of these privileges is legal immunity for

One of these privileges is legal immunity for diplomats so that they don't have to face prosecution as per their host country’s laws.

Why in news?

Indian security agencies recently arrested a Pakistani High Commission staffer on allegations of espionage. The charges are that he was found to be in possession of defence-related documents. Soon after the arrest, however, he was released, declared persona non grata, and informed that he must leave India within 48 hours

Pakistan has accused India of violating the international convention for protection of diplomats

Wassenaar Arrangement

Wassenaar Arrangement was established to contribute to regional and international security and stability.

It aims to promote transparency and greater responsibility in transfer of conventional arms and dual-use goods and technologies.

It has 41 member states and was established in 1996 as an extension of Coordination committee for Multilateral export Controls (COCOM).

The participating states ensure that transfer of materials do not contribute to the development or enhancement of military capabilities.

India is not a member of the Wassenaar Arrangement, but hopes to be one soon. The United States is likely to support India’s bid.

International Governance

Asian Development Bank (ADB)

Established in 1966

HQ : Manila, Philippines

It is modeled on the World Bank

It has a similar weighted voting system where votes are distributed based on member's capital subscriptions.

ADB borrows from international capital markets with its capital as guarantee

Japan and USA are its major donors.

as guarantee  Japan and USA are its major donors. This document is a part of
as guarantee  Japan and USA are its major donors. This document is a part of

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There has been criticism that ADB's large scale projects cause social and environmental damage due to lack of oversight

India has about 6% voting rights (4 th highest; Japan highest, USA 2nd highest)

It is owned by 67 members – 48 from the region including India.

It is dedicated to reducing poverty in Asia and the Pacific through inclusive economic growth, environmentally sustainable growth, and regional integration.

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Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB)

This is an international financial institution

It aims to support the building of infrastructure in the Asia Pacific region

It is an initiative of government of China

region  It is an initiative of government of China  HQ : Beijing, China 

HQ : Beijing, China

37 founding members

The capital of the bank is $100 billion, equivalent to 2/3 of the capital of the Asian Development Bank and about half that of the World Bank

China will remain the biggest shareholder in the bank (India second largest), and the shares of non-Asian countries will be restricted to 25% of the total

The purpose of the multilateral development bank is to provide finance to infrastructure projects in the Asia Pacific region.

AIIB is regarded by some as a rival for the IMF, the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank (ADB), which the AIIB says are dominated by developed countries like the United States and Japan

AIIB will concentrate on infrastructure

Critics (such as the US) warn that the China-led bank may fail to live up to the environmental, labour and procurement standards that are essential to the mission of development lenders. China says the AIIB will adopt international best practises. The UK, Germany, and France have now decided to join in as founding members, drawing protests from the USA

Financial Action Task Force (FATF)

It is an intergovernmental policy making body

It aims to establish international standards for combating money laundering and terrorist financing.

It was established in 1989 during the G7 Summit in Paris (France) to combat the growing problem of money laundering.

It comprises over 36 countries.

India is a member

FATF Secretariat is housed at the headquarters of the OECD in Paris.

Initially it was only dealing with developing policies to combat money laundering. But in 2001 its purpose was expanded to act against terrorism financing.

Objectives:

Set standards and promote effective implementation of legal, regulatory and operational measures for combating money laundering, terrorist financing and other related threats to the integrity of the international financial system.

Functions:

integrity of the international financial system. Functions : This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes
integrity of the international financial system. Functions : This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes

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1. Set international standards to combat money laundering and terrorist financing.

2. Assess and monitor compliance with the FATF standards.

3. Conduct studies of money laundering and terrorist financing methods, trends and techniques.

4. Respond to new and emerging threats, such as proliferation financing (used for promoting proliferation of chemical, biological and nuclear weapons)

Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)

It is a UN body

It leads international efforts to defeat hunger

Established : 1945

HQ : Rome, Italy

In theory, acts as a neutral forum where all nations meet as equals to negotiate agreements and debate policy

FAO is also a source of knowledge and information, and helps developing countries and countries in transition modernize and improve agriculture, forestry and fisheries practices, ensuring good nutrition and food security for all

India is a member of FAO

International Astronomical Union

IAU is a collection of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional education and research in astronomy.

Founded: 1919

HQ : Paris, France

Objective:

o o International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
o
o
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

Promote and safeguard the science of astronomy in all its aspects through international cooperation.

It is an internationally recognized authority for assigning designations (names) to celestial bodies (stars, planets, asteroids, etc.) and any surface features on them.

planets, asteroids, etc.) and any surface features on them.  Established in 1957  HQ :

Established in 1957

HQ : Vienna, Austria

It seeks to promote peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to prohibit its use for any military purpose, including manufacturing of nuclear weapons

It reports to the UNGA and the UNSC (although it is an independent body)

IAEA :

o

Promotes development of peaceful applications of nuclear technology,

o

provide international safeguards against misuse of nuclear technology and nuclear materials, and

o

promote nuclear safety (including radiation protection) and nuclear security standards and their implementation

Three main areas of work that underpin the IAEA's mission are:

o

Safety and Security;

o

Science and Technology; and

o

Safeguards and Verification

The IAEA executes this mission with three main functions:

o

the inspection of existing nuclear facilities to ensure their peaceful use,

o

providing information and developing standards to ensure the safety and security of nuclear facilities, and

o

as a hub for the various fields of science involved in the peaceful applications of nuclear technology

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)

It is an international financial institution that offers loans to middle-income developing countries.

HQ in Washington DC

It was established in 1944 with the mission of financing the reconstruction of European nations devastated by World War II

The IBRD and its concessional lending arm, the International Development Association, are collectively known as the World Bank

Association, are collectively known as the World Bank This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes
Association, are collectively known as the World Bank This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes

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Following the reconstruction of Europe, the Bank's mandate expanded to advancing worldwide economic development and eradicating poverty

The IBRD provides commercial-grade or concessional financing to sovereign states to fund projects that seek to

o

improve transportation and infrastructure,

o

education,

o

domestic policy,

o

environmental consciousness,

o

energy investments,

o

healthcare,

o

access to food and potable water, and

o

access to improved sanitation

International Court of Justice (ICJ)

It is the primary judicial branch of the United Nations

Established in 1945

It is seated in The Hague, The Netherlands

The court settles legal disputes submitted to it by states and provides advisory opinions on legal questions submitted to it by duly authorized international branches, agencies, and the UN General Assembly

Judge term : 9 years

Number of Judges : 15

ICJ only has jurisdiction over any dispute, if the both concerned parties (states) submit to the jurisdiction of ICJ This can be done in two ways –

o Voluntary Jurisdiction - Under this, a state accepts jurisdiction of ICJ for a particular case or class of cases.

o International Criminal Court (ICC)
o
International Criminal Court (ICC)

Compulsory Jurisdiction - Under this, the jurisdiction of ICJ is mandated by a treaty or a pre-existing agreement

India is a party to ICJ

or a pre-existing agreement  India is a party to ICJ  It is an intergovernmental

It is an intergovernmental organisation and international tribunal

It sits in The Hague, The Netherlands

The ICC has the jurisdiction to prosecute individuals for the international crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes

It was created by the ‘Rome Statute’

Has 122 member countries, India is not one of them (neither are China and the USA)

The ICC is intended to complement existing national judicial systems and it may therefore only exercise its jurisdiction when certain conditions are met, such as when national courts are unwilling or unable to prosecute criminals or when the United Nations Security Council or individual states refer investigations to the Court

So far, nine investigations have been opened, and 36 individuals have been indicted. All of the official investigations have been in Africa, and hence the ICC has been accused of selective enforcement of western imperialism towards African countries

Why India is not a member of the ICC? The issue of State sovereignty and national interests versus the powers of the ICC, the difficulty of collecting evidence, the problem of finding impartial prosecutors acceptable to the entire international community and the definition of crimes that would come within the ICC’s jurisdiction emerged are some of the challenges that India cites for not accepting ICC’s jurisdiction

International Development Association (IDA)

The International Development Association (IDA) is an international financial institution which offers concessional loans and grants to the world’s poorest developing countries.

HQ in Washington DC

Recent issue: India is no longer eligible for IDA fund because India per capita income is greater than $1260, so it’s a debate whether India will be a beneficiary because India really needs support from it

be a beneficiary because India really needs support from it International Energy Agency (IEA) This document
be a beneficiary because India really needs support from it International Energy Agency (IEA) This document
be a beneficiary because India really needs support from it International Energy Agency (IEA) This document

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Located in Paris

Autonomous intergovernmental organization

Established in 1974 in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis

The IEA was initially dedicated to responding to physical disruptions in the supply of oil, as well as serving as an information source on statistics about the international oil market and other energy sectors.

The IEA acts as a policy adviser to its member states, but also works with non-member countries, especially China, India, and Russia

India is not a member

The Agency's mandate has broadened to focus on the "3Es" of effectual energy policy:

o

energy security,

o

economic development, and

o

environmental protection

The IEA has a broad role in promoting alternate energy sources (including renewable energy), rational energy policies, and multinational energy technology co-operation

International Labor Organization (ILO)

Established in 1919

It is a UN agency

HQ : Geneva, Switzerland

It deals with labour issues, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all

India is a member of ILO

The ILO registers complaints against entities that are violating international rules; however, it does not impose sanctions on governments

International Maritime Organisation

on governments International Maritime Organisation  It is a specialized agency of the United Nations

It is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for regulating shipping.

Established in 1948 (Came into force in 1959; First meeting)

HQ : London, UK

The IMO's primary purpose is to develop and maintain a comprehensive regulatory framework for shipping and its remit today includes safety, environmental concerns, legal matters, technical co-operation, maritime security and the efficiency of shipping

International Seabed Authority

It is an intergovernmental body that organizes, regulates and control all mineral (non-living resources) related activities in the international seabed area beyond the limits of national jurisdiction.

HQ : Jamaica

It functions under the aegis of the United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)

It has an observer status to UN

Why in news? India extended contract with ISA to explore Polymetallic Nodules in Indian Ocean

International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea

It is an intergovernmental organisation

Created by UNCLOS in 1982 (Came in force in 1994)

It established an international framework for law over "all ocean space, its uses and resources"

Based in Hamburg, Germany

New Development Bank

Also referred as BRICS Development Bank

It is a multilateral development bank operated by BRICS states.

The bank's primary focus of lending will be infrastructure projects

The bank will have starting capital of $50 billion, with capital increased to $100 billion over time

billion, with capital increased to $100 billion over time This document is a part of IAS4Sure
billion, with capital increased to $100 billion over time This document is a part of IAS4Sure

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Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa will initially contribute $10 billion each to bring the total to $50 billion

Unlike the World Bank, which assigns votes based on capital shares, here each participant country will be assigned one vote, and no country will have veto power

Countries apart from the BRICS countries will also be members- the bank will have some countries from ‘the south’ on a rotational basis, on the board of the bank, and they will be allowed to vote

The bank will allow new members to join but the share of BRICS countries cannot drop below 55%

HQ : Shanghai, China

Formed in 2015

The first regional office of the NDB will be opened in Johannesburg, South Africa

K V Kamath is its President

What will NDB do?

o

the Bank shall support public or private projects through loans, guarantees, equity participation and other financial instruments.

o

shall cooperate with international organizations and other financial entities, and provide technical assistance for projects to be supported by the Bank

Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)

It is an international organisation

HQ : The Hague, The Netherlands

Established in 1899

It is not a court and does not have permanent judges.

The PCA is a permanent bureaucracy that assists temporary tribunals to resolve disputes among states (and similar entities), intergovernmental organizations, or even private parties arising out of international agreements.

The cases span a range of legal issues involving territorial and maritime boundaries, sovereignty, human rights, international investment, and international and regional trade.

UN Convention on the Law of the Sea
UN Convention on the Law of the Sea

The decision of the arbitrators is binding in all cases on the parties.

Why in news? In its interim ruling, the UN’s Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague ruled that Sergeant Salvatore Girone (Italian Marine) be allowed to return home until the dispute is resolved through arbitration

home until the dispute is resolved through arbitration  It is also called the Law of

It is also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea treaty

It is the international agreement that resulted from the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III), which took place between 1973 and 1982

The Law of the Sea Convention defines the rights and responsibilities of nations with respect to their use of the world's oceans, establishing guidelines for businesses, the environment, and the management of marine natural resources

It defines :

management of marine natural resources  It defines : This document is a part of IAS4Sure
management of marine natural resources  It defines : This document is a part of IAS4Sure

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UNHRC
UNHRC
your progress ( http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app /) UNHRC  It is an inter-governmental body w ithin the United

It is an inter-governmental body w ithin the United Nations system

It is responsible for strengthening the promotion and protection of human rights ar ound the globe and for addressing situations of human rig hts violations and make recommendations on th em.

It meets at the UN Office at Genev a.

The Council is made up of 47 Unit ed Nations Member States which are elected by th e UN General Assembly.

The term of each seat is three year s, and no member may occupy a seat for more tha n two consecutive terms.

The council works closely with the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rig hts and engages the United Nations’ special procedures.

The General Assembly can suspen d the rights and privileges of any Council membe r that it decides has persistently committed gross and s ystematic violations of human rights during its t erm of membership. The suspension process requires a two- thirds majority vote by the General Assembly.

United Nations Com mission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL)

UNCITRAL was established by the UN General Assembly in 1966 to promote the pr ogressive harmonisation and unification of international trade l aw.

It is the core legal body of the Unit ed Nations system in the field of international tra de law.

It also aims to modernize and har monize rules on international business.

The Commission comprises 60 me mber States elected by the United Nations Gener al Assembly for a term of six

years. Membership is structured to

principal economic and legal syste ms.

ensure representation of the world’s various geo graphic regions and its

India is a founding member of UN CITRAL.

India is only one of eight countries which have been a member of UNCITRAL since its inception. Last year, it was re-elected for a term of six yea rs (2016-2022).

it was re-elected for a term of six yea rs (2016-2022). Wo rld Health Organization (WHO)
it was re-elected for a term of six yea rs (2016-2022). Wo rld Health Organization (WHO)
it was re-elected for a term of six yea rs (2016-2022). Wo rld Health Organization (WHO)

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WHO is a specialised agency of UN

It is concerned with international public health

Established in 1948

HQ : Geneva, Switzerland

India is a founder member of WHO

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World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO)

The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is one of the 17 specialized agencies of the United Nations.

Created in 1967

Aims to encourage creative activity, to promote the protection of intellectual property throughout the world

HQ : Geneva, Switzerland

World Bank
World Bank

India is a member of WIPO and party to several treaties administered by WIPO.

of WIPO and party to several treaties administered by WIPO. The World Bank is an international

The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programs. It comprises of two institutions:

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)

International Development Association (IDA).

Formation: July 1944. Headquarters: Washington DC, United States. Motto: Working for a World Free of Poverty. Membership: 189 countries (IBRD), 173 countries (IDA)

The World Bank is one of the five components of the World Bank Group, which is part of the United Nations system.

World Food Programme

The WFP is the food-assistance branch of the United Nations.

It is the world’s largest humanitarian organization addressing hunger and promoting food security.

It works to help people who cannot produce or obtain enough food for themselves and their families.

It was established in 1961 after the 1960 Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) Conference.

Its headquarter is in Rome (Italy) and has more than 80 country offices around the world.

It provides food assistance to an average of 80 million people in 75 countries each year.

It is a member of the United Nations Development Group (UNDG) and part of its Executive Committee.

International Groups

and part of its Executive Committee. International Groups APEC This document is a part of IAS4Sure
and part of its Executive Committee. International Groups APEC This document is a part of IAS4Sure
and part of its Executive Committee. International Groups APEC This document is a part of IAS4Sure

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APEC stands for Asia-Pacific Econ omic Cooperation

It is a regional economic forum of 21 Pacific Rim member economies

Established in 1989

APEC’s 21 members aim to prom ote free trade throughout the Asia-Pacific region

APEC account for about half the w orld’s trade and almost 60 per cent of global GDP

Why was it established?

In response to the growing i nterdependence of Asia-Pacific economies and th e advent of regional trade blocs in other parts of the wo rld;

To fears that highly industri alized Japan (a member of G8) would come to do minate economic activity in the Asia-Pacific region; and

To establish new markets fo r agricultural products and raw materials beyond Europe

India is not a member. India has a pplied but membership was denied because it do es not border Pacific Ocean

India is an observer member in APEC

HQ: Singapore

Map :

observer member in APEC  HQ: Singapore  Map : Latest Summit:  Pasay, Metro Manila

Latest Summit:

Pasay, Metro Manila (Philippines) , Nov 2015

Lima, Peru, Nov 2016

ASEAN

ASEAN stands for Association of S outh East Asian Nations

It is a political and economic organ isation of 10 SE Asian nations

Formed in 1967

Founding members were Indon esia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and T hailand i.e. all 10 current

members were not founding

members

Current members are:

a. Indonesia

b. Malaysia

c. Philippines

d. Singapore

e. Thailand

f. Brunei

g. Cambodia

h. Laos

i. Myanmar (Burma)

j. Vietnam

Aims:

o

Accelerating economic grow th, social progress, and sociocultural evolution a

mong its members,

o

Protection of regional stabili ty

o

Providing a mechanism for

member countries to resolve differences peacefull y

‘The ASEAN Way’: Doctrine t hat the member countries will largely mind their own business when it comes to internal matters of member cou ntries

ASEAN Plus Three: Was creat ed to improve existing ties with the China, Japan

If the ASEAN nations were a sin gle country, their combined economy would rank the 7 th largest in the world

HQ : Jakarta, Indonesia India

and South Korea.

o

Has and FTA with ASEAN (o perational since 2010)

o

Shares border both land/ma rine

since 2010) o Shares border both land/ma rine This document is a par t of IAS4Sure
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o Large number of Indian orig in people living in these countries

Map:

Indian orig in people living in these countries  Map: Latest Summit:  Kuala Lampur (Malaysia),

Latest Summit:

Kuala Lampur (Malaysia), Nov 20 15

ASEM

ASEM stands for ASIA-Europe Me eting Summit

It is an informal dialogue process

It brings together 53 entities – incl uding 51 countries (including India) from Asia and Europe and two regional bodies European Union ( EU) and the ASEAN

and two regional bodies European Union ( EU) and the ASEAN  Established in 1996 in

Established in 1996 in Bangkok

The dialogue addresses political, e conomic and cultural issues between the two regi ons

It also seeks to strengthen the relat ionship between the two regions in a spirit of mu tual respect and equal partnership

Map

BBIN

BBIN stands for Bangladesh, Bhut an, India and Nepal

It is a sub-regional architecture of these 4 countries

Aims to formulate, implement and review quadrilateral agreements across areas su ch as water resources management, connectivity of powe r, transport, and infrastructure

BCIM

BCIM stands for Bangladesh-Chin a-India-Myanmar

It is a sub-regional organisation

a-India-Myanmar  It is a sub-regional organisation This document is a par t of IAS4Sure Notes
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It aims at greater integration of tra de and investment between the four countries

BCIM economic corridor is an initiative conceptualised for significant gains thr ough sub-regional economic cooperation within the BCIM.

The multi-modal corridor will be t he first expressway between India and China and will pass through Myanmar and Bangladesh

BCIM evolved from ‘Kunming In itiative’ (A platform in 1990s)

BIMSTEC

BIMSTEC stands for Bay of Beng al Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Eco nomic Cooperation

It is an international organisation involving a group of countries in South Asia an d South East Asia.

7 members :

o

Bangladesh

o

India

o

Myanmar

o

Sri Lanka

o

Thailand

o

Bhutan

o

Nepal

Established in 1997 in Bangkok

Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, and Thailand were founding members

HQ : Dhaka, Bangladesh

The main objective of BIMSTEC is technological and economic cooperation among south Asian and south east Asian countries along the coast of t he bay of Bengal . Commerce, investment, techn ology, tourism, human resource development, agriculture , fisheries, transport and communication, textiles , leather etc. have been included in it

BIMSTEC uses the alphabetical order for the Chairmanship

BIMSTEC uses the alphabetical order for the Chairmanship  Bhutan has never been chairman ( Skipped

Bhutan has never been chairman ( Skipped itself)

Current chairmanship : Nepal

Map:

Latest Summit:

Third Summit was held in Nay Py i Taw, Myanmar in March 2014.

BRICS

BRICS is an acronym for Brazil, Ru ssia, India, China and South Africa

Originally it was BRIC (S. Africa in cluded in 2010). Term coined in 2001

Members are :

o

Major emerging national eco nomies

o

Developing or newly industr ialised nations

o

G 20 members

First formal summit was held i n 2009 in Russia

Formed in 2011

It encourages commercial, politica l and cultural cooperation between the BRICS na tions

l and cultural cooperation between the BRICS na tions This document is a par t of
l and cultural cooperation between the BRICS na tions This document is a par t of

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New Development Bank is an o utcome of this platform

Except India, all other members G DP is slowing down bringing average GDP growt h of the BRICS to near zero

As of 2015, the five BRICS countri es represent over 3 billion people, or 42% of the w orld population

Map

3 billion people, or 42% of the w orld population  Map Latest Summit:  8th

Latest Summit:

8th Summit Goa, October 2016

2017 (9th) Summit will be held in China

7th Summit, Russia, July 2015

Commonwealth of Nations

Formerly called the British Comm onwealth

It is an intergovernmental organis ation of 53 member states that were mostly terr itories of the former British Empire

HQ : London

itories of the former British Empire  HQ : London  Mozambique and Rwanda are also

Mozambique and Rwanda are also its members, who were never colonies of Brit ain

This was set up after the second w orld war (in 1949) by Britain, to maintain close ec onomic ties with its erstwhile colonies that were now r apidly becoming independent

It is not a trade block. It aims to pr omote democracy, human rights, world peace etc .

Commonwealth countries in theor y do not consider each other ‘foreign’, and hence send ‘High Commissioners’ and not ‘Ambassadors’

Several countries (such as Britain, Caribbean islands) grant the right to vote to any commonwealth country citizen residing in their territory to vote in their elections

In non-commonwealth countries, commonwealth countries can seek assistance at t he British embassy, in case their own country does not have co nsular services in that country

On occasion, the commonwealth h as suspended members for not maintaining dem ocratic governments (such as Nigeria from 1995-1999). Recently , there have been lots of protests demanding that Sri Lanka be dropped, given the war crimes inflicted on Tamils during the civil war

East Asia Summit

It is a forum of East Asian, South E ast Asian and South Asian nations.

18 members :

o

10 ASEAN nations

o

China, Japan and South Kor ea (ASEAN + 3)

o

Australia

o

New Zealand

o

India

o

Russia

o

USA

Started in 2005 from Kuala Lump ur

EAS meetings are held after annua l ASEAN leaders’ meetings. It is an ASEAN led in itiative.

Map :

meetings. It is an ASEAN led in itiative.  Map : This document is a par
meetings. It is an ASEAN led in itiative.  Map : This document is a par

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Tra ck your progress ( http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app /) Latest Summit:  Kuala Lampur (Malaysia), Nov 20 15

Latest Summit:

Kuala Lampur (Malaysia), Nov 20 15

Eu rasian Economic Union (EEU)

It is an economic union of states lo cated in Northern Eurasia

Established in 2015

HQ : Moscow

5 members :

o

Armenia

o

Belarus

o

Kazakhstan

o

Kyrgyzstan

o

Russia

The EEU introduces the free move ment of goods, capital, services and people and p rovides for common transport, agriculture and energy p olicies

for common transport, agriculture and energy p olicies  In future, it can evolve with provis

In future, it can evolve with provis ions for a single currency and greater integration

Map:

G4

Members : India, Brazil, German y and Japan

All members support each other’s bids for permanent seats on the United Nations S ecurity Council

2004

Each of these four countries have f igured among the elected non-permanent memb ers of the council since the UN's establishment.

Their economic and political influe nce has grown significantly in the last decades, r eaching a scope comparable to the permanent members (P5)

G4 campaigns for U.N. Reforms, in cluding more representation for developing cou ntries, both in the permanent and non-permanent ca tegories, in the UNSC

France supports inclusion of G4 an d an African representative as permanent memb er with no objection to the veto power being extended to new permanent members. UK supports G4 as new me mbers but without veto power.

UK supports G4 as new me mbers but without veto power. This document is a par
UK supports G4 as new me mbers but without veto power. This document is a par

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G7

The Group of 7 (G7) is a group con sisting of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan , the United Kingdom, and the United States.

The European Union is also repres ented within the G7.

These countries are the seven majo r advanced economies as reported by the Interna tional Monetary Fund.

G7 countries represent more than 64% of the net global wealth

Common denominator among me mbers is the economy and long-term political mo tives

Latest Summit:

Kashiko Island (Japan), May 2016

G20

It is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors

Founded in 1999

Its aim was to review policy decisio ns to enhance international financial stability

It now deliberates on global econo mic issues and other important development chal llenges.

First Head of State Summit was he ld in 2008 (Due to Economic Crisis)

20 Members ( EU + 19 Countries) :

from 20 major economies.

o Argentina, o Australia, o Brazil, o Canada, o China, o France, o Germany, o
o
Argentina,
o
Australia,
o
Brazil,
o
Canada,
o
China,
o
France,
o
Germany,
o
India,
o
Indonesia,
o
Italy,
o
Japan,
o
South Korea,
o
Mexico,

o

o

o

o

o

o

Russia,

Saudi Arabia,

South Africa,

Turkey,

United Kingdom and

United States

G20 economies account for around 85% of the gross world product (GWP), 80% of EU intra-trade, 75%), and two-thir ds of the world population

G20 replaced G8 as the main eco nomic council of wealthy nations

Map: (Blue : members, Pink : Gue sts)

world trade (or, if excluding

: members, Pink : Gue sts) world trade (or, if excluding Latest Summit:  Hangzhou, China

Latest Summit:

Hangzhou, China in September 20 16

In 2017, will be held in Hamburg , Germany

20 16  In 2017, will be held in Hamburg , Germany This document is a
20 16  In 2017, will be held in Hamburg , Germany This document is a

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India-Africa Forum

India Africa Summit

The India–Africa Forum Sum mit (IAFS) is the official platform for the African- Indian relations.

Started in 2008

Intergovernmental attempt to give direction and thrust to bilateral synergy

Summits: 2008 (New Delhi); 2011 (Addis Adaba) ; 2015 (New Delhi)

Summit 2015

Delhi Declaration

Infrastructure building - "Cairo to cape town, Marrakesh to Mombassa"

Credit at concessional rates of $10 billion over 5 years (in addition to 4.7 billion tha t India had already pledged since 2008)

Grant assistance of $600 million ( India-Africa dev fund , India-Africa Health fund)

IBSA

IBSA stands for India-Brazil-South Africa

South-South cooperation

All Developing Democracies

The forum provides the three coun tries with a platform to engage in discussions for cooperation in the field of agriculture, trade, culture, and def ence among others.

IBSA was formalised and launched through the adoption of the “Brasilia Declaratio n” in 2003

Brasilia Declaration (2003) :

Approved urgent need for reforms in the United N

Nations, especially

the Security Council.

in the United N Nations, especially the Security Council. IORA  IORA stands for Indian Ocean

IORA

IORA stands for Indian Ocean Rim Association

It consists of coastal states borderi ng the Indian Ocean

The IORA is a regional forum whic h bring together representatives of Government, Business and Academia, for promoting co-operation and closer interaction among them

21 member states : South Africa , Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya, Madagascar, Co moros, Mauritius, Seychelles, Iran, Oman, UAE, Yem en, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Indo nesia, Singapore, Thailand, Australia and Somalia.

Maldives, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Myanmar are not members

Secretariat of IORA is located at E bene, Mauritius.

The organisation was first establis hed as Indian Ocean Rim Initiative in Mauritius o n March 1995 and formally launched in 1997 by the conclusio n of a multilateral treaty known as the Charter of the Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Co-opera tion

Map: (Somalia is not shown in thi s. Add that)

tion  Map: (Somalia is not shown in thi s. Add that) Factual Information:  The

Factual Information:

The 2017 Indian-Ocean Rim Assoc iation (IORA) Summit (March 5-7, 2017) was the first IORA Summit.

(IORA) Summit (March 5-7, 2017) was the first IORA Summit. This document is a par t
(IORA) Summit (March 5-7, 2017) was the first IORA Summit. This document is a par t

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Mekong-Ganga Cooperation

Established in 2000

It comprises six member :

o

India,

o

Thailand,

o

Myanmar,

o

Cambodia,

o

Laos and

o

Vietnam

They emphasised four areas of coo peration:

o

tourism,

o

culture,

o

education, and

o

transportation

The organization takes its name fr om the Ganga and the Mekong, two large rivers in the region

Map:

OPEC
OPEC
the Mekong, two large rivers in the region  Map: OPEC  OPEC stands for Organization

OPEC stands for Organization of t he Petroleum Exporting Countries

Founded in 1960 in Bagdad

HQ : Vienna

13 members

o

Algeria,

o

Angola,

o

Ecuador,

o

Indonesia,

o

Iran,

o

Iraq,

o

Kuwait,

o

Libya,

o

Nigeria,

o

Qatar,

o

Saudi Arabia (the de facto le ader),

o

United Arab Emirates, and

o

Venezuela.

Gabon left OPEC

It operates on the principle of una nimity, and one member, one vote

OPEC sets production targets for it s member nations and generally, when OPEC pr oduction targets are reduced, oil prices increase

As of 2015, the 13 countries accoun ted for 43 percent of global oil production and 7 3 percent of the world's "proven" oil reserves, giving OPEC a major influence on global oil prices.

OPEC decisions have come to play a prominent role in the global oil market and int ernational relations

Map :

global oil market and int ernational relations  Map : This document is a par t
global oil market and int ernational relations  Map : This document is a par t

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Tra ck your progress ( http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app /) OECD  OECD stands for Organisation for Economic

OECD

OECD stands for Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

It is an international economic org anisation

Established in 1961

Secretariat : Paris

Members : 34

Aims to stimulate economic progr ess and world trade

Its members are committed to De mocracy and Market Economy

Most OECD members are high-inc ome economies with a very high Human Develop ment Index (HDI) and are regarded as developed countries

India is not a member of OECD

Map: (Dark Blue : Founding mem bers)

member of OECD  Map: (Dark Blue : Founding mem bers) RCEP  RCEP stands for

RCEP

RCEP stands for Regional Compre hensive Economic Partnership

It is a proposed free trade agreeme nt between countries of ASEAN(10 countries) an d 6 other countries with which ASEAN has existing FTAs (i ncluding India).

10 ASEAN nations are :

a. Brunei,

b. Burma (Myanmar),

c. Cambodia,

d. Indonesia,

e. Laos,

f. Malaysia,

g. Philippines,

h. Singapore,

i. Thailand,

j. Vietnam

6 Other Nations are :

a. Australia,

b. China,

c. India,

d. Japan,

e. South Korea and

f. New Zealand

RCEP negotiations were formally l aunched in November 2012 at the ASEAN Summ it in Cambodia

RCEP is viewed as an alternative t o the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade agreement, which includes the United States but excludes China

which includes the United States but excludes China This document is a par t of IAS4Sure
which includes the United States but excludes China This document is a par t of IAS4Sure

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RCEP potentially includes more th an 3 billion people or 45% of the world’s populat ion, and a combined GDP of about $21.3 trillion, accounting for about 40 percent of world trade

The combined GDP of potential of RCEP members surpassed the combined GDP of Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) members in 20 07.

Map:

Partnership (TPP) members in 20 07.  Map: SAARC  SAARC stands for South Asian Ass

SAARC

SAARC stands for South Asian Ass ociation for Regional Cooperation

It is regional intergovernmental or ganization and geopolitical union in South Asia.

Founded in Dhaka in 1985

Secretariat : Kathmandu

o Afghanistan (Joined in 2007 ) o Bhutan o Bangladesh o India o Pakistan o
o
Afghanistan (Joined in 2007 )
o
Bhutan
o
Bangladesh
o
India
o
Pakistan
o
Nepal
o
Sri Lanka

o Maldives

8 Members:

Myanmar and China are not its m embers

Nine observer states: Australia , China, European Union, Japan, Iran, Mauritius, Myanmar, South Korea, and United States.

SAARC compromises 3% of the wo rld's area, 21% of the world's population and 9.12 % of the global economy, as of 2015

The organization promotes develo pment economics and regional integration

SAFTA : South Asia Free Trade A greement was launched in 2006

Map: (Dark : members; Light : Ob server status)

2006  Map: (Dark : members; Light : Ob server status) Latest Summit:  Kathmandu, Nepal

Latest Summit:

Kathmandu, Nepal in 2014

2016 Summit to be held in Islamab ad, Pakistan

2014  2016 Summit to be held in Islamab ad, Pakistan Sha nghai Cooperation Organisation This
2014  2016 Summit to be held in Islamab ad, Pakistan Sha nghai Cooperation Organisation This
2014  2016 Summit to be held in Islamab ad, Pakistan Sha nghai Cooperation Organisation This

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It is a Eurasian political, economic , and military organisation

Founded in 2001 in Shanghai

6 members:

o

China,

o

Kazakhstan,

o

Kyrgyzstan,

o

Russia,

o

Tajikistan, and

o

Uzbekistan

SCO evolved from Shanghai Five ( All above minus Uzbekistan)

On July 10, 2015, the SCO decided to admit India and Pakistan as full members,

by 2016

and they are expected to join

Main activities: cooperation on sec urity, military activities, and economic and cultu ral cooperation

Member countries are rich in ener gy resources (both fossil fuels and uranium)

HQ : Beijing, China

Map:

fuels and uranium)  HQ : Beijing , China  Map: Latest Summit:  Ufa (Russia),

Latest Summit:

Ufa (Russia), July 2015

Tashkent, Uzbekistan, June 2016

Tr ans Pacific Partnership (TPP)

TPP is a Trade Agreement among 1 2 Pacific Rim countries

It was signed on 4 February 2016 in Auckland, New Zealand

It has not entered into force

Goals:

o

promote economic growth;

o

support the creation and ret ention of jobs;

o

enhance innovation, product ivity and competitiveness;

o

raise living standards;

o

reduce poverty in our countr ies;

o

promote transparency, good governance,

o

enhanced labor and environ mental protections

12 Signatories:

o

USA,

o

Canada,

o

Mexico,

o

Chile,

o

Peru,

o

Japan,

o

Australia,

o

New Zealand,

o

Malaysia,

o

Brunei,

o

Singapore,

o Malaysia, o Brunei, o Singapore, This document is a par t of IAS4Sure Notes |
o Malaysia, o Brunei, o Singapore, This document is a par t of IAS4Sure Notes |

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o Vietnam

The agreement covers 40% of the world’s economy

India is not a part of this.

Map: (Orange : members; Blue : P otential members)

 Map: (Orange : members; Blue : P otential members) Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (

Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership ( TTIP)

It is a proposed trade agreement between the European Union and the United Sta tes

Aims to promote trade and multila teral economic growth

Its main three broad areas are:

o market access;

o specific regulation; and o broader rules and principles and modes of co-operation
o
specific regulation; and
o
broader rules and principles
and modes of co-operation

It is under negotiation

Map:

Intern ational NGOs and Others

African Development Bank

The African Development Bank (A fDB) was established in 1963 with a view to prom ote the Economic Development and social progress o f its regional members.

India became member of the Afric an Development Bank (AfDB) in 1983.

The Union Finance Minister and S ecretary, Department of Economic Affairs (DEA) , Ministry of Finance are the Governor and Alternate Governor of the Bank respectively.

Why in news? India will be hosti ng the next Annual Meetings of the African Deve lopment Bank (AfDB) Group in Ahmedabad in May 2017

Deve lopment Bank (AfDB) Group in Ahmedabad in May 2017 This document is a par t
Deve lopment Bank (AfDB) Group in Ahmedabad in May 2017 This document is a par t

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European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN)

CERN is world's largest nuclear and particle physics laboratory.

It is situated in North West suburbs of Geneva on France-Swiss Border.

It was established in .

Members: It has 22 member states, four associate member states (including India and Pakistan) and three International Organisations have observer status.

Functions:

o

The laboratory helps scientists and engineers probing fundamental structure of Universe using the most sophisticated scientific instruments and advanced computing systems

o

Provide the necessary infrastructure needed for high-energy physics research including particle accelerators.

Achievements:

o

CERN operates the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which is the world’s largest and most powerful particle accelerator.

o

It is associated with the discovery of the Higgs Boson which is popularly known as the God particle.

o

Indian scientists has been active in construction of the LHC in the areas of design, development and supply of hardware accelerator components, software development and deployment in the machine.

o

They also had played significant role in the CMS (Compact Muon Experiment), one of the two large experiments that led to discovery of God particle.

Why in news? India has become an associate member.

How this membership helps India?

o

o

o

As an Associate Member of CERN, India will be a part of the huge scientific and technological endeavour.

The India-CERN association as a whole is interdisciplinary in nature and the involvement of physicists, electronics hardware and software engineers will pave the path for overall knowledge development in the best possible way.

Becoming Associate Member of CERN will enhance participation of young scientists and engineers in various CERN projects and bring back knowledge for deployment in the domestic programmes.

o It will also open opportunities for Indian industries to participate directly in the CERN
o
It will also open opportunities for Indian industries to participate directly in the CERN project.
o

Through the Teachers programme, teachers teaching in the higher secondary schools would also be able to participate in the programme and pass on the knowledge and quest for high-end science to their students, thereby encouraging large number of students to pursue their career in science.

Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI)

What is CEPI?

CEPI is a public-private alliance to finance and coordinate the development of new vaccines to prevent and contain infectious disease epidemics.

CEPI’s plan includes preparations for possible outbreaks of Marburg fever, Lassa fever, MERS, SARS, Nipah virus, Rift Valley fever, chikungunya, and others.

It is being funded by the Wellcome Trust, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, World Economic Forum (WEF), Governments of Norway, Japan, India (Department of Biotechnology) and Germany.

Why in news?

It received $460-million to develop vaccines against 3 emerging highly-contagious and fatal diseases.

These three diseases are Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-coronavirus, Lassa fever, and Nipah virus.

Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR)

The CCAMLR was established by international convention in 1982 with the objective of conserving Antarctic marine life.

It is part of the Antarctic Treaty System.

It was signed by 14 states and has been ratified by 35 states (including India) and the European Community

Headquarters: Tasmania, Australia.

Goal: Preserve marine life and environmental integrity in and near Antarctica

The CCAMLR was established in response to increasing commercial interest in Antarctic krill resources, a keystone component of the Antarctic ecosystem and over-exploitation of several other marine resources in the Southern Ocean

of several other marine resources in the Southern Ocean This document is a part of IAS4Sure
of several other marine resources in the Southern Ocean This document is a part of IAS4Sure

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Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS)

CAS is an international quasi-judicial body

It is established to settle disputes related to sport through arbitration.

Its Headquarter is located in Lausanne (Switzerland).

Its courts are located in New York, Sydney and Lausanne.

According to rule 61 of the Olympic Charter, all disputes in connection with the Olympic Games can only be submitted to CAS.

Since 2016, an anti-doping division of CAS was given full authority to judge doping cases at the Olympic Games. It had replaced earlier mechanism of the IOC disciplinary commission.

Why in news? CAS has banned Indian wrestler Narsingh Yadav for four years in doping case

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EU vs EEA

o http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app / EU vs EEA  The European Union ( EU ) is an economic

The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 28 countries. It operates an internal (or single) market which allows free movement of goods, capital, services and people between member states

The EU countries are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Republic of Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the UK

The EEA includes EU countries and also Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway. It allows them to be part of the EU’s single market

Switzerland is neither an EU nor EEA member

What is EEA?

o

EEA provides for the free movement of persons, goods, services and capital within the internal market of the European Union (EU).

o

The EEA was established on 1 January 1994 upon entry into force of the EEA Agreement

Why in news? After Brexit, UK has an option to be part of EEA

Map:

After Brexit, UK has an option to be part of EEA  Map: This document is
After Brexit, UK has an option to be part of EEA  Map: This document is

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Track your progress ( http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app /) International Consortium of Investigative Journalists 
Track your progress ( http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app /) International Consortium of Investigative Journalists 

International Consortium of Investigative Journalists

The International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ) is a Washington-based international network launched in 1997 by the Center for Public Integrity which includes 165 investigative journalists in over 65 countries who work together on "issues such as "cross-border crime, corruption, and the accountability of power."

For the Panama Papers more than 80 journalists worked on the data, culminating in a partial release on 3 April 2016, garnering global media attention.

International Vaccine Institute (IVI)

IVI is an international non-profit organization devoted to developing and introducing new and improved vaccines to protect the people, especially children, against deadly infectious diseases.

It was established in 1997 on the initiatives of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

Its work is exclusively on vaccine development and introduction specifically for people in developing countries, with a focus on neglected diseases affecting these regions.

Currently, IVI has 40 countries and the World Health Organization (WHO) as signatories to its Establishment Agreement.

Why in news? India has become full-time member of IVI

Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)

The OIC is an international organization founded in 1969.

Members: It consists of 57 member states including Iran and Pakistan.

Administrative centre (headquarters): Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Objective:

1. Raise the collective voice of the Muslim world.

2. Collectively work to safeguard and protect the interests of the Muslim world in the spirit of promoting international peace and harmony.

3. OIC has permanent delegations to United Nations and the European Union.

Issues with India: In this organisation, India is a blocked country, though it has about 12% of the world’s Muslim population. India has been blocked by Pakistan from joining the OIC over Kashmir issue.

blocked by Pakistan from joining the OIC over Kashmir issue. This document is a part of
blocked by Pakistan from joining the OIC over Kashmir issue. This document is a part of

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OIC regard parts of Kashmir as “occupied by India”.

SARTTAC

SARTTAC stands for South Asia Training and Technical Assistance Centre

Opened by IMF

Located in New Delhi

It purpose is economic capacity building in South Asia.

It will work to support local member countries of South Asia viz. India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal and Sri Lanka to build human and institutional capacity and implement policies for growth and poverty reduction