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Opportunities and Challenges

Group Members
Arghya Mandal
Jayesh Nagarsekar
Milind Yadav
Rajneesh Saxena
Sachith Varma

Business Environment
INDIA’S HEALTHCARE SECTOR: Opportunities & Threats

1. Overview of the Indian Healthcare Sector
2. Segments in Healthcare Sector
3. Medical Infrastructure-
a. Current state
b. Special Economic Zone
c. Manpower Statistics
d. Medical Education

4. Policy Initiative

5. Key trends and Drivers

a. Shift to lifestyle related disease to drive higher healthcare spends
b. Growing Middle class and Patient Preferences
c. Awareness towards Preventive healthcare
d. Increased life expectancy and an aging population
e. Overburdened health infrastructure & high costs in the west
f. India’s value proposition goes far beyond cost; quality second to none

6. Holistic well being - Blend of Modern and Traditional Medicine

a. Wellness centers - As centre of Holistic well being
b. Services Offered in Wellness Centers

7. Quality Driven approach: Accreditations

a. International Accreditation Bodies Present in India
b. Accreditation bodies of India- NABH

8. Health Cities: The Evolving Concept of Healthcare in India

9. Hospotels-An Emerging Novel Concept
10. Health Insurance: Current and Future Scenario
11. Path labs
12. Impelling Technology
13. Biotechnology
14. Reverse in Brain Drain
15. Mergers and Acquisitions
16. Key Players in the Sector
17. New Entrants/Key Foreign Players
18. Medical Infrastructure Development
19. Status of Private Investment in India’s Healthcare Sector
20. Telemedicine
21. Medical equipment
22. Insurance
23. Medical value Travel
24. Hospitals Planning and Controlling
25. Medical Textiles and Clinical Trials
26 .Healthcare Outsourcing
27. Challenges to Private Investors
28. Challenges : External & Domestic
29. Concluding Thoughts
INDIA’S HEALTHCARE SECTOR: Opportunities & Threats

1. Overview of the Indian Healthcare Sector

The Indian healthcare delivery market is estimated at US$ 18.7 billion and employs over four million people, making it one of
the largest service sectors in the economy today. Total national healthcare spending reached 5.2% of GDP, or US $34.9 billion in
2004 and is expected to rise to 5.5% of GDP or US $60.9 billion by 2009. This includes the pharmaceuticals market, government
and private spending. Private segment constitutes bulk and growing rapidly, to reach $38 billion by 2012. There are various
gaps in the Indian healthcare market, which also present a vast opportunity. Good healthcare in India is in extreme short
supply. Hospitals in India are running at 80-90 per cent occupancy. With the demand for healthcare far exceeding supply,
India’s healthcare industry is expected to grow by around 15 per cent a year for the next six years.

There are some economic factors which make India such an exciting market. Since healthcare is dependent on the people
served, India’s huge population of a billion people represents a big opportunity. The middle income group in this vast base is
also a large 300 million. India spends only 1% of its GDP on health, translating into $35 per capita. France spends 10.4% and
Japan 8%. A significant portion of the population receives inadequate or no health care, specifically 25.7% living below the
poverty line and those who have only the public health system to rely on. National Family Health Survey for 2005-06 estimates
453 deaths per 100,000 women; higher than Cambodia, Bolivia and Botswana. India accounts for 20% of the world's maternal
deaths, with a woman dying every five minutes. 20% of deaths of children worldwide under the age of 5 occur in India. The
private healthcare sector in India accounts for over 75 percent of total healthcare expenditure in the country and is one of the
largest in the world. India’s healthcare sector, however, falls well below international benchmarks for physical infrastructure
and manpower, and even falls below the standards existing in comparable developing countries.Given the growing demand, the
emergence of reputed private players, and the huge investment needs in the healthcare sector, in recent years, there has been
growing interest among foreign players and non resident Indians to enter the Indian healthcare market. There is also growing
interest among domestic and international financial institutions, private equity funds, venture capitalists, and banks to explore
investment opportunities across a wide range of segments. This study examines the status and the major brands in the key
segments of the healthcare sector, i.e., in hospitals. It also analyses the implications for the overall healthcare system.

2. Segments in Health Sector

It comprises of many segments like: -Medical infrastructure, Medical equipment, Health insurance, Training and education,
Telemedicine, Clinical trials etc. The industry has grown at about 13 per cent annually in recent years and is expected to grow
at 15 per cent per year over the next four to five years.

Share of tertiary care in the total healthcare market is around 15-20%. Market for tertiary care expected to grow at a faster
rate, due to rise in complex in-patient ailments such as heart diseases and cancer.

Source: The Business World, Ernst & Young Survey; June 2007
INDIA’S HEALTHCARE SECTOR: Opportunities & Threats

3. Medical infrastructure
A. Current state
• Current Hospital beds per 1000 population stands at 1.11
• Most private hospitals operate as a proprietorship or partnership business
• Corporate Hospitals account for approximately 10% of the total private ownership
• Use of technologically advanced diagnostic equipments and excellent infrastructure are making
India a medical value travel hub

B. Special Economic Zones

Under the SEZ Act 2005 “Healthcare” has been defined as an approved service. For a sector specific zone, a hospital with
minimum bed strength of 25 is stipulated and this goes up to 100 beds for a multi product SEZ. With the latest approvals, given
by an inter-ministerial Board of Approval, the total number of formally approved SEZ is now at 395, of which, 154 have been
notified by the Law ministry.

C. Manpower Statistics
• Number of Doctors - 660,801
• Number of Nurses - 1,371,121

D. Medical Education
• 229 recognized medical colleges of which 106 were established through the private route
• 25,000 medical graduates pass out each year
• 136 medical schools admit more than 6,000 PG trainees in their programs

4. Policy Initiative

National Health Policy-2002

• The National Health Policy 2002 focuses on the need for enhanced funding and organisational
restructuring of the national public health initiatives in order to facilitate more equitable access to
health facilities.

• The focus is on those diseases that are principally contributing to the disease burden -TB, Malaria and
Blindness from the category of historical diseases and HIV/AIDS from the category of newly emerging
• Identification of specific programmes targeted at women’s health and strengthening of food and drug
administration, in terms of both laboratory facilities and technical expertise.

• Greater contribution from the Central Budget for the delivery of public health services at the state level.
INDIA’S HEALTHCARE SECTOR: Opportunities & Threats

5. Key Trends and Drivers

A. Shift to lifestyle-related diseases to drive higher healthcare spends

While rising incomes and growing literacy are likely to drive higher per capita expenditures on healthcare, the shift in disease
profiles from infectious to lifestyle-related diseases are expected to raise expenditures per treatment. Lifestyle-related diseases
are typically more expensive to treat than infectious ones. In 2001, the average inpatient cost for lifestyle-related diseases
(cardiac problems, digestive issues etc.) was US$ 658 compared to US$ 91 for infectious diseases.

India’s disease profile is expected to follow the same pattern as in developed economies. Based on demographic trends and
disease profiles, lifestyle diseases -cardiovascular, asthma and cancer have become the most important segments, and in-
patient spending is expected to represent nearly 50 per cent of total healthcare expenditure. In the inpatient market, the share
of infectious diseases is expected to decline from 19 per cent in 2004 to 16 percent in 2008. The number of cardiac-disease-
related treatments in India is expected to grow from 1.5 million to 1.9 million per year over 2004-08, which would constitute
5.1 per cent of all treatments, The spend share of inpatient cardiac treatment is estimated to grow to 19 per cent of the total in
2008 from 16 per cent in 2004. This would drive a 13.4 per cent CAGR in the inpatient cardiac care market from US$ 1.2 billion
in 2004 to US$ 2.04 billion in 2008. The average realization per inpatient for cardiac related treatment is much higher than for
other disease segments.

Hospitalisation Cases, 2006 , Source: Ernst & Young Analysis, Business Line: 2007

B. Growing Middle Class and Patient Preferences

There is favourable increase in percentage of working class population from 32% in 2006 to 36% in year 2016. General
awareness, literacy rates and patient preferences in healthcare decisions is growing. National Health Policy, 2002 has laid
strong emphasis on the policy goal of better engaging patients in their healthcare decisions.

C. Awareness towards Preventive healthcare

Increasing health consciousness among common people has created avenues for preventive healthcare. Hospitals have started
witnessing a number of patients who visit for health check-ups as a preventive measure. The various health check-up packages
offered include a combination of CBC, blood sugar, cholesterol, urine, stool, digital chest X-Ray, ECG, general examination, blood
group, blood sugar, liver profile, proteins, lipid profile, cholesterol, and renal profile. Around 70 per cent of treatment decisions
in the country are based on lab results. This trend has further led to newer avenues for companies involved in carrying out
diagnostic tests.
INDIA’S HEALTHCARE SECTOR: Opportunities & Threats

D. Increased life expectancy and an ageing population

In the domestic market, health spending will be sustained by two demographic trends: increased life expectancy and an ageing
population. Life expectancy, which averaged 63.3 years in 2000-04, is expected to increase to 65.1 years in 2005-09 and to 66
years in 2006-10. The proportion of the population aged 65 years and over is also on the rise, and will increase from 4.7 per
cent in 2000 to 5.3 per cent in 2005 and 5.8 per cent in 2010. Although the rate of ageing in India is slower than the developed
world, the large population makes any increase significant in terms of absolute numbers, and therefore also in terms of market

E. Overburdened health infrastructure & high costs in the West

The healthcare systems in Europe and the United States are under severe pressure; particularly the National Health Service
(NHS) in the UK, which has a long list of patients waiting for over a year for surgery. In the US the healthcare crisis has a
different dimension. Around 50 million citizens are uninsured, with even the insured having to pay dearly for treatment.
Further, the shortage of paramedical professionals such as nurses has aggravated the situation. Patients from the US are now
regularly beating a path to India, as many of their insurance companies have entered into tie-ups with private Indian hospital

F. India’s value proposition goes far beyond cost; quality second to none

Cost is not the only factor weighing in India’s favour. Escorts Hospital, for instance, is one of the only handful treatment
facilities worldwide that specialize in robotic surgery. The death rate of coronary bypass patients at Escorts is 0.8 per cent. By
contrast, the 1999 death rate for the same procedure at New York-Presbyterian Hospital was 2.35 per cent, according to a 2002
study by the New York State Health Department. The overall success rate of cardiac bypasses is 98.7 per cent in India, as
opposed to only 97.5 per cent in the United States.

G. Healthcare Players Now Targeting Smaller Cities

• Increasing focus on unexplored regions of India in terms of healthcare
• Growing need for improved healthcare infrastructure in tier II & III cities
• Better access owing to development of new national/international airports e.g. Visakhapatnam,

6. Holistic Wellbeing -Blend of Modern and Traditional medicine

Hospitals and wellness centres are now looking at a comprehensive and holistic approach towards treating their patients. Tie-
ups of hospitals with holistic health centres have helped combine traditional healthcare knowledge and practices with the
conventional system.
INDIA’S HEALTHCARE SECTOR: Opportunities & Threats

A. Wellness Centres-As Centres of Holistic Well Being

• The Golden Palms Spa and Resort Bangalore
• The Ananda Spa in Rishikesh
• The Ayurvedgram in Bangalore
• The Vedic Village: Spa And wellness Centre in Kolkata
• Soukya in Bangalore

B. Services Offered in Wellness Centres

• Diet and Nutrition

• Gym and Fitness
• Yoga
• Herbal Medicine
• Humour therapy
• Healing touch therapy
• Stress Management including Relaxation, and Meditation
• Acupuncture
• Pranic and Crystal Healing

7. Quality Driven Approach: Accreditations

It has become an imperative for healthcare institutions in India to guarantee quality healthcare to all. In India, QCI (Quality
Council of India) operates the national accreditation structure and obtains international recognition for its accreditation

A. International Accreditation Bodies Present in India JCI

(Joint Commission International)

• Launched in 1999, Currently JCI surveys nearly 20,000 health care programs through a
voluntary accreditation process

• The World Health Organization (WHO) designated the Joint Commission on Accreditation of
Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) and Joint Commission International as its Collaborating
Centre for Patient Safety in 2005.

JCI Accredited Organizations

• Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Delhi

• Apollo Hospital, Chennai
• Apollo Hospital, Hyderabad
• Asian Heart Institute, Mumbai
• Shroff Eye Hospital, Mumbai
• Wockhardt Hospital, Mumbai
• Fortis Healthcare, Mohali

B. Accreditation Bodies in India –NABH

Launched in 2005, NABH is a constituent board of Quality Council of India, set up to establish and operate the accreditation
programme for healthcare organizations in India. It has standards specific to the Indian healthcare setting, major aspects being
INDIA’S HEALTHCARE SECTOR: Opportunities & Threats

the assurance of uniform access, assessment, care of patients and protection of patient’s rights.

NABH accredited Hospitals

• B.M. Birla Heart Research Centre, Kolkata

• MIMS Hospital, Calicut
• Max Super- Speciality Hospital, New Delhi
• Max Devki Devi Heart and Vascular Institute, New Delhi
• Kerala Institute of Medical Sciences, Thiruvananthapuram
• Moolchand Medcity, New Delhi

NABH: Accreditations to be launched

• Blood Banks

• Diagnostic Centres

• Dental Hospitals/Clinics

8. Health Cities: The Evolving Concept of Healthcare in India

Major corporate hospital groups in India are making significant investments in setting up state-of-the-art Health Cities in major
Indian cities. Around 15-20 Health Cities are expected to come up in India in the next 5 years. Health Cities are looking at
catering to larger populations by offering facilities such as hotels, residential facilities, and recreational facilities of spa, gym and
even golf courses. Greater emphasis is on education, research and development.

Other Health City Plans in the Pipeline

• MIOT hospitals, Chennai have plans to set up a multispecialty medical city

• Reliance ADAG has expressed interest in building a 60 acre health city in Kolkata
• CMCH, Ludhiana has initiated a US$ 12.2 million MediCity project in Ludhiana
INDIA’S HEALTHCARE SECTOR: Opportunities & Threats

9. Hospotels-An Emerging Novel Concept

There is an increasing trend of hotels being included within the hospital campus. Medical centres want to provide
comprehensive services to their visitors and patients’ attendants in addition to basic health services. Several large hospitals
now also have tie-ups with leading star hotels and airlines for their international patients. Hotel and restaurant chains are
actively getting into opening food outlets at hospitals.

Food Majors Looking at Hospitals for their Outlets

10. Health Insurance: Current and Future Scenario

• Revenue attributable to insurance or Third Party Administrators (TPAs) has grown from 2% in
2001-02 to 16% in 2005-06.
• Total credit billing has increased to 32% in 2005-06 and it is further likely to increase to 50% by
• Domestic health policy premiums have shown a 47% increase in the first quarter of 2006.
• The number of policies issued as Mediclaims, ESIS, and CGHS are 4,631,534; 8,400,000 and
1,040,000 respectively.
• Voluntary health insurance market, estimated at US$ 86.3 million currently, is growing fast.
• Total medical insurance premium income to grow to US$ 3.8 billion by 2012.
• Over 80 % of private health insurance is concentrated with four leading players

— ICICI Lombard, Bajaj Allianz, Royal Sundaram and Iffco Tokio

11. Pathology labs

Presently, the lab testing market is largely serviced by small unorganised players and hospitals. Believing that diagnostics is a
high-margin and asset intensive business, many focused players are in the process of developing national networks -such as Dr.
Lal’s Pathlabs, Metropolis, SRL Ranbaxy, Thyrocare, and Nicholas Piramal. Most renowned path labs are expanding regionally
and foraying into the international markets as well. For instance, SRL Ranbaxy Ltd has signed outsourcing contracts with
several UK hospitals to provide pathological services. The Group with 17 labs, 550 collection centres distributed in 350 towns
across the country and seven franchisee labs is looking for both franchisees and acquisitions in all the major cities of the
country. Metropolis Health Services too plans to increase its collection centres and franchisee systems. It currently has 13
laboratories in India and plan to open at least another 9 labs by the end of next year.

12. Impelling Technology

• Life cycles of high end medical equipments becoming shorter due to high level of innovation
• Telemedicine being used by major healthcare providers to provide quality care especially in
eye, cardiac and other surgeries for the rural poor in India
• Teleradiology being used to leverage the time difference advantage with other developed
INDIA’S HEALTHCARE SECTOR: Opportunities & Threats

IT Driven Tools and Services in Healthcare

• Hospital management systems
• Decision support systems that improve diagnosis and treatment
Telemedicine and electronic record generation

13. Biotechnology
Indian companies are driven to innovative research and are establishing their own niche areas: Reliance Life Sciences is
planning to launch genetically engineered skin; Avesthagen has won a US patent for multiple use genetic modification
technology; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals has plans to launch a number of vaccines like new-generation DTP, rotavirus and
cervical cancer for its global portfolio. Similarly, Xcyton, a small biotech diagnostic kit-maker has made its presence felt in the
global and domestic diagnostics market. Several biotech medicines are due to come off patent in the next few years, and
pharmacy majors are looking at India for contracting research and manufacturing of biologic generics. India is becoming a
talented and cost-competitive destination for biotechnology research, product development, toxicity studies and clinical trials
and has positioned itself to take advantage of moves by governments in the US and Europe to create a regulatory framework for
approving generic medicine.

14. Reverse in Brain Drain

The reversal of trend is encouraging. Medical professionals of Indian origin, working in other nations are willing to come back
and settle in India.

Factors for Top Medicos to Return

• Significantly improved international grade healthcare infrastructure in India

• Increase in medical value travel to India
• Improved salary levels, almost at par with the west
• Growing restrictions on licensing and practicing in the UK and other EU countries

15. Mergers and Acquisitions

M&A route allows healthcare providers with immediate brand recognition and an aggressive scale up in new geographies. With
M&A, new standards in healthcare services have been ushered in by large corporate hospitals. Merger of smaller hospitals and
nursing homes with larger healthcare entities has led to better healthcare service delivery.

• Singapore-based Parkway Group Healthcare PTE Ltd. has firmed up plans of acquiring tertiary care hospital
projects in Class A and B cities of India, especially in the South with one operational in Hyderabad

• The Asian Heart Institute, Mumbai plans to invest US$ 7.32 million for expansion activities and is actively
exploring acquisition targets outside Mumbai
INDIA’S HEALTHCARE SECTOR: Opportunities & Threats

16. Key Players in the sector

Apollo Hospitals Enterprise Ltd

• Manages a network of 41 specialty hospitals and clinics with a bed capacity of over 9,000 across the country and
• Besides the recently launched Health City in Hyderabad, plans to launch similar facilities pan India
• Has tied up with insurers like BUPA (UK), Vanbreda (Belgium) and Mondial (France) to direct inflow of foreign patients
to India
• Joint venture with Singapore-based Parkway Group Healthcare PTE Ltd.
• Has tied up with Indian Oil Corporation (IOC) to set up its pharmacies at the latter’s petrol stations.

Fortis Healthcare
• Has a chain of hospitals with an installed bed capacity of about 1,790 beds
• Operations across North India -Delhi, Noida, Mohali, Amritsar, Faridabad, Raipur and Srinagar
• Expansion plans through mergers and acquisitions
• Has a joint venture with Real Estate player DLF to set up hospitals across the country with an investment of about US$
1.5 billion

• Owns a pharmacy chain by the name of Fortis Health world and plans to open 250 outlets with an investment of US$
195 million all over India

• Has announced the signing of a definitive agreement (the “pre-IPO”) for allotment of 670,000 equity shares to VASCO
Inc. for an investment amount of US$ 2.6 million

Wockhardt Hospitals

• 8 hospitals across India, of which 5 are owned

• Total bed size of the group is 1,390
• Has tie-ups and association with Harvard Medical International: USA, Blue Cross and Blue Shield: USA, Bupa: U.K., AEA
International: Singapore and others.
• Plans to build 15 new multi speciality hospitals in Tier-II cities in the country.
• Public-Private Partnership with the Government of Gujarat to manage the 275-bed Palanpur Civil General Hospital in
• Company plans an IPO by the end of this year
INDIA’S HEALTHCARE SECTOR: Opportunities & Threats

Manipal Health Systems

Chain consists of:

• 9 primary centres at 7 rural locations

• 8 secondary hospitals at urban and semi urban locations
• 3 tertiary hospitals at urban and semi-urban locations.
• MHS is building another 600-bed multi specialty hospital in Devanahalli, Bangalore
• Joint venture with Pantaloon Retail for comprehensive retail healthcare foray
• Plan to invest over US$ 195 million in healthcare business in the next five years.

Narayana Hrudayalaya
• First-of-its-kind cardiac care hospital in Bangalore, set up by the Asia Heart Foundation (AHF)

• Capability to perform 25 major heart surgeries and over 20 cardiac catheterisations a day

• Hub for telecardiology networks with a Joint Venture between the Governments of seven hill states
and West Bengal, Karnataka Health Systems and ISRO

• A 5,000-bed Health City is coming up at, Bangalore, which will comprise of 10 hospitals

Max Healthcare

• MHC operates 8 healthcare centres in the National Capital Region (NCR)

• Bed capacity of around 765 beds and is expected to increase to 1,500 -1,600 beds in the next few years
• Collaborated with Singapore General Hospital in the areas of medical practices, nursing, paramedical research and
• Plans to raise US$ 85.36 - 97.56 million to expand its hospital chain

Columbia Asia
• First healthcare provider to enter through the FDI route
• Opened the first community healthcare multi-specialty facility at Bangalore
• Planning to invest US$ 15. 85 million to set up more hospitals in Bangalore
• Tied-up with GE, to collaborate on a number of initiatives for creating a medical Institute of world-class standards

Global Hospitals
• The US$ 9.75 million facility functions from 2 locations in Hyderabad
• Invested US$ 36.58 million to set up ‘BGS Global Hospital’ in Bangalore
• Tied up with the Sureka Group, to set up a 300-bed transplantation and tertiary care centre in Kolkata
• Planning to establish a US$ 240 million ‘health city’ in Chennai on the 46-acre hospital site

17. New Entrants/Key Foreign Players

Artemis Health Institute

• Delhi-based Apollo Tyres has made a foray with the launch of its US$ 48.78 million project, Artemis
Health Institute in Gurgaon
• First hospital in entire northern India to offer Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) to its patients
• Artemis plans to grow into a 10-hospital chain by 2012
INDIA’S HEALTHCARE SECTOR: Opportunities & Threats

Naresh Trehan’s MediCity

• Reputed medical professional, Dr Naresh Trehan, is promoting a US$ 250 million world-class
integrated healthcare facility known as ‘MediCity’

• Has been envisioned as a multi-disciplinary high-tech medical institute spread over 43 acres in

• Apollo would examine the possibility of investing in the proposed MediCity and merger of the
MediCity with Apollo Group may also considered in the future

Aditya Birla Memorial Hospital

• A multi-speciality hospital located at Pimpri-Chinchwad in Maharashtra
• The quaternary healthcare centre with 500 bed facility is spread over 16 acres

Reliance ADAG Healthcare

• A 700 bed facility in Mumbai inaugurated in 2007
• Planning a pan India chain of hospitals; has begun talks with leading private hospitals in Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore
for possible acquisitions and joint ventures

Foreign Players
• Harvard Medical International and Cleveland Clinic have entered the country through joint ventures
• Pacific Healthcare Holding has opened their first hospital in Hyderabad
• Parkway Group from Singapore, Emaar from the Middle East and Prexeus Health Partners from the
US have announced plans

18. Medical Infrastructure Development

Medical infrastructure forms the largest portion of the healthcare pie. The current bed per thousand population ratio for India
stands at 1.03 as against an average 4.3 of comparable countries like China, Korea and Thailand. Our analysis points out that in
spite of the phenomenal growth in the healthcare infrastructure, we are likely to reach a bed to thousand-population ratio of
1.85 and in a best-case scenario, a ratio of 2 by 2012. Beds in excess of 1 million need to be added to reach a ratio of 1.85 per
thousand. Out of the total about 896,500 beds will be added by the private sector with a total investment of 69.7 Billion US$ (Rs
222,000 Crores) over the next six years. However, the gains are commensurate in this capital intensive industry, since the
revenues generated by private hospitals in the year 2012 will be to the tune of US$ 35.9 Billion (Rs. 161,440 Crores) growing at
a CAGR of 15%. Despite this investment, the bed to thousand population ratio would be far from comparison with other similar
developing countries Leading Real estate players are looking at new business areas such as hospital properties to maximize
amenities in their integrated townships.

Real Estate Players in Healthcare

INDIA’S HEALTHCARE SECTOR: Opportunities & Threats
• DLF inking a 26:74 joint venture with Fortis Healthcare for setting up hospitals in its 200 acre plus
integrated townships across the country, at an investment of around US$ 1.5 billion. The JV plans to
set up a chain of 200-450 bed hospitals in 31 cities in India within three to five years.

• Fortis’s Lucknow MediCity, is being set up in Ansal’s 1,500 acre upcoming mega township.
• Hinduja Group and Limitless LLC, the realty arm of Dubai World, are putting in about US$ 1.1 billion in their 51:49 JV
to build hospitals and medicare cities
• Ambuja Realty Development Ltd (ARDL) plans to develop a couple of feeder hospitals in Siliguri (North Bengal) and
Bardhaman (South Bengal) for its proposed multi-specialty hospital in Kolkata. ARDL had formed a joint venture —
Neotia Elbit Hospital Venture Ltd, with the Elbit Group of Israel.

19. Status of Private Investment in India’s Healthcare Sector

• Growth in private investment in various forms

– Private equity, acquisitions, FDI, FII, NRI investment, joint ventures, tie-ups, Venture Capital, IPOs

• Segments attracting private investment include diagnostic chains, medical device manufactures, and hospital chains
• Significant growth in Private Equity (PE) investments in India’s healthcare sector

• Over $448 million in PE investment in 2008.

• Expected investments of $5 billion between 2008 and 2011

Examples of recent or proposed healthcare investments (By Corporate)

• Apax Partners which picked up 12 per cent stake in Apollo Hospitals Enterprise Ltd for Rs 426.40 crore
• ICICI Venture making multiple healthcare investments:

• Rs 40 crore in RG Stone Hospital

• Rs 140 crore in Pune's Sahyadri Hospital
• Rs 65 crore in Kolkata's Medica Synergie.
• Rs 96 crore in Mysore’s Vikram Hospital

• Sale of 25 percent stake by Narayana Hrudayalaya Pvt. Ltd to the private equity arms of American International Group
Inc. (AIG) and JPMorgan for $100 million
• Joint ventures and tie-ups between leading Indian hospitals and domestic/overseas companies/institutions

• Harvard Medical International and Cleveland Clinic have entered the country through joint ventures
• Parkway Group from Singapore, Emaar from the Middle East and Prexeus Health Partners from the US have
announced plans

Funding By Private Equity

Recent PE Funding Deals in Healthcare

• Warburg Pincus’ total investment in Max Healthcare stands at US$ 34.15 million
• George Soros’ fund Quantum and Blue Ridge bought 10 % in Fortis Healthcare
• Manipal Health Systems Private Limited has risen over US$ 20 million of equity from IDFC Private
equity Fund
• Bangalore-based HealthCare Global Enterprises Limited (HCG) has risen over US$ 10 million in
equity from IDFC Private Equity Fund
• Metropolis Health Services Ltd. (Metropolis), India’s leading corporate diagnostics chain, raised
over US$ 8 million in equity from India Advantage Fund-I managed by ICICI Venture Capital.
INDIA’S HEALTHCARE SECTOR: Opportunities & Threats

20. Telemedicine

• Opportunities to integrate telemedicine into healthcare to increase patient base, productivity, and enable cost effective

• Investment opportunities for setting up telemedicine centres within hospitals, create networks of hospitals and clinics
in different parts of the country Medical education, training, research

• Opportunities due to shortage of trained personnel-doctors, nurses, technicians, healthcare administrators

• 1.27 doctors (all kinds) and 0.5 doctors (allopathic) per thousand persons in India compared to world average of 1.5

• 0.9 nurses per thousand persons compared to world average of 1.2 (2006)

• Possible shortage of over 450,000 doctors by 2012

• Private players could invest in establishment of medical colleges and training institutes

21. Medical equipment

Medical equipment forms another promising opportunity within healthcare. Our analysis pegs the medical equipment industry
at US$ 2.17 billion (Rs 9,790 Cr) in 2006 growing at 15% per year and will reach US$ 4.97 billion (Rs 22,396 Cr) by 2012
Currently over 65% of the medical equipments are imported and thus is a key area for forging partnerships across borders.
Engineering excellence, cost-effective labour, increasing emphasis on intellectual property rights and most importantly a fast
growing domestic market makes India an ideal manufacturing base.

As bulk of medical equipment is currently imported in India, opportunities for:

• Foreign companies to set up manufacturing base (Philips, GE, and Siemens)

• Joint ventures and licensing agreements between Indian and foreign companies (Wipro-GE)
• Outsourcing engineering design and skilled services for medical equipment manufacturing and
testing to Indian companies
INDIA’S HEALTHCARE SECTOR: Opportunities & Threats

Siemens success story in India

German electrical engineering major Siemens plans to source medical equipment from the Goa facility in India for the regulated
markets. The Goa facility earlier used to work as a component manufacturing unit and the products were integrated in Germany
from where they were exported. The company has recently completed 40 per cent capacity expansion at its Goa unit and is in
the process of receiving regulatory approval from the US FDA and European authorities.

While the global orders will be placed through Siemens, it will be serviced out of India once the regulatory approvals are in
place. The Goa plant will now operate as a global production hub. The facility will export products to about 30 countries and is
targeting export growth of about 45-50 per cent. Siemens currently exports four models from India and will increase the
product portfolio to 8-10 models by the end of next fiscal. The main focus will be on X-ray systems and it will also undertake all
global R&D activities for this product segment in this unit. The company’s medical solutions division currently generates sales
of about US$ 111.1 million for it in India.

22. Health insurance

Growing demand for high quality health care has led to growing demand for health insurance. More number of insurers are
promoting insurance policies that provide comprehensive health coverage. Multiple channels, including banks are being used to
sell group and individual health insurance policies. Three factors have changed the face of the medical insurance market:

-Privatization in 2000 ending the monopoly of the public sector.

-Introduction of Third Party Administrators (TPAs) by the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority in 2002 has
made the medical insurance segment more attractive through provision of cashless hospitalisation facility.

-Third, the ‘detariffing’ of general insurance from January 1, 2007 has also been a growth booster for the industry.

Insurance companies are in consultation with NABH to identify hospitals and diagnostic centres that will be allowed to process
cashless claims. The sector is Potentially large as penetration is less than 12% of the population but growing.

New Products in Health Insurance

• ICICI Prudential is looking at introducing a policy where the premium will remain the same year after year
irrespective of the age of the policyholder.

• Introduction of Crisis Cover by insurance companies, which provides for payment on detection of any of the 35
diseases covered.

23. Medical Value Travel

• Medical value travel is one of the most lucrative segments of the healthcare sector and is expected to grow into a
US$1.5 billion industry by 2010

• Potential to contribute US$ 1.2 -2.4 billion additional revenue for upmarket tertiary hospitals by 2012, and will account
for 3-5% of the total healthcare delivery market

• In 2006-07, India was able to attract approximately 150,000 patients to the country, up from 10,000 patients about five
years ago

• With an annual growth rate of 30 percent, India is already inching closer to Singapore and Thailand, which are
established medical care hubs that attract millions of medical tourists a year

• The Ministry of Tourism (MOT), Government of India has further enhanced the Mvisa and MXvisa (Medical Visa) by
extending it to three years from 6 months
INDIA’S HEALTHCARE SECTOR: Opportunities & Threats

24. Hospital Planning and Consulting

• Special skill sets required for orchestrating a hospital projects from ideation to implementation.

• Major hospital chains are now hiring hospital planning consultancy firms for a better and faster scale up of their

• Established firms provide services ranging from a one stop solution; new and emerging players prefer to work on few
specialised areas

• Need for a statutory body to monitor hospital planning firms

Key Hospital Planning Consulting Firms In India

• Hosmac, Mumbai
• Medicontrivers India Pvt. Ltd, Mumbai
• Ace Vision Health Consultant Pvt. Ltd, Jaipur
• Professional Health Planners, New Delhi
• Hospic, Mumbai
• H-PAMCO, New Delhi
• KSA Technopak, New Delhi
• NOUS Hospital Consultancy (P) Ltd, New Delhi
• Apollo Hospital Enterprise Ltd, Chennai
• Total Hospital Solutions, Jaipur
• Dr. Kamle’s Prescription

25. Medical Textiles and Clinical Trials

Indian market for medical textiles is worth US$ 500 million; global market is worth US$ 8.2 billion. Growth in medical
infrastructure will be accompanied by demand for associated products and services. One such important industry is medical
textiles. India’s market for medical textiles is growing at 10–12%, which shall almost double to a US$ 753 Million (Rs 3,388 Cr)
industry by 2012 from the current US$ 405 Million (Rs 1822 Cr).

Clinical Trials
• Indian clinical trials market in 2006 was US$ 140 million and is growing at a CAGR of 40 % for the last 3 years
• Several hospitals are setting up clinical trial centres
INDIA’S HEALTHCARE SECTOR: Opportunities & Threats
• National Centre for Clinical Trials has been established at Tata Memorial Hospital
• A Clinical Research in Cancer (TMC) is one of the avowed objectives of the Tata Memorial Centre and Department of
Atomic Energy (DAE) funded cancer centres (DAEFCC)

26. Healthcare Outsourcing

India has an estimated share of 65 % in the global IT services off shoring segment and around 46 % of the global BPO market.
Medical services outsourcing from the US has seen a CAGR of 150% in the last two years. Indian service providers accounted for
US$ 115 million worth of outsourcing and off shoring services during 2005-2006. India’s large pool of skilled IT manpower and
the fast growing broadband connectivity and secure networks provide robust infrastructure for IT-enabled healthcare services

Factors making India the preferred destination for Healthcare outsourcing

• HIPAA-compliant processes
• AAPC trained medical coders
• Thorough understanding of US medical coding and billing procedures and processes, including government regulations
• Software applications to streamline workflow
• A college-educated, trained and experienced operations team

Healthcare BPO Services

• Medical Coding
• Medical Billing
• Patient Demographics
• Charge Entry
• Payment entry or Cash posting
• Claims Processing
• Accounts Receivable
• Tele-radiology
• Medical Transcription
• Patient Record Management and EMR (Electronic Medical Record)

27. Challenges to Private Investors

• Although private investments growing in various segments of healthcare sector, longer term, direct investment not as
forthcoming as PE, IPO, VC based investments.
• Regulatory, infrastructural, human-resource, and other constraints are affecting direct investments.
• Primary study conducted in 2007 (funded by WHO and Ministry of Health) on “Foreign Investment in Hospitals: Status
and Implications” illustrates a range of challenges affecting organic investments in the Indian hospitals segment.

Findings on foreign investment in Indian hospitals

• Regulatory environment very liberal for foreign investment in hospitals

– Since January 2000 up to 100 percent FDI allowed under automatic route in hospitals in India
• Regulatory environment for other forms of foreign financing quite liberal

• FIIs and private equity funding permitted under FDI, with certain conditions

• FIIs and private equity funds can individually purchase up to 10% and collectively up to 24% of paid
up share capital of company via open offers or private placement or through stock exchange

• Proprietary funds, foreign individuals, foreign corporate can register as sub account and invest via
FII subject to 10% and 5% limits

• Foreign venture capital investments also allowed

INDIA’S HEALTHCARE SECTOR: Opportunities & Threats

Status of other forms of investment

Non-debt based foreign financing present via:

• Private equity (funds) with stakes of 15-26%

• Development agencies
• Investment arms of foreign government
• Around 50% of financing via long term domestic borrowing

28. Challenges
External constraints

• Healthcare undergoing reform and internal problems in overseas economies.

• Number of potential players who could invest is limited.
• Requirement of localized and in-depth knowledge of host country market.
• Difficulties in setting up individually as an overseas investor
• Difficulties in establishing and maintaining joint ventures
• Competing destinations
• Lower attractiveness of India as an investment destination due to perceptions of red-tape, lack of policy clarity, lack of
transparency, and problems of efficiency

Domestic constraints

• Initial and post establishment related operational issues adversely affect returns to investment in hospitals in India

• Features of investment make it unattractive for foreign investment

• High cost of setting up hospitals and capital intensity

• Land & Equipment

• Long gestation period of such investment

• Relatively low returns on such investment

• Low asset turnover (below 1 or 2 for major hospitals)

• Profits of 13% or less after several years

• Depreciation of assets

• High interest costs of debt financing

• Margins squeezed by very high operating costs

INDIA’S HEALTHCARE SECTOR: Opportunities & Threats

29. Concluding Thoughts

If we want both organic and inorganic investments in the healthcare sector, we need to look beyond investment-specific and
capital market policies to the larger ecosystem and make it supportive for investors. We need transparent regulatory
frameworks and better institutional governance. Most importantly, we need health to be a core focus of government policy.
Some vital issues to address are standards, pending legislation, investment in human capital, setting up national
councils/regulatory bodies, accreditation, insurance etc. Policy framework needs to recognize spinoffs from a facilitative
investment environment in terms of improving access to healthcare, exploiting domestic and global opportunities in emerging
segments and synergies across segments. Private sector must also look at healthcare from more than a commercial perspective.
Our analysis points towards the need for stronger partnerships in healthcare, between the government and private sector. Even
a realistic targets of 1.85 beds per thousand population by 2012 needs an investment of US$ 77.9 Billion, the government and
private players need to focus on their core competencies/ responsibilities and work together to reduce inefficiencies and
complement each other’s effort.