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TEXT 1

Dying with Dignity

Recent studies show that there has been an increase in the number of people who support
medicide, which happens when people with terminal disease (serious diseases that might kill
the patients) choose to end their lives rather than continue living. There might be three main
reasons for the increase support on medicide. One common argument for this growing support is
that people should not be forced to continue living if they are in severe pain and cannot live with
this constant pain. A second reason is that staying in the hospital for a long time often causes a
financial burden on the family. Terminally ill people often worry about the hardship that will be
faced by their family members. Finally, people who are dying sometimes lose hope. Even if they
are alive, they can often only lie in bed, and for some people, this is not life at all. While many
people believe that medicide is an unnatural way to die and should remain illegal, sick people
should certainly have the right to end their lives if they want.

A. Identification of Topic Sentence

1. Topic Sentence:

There might be three main reasons for the increase support on medicide.

2. Topic = Medicide

Controlling Ideas = Three main reasons for the increase in the number of people who

support medicide.

B. Paragraph Development

A topic sentence follows by several supporting sentences which give reasons on why more
and more people support medicide.

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C. Outline of the Paragraph

1. Title: Dying with Dignity

2. Opening Sentence (Hook/Bridge to orientate the readers to the topic):

Recent studies show that there has been an increase in the number of people who support
medicide, which happens when people with terminal disease (serious diseases that
might kill the patients) choose to end their lives rather than continue living.

3. Topic Sentence:

There might be three main reasons for the increase support on medicide.

4. Supporting Sentences:

a. Reasons Number One:

People should not be forced to continue living if they are in severe pain and cannot
live with this constant pain

b. Reasons Number Two:

Staying in the hospital for a long time often causes a financial burden on the family.

(1) Terminally ill people often worry about the hardship that will be faced by their
family members

c. Reasons Number Three:

People who are dying sometimes lose hope.

(1) Even if they are alive, they can often only lie in bed, and for some people, this is
not life at all.

5. Concluding Sentence:

While many people believe that medicide is an unnatural way to die and should remain
illegal, sick people should certainly have the right to end their lives if they want.

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TEXT 2

Problems in Space

Living aboard a space station in orbit around the Earth for months at a time poses certain
problems for astronauts bodies as well as for their minds. One major problem is maintaining
astronauts physical health. Medical treatment may be days or even weeks away, as there may
not be a doctor on board. Illnesses such as appendicitis or ulcers, routinely treated on Earth,
could be fatal in space because of the delay in getting the proper medical treatment. Furthermore,
surgery may be impossible because blood would float around inside the operating room. Another
health problem is the potential for bone deterioration. In a weightless environment, the body
produces less calcium. Astronauts must exercise at least three hours a day to prevent bone loss. A
second major problem is maintaining astronauts mental health. Being confined for long periods
of time in dark and (possibly) hostile space undoubtedly produces anxiety. Loneliness and
boredom are other psychological concerns. Finally, it is important to address the issue of how
astronauts can let off steam when interpersonal conflicts develop. The brief description makes
it clear that space-station duty will require astronauts who are not only physically strong but also
mentally tough.

A. Identification of Topic Sentence

1. Topic Sentence:

Living aboard a space station in orbit around the Earth for months at a time poses certain

problems for astronauts bodies as well as for their minds.

2. Topic = Problems for astronauts who live aboard a space station in orbit.

Controlling Ideas = Certain problems related to astronauts bodies as well as to their

minds.

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B. Paragraph Development

A topic sentence follows by several supporting sentences which explain the two problems
related to astronauts bodies as well as to their minds.

C. Outline of the Paragraph

1. Title: Problems in Space

2. Topic Sentence:

Living aboard a space station in orbit around the Earth for months at a time poses certain

problems for astronauts bodies as well as for their minds.

3. Supporting Sentences:

a. Major problem Number One:

Maintaining astronauts physical health.

(1) Medical treatment may be days or even weeks away, as there may not be a doctor
on board.

(a) Illnesses such as appendicitis or ulcers, routinely treated on Earth, could be


fatal in space because of the delay in getting the proper medical treatment.

(b) Surgery may be impossible because blood would float around inside the
operating room.

(2) Another health problem is the potential for bone deterioration

(a) In a weightless environment, the body produces less calcium.

(b) Astronauts must exercise at least three hours a day to prevent bone loss.

b. Major Problem Number Two:

Maintaining astronauts mental health.

(1) Being confined for long periods of time in dark and (possibly) hostile space
undoubtedly produces anxiety.

(2) Loneliness and boredom are other psychological concerns.

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(3) How astronauts can let off steam when interpersonal conflicts develop.

4. Concluding Sentence:

The brief description makes it clear that space-station duty will require astronauts who
are not only physically strong but also mentally tough.

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TEXT 3

The Mystery of the Dinosaurs Fate!

Sixty-five million years ago, it is believed that almost all of the dinosaurs on Earth died at
the same time. Some scientists agree that the only ones to survive were the few dinosaur relatives
that could fly. What terrible event caused this? Scientists have sought the answer for a long time.
They are still not completely sure. However, today there are two popular opinions about this
unanswered question.

One group believes that a giant asteroid hit the area which is now Mexico. This filled the
air with black dust. Skies everywhere became black, and the suns light could not reach Earth for
an extended period of time. During this time, the climate changed, and many kinds of plants and
animals died. When the skies cleared, the temperature increased too much, killing even more
plants and animals. Dinosaurs could not get the food they needed, and this caused them to starve
to death.

Another group of scientists has a different idea. They say that, in reality, volcanoes were
the problem. Volcanoes are openings in the earth that emit extremely hot melted rock. This group
thinks that 65 million years ago, a lot of volcanoes started to become active. This caused the
climate change that killed all the dinosaurs. The global climate changed as the Earths
temperature was getting colder. At the moment, the true story remains a mystery.

A. Identification of Thesis Statement

Today there are two popular opinions about this unanswered question.

1. Topic:

Dinosaurs

2. Controlling Ideas = Two popular opinions about how dinosaurs died at the same time.

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B. Essay Organization

A thesis statement at the end of the first paragraph is followed by two paragraphs which
explain further the two differing views on how dinosaurs died at the same time.

C. Outline of the Essay

1. Title: The Mystery of the Dinosaurs Fate

2. First Paragraph (Introductory Paragraph).

a. Opening Sentence Number 1:

Sixty-five million years ago, it is believed that almost all of the dinosaurs on Earth
died at the same time.

b. Opening Sentence Number 2:

Some scientists agree that the only ones to survive were the few dinosaur relatives
that could fly

c. Hook (or Bridge) Number 1 (to orientate readers to the topic):

What terrible event caused this?

d. Hook (or Bridge) Number 2 (to orientate readers to the topic):

Scientists have sought the answer for a long time.

e. Hook (or Bridge) Number 3 (to orientate readers to the topic):

They are still not completely sure.

f. Thesis Statement:

Today there are two popular opinions about this unanswered question.

3. Second Paragraph:
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a. Topic Sentence:

One group believes that a giant asteroid hit the area which is now Mexico.

b. Topic: The first view

Controlling Idea(s): a giant asteroid hit the area which is now Mexico.

c. Paragraph Development

A topic sentence is followed by several supporting sentences which explain further


how the impact of the giant asteroid caused the dinosaurs to die at the same time.

d. Outline of the Paragraph

(1) Topic Sentence:

One group believes that a giant asteroid hit the area which is now Mexico.

(2) Supporting Sentences:

(a) This filled the air with black dust.

(b) Skies everywhere became black, and the suns light could not reach Earth for
an extended period of time.

(c) During this time, the climate changed, and many kinds of plants and animals
died.

(d) When the skies cleared, the temperature increased too much, killing even
more plants and animals.

(e) Dinosaurs could not get the food they needed, and this caused them to starve
to death

(3) Concluding Sentence: [None]

4. Third Paragraph:

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a. Opening Sentence / Transition:

Another group of scientists has a different idea.

b. Topic Sentence:

They say that, in reality, volcanoes were the problem.

b. Topic: The second view

Controlling Idea(s): Volcanoes caused the death of dinosaurs.

c. Paragraph Development:

It starts with an opening sentence which is followed by a topic sentence with several
supporting sentences which explain further on how volcanoes caused the dinosaurs to
die at the same time.

d. Outline of the Paragraph

(1) Opening Sentence:

Another group of scientists has a different idea.

(2) Topic Sentence:

They say that, in reality, volcanoes were the problem.

(3) Supporting Sentences:

(a) Volcanoes are openings in the earth that emit extremely hot melted rock.

(b) This group thinks that 65 million years ago, a lot of volcanoes started to
become active.

i) This caused the climate change that killed all the dinosaurs.

ii) The global climate changed as the Earths temperature was getting
colder.

(4) Concluding Sentence:

At the moment, the true story remains a mystery.

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