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Computers and Chemical Engineering 23 (1999) 1031 1040

Dynamic simulation of large boilers with natural recirculation

E.J. Adam, J.L. Marchetti *
Institute of Technologic De6elopment for the Chemical Industry (INTEC), CONICET-Uni6ersidad Nacional del Litoral (U.N.L.), Guemes 3450,
(3000) Santa Fe, Argentina
Received 17 October 1997; accepted 30 March 1999


This paper presents a dynamic simulator of water-in-tube boilers with natural recirculation, the kind of equipment widely used
in industries for steam generation either as a source of power or for providing heating capabilities in process plants. The
development is based on a combination of two non-linear models, one for the evaporation in the vertical tubes and the other for
the phase separation in the steam drum. An application is made to the boiler of a 30 MW thermoelectric power plant and the
results are discussed. The dynamic responses of all variables show the consistency of the model representation with the expected
behavior, including the effects of a PI level control adjusted using classic Ziegler Nichols tuning rules. 1999 Elsevier Science
Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Boilers; Natural recirculation; Modeling and simulation

1. Introduction a steam drum for phase separation. Several papers have

previously presented linear and non-linear models of
The use of large boilers for steam generation is quite different steam generators. For instance Tyss (1981)
common in industry; they have received considerable uses the extended Kalman filter for parameter estima-
attention from industry and academia since they fre- tion of a non-linear model; de Mello (1991) derives an
quently account for an important part of the overall interesting simplified model of a boiler with vertical
fuel consumed in a plant. There are many applications tubes and natural recirculation, and Donate and
in the chemical industry where utility steam is used for Moiola (1994) provided a rather simple model of a
providing heat to the processes. Besides, the availability supercritical boiler.
of steam at proper thermal conditions and rates is one The amount of details incorporated in the model of a
of the critical features in the operation of every ther- simulator depends on the future use. For example,
moelectric power plant. A dynamic simulator that is steam generators attached to nuclear reactors might
based on physical principles and keeps most non-linear- need highly complex simulators oriented not only to
ities existing in the actual system serves as a useful describe the steam generation process but also to study
benchmark allowing the analysis of the main dynamic the thermohydraulic details for safety analysis (RE-
characteristics of the operation. It also provides a LAP-4, TRAC and Delhaye, Giot & Riethmuller,
medium for testing different control alternatives, evalu- 1981), or to predict different characteristics of the two-
ating optimization proposals, or helping to consider phases flow (MINCS, Watanabe, Harino, Akimoto,
different safety procedures. Tanabe & Kohsaka, 1992).
Even though there is a wide variety of designs, most If the goal is to design a control system to have the
of them include bundles of vertical tubes receiving the best possible performance, a realistic non-linear model
heat produced by several fuel burners. Steam is gener- is the appropriate support for simulations and testing.
ated inside the tubes and goes up in a two-phase flow to Very frequently, simple linear models obtained through
some identification method and used for designing con-
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +54-342-4559174/77; fax: + 54- trollers are then used for testing procedures too. How-
342-4550944. ever, control design and tuning need realistic

0098-1354/99/$ - see front matter 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
PII: S 0 0 9 8 - 1 3 5 4 ( 9 9 ) 0 0 2 6 9 - 0
1032 E.J. Adam, J.L. Marchetti / Computers and Chemical Engineering 23 (1999) 10311040

simulations for a proper evaluation. A dynamic model averaged field equations (Banerjee & Chan, 1980; Soria
for the simulation of steam generators with natural & De Lasa, 1991; Grau & Cantero, 1994), and is
recirculation is presented here, that serves for the study consistent with hypothesis adopted for the homoge-
and evaluation of control strategies. This is a halfway- neous-mixture model (Delhaye et al., 1981). The steady-
complexity model developed to provide an adequate state assumption was adopted after several evaluations
description of the operation and to give information of the associated time constants and comparing with
about many important physical aspects. the dynamics in the separation drum.
This simulator is based on two models, one to de-
scribe the operation in the vertical tubes using mass, 2.1. Balance equations
momentum and energy balances plus algebraic relation-
ships to describe the phase change, and the other to Differential mass, energy and momentum balance
represent the phase separation that takes place in the equations for steady-state conditions are used for mod-
drum. Modeling the two-phase system has been the eling the two-phase flow in the vertical tubes. Accord-
subject of studies by many investigators, and conse- ing to the homogeneous-mixture model, the changes in
quently several possibilities are available. The basic the two-phase flow properties occur along the tubes
homogeneous mixture model (Delhaye et al., 1981) is only, i.e. as the z-coordinate varies.
used here for describing the vapor liquid flow in the Hence, the mass balance equation for the mixture is,
tubes, since it suffices for the requirements for the
dynamic analysis of the operation. Concerning the d
phase separation, a non-linear model of the phenomena [ogrgu+ (1 og)rlu]= 0, (1)
occurring in the steam drum has been developed. Then,
both models are combined through additional state- where u is the velocity of the homogeneous mixture and
ments rising from the overall mass and heat balances. og is the vaporvoid fraction.
Finally, the boiler of a 30 MW power plant is The momentum balance equation for the mixture is,
simulated; since the liquid level in the steam drum has
open-loop unstable characteristics, the results are ob- d d
[ogrgu 2 + (1 og)rlu 2]+ [P]
tained using a PI controller which actuates on the dz dz
feed-water flow rate, i.e. the typical configuration im- = [ogrg + (1 og)rl]g twm, (2)
plemented for level control in boilers.
where P is the local pressure and twm is the wall-shear
stress per unit of volume, and the energy balance
equation for the mixture is written as follows:

  n   n
2. Modeling the evaporation in vertical tubes
d 1 d 1
Fig. 1.a shows a sketch of the vertical tubes where ogrgu H. g + u 2 + (1og)rlu H. l + u 2
most of the evaporation takes place. The model pre- dz 2 dz 2
sented here is derived from more general time-space = q; wm [ogrg + (1 og)rl]ug (3)

Fig. 1. (a) Vertical tubes scheme. (b) Steam drum scheme.

E.J. Adam, J.L. Marchetti / Computers and Chemical Engineering 23 (1999) 10311040 1033

where H. stands for enthalpy per unit mass and q; wm is 1 1

= +W (11)
the heat flux at the tube wall per unit of volume. Umw hm
Since we focus on changes occurring inside the tube,
2.2. Algebraic equations
Eq. (11) emphasizes the dependence on the internal film
coefficient leaving all other resistance component in the
The model requires additional relationships for the
constant term W. The internal local film coefficient is
complete description, most of them showing non-linear
then evaluated through the equation of Dittus and
forms. For instance, the equilibrium curve is repre-
Boelter (1930) using a modified Reynolds number
sented by the Wagles correlation (Wagle, 1985),
(Wadeker, 1993),
T = Tb[1+a1 ln(Prel) +a2 ln2(Prel) + a3 ln3(Prel)
hm = 0.023 Re0.8 0.4
m Prl , (12)
+ a4 ln4(Prel)]
(4) dt
where Prel is a relative pressure and Tb is the equi- dtGmrl x 1x
Rem = + , (13)
librium temperature at the reference pressure. ml rg rl
The state equation for the vapor phase is written as, where x is the vapor quality.
PM =ZrgRT, (5) Numerical simulation of the evaporation in vertical
tubes using this set of modeling equations show good
where Z is the compressibility factor defined according agreement with results of experimental data, as shown
to classical texts (Reid, Prausnitz & Poling, 1987) and by Adam and Marchetti (1995). Concerning the balance
taken as a constant value in this work. of equations and unknowns for this model we refer to
Also, two constitutive equations are necessary, one is Adam and Marchetti (1994).
for the friction factor that helps to describe the pressure
drop along the tubes, and the other for determining the
heat-transfer film coefficient to estimate the heat flow 3. Modeling the phase separation in the drum
from the wall. The appropriate evaluation of these
parameters is very important to achieve a good model This section presents a dynamic model of the phase
representation. separation in the drum. Typically, the drum is an
The evaluation of twm is made through the calcula- accumulating tank located at the top of a boiler that
tion of the pressure loss by friction,

receives the vaporliquid mixture coming from the
2f tubes, separates one from the other, and attenuates
twm = (rmu 2) (6) steam demand disturbances. The following are assump-
tions made for modeling the operation in the tank: (i)
using the friction factor correlated by Dukler, Wicks the drum is adiabatic; (ii) pressure and temperature are
and Cleveland (1964) for the homogeneous mixture uniform in both phases; (iii) the vapor in the drum is
model, described by the perfect gas equation; (iv) pressure
losses by friction or pressure changes due to hydrostatic
f = 0.0014+0.125Re-0.32 (7)
variations are negligible.
The density and viscosity of the mixture used to com-
pute Eq. (6) and the Reynolds number in Eq. (7) are 3.1. Balance equations
calculated as follows:
Fig. 1b shows an schematic of the drum where the
mm =ogmg + (1 og)ml (8) phase separation takes place. It has two inlet streams:
rm =ogrg + (1 og)rl (9) the mixed phase flow coming from the vertical tubes wm
and the feed-water wf. There are also two outlet
Besides, it is necessary to estimate the heat flux from streams: the recirculating flow wr and the produced
the tube wall, a quantity that is a function of several steam ws leaving the drum. The figure also shows two
variables like the vapor void fraction, the velocity of important design specifications; Dlmax, which indicates
the mixture, the local temperature and phase properties, the maximum change expected for the level of the
etc. A classical constitutive equation is used here,
liquidvapor mixture, and lmin which is the minimum
p dt expected value for this level.
q; wm = Uwm[Tw T] (10) Hence, the balance equations are written following
the above hypothesis and according to the scheme and
where the global heat transfer coefficient is evaluated nomenclature shown in Fig. 1b:
through the relationship, Total mass balance,
1034 E.J. Adam, J.L. Marchetti / Computers and Chemical Engineering 23 (1999) 10311040

Fig. 2. (a) Boiler scheme. (b) Structure of the non-linear simulator.

=wf + wm ws wr. (14) w+
s =A0 sep

g r g, (21)
dt V+
l +Vg

Mass balance for the liquid vapor mixture, where, for steamwater flows at high-pressure, the drag
velocity u +
g can be estimated as follows (Zuber &

d(M +
=wf + wm w +
s wr. (15) Findlay, 1965):
dt sg(rl rg) 1/4
g = 1.41 . (22)
Total energy balance, r 2l

d(Htot) Besides, the cylindrical drum geometry (see Fig. 1b)

=wfH. f +wmH. m wsH. s wrH. r. (16) leads to defining the mean total area by,
A0 sep = Lsep
d 2sep Dl 2max. (23)
3.2. Algebraic equations The natural recirculation in boilers is due to the differ-
ence between the liquid density of the returning flow
Equations defining Mtot, M +
tot, and Htot are, (see Fig. 2a) and the average density of the mixture in
the vertical tubes. The flow rate, in this case, is propor-
l rl +V g rg +V grg,
Mtot =V + + -
tional to the square root of such difference (Tyss,
tot =V l rl + V g rg,
M+ + +
(18) 1981),

l rlH
Htot =V + . l +V +
g rgH. g +V -grgH. g. (19) wr = K
rl rave. (24)

Notice that the hypothesis of uniform pressure allows The average density in the vertical tubes is computed
the assumption that steam density is independent of the by,
height, even though there are bubbles all over in the rm + rl
volume of mixture. An additional relationship linking rave = , (25)
the above equations sets the constant condition for the
total volume of the drum, where rm is evaluated using Eq. (9) at the tube outlets,
and the constant K is based on satisfying steady-state
Vsep =V + + -
l + V g +V g. (20) conditions.
The two-phase stream coming from the vertical tubes
3.3. Constituti6e equations is completely determined by the evaporation model.
Therefore, the mass flow rate is computed by,
Due to the model structure, a constitutive equation is
wm = NtAtrmu, at z= Lt, (26)
necessary for determining the steam mass flow rate,
w+s , between the liquid vapor mixture (+ phase) and which obviously depends on the tube-outlet conditions,
the vapor phase ( phase), as well as for determining i.e. it might change with time.
the recirculating liquid flow rate. Other variables are treated as follows: (i) the feed-wa-
The steam-mass flow rate leaving the mixture can be ter flow rate is a known stream that later becomes the
assumed as being proportional to the average surface manipulated variable for level control; (ii) the produced
fraction A0 sep occupied by the bubbles, i.e. steam flow rate is taken as a load variable since it is the
E.J. Adam, J.L. Marchetti / Computers and Chemical Engineering 23 (1999) 10311040 1035

main disturbance when changing the steam demand; energy released by the burners) upon returning toward
(iii) vapor and liquid enthalpies are calculated as func- the tube entries. This consideration gives support to the
tions of temperature in the classical form; and (iv) the assumption that the recycled liquid, when reaching the
liquidvapor equilibrium curve is computed as follow- lower part of the boiler, is close to the saturated
ing Wagle (1985). condition. Hence, the simulator steps continuously on
From the control point of view, the variable of the saturated condition at the evaporation tube inlets,
interest is the level of the liquid vapor mixture (+ but following pressure variations in the upper part of
phase). The stability and performance of the level con- the boiler, and taking the necessary energy for reaching
trol system is of primary importance for the operation saturation out of the heat delivered for evaporation.
of boilers. In order to allow the dynamic analysis of Pressure drop along the recirculating path has been
this problem, we introduced the following definition of assumed negligible due to wider cross section areas in
the level of the liquid vapor mixture in the drum (see the circuit.
Fig. 1b):
V+ +
l + V g Vmin
l = lmin + , (27) 5. Numerical strategies
A0 sep
where Vmin is the volume corresponding to the reference 5.1. Numerical strategy for the e6aporation model
This separation drum model has nine unknowns; Two numerical strategies were proposed for solving
Mtot, M + + + +
tot, Htot, w s , wr, V l , V g , V g , and l, while
the combined system of differential and algebraic equa-
Eqs. (14)(19), Eq. (21), Eq. (24) and Eq. (27) give a tions (Adam & Marchetti, 1994; Adam, Marchetti,
system of three non-linear differential equations and six Perez & Martnez, 1994). In this case we decided to
non-linear algebraic equations. Note that all properties compute analytically all the derivatives in an explicit
or variables associated to inlet or feed flows are part of form, such that,
the available data at each time instant the model is dy(z)
solved. = A(z) 1b(z), y0 = y(z =0), (28)
where A, b and the integrating variables are given in
4. Non-linear model of a boiler Appendix B Then, an automatic step-size 4th-5th-order
RungeKutta integration method is used up to z=Lt.
Fig. 2a shows a simplified scheme of a boiler where This results in a simple and robust method to obtain
the main parts are: (i) the vertical tubes where the the vaporliquid mixture condition at the tube outlets.
evaporation takes place; (ii) the separation drum where
the vapor separates from the boiling liquid; and (iii) the 5.2. Numerical strategy for the separator model
connection for the natural recirculation. The models
discussed above are solved sequentially at each time The equation system defining the boiler-drum model
instant, as represented in Fig. 2b. As mentioned before, is written following the state space representation,
comparative small time constants allow the insertion of dx(t)
the steady-state evaporation model into the structure of =f(x(t))+ g1m(t)+g2d1(t)+ g3m(t)d2(t) (29)
the overall boiler model where the main dynamics are
l(t)= l(x(t)) (30)
described by the separation drum model. Hence, under
non-stationary conditions, the evaporation model gives The state variables in this case are (see Appendix C): (i)
different output values for each time instant. This re- the total mass in the drum; (ii) the total mass in the
duces computing times significantly allowing an effi- + phase, and (iii) the total enthalpy in the drum. The
cient model combination for describing the overall disturbances to the system are the steam flow-rate
dynamics. (dl(t)), and the feed-water temperature (d2(t)). The feed-
The natural recirculation was described under the water flow-rate is the manipulated variable, m(t), for
hypothesis that saturated liquid at the bottom pressure level control purposes.
defines the stream condition at the inlet of the vertical Stepping on data at the time instant k, an automatic
tubes. Since the recirculating liquid leaves the separator step-size 4th5th order RungeKutta integration
at the pressure in the top, the principal change in this method is used on Eq. (29) to find the unknowns at
stream is due to the pressure difference. This stream k+ 1. Then the NewtonRapson method is applied to
would be subcooled when reaching the bottoms if no a set of algebraic non-linear equations represented
other adjustment is made, but due to constructive char- through Eq. (30). The numerical methods were taken
acteristics of most of these type of boilers, it receives a from Ralston and Rabinowitz (1978) and Holland and
small fraction of heat (as compared to the overall Liapis (1983).
1036 E.J. Adam, J.L. Marchetti / Computers and Chemical Engineering 23 (1999) 10311040

6. Simulation results Table 1

Design parameters and operating conditions of the simulated boiler

The characteristic dimensions and operating condi- Parameters Value

tions of the boiler of a 30 MW thermoelectric power
plant located in Santa Fe (Argentina) are used for Vertical tubes
testing and verification of the above combined non-lin- Length, 25.0 m
Diameter, dt 0.0508 m
ear model. Like most boilers, the level of liquid in the
Number of tubes, Nt 440
drum is open loop unstable, and consequently a PI
controller is used for stabilization by manipulating the Separation drum
feed-water flow-rate through a small time delay (Td = Length, Lsep 8.0 m
5 s)) representing the control valve (Kv =1) (see Fig. Diameter, dsep 1.8 m
Height of mixed phase, lsep 0.70 m (*)
3). The controller tuning is accomplished through the
method of Ziegler and Nichols (1942) i.e. numerical Feed water stream
experiences were run in the simulator to determine the Flow, wf 27.778 (kg s1)
ultimate gain and period. Typically, the flow rate of Pressure, Pf 1.2156 107 (Pa)
fuel delivered for combustion is another important Temperature, Tf 503.16 (K)
manipulated variable, particularly for controlling the
Vapor stream
outlet steam pressure. In this work however, we take Pressure (drum pressure), Ps 8.4 106 (Pa)
the heat flow rate as a load variable and the pressure Temperature (drum temp.), Ts 571.3 (K)
is in open loop.
Deli6ered energy
Heat flow to the tubes 2.61 104 W m2
6.1. Load disturbance 1
* Nominal steady state.

The dynamic behavior of the main variables in the

boiler when receiving a change of +5% in the steam Since there is a misleading initial increase of the
demand is first simulated. Some physical dimensions level, Fig. 6 shows that the controller starts reducing
and stream conditions for the problem are shown in the feed-water flow-rate, but as soon as the level
Table 1. Fig. 4a shows the dynamic response of the changes the trend the water inlet to the system in-
level variable to a positive 5% step change in the creases as expected. This figure also shows how the
steam flow-rate, this is the typical inverse response in mass balance closes at the new steady state since both
steam generators for a sudden increase in the demand the steam and the feed-water flow-rates go to the same
also known as the swell and shrink phenomena. Fig. steady value.
4b shows how the drum pressure falls since there is
not pressure control actuating on the heat input, i.e.
the boiler provides more steam but loosing quality.
Fig. 5 shows the dynamic responses of the state
variables in the separation model. Notice in Fig. 5a,
that even though the new steady state keeps the re-
quired level, the amounts of total accumulated mass in
the drum and the total accumulated mass of the +
phase are lower than at their values at the initial
point. In Fig. 5b, the accumulated enthalpy follows a
similar evolution pattern.

Fig. 4. Responses of (a) the drum level, and (b) the drum pressure to
Fig. 3. Block diagram of the level control loop. 5% step change in the steam load.
E.J. Adam, J.L. Marchetti / Computers and Chemical Engineering 23 (1999) 10311040 1037

Fig. 5. (a) Responses of the accumulated total mass () and the total Fig. 7. Responses of (a) the drum level, and (b) the drum pressure to
mass of the phase =(----). (b) Response of the total enthalpy accumu- a 5% step change in the heat input.
lated to a 5% step change in the steam load.

Though the results of this second test are quite coherent

6.2. Load disturbance 2 with the expected behavior it should be observed that the
model described above does not include, at the present
Given the same starting condition, a positive 5% time, an extra lag existing in the real operation between
increase in the heat input is introduced while keeping the
the fuel valves and the tube-wall temperature. This part
same steam mass flow-rate. Fig. 7a shows the level moving
of the modeling task is a matter of future work including
initially up but then returning to the desired set point after
specific control structures for attending safety consider-
several oscillations. Fig. 7b confirms that the steam
ations and combustion efficiency problems.
pressure goes up since the pressure controller is in open
loop for this run. Hence, the main final stationary effect
is the production of a higher quality steam at the original
The dynamic responses of the drum-model state vari-
ables are shown in Fig. 8. Notice that there is an increment
of the accumulated enthalpy, and a slow growth in the
total accumulated mass in the drum. Also, inspection of
Fig. 9 shows that the level controller initially reduces the
feed-water flow-rate in order to avoid the level increase
in the separator, but it returns to the initial value due to
the fact that there is no change in the steam demand.

Fig. 8. (a) Responses of the accumulated total mass ( ) and the total
Fig. 6. Change in the steam load (----) and response of the feed-water mass of the phase = (----). (b) Response of the total enthalpy accumu-
flow rate ( ). lated to a 5% step change in the heat input.
1038 E.J. Adam, J.L. Marchetti / Computers and Chemical Engineering 23 (1999) 10311040

Appendix A. Nomenclature

ai equilibrium curve coefficients in Eq.

(4), i= 1 to 4
A section area (m2)
A matrix of the evaporation model
b vector of independent terms in the
evaporation model
cp heat capacity at constant pressure (J
kg1 K1)
Fig. 9. Response of the feed-water flow rate (), without changing D diameter (m)
the steam load (---). f Dukler friction factor
f function of several variables in Eq.
7. Conclusions (29)
g standard gravity (m s2)
Two non-linear models, one for the evaporation in gi vectors in Eq. (29) and defined by
tubes and the other for the steam separation in a drum, (A-2), i= 1 to 3.
were combined to yield a dynamic model of large G mass flux (kg m2s1)
boilers. The development serves to simulate the water- h heat transfer film coefficient (W m2
side dynamic operation of steam generators whose de- K1).
sign is based on: (i) vertical tubes exposed to a source H. enthalpy per unit mass (J kg1)
of heat like fuel burners; (ii) a separation drum; and K proportional constant in Eq. (24), (kg
(iii) natural recirculation of the liquid hold-up. The s1)/(kg m3)1/2
main purpose of this work is to provide a useful tool k conductivity (W m1 K1)
for studying and analyzing different control strategies l level of the vaporliquid mixture in
in order to achieve high control performance, particu- the separation drum (m)
larly for level and pressure control under steam demand L length (m)
changes. m manipulated variable
The dynamic behavior of every physical variable M accumulated mass (kg)
analyzed through the proposed model is satisfactory P pressure (Pa)
and consistent with the practical experience. Variables q; heat input per unit of volume (W
with doubtful behaviors such as the inverse response of m3)
the mixed-phase level in the drum, or steam quality Re Reynolds number
variations are efficiently described. t time (s)
The results of numerical simulations presented in this T temperature (K)
paper show the dynamics of most important variables U global heat transfer coefficient, W
in the boiler of a 30 MW thermoelectric power plant m2 K1
under two frequent load changes: (i) a positive increase u velocity (m s1)
in the steam demand; and (ii) a positive increment in V volume (m3)
the heat input to the vertical tubes. In both cases, a w mass flow rate (kg s1)
simple PI controller is used for stabilizing the mixed- W tube wall heat transfer resistance (m2
phase level in the drum while the pressure control loop K W1)
is open. For additional control analysis modeling of x vapor quality
lags existing on the fire-side of the boiler furnace could x state vector in Eq. (29)
be necessary depending on the pattern under which the y vector of integrating variables in Eq.
energy is delivered up to the tubes. (28)
z axial or vertical coordinate in the
evaporation model (m)
The authors thank CONICET and Universidad Na- d disturbance
cional del Litoral (UNL) for the economic support o volume fraction of vapor in the tubes
received. They want also to acknowledge EE Arnoldo l latent heat of vaporization (J kg1)
Reutemann of Centrales Termicas del Litoral for r density (kg m3)
providing the operative and technical data for the s surface tension (N m1)
application example. t wall shear stress per unit of volume
(Pa m3)
E.J. Adam, J.L. Marchetti / Computers and Chemical Engineering 23 (1999) 10311040 1039

Subscripts  3
A23 = ogrg c lp(TT0)+ lv + u 2

b a given reference point in the liquid 2

vapor equilibrium curve
+ (1 og )rl c lp(TT0)+ u 2 ,
g vapor or gas phase
l liquid phase A24 = [ogrgc p + (1 og)rlc p]u,
g l

m mixed phase A25 = 0.

r recirculation From Eq. (2),
s steam
sep separator or drum A31 = (rg rl)u 2,
t tubes A32 = ogu 2,
tot total A33 = 2[ogrg + (1 og)rl]u,
v vapor phase
A34 = 0,
w wall
0 initial condition A35 = 1.
From Eq. (4),
+ liquidvapor mixture in the drum A41 = 0,
vapor phase in the drum A42 = 0,
A43 = 0,
A44 = 1,
A45 = [a + 2a2 ln(P/Pb )+ 3a3 ln2(P/Pb )
Appendix B. The evaporation model P 1
+4a4 ln3(P/Pb )].
The relationships presented in this appendix describe
Eqs. (28)(30) for easy implementation of the proposed And from Eq. (5),
models in simulation experiences.The components of A51 = 0,
vector y, in the Eq. (28) are: A52 = 1,
y1 = og, A53 = 0,
y2 = rg, A54 = rg/T,
y3 = u, A55 = rg/P.
The following are the elements of the vector b in Eq.
y4 = T,
y5 = P.

b1 = 0,
The following are the coefficients of the A matrix in Eq. 4
(28): b2 = U [T T] [ogrg + (1 og)rl]ug,
dt wm w
from Eq. (1),
b3 = [ogrg + (1 og)rl]g
A11 = (rg rl)u,

4f 1
[o r + (1 og)rl]u 2 ,
A12 = ogu, dt 2 g g
A13 = ogrg + (1 og)rl, b4 = 0,
b5 = 0.
A14 = 0,
A15 = 0.

From Eq. (3) we obtain, Appendix C. The separation model
A21 = rg c lp(TT0) +lv + u 2
n" u Eqs. (14)(16) define state variables that can be

rl c lp(TT0) + u 2
n" u,
written as,
M tot w m wr

A22 = ogu clp(T T0) +lv + u 2 ,
n d
M +tot =
H tot
w m w +
s (M
w mHm wrHr
, M +
) w r

1040 E.J. Adam, J.L. Marchetti / Computers and Chemical Engineering 23 (1999) 10311040

of the averaged and local instantaneous formulations. Interna-

w f w s 0 tional Journal of Multiphase Flow, 6, 1 24.
+ w f + 0 + 0 , (A-1) Dukler, A. E., Wicks, M., & Cleveland, R. G. (1964). Friccional
0 w sH. s w fH. f pressure drop in two-phase flow: B. an approach through similar-
ity analysis. American Institute of Chemical Engineers Journal, 10,
44 51.
Delhaye, J. M., Giot, M., & Riethmuller, M. L. (1981). Thermohy-
draulics of two-phase systems for industrial design and nuclear
M tot w m wr engineering. New York: McGraw-Hill.
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