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Energy Conversion and Management 52 (2011) 329334

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Computational study of lm cooling from single and two staggered rows of

novel semi-circular cooling holes including coolant plenum
F.H. Asghar 1, M.J. Hyder *
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), PO Nilore 45650, Islamabad, Pakistan

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Computational analysis of lm cooling effectiveness using novel semi-circular hole shapes with stream-
Received 10 November 2009 wise inclination of 30 has been carried out. Velocity proles from the separate coolant plenum geometry
Accepted 5 July 2010 are used for inlet condition to cooling holes. Realizable ke turbulence model with enhanced wall treat-
Available online 31 July 2010
ment is used for turbulence modeling in simulations. It is observed that coolant jet heights for one row
and two staggered rows of semi-circular holes are lower than that for one row of circular holes. The cen-
Keywords: terline and laterally averaged effectiveness values from a row of semi-circular holes are found almost
same as that from a row of circular holes due to the less jet lift-off in semi-circular case. Semi-circular
Film cooling
hole utilizes half of the coolant mass required for full circular hole for producing the same blowing ratio,
Heat transfer so same level of effectiveness from semi-circular holes as that from full circular holes is great advantage.
Fluid ow The centerline and laterally effectiveness values from two staggered rows of semi-circular holes are
Turbine blade cooling found much higher than a single row of full circular hole case at all streamwise regions at all blowing
Gas turbine engines ratios tested. Along with centerline effectiveness and laterally averaged effectiveness values, the non-
dimensional temperature proles at (x/D, z/D) = (5.0, 0.0), non-dimensional temperature contours and
velocity vectors at plane x/D = 5.0 are also presented. Counter rotating vortex pairs from row of semi-cir-
cular holes are found to be weak and of lower size as compare to that from a row of full circular holes.
2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction are usually conducted on an adiabatic at plate so g in that case

is called as adiabatic lm cooling effectiveness.
Gas turbines are becoming the choice for current and future
T aw  T 1
power generation systems, because they offer efcient fuel conver- g 1
sion and reduced cost-of-electricity [1]. Both of these advanta- Tc  T1
geous features are related to the development of gas turbines Taw = adiabatic wall temperature; Tc = coolant inlet temperature,
with higher ring temperatures and pressure ratios. However, and T1 = mainstream inlet temperature.
turbine inlet temperatures cannot be increased without making Non-dimensional temperature (h) of uid at temperature T is
arrangements for effective cooling techniques to save turbine dened here in the similar manner:
materials from melting accidents. Film cooling is one technique,
which has being used widely in present high temperature gas tur- T  T1
h 2
bine engines to minimize high thermal gradients on turbine Tc  T1
Film cooling effectiveness depends on many parameters like
In lm cooling method, jets of cool air are ejected through row
cooling hole shape, cooling hole inclination, arrangement of row
of holes in the surface of the blade. This provides a thin layer of
of holes, properties of mainstream uid, coolant to mainstream
cool air downstream of the lm cooling hole, which insulates the
blowing ratio, density ratio and momentum ux ratio. There is a
blade from the hot mainstream ow and acts as a heat sink to cool
continuous need of understanding the physics of lm cooling ows
the blade surface.
and their effect on lm cooling effectiveness.
Film cooling effectiveness (g) is used to express the lm cooling
phenomena quantitatively. As lm cooling experimental studies
1.1. Previous works: experimental
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +92 051 2208025; fax: +92 051 2208070.
E-mail addresses:, (F.H. Asghar),
The adiabatic effectiveness of a circular hole normal and at 35 (M.J. Hyder). to the surface was rst studied by Goldstein et al. [2], and there has
Tel.: +92 3425301768; fax: +92 051 2208070. been a large amount of research into various congurations using

0196-8904/$ - see front matter 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
330 F.H. Asghar, M.J. Hyder / Energy Conversion and Management 52 (2011) 329334


DR coolant to free-stream density ratio T1 mainstream temperature

VR coolant to free-stream velocity ratio Taw adiabatic wall temperature
M blowing ratio Tc coolant temperature
M DR  VR h non-dimensional temperature
D diameter of lm cooling hole (10 mm) p pitch (distance between holes in a single row)
U uid velocity magnitude s distance between two rows
U1 mainstream inlet velocity magnitude I momentum ux ratio
Vc coolant inlet velocity magnitude
ReD Reynolds number based on hole diameter Units
x/D non-dimensional streamwise distance velocity meter per second (m/s)
y/D non-dimensional vertical distance temperature Kelvin (K)
gc centerline effectiveness length millimeters (mm)
g laterally averaged effectiveness (0.0 6 z/D 6 1.5) angle degree ()
g spatially averaged effectiveness pressure atmospheric (atm)
T uid temperature

holes since that time. A disadvantage of cylindrical holes is the jet Effect of coolant to free-stream blowing ratios and boundary
lifts off the surface, particularly at higher momentum ux ratios. layer thickness on adiabatic lm cooling effectiveness is investi-
Ligrani et al. [3], Sen et al. [4], Ekkad et al. [5], Al-Hamadi et al. gated computationally by Asghar and Hyder [17].
[6], and Maiteh and Jubran [7] amongst other researchers investi- At present shaped holes are found to give best cooling effective-
gated the effect of ejecting the coolant at a compound angle to the ness. But shaped holes are constructed from the shaping of simple
ow. In compound angles case the mainstream uid tends to ow cylindrical holes. However new hole shapes should also be tested
over the coolant jets and jets are forced towards the surface. in comparison with simple cylindrical holes and then if new hole
Film cooling performance from cylindrical cooling holes can be shapes give better results then shaping of new hole shapes should
increased by arranging them in double rows, with the holes either be adopted. In the present study, effectiveness from rows of semi-
inlined or staggered [8,9]. The presence of the upstream row of circular holes is compared with row of cylindrical hole case. Cool-
holes discourages the downstream row from lifting off the surface, ant property proles are generated separately from coolant ple-
thus increasing the effectiveness of this row. When the holes are num geometry. Motivation behind this work is the fact that
arranged in staggered rather than inline rows, the spanwise unifor- semi-circular holes utilize half of the blade volume as compare
mity of effectiveness and heat transfer coefcient is improved. to full cylindrical holes, thus giving more structural strength to
To further improve lm cooling performance, researchers tried blade. Also semi-circular holes required only half mass ow rate
the holes with expansion (in the exit region) in either the spanwise of coolant to achieve the same blowing ratio as in case of cylindri-
or forward direction, or both. Thole et al. [10], Gritsch et al. [11] cal holes. In present work, computational study has been con-
and Yu et al. [12] presented ow eld measurements, heat transfer ducted to understand the lm cooling ows with a single row
coefcient, and adiabatic effectiveness for ared or fan shaped and two staggered rows of streamwise inclined semi-circular holes
holes. Lateral shaping of the hole improves the lateral spreading with 30 streamwise angle of injection. Pitch to diameter ratio (p/
of the jet, which in turn increases the overall lm cooling D) used is 3.0.
Jovanovic et al. [13] investigated the effect of hole imperfection
on adiabatic lm cooling effectiveness. Half torus inside the cooling 2. Methodology
hole is used as a discrete imperfection. Imperfection placed one
diameter from the hole leading edge is found to deteriorate the 2.1. Geometry construction
effectiveness while the same imperfection xed at the hole exit im-
proved the effectiveness. A cross-sectional view (as seen from z-direction) of the geomet-
rical model is shown in Fig. 1, while Fig. 2 shows top (as seen from
y-direction) view of test plate for different case studied. 2-D view
1.2. Previous works: computational

Along with experimental investigations, CFD simulations of lm

cooling are also getting importance. Guo and Li [14] numerically
investigated the mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy elds
for lateral jet in crossow. Separation events are found in the lee of
the jet exit and behind the jet. Large eddy simulations are used by
Rozati and Tafti [15] to investigate the leading edge lm cooling
ow and heat transfer. They found decrease in adiabatic effective-
ness with an increase in blowing ratio due to the increased mixing
between coolant jet and the mainstream.
The effect of turbulent Prandtl number on the computation of
lm cooling effectiveness is investigated by Liu et al. [16]. Film
cooling effectiveness is found increasing under large blowing ratios
and reduced Prandtl number. A new laterally varying turbulent
Prandtl number model dependent on the lateral location and blow-
ing ratio is suggested by Liu et al. [16]. Fig. 1. Cross-sectional view of mainstream duct and hole geometry.
F.H. Asghar, M.J. Hyder / Energy Conversion and Management 52 (2011) 329334 331

domain due to symmetry. Region bounded by dotted lines is the

computational domain. A same kind of symmetry is used for hole
and for plenum geometry.

2.2. Boundary conditions

An adiabatic wall boundary condition is used at all boundaries

except those denoted as main inlet, coolant velocity prole
inlet, and outlet in Fig. 1, and symmetry boundary conditions
are applied at symmetry planes z/D = 0.0 and z/D = p/2 = 1.5
(Fig. 4) for both the main lm cooling geometry and coolant geom-
etry. At the main inlet, a velocity-inlet boundary condition is
specied with x-velocity equal to 13 m/s and all other components
equal to zero. The temperature is given as 293.15 K at the main in-
let. At the coolant inlet, a velocity prole taken from the simula-
tions of coolant plenum is specied. These velocity proles also
include the information of temperature, turbulent kinetic energy
and dissipation rate from the coolant plenum. At inlet to coolant
Fig. 2. Top view of test plates from +y-direction.
plenum velocity-inlet boundary condition is varied from case to
case as specied in Table 1. The temperature of the coolant is
318.15 K to keep the coolant to free-stream density ratio of 0.92
as in the experimental study of Yuen and Martinez-Botas [9]. At
the outlet, a pressure-outlet boundary condition is specied with
gauge pressure equal to 0 (giving an absolute pressure of
101,325 Pa). Reynolds number based on free-stream velocity and
hole diameter is 10,364. For the case of without lm cooling the
boundary layer thickness is d = 0.62D at x/D = 0.0.

2.3. Grid generation

Computational domain selected for the simulations is shown in

Fig. 4, where z/D = 0.0 and z/D = p/2 = 1.5 are the symmetry planes.

Table 1
Plenum inlet velocities.

Case # Shape Blowing ratio Momentum Plenum inlet

Fig. 3. Cross-sectional view of plenum geometry.
(M) ux ratio (I) velocity (m/s)

of coolant plenum is shown in Fig. 3. Coolant plenum is simulated 1 Circular 0.5 0.271 0.246
2 Circular 0.67 0.487 0.330
separately and velocity prole at the hole inlet in Fig. 1 is taken
3 Semi-circular 0.5 0.271 0.123
from the hole inlet from coolant plenum (Fig. 3). Three geometric 4 Semi-circular 0.67 0.487 0.165
cases have been studied. First is the baseline case of single row
of circular holes with pitch to diameter ratio of 3.0, which is used
for validation of computational model. Second is the case of a sin-
gle row of semi-circular holes with pitch to diameter ratio of 3.0.
Third is the case of two staggered rows of semi-circular holes sep-
arated by 3.0D streamwise distance and the lateral separation be-
tween two neighboring holes from different rows is 1.5D while
lateral separation between holes of individual row is 3D. Upstream
row (in the case of two staggered rows) is at a distance (s) of 3.0D
from downstream row. Fig. 4 shows the selection of geometrical

Fig. 4. Computational domain of main duct. Fig. 5. Mesh independency.

332 F.H. Asghar, M.J. Hyder / Energy Conversion and Management 52 (2011) 329334

For multi-block grid generation, GAMBIT is used. Meshing for 2.4. Solver
mainstream duct is same for the cases of semi-circular and circular
holes. Grid independent study has been performed separately for In present work realizable ke turbulence model with enhanced
each blowing ratio (M = 0.50, 0.67). Similarly different meshes wall treatment is selected for simulations as recommended by
are used for coolant plenum for each blowing ratio. Fig. 5 shows Zhang and Hassan [18]. Discretization scheme used is 2nd order
the grid independent study for non-dimensional temperature (h) upwind [19] for momentum, turbulence kinetic energy, turbulence
at x/D = 5, and z/D = 0.0, it is clear that the results in case of med- dissipation rate and energy, whereas for pressure standard discret-
ium and ne meshes are almost similar and solution becomes ization scheme [20] is used. For pressurevelocity coupling SIMPLE
mesh independent after medium mesh. Hence medium mesh is algorithm [21] is used.
used for CFD simulation. Table 2 shows the grid sizes for different
3. Results and discussion
Table 2
Grid sizes for different meshes. For validation purpose of CFD model, present computational re-
sults of centerline effectiveness (gc), laterally averaged effective-
Coarse mesh Medium mesh Fine mesh
ness (g), and spatially averaged effectiveness (g) are compared
Cells 480,430 954,244 14,28,430 with the previous experimental results available in literature.
Faces 14,88,490 29,16,700 43,42,577
Fig. 6 illustrate the comparison of centerline effectiveness results
Nodes 528,135 10,06,805 14,85,475
with previous investigations [9,12,22]. Computational results are
well in agreement with experimental results especially with Yuen
and Martinez-Botas [9] results because the boundary conditions
are taken similar to that of Yuen and Martinez-Botas. Figs. 7 and
8 show the comparison of laterally averaged (g) and spatially aver-
aged effectiveness (g) data respectively with the previous work.

Fig. 8. Comparison of g with literature.

Fig. 6. Comparison of gc with literature.

Fig. 7. Comparison of g with literature. Fig. 9. gc for all cases.

F.H. Asghar, M.J. Hyder / Energy Conversion and Management 52 (2011) 329334 333

Again present results are in good agreement with previous exper- both blowing ratios (M = 0.5, and M = 0.67), although both cases
imental studies, which validates the present computation model. utilize same amount for coolant for same blowing ratio.
Fig. 9 shows the comparison of centerline effectiveness for three Comparison of laterally averaged effectiveness (g) is shown in
geometric models for blowing ratios of 0.50 and 0.67. It is found Fig. 10. Again, for each blowing ratio tested, the laterally averaged
that centerline effectiveness from a row of semi-circular holes have effectiveness from a row of semi-circular holes is almost similar to
almost similar values as that for a row of circular holes. Although that from a single row of circular hole. Much higher laterally aver-
semi-circular holes utilizes only the half mass ow of coolant than aged effectiveness values are found for two staggered rows of
that from full circular hole case, but comparatively same values of semi-circular holes as compare to that for single row of circular
effectiveness as that for single row of circular holes is due to the holes, while both cases utilizing the same amount of coolant and
lesser jet lift-off. Less jet lift-off keeps the coolant jet more towards providing same structural strength. In Fig. 10 jet reattachment is
test wall and hence shows higher effectiveness values. Centerline very much prominent especially for the case of two staggered rows
effectiveness for two staggered rows of semi-circular holes is found of semi-circular holes. After early decreasing trend, effectiveness
to be much higher than that for one row of full circular holes at keep on increasing in the region 4 6 x/D 6 25 due to jet
As semi-circular holes have less momentum (due to the half
mass ow as compare to circular hole) than that for full circular
holes for the same blowing ratio. Hence coolant jets are expected
to have lesser height as compare to coolant jets height from full cir-

Fig. 10. g for all cases.

Fig. 11. h-proles at x/D = 5.0, z/D = 0.0. Fig. 12. Velocity vectors at plane x/D = 5.0.
334 F.H. Asghar, M.J. Hyder / Energy Conversion and Management 52 (2011) 329334

cular hole. Fig. 11 shows the non-dimensional temperature proles Acknowledgement

at x/D = 5.0 and z/D = 0.0. Mainstream uid has h = 0.0 as non-
dimensional temperature, while coolant has h = 1.0 as non-dimen- This work is sponsored by Higher Education Commission of
sional temperature. Mean jet height at particular location is deter- Pakistan under 5000 indigenous PhD scholarships program. Sup-
mined by maximum h-value at that location. It is seen that with port of Higher Education Commission of Pakistan is highly
increasing blowing ratio coolant jet height increases which is clear acknowledged.
from increasing y/D distance with increasing blowing ratio to reach
maximum h-value. For all blowing ratios tested, coolant jet heights References
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