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GROUP7_K53CLC3

1. ?ngBchNg?c 1401035069
2. Nguy?nLH?ngNhung 1401035081
3. NguynMinhPh??ng 1401035088
4. LHongKhnhNgn 1401025073
5. Hu?nhGiaKhnh 1401035043
6. VTh?Ph??ngTh?o 1401035102

TOPIC8:THELEGALLAGUAGEINIBC

I. LanguageinIBC:
THELANGUAGEOFANGLOAMERICANCONTRACTS
TheAngloAmericancontractoftenseemslengthy,complicatedand
repetitious.AnegotiatormaytrytosimplifytheEnglishwording.Butthisis
sometimesdangerous.AngloAmericancontractlawismostlycaselaw,so
lawyersdraftcontractswithcases(precedents)inmind.Ifajudgeinthepast
basedadecisionontheprecisewordingofacontract,latercontractsmaytryto
avoidorembracetheimplicationsofthatdecision.Further,tocompensatefor
theabsenceofacodifiedlaw,lawyerstrytocoveralleventualitiesinthe
contractitself.Theresultis"contractEnglish"alanguagewithrulesofits
own.
AngloAmericanlawislargelycaselaw:eachdecisionbyajudgemaycreatea
precedent.Ifthisprecedentisbinding,futurejudgesalwaysfollowit.The
AngloAmericandrafterknowsthisandwritesthecontracttoavoidthe
problemscreatedbybindingprecedentsinthepast.
II.Structure

Structure1:MainClause+MainClause

MAINCLAUSE+MAINCLAUSE

Twosentences(mainclauses)joinedbyand(orasimilarconjunction)thisisthe
mostfrequentlyusedstructureintheEnglishlanguage.

Becausemostlanguagesfreelyuseand,but,orbetweenmainclauses,this
constructionpresentsnoproblemsinternationally.
Example:

Thestipulatedpricesarefixed,andtheyaretobeunderstooddeliveredandpaidto
theplaceofdestination

Nothinghereincontainedshallbeconstruedastransferringanyintellectual
propertyrightsintheGoods,allsuchrightsbeingexpresslyreservedtothetrue
andlawfulownersthereof

Intheeventthatyoudonotagreewiththetermsandconditionsorifyoufeel
unabletocomplywithanyoftermsandcondition,pleasearrangeanamendment
ofthecreditthroughyourcontractingparty

Structure2:MainClause+OneSubordinateClause
Thesimplestrelationshipbetweentwoideasistomakeoneintoamainclauseand
theotherintoanexplanatoryorsubordinateclause.
MAINCLAUSE+SUBORDINATECLAUSE
SUBORDINATECLAUSE+MAINCLAUSE
Youcanalsobeginwiththesubordinateclause,especiallywhenusingtheif
clause;theadditionofthewordthenmakestherelationshipparticularlyclear.
Example:

IftheForceMajeureevenlastsoversixty(60)days,theBuyershallhavethe
righttocanceltheContractortheundeliveredpartoftheContract

IncasetheBuyerfailstocarryoutanyofthetermsandconditionstothisContract
withtheSeller,theSellershallhavetherighttoterminatealloranypartof
thisContractwiththeBuyer.

Incaseofanydivergenceofinterpretation,theVietnamesetextshallprevail.

Inothercases,theshortensentencebeginswith"if"asifrequired,if
possible,ifany,ifnecessaryarequitepopular
Claims,ifany,shallbesubmittedbytelexwithinfourteen(14)daysafterthe
arrivalofthegoodsatdestination.
Yuc?ub?ith??ng,n?uc,ph?i??c?arab?ngvanbantrongvngm??ib?n
(14)ngysaukhihng?nc?ng?n.

Tomakeeveryeffort,ifpossible,tocompleteanyportionsofthisServicein
lesstimeestimated.
Huy?ngm?in?l?c,n?ucth?,?honthnhb?tk?noph?nnoc?aD?chv?
tr??cth?ih?nd??nh

Structure3:MainClause+SubordinateClause(>=2SubordinateClause)
Example:

Btkischmtrhockhngthc Anydelayorfailurein
hinnghiavuthmvaoocuabt performancebyeitherParty
cbnnaosekhngcuthanhli theretoshallnotconsitutedefault
viphamtronghpnghocgy hereunderorgiverisetoany
rathithaihaythtthoatlinhun claimsfordamagesorlossof
dkinnu,vatrongphamvirng
anticipatedprofitsif,andtothe
schmtrhockhngthchin
extentthatsuchdelayorfailureis
ogyrabitrnghpbtkha
causedbyForceMajeure.
khang.
Nghiavugiaohangcuangiban TheobligationofSellertoshipor
cquyinhcuthtrnbmt deliverthegoodsspecifiedonthe
hpngtrcthiimhoc faceofthisContractbythetimeor
trongkhoangthigiancnuro withintheperiodspecifiedonthe
trnbmtcuahpngsetuy faceofthisContractshallbe
thucvaotinhtrangsnsangcua
subjecttotheavailabilityofthe
tauhoccuakhoangtau;giao
vesselorthevesselsspace;delivery
hangthchintrongbatunkt
takesplacethreeweeksfromthedate
ngayngibannhncthng
theSellerreceivedadvicethatthe
baothtindungacmbi
letterofcredithasbeenopenedby
ngimua.
theBuyer.

Structure4:SubordinateClauseA+MainClause+SubordinateClauseB
Example:
Vietnamese English
N?ucb?tk?tranhch?pnopht Shouldanydisputearisebetween
sinhgi?accbntrongh?p?ng thecontractingpartiestowhichno
vccbnkhngatctha agreementcanbereached,these
thu?n?x?l,thtranhch?p?ys? disputesshallbesettledby
cxtxbitrngtitai arbitration,whichshalltakeplace
SingaporetheoQuyt?ctr?ngtis? inSingaporeasperarbitrationrule
125c?aGAFTA number125ofGAFTA.
Nungimuakhngthanhtoan IfBuyerfailstopayfortheGoods
tinhangtheohpngnaythi inaccordancewiththisContract,
ngimuaphaitrachongiban BuyershallpaytoSelleras
tinbithngthithaictinh liquidateddamagesandnotas
chkhngphaitinphatdihinh penaltyoverdueinterestatthe
thclaisutquahantheomclai rateofthelowerofeighteen
sutthphn18%mtnmhoc
percentperannumorthe
mclaisutcaonhtmalutnc
maximuminterestratepermitted
ngimchophep,mclaisut
bythelawsofBuyerscountry,
nayctinhtngaynhan
calculatedfromtheduedatefor
thanhtoanchonngaythanhtoan
suchpaymentuntiltheactualdateof
thcttrncsmtnmco360
paymentcalculatedonthe360daya
ngaytinhchosngayquahan.
yearbasisfortheactualnumberof
dayselapsed.
Nungibankhngcungcp IftheSellerfailstosupplyanyof
hanghoatrongkhoangthigian theGoodswithinthetimeperiod
quyinhtronghpng,ngi specifiedintheContract,theBuyer
muasethngbaochongiban shallnotifytheSellerthat,a
rngviphamhpngaxayrava breachofcontracthasoccurred
khutrtgiacuahpngtrn andshalldeductfromthe
mitungiaohangchm,lagia
ContractPriceperweekofdelay,
giaohangcuahanghoabigiao
deliveredpriceofthedelayedGoods
chmchonkhigiaohangthcs
untilactualdeliveryuptoamaxium
khutrtia10%giagiaohang
deductionof10%ofthedelivered
cuahanghoabigiaochm.
priceofthedelayedGoods.
III.Featuresofvocabulary
1. Commonwordswithuncommonmeanings
1.1 Shall
Incontractsandlegaldocuments,"shall"isoftenusedasthethirdsubjectfor
obligationsandduties.Moreover,shallcanalsobeusedasaguidingprinciple,
butnotethatsomelegaldraftersarguethattheuseof"shall"asaguidelineshould
beavoidedbecauseitiseasytocauseconfusion(forthereader).
Examples:
Ifnopricehasbeenagreed,theSellerscurrentlistpriceatthetimeofthe
conclusionoftheContractshallapply
Unlessotherwiseagreedinwriting,orimpliedfromapriorcourseofdealing
betweentheparties,paymentofthepriceandofanyothersumsduebythebuyer
tothesellershallbeonopenaccountandtimeofpaymentshallbe30daysfrom
thedateofinvoice.
1.2 Consideration
Considerationisthebenefitthateachpartyreceives,orexpectstoreceive,when
enteringintoacontract.Considerationisoftenmonetary,butitcanbeapromiseto
performaspecificact,orapromisetorefrainfromdoingsomething
Examples:
InconsiderationofBUYERpayingthefullpurchaseamountofU.SDollars...
forsuchcargotoSELLERpriortopresentationofsaid3/3originalBillofLading
andallothernormalshippingdocuments
Billspaymentshallbeservedasconsiderationforthepromisetosellthecar
2. Theindefinitepronouns

LegalEnglishstyleavoidstheuseof'you','we','I'.Therefore,wecanencounter
manysentencesusinginhumanpronounslike"noone","everyone"
Examples:
Noonemaybesubjectedtoslavery,servitudeorforcedlabor.
Everyonehastherightofaccesstoanyinformationheldbythestateand
anyinformationthatisheldbyanotherperson,andthatisrequiredforthe
exerciseorprotectionofanyrights
3. Archaicadverbsandprepositionalphrases
ArchaicadverbsandprepositionalphrasesareusedquiteofteninlegalEnglish
andininternationalbusinesscontract(IBC)oftenfoundoldadverbssuchas
"hereinafter","forthwith","hereby"andadverbclusterssuchas"subjectto"
"INSERTTO","INWITNESSWHEREOF/THEREOF

Words Englishmeaning Vietnamese Example


meaning

herein inthiscontract nu?trong Inconsiderationofthemutual


h?p?ng promisescontainedherein,the
ny Partiesherebyagreethat
Contractorwilltimelyand
competentlyperformtheServices
asoutlinedinExhibitA,whichis
attachedheretoandincorporatedby
thisreference

hereinafte formalina ?d??iy TheBuyershallpaytheSellerthe


r subsequentpart (trongti purchasepriceofthegoods
orfromthis li?uny) amountingEUR..
pointoninthis (hereinafterreferredtoasthe
document, PurchasePrice).
statement,etc

hereto tothis(document nhkm TheSubjectmatterofthisContract


etc) theo?y isparticularlytheobligationofthe
Sellertodelivergoodsspecifiedin
theExhibitNo.1heretotothe
Buyerandtotransfertheproperty
ingoodstotheBuyerunderthe
termsandconditionshereinandthe
obligationoftheBuyertoaccept
thedeliveredgoodsfromtheSeller
andtopaytheagreedpurchase
price.

hereby bythis,orthe b?ngcch Inconsiderationofthemutual


present, ny promisescontainedherein,the
declaration, Partiesherebyagreethat
action, Contractorwilltimelyand
document,etc.; competentlyperformtheServices
bymeansofthis; asoutlinedinExhibitA,whichis
asaresultof attachedheretoandincorporatedby
this: thisreference

hereof ofthis v?i?uny Thesoleandexclusiveremedyof


theBuyerforanyliabilityofSeller
ofanykind,including(a)warranty,
expressorimplied,whether
containedinthetermsand
conditionshereofinanyterms
additionalorsupplementalhereto,
(b)contract,(c)negligence,(d)
tort,or(e)otherwise,islimitedto
Sellersrepairorreplacement,
EXWSellersFacilityIncoterms
2010,ofthoseGoodsthe
examinationofwhichbySeller
revealsmaterialdefectsduringthe
warrantyperiodor,atSellers
option,arefundtoBuyerofthe
moneypaidtoSellerforsuch
Goods

thereto Inadditionto thmvo, TheSellerandBuyerexpressly


that;furthermore ngoira agreetoexcludefromthis
AgreementtheUnitedNations
ConventiononContractsforthe
InternationalSaleofGoods,1980,
andanysuccessorthereto

thereby becauseofthat do Wheregoodsarenonconforming


(andprovidedtheBuyer,having
givennoticeofthelackof
conformityincompliancewith
article11.1,doesnotelectinthe
noticetoretainthem),theSeller
shallathisoption:reimbursetothe
Buyerthepricepaidforthenon
conforminggoodsandthereby
terminatetheContractasregards
thosegoods.

thereof fromorbecause t? InanycasetheBuyershallhave


ofthat noremedyforlackofconformityif
hefailstonotifytheSellerthereof
within12monthsfromthedateof
arrivalofthegoodsattheagreed
destination.

4.Identification
Draftersoftenuseidentificationwhichistheprocessofchanginggrammatical
word(usuallyaverb)toanounphrase.Identificationarewordswithsuffixeslike:
ion,tion,ment,ent,ance,ence,ancy,ency.
Examples:
Thefinalpricecalculationdeterminedbyprovisionofthisarticleshallbe
roundedinfour(4)decimalplaces..
AllexpensesinconnectionwithStandbyLetterofCreditoutsideVietnam
aretobeonBUYERaccount.
Norestrictionmaybeputontheexerciseoftherightsotherthanthose
condemnedincomformitywiththelaw
5.Performativeverbs
Performativeverbsarestatementsthatpledgethespeakertoperformlanguage
behaviorsCommonverbsintheinternationalbusinesscontract(IBC)are:"agree",
"declare","promise","undertake","warrant"...
Examples:
Bothpartiestothecontractherebyagreetothefollowingconditions
TheSellerherebywarrantsthatthegoodsmeetthequalityandarefree
fromalldefects.
6. Binomialsandtrinomials
BinomialsandtrinomialsarealsoalexicalfeatureinlegalEnglishandBTA.
Thesesynonymsareoftenachallengefortranslatorsbecausetheyarevery
commoninlegalEnglishbutarehardtofindinEnglishdictionaries.Some
commonbinomialsandtrinomialsusedininternationalbusinesscontract(IBC)
aretrueandcorrect,nullandvoid,give,deviseandbequeath...Wordslike
thesecanbenouns(covenantsandobligations),adjectives(nullandvoid)or
eventpreposition(byandbetween)
Somelinguistsbelievethattheresultsofthesepairsofsynonymsareduetoa
mixtureofEnglish,French,andLatin.Toavoidambiguity,lawmakersusewords
fromdifferentlanguages.Examplesofsynonymshaveamixtureoflanguages
suchas"breakingandentering"(English/French),"fitandproper"(English/
French),"landandtentement""Willandtestament"(English/Latin).English
(UK)equivalentpairs:"letandhinderance","haveandhold"...
Example:

Vietnamese Examples
Meaning

Termsandconditions i?ukho?nvi?u Thetermsandconditionsofthis


ki?n contractshallremainstrictlysecret
andconfidentialbetweenthe
parties.

Nullandvoid Khnggitr? Aftersigningpresentcontract,all


previousrelevantnegotiationsand
correspondencesinrelationtothis
contractbetweenthepartiesshall
beconsiderednullandvoid.

Trueandcorrect ngvchnhxc Sellerwarrantsthatthe


informationregardingtheimport
orexportofthegoodssuppliedto
Buyeristrueandcorrectandthat
allsalescoveredbythisorderwill
bemadeatnotlessthanfairvalue
undertheantidumpinglawsofthe
countriestowhichthegoodsare
exported.

Wearandtear Haomnt?nhin Inaccordancewiththeprovisions


ofthisPurchaseOrder,butinany
eventuponcompletionthereof,
Sellershallreturnsuchpropertyto
Buyerintheconditioninwhichit
wasreceived,exceptfor
reasonablewearandtear,and
exceptforsuchpropertyashas
beenreasonablyconsumedinthe
properperformanceofthis
PurchaseOrder.

Costandexpense Chiph DeliveryoftheEquipmentto


BuyerbyCompany,atCompany's
solecostandexpense,shallbe
madewithintwo(2)weeksafter
receiptofapurchaseorder
(hereinafter"DeliveryDate")

covenantsand Nghav?vkh??c Now,therefore,inconsiderationof


obligations themutualcovenantsand
obligationssetforthherein,the
Partiesheretointendingtobe
legallybound,agreeasfollows
Appropriateand Phh?p/thchh?p Liabilityunderaguarantyshall
proper requireasaprecondition
professionalinstallationand
operationinaccordancewiththe
operatinginstructions,security
instructionsand/ordatasheetas
wellasanappropriateand
properuseoftheGoods;
Finalandconclusive Saucng Thecustomershallonlybeentitled
tooffsethisdebtagainstclaimsif
hiscounterclaimshavebeen
establishedasfinaland
conclusiveorareduefordecision,
fortherest,alsoifthe
counterclaimshavebeen
acknowledgedbyusorifwehave
notdisputedthem.

Signed,sealedand k(vngd?u) Thepartiesherebyagree,to


(delivered) respectthementionedSalesand
PurchaseAgreementaccepted
signedandsealedasbelowon
Date:4th,Sept,2012.

Alter,amend,modify S?a?i,ch?nhl Thearbitratorshallnothaveany


orchange powertoalter,amend,modifyor
changeanyofthetermsofthis
Agreement,nortograntany
remedythatiseitherprohibitedby
thetermsofthisAgreementornot
availableinacourtoflaw.

Saveandexcept Ngo?itr? Saveandexceptforanyspecific


supplyagreementexecuted
betweentheauthorizedsignatories
ofVentureandtheCustomer,
Venturerejectsanyadditionalor
inconsistenttermsandconditions
offeredbytheCustomeratany
timeorinanypurchaseorder,
acknowledgementoracceptance
form,communication,invoiceor
otherdocumentfromtheCustomer

Forandduringthe Trongth?ih?n Theliabilityshallbedeemedto


termsof havesurvivedtheterminationof
saidmembershipandremainin
forceforandduringthetermsof
thisAgreement

Borneandpaid Ch?utrchnhi?m Duties,taxes,fees,leviesandother


vthanhton compulsorypaymentsapplicable
tothesaleofGoodsanytime,as
wellasfreight,express,insurance
anddeliverycharges,shallallbe
borneandpaidinfullbyBuyer,
unlessotherwiseexpressly
stipulated.

Rulesandregulations Cclu?tl?vquy Thisagreementshallbeconstrued


?nh andenforcedundertheapplicable
lawsandregulationsofthecountry
andstatewheretherespective
partiesresideandtherulesand
regulationsoftheICC

7,Prepositionalclusters
LegalEnglishalsousesprepositionalphraseswithwordssuchas"inrespectof",
"withrespectto","inaccordancewith","inpursuanceofor"pursuant
to".
Examples:
Unlessotherwiseagreedinwriting,alldisputesarisinginconnectionwith
thepresentContractshallbefinallysettledundertheRulesofArbitration
oftheInternationalChamberofCommercebyoneormorearbitrators
appointedinaccordancewiththesaidRules.
TheContractingPartiesherebyagreethatenteringintothisContractand
performingdutiesunderthisContracthavebeendulyapprovedbythe
relevantcompanybodiesoftheContractingPartiesinacompliancewith
legalregulations,bylawsandotherinternalregulationsoftheContracting
Parties;andnootherapprovalorconsentshallberequired.
GAMESHOW
1. afalsestatementoffactorlawwhichinducestherepresenteetoentera
contract
_________________(Misrepresentation)
2. aformalwrittenorspokenstatementthatshowsthistrueusuallyincourt__
_______(Testimony)
3. theactofcommittingaseriouscrimesuchasmurderorrape______
(Felony)
4.


(reimburse)

5. (Timebar)

6. (openaccount)
7. (Immediatelyavailablefunds)

8. in__________withthelaw(conformity)
9. __________isadocumentthatgivesinformationabouta
companyssharesbeforetheyareofferedforsale(prospectuse)
10. Herclaimwassupportedbythe_________ofseveralwitnesses.
(testimony)
11. ______(breach)
12. (RETEN
TIONOFTITLE)

13. (FallDue)
14. (DEMANDGUARANTEE)