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• • • •

(J)

1 cal= 4.18 J

( J ) 1 cal = 4 . 18 J

m,V,E. T, P, ρ, Concentracion´

m,V,E. T, P, ρ, Concentracion ´

X X

X = X 2 X 1

X

X

X = 0

d dV, dU

δ

∆ X X ∆ X = X − X ∆ X X ∆ X =

• • •

• P = P • P + dP > P • P < P +

P 1 = P 2

P 1 + dP > P 2

P 1 < P 2 + dP

PV = nRT V = cte T = V P = kP k = V

PV = nRT

V = cte

 

T =

V

nR P = kP

k =

V

nR

δW = FdX W 12 =

2

ˆ

1

Fdx

PV

δW = FdX → W = 2 ˆ 1 Fdx • • • PV dV =

dV = AdX dX

δW = F ext dX = (PA) dX = P (AdX) = PdV

δW rev = PdV

W rev =

  • V 2

ˆ

  • V 1

P ext dV

. . .

(1)

(1) P ext V

δW = − F dX = − ( PA ) dX = − P ( AdX

()

(+)

P ext = cte

W =

V

2

ˆ

V

1

PdV = P

V

2

ˆ

V

1

dV

= P(V 2 V 1 ) = P V

. . .

(2)

P ext = 0 W = 0

P 1 , V 1 , T 1 P 1 , V 2 , T 2 .

W =

V

2

ˆ

V

1

PdV = P

V

2

ˆ

V

1

dV

PV = RT PdV = RdT

W =

T 2

ˆ

T 1

RdT = R

T 2

ˆ

T 1

dT = R(T 2 T 1

). . .

(3)

P 1 , V 1 , T 1

P 2 , V 2 , T 1

 

V

2

 

W =

ˆ

PdV

V

1

T 1 = T PV

= RT P =

RT

  • V

 
  • V 2

  • V 2

W =

ˆ

  • V 1

RT

  • V dV = RT

ˆ

  • V 1

  • dV = RT ln V 2 = RT ln P 1

V

V

1

P 2

(4)

1 C

(C)

1g

(C p C v ).

C

C x =

δq x

dT

C x = a + bT + CT 2

a, b, c