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Airbus Flight Operations

October 2016 - Issue 1

Getting to grips
with PBN
Performance-Based
Navigation
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 002

Content
#1  p.005
INTRO

#2  p.007
FROM
CONVENTIONAL
NAVIGATION
TO PBN

#3  p.012
PBN
OPERATIONS
3.1 EN-ROUTE p.012 3.3 APPROACH p.040
RNAV 10 (RNP 10) p.012 RNP APCH p.040
RNP 4 p.017 RNP AR p.052
RNP 2 p.022
3.4 OTHER p.063
3.2 TERMINAL p.026 RNP with RF leg p.063
RNAV5 p.026 capability
RNAV 2 / RNAV 1 p.030 Advanced RNP p.067
RNP 1 p.035
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 003

#4 AIRBUS
AIRCRAFT SOLUTIONS
 p.071

4.1 AIRCRAFT POSITIONING AND MONITORING p.072


Aircraft Position p.072
Accuracy and Integrity Limits p.073
Monitoring of GNSS/Inertial Mode (GPS primary) p.074
Monitoring of Other Navigation Modes p.076
(Navigation Accuracy High/Low)
Example p.076

4.2 FLIGHT GUIDANCE MODES p.077


NAV Mode p.077
Approach Mode p.077
Flight Guidance Modes for PBN operations p.080

4.3 DISPLAYS AND MONITORING p.082


OF DEVIATIONS TO THE FLIGHT PATH
XTK on ND p.082
Lateral Deviation on PFD p.083
Vertical Deviation on PFD p.084
SLS and FLS Deviation on PFD p.084

4.4 A350 SPECIFIC FEATURES p.087


FOR RNP AR OPERATIONS
HMI Enhancement p.087
Management of Degraded Navigation p.089

#5 SUMMARY  p.092

#ANNEXES p.097
A. DEFINITIONS p.097
B. RVSM p.100
C. MNPS/HLA p.104
D. ORGANIZED TRACKS p.107
E. FLIGHT PLAN IMPACT p.108
F. REFERENCES p.110
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 004

Foreword
The purpose of this document is to provide the Operators of Airbus aircraft with
the manufacturers perspective of the applicable Performance-Based Naviga-
tion (PBN) regulations. Therefore, this document has been written to help Op-
erators to understand the following aspects:

Main navigation requirements.


Main aircraft navigation design and capability.

This document is presented for information only, and is not intended to


replace ICAO guidelines or National Aviation Authorities (NAA) mandated require-
ments. The content does not supersede or amend any Airbus type-specific
AFM, AMM, FCOM, MMEL, FCTM, ACD or SB.
All brochure holders and users are encouraged to send their questions and
suggestions about this document to the following contact:

Tech TechRequest on www.airbusworld.com.


Request Category: Flight operations / Other topics / CNS/ATM.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 005

#1
Introduction
For the preparation of operations for a route from Departure to Arrival, Oper-
ators consider in their Operations Manuals (OM A to OM D) all types of regional
or local rules about communication, navigation, and surveillance. Refer to the
example in the illustration Figure 1 below:

Figure 1:
Example of Operations
Requirements for an Aircraft
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 006

Notes:
_
The AIRBUS|CNS/ATM website The Operator identifies the operational and regulatory requirements defined into
of the Airbusworld.com portal (Li- the aeronautical information (States AIPs/AICs) of the NAA of the operated
brary/Flight operations/Operation- route for each phase of flight.
al material) provides an overview
of the world deployment of new
communication, navigation, and The Getting to Grips with brochures provide Operators with an introduction
surveillance operations. to understand the concept of operations and associated requirements for the
aircraft and the Operator.
Other Getting to Grips with vol-
umes are available on airbusworld.
com (Library/Flight operations/ This Getting to Grips with PBN document focuses on navigation purposes.
Operational expertise) including the
concepts of aircraft communication
and surveillance. This document is organized as follows:
The first part (navigation operations) mainly describes each PBN operation
based on three main axis:
The SCOPE definition to understand the context of the operations.
The AIRCRAFT capability: The holder of the Type Certificate (Airbus) ob-
Note: tains the airworthiness approval from the authorities that demonstrates the
_ aircraft compliance with the airworthiness requirements of the applicable
PBN service providers (for example PBN regulation.
NAVBLUE) can provide their support The OPERATORs tasks: The Operator considers the operational require-
to help the Operator to define their ments such as PBN procedures, trainings and may need to obtain an oper-
PBN operations and obtain the op- ational approval from its NAA.
erational approval.
The second part (Airbus design) describes the Airbus solutions developed
to fly the PBN operations.

This document takes into account the ICAO guidelines, EASA and FAA
regulations. The compliance of Airbus aircraft with the EASA and FAA
airworthiness regulations is considered acceptable to demonstrate the
aircraft PBN capability with NAA.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 007

#2
From
conventional
navigation
to PBN
For decades, to fly from Departure to Arrival, the aviation industry used both
of the following conventional navigation systems:
Over the continents, radio navigational aids (NAVAIDS), for example VOR/
DME, NDB.
Over the oceans and remote areas, inertial navigation systems (INS).

Due to the constant growth in traffic, the requirements for an increase in airspace
capacity and flight efficiency put these conventional navigation systems to the limits:
A large quantity of NAVAIDs is required to cover a large area because of their
limited range.
The maintenance of these NAVAIDs generates high costs.
The limited flexibility of the NAVAIDs (based on bearing/distance and radial
interception principles) offers limited flight efficiency (e.g. non-direct routes,
non-curved approaches).
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 008

The new method of navigation, also referred to as Area Navigation (RNAV),


started with the introduction of the Flight Management System (FMS) and the
Inertial Reference System (IRS). With these new systems, Operators are able to
use direct routes with enhanced navigation accuracy, particularly for long-range
flights.
Figure 2: These new navigation methods enable the aircraft to fly from waypoint to way-
Difference between point (defined by latitude and longitude coordinates) instead of from NAVAID to
Conventional Navigation
NAVAID, as illustrated on Figure 2.
and Area Navigation

The introduction of the FMS navigation system enables the estimation of the
aircraft navigation error.
As illustrated on Figure 3, the Total System Error (TSE) on aircraft navigation
error considers the following components:
The path definition error is the difference between the desired flight path and
the coded flight path in the Navigation Data Base (NDB). This component is
considered as negligible on the basis of the navigation database validation.
The flight technical error is based on the piloting and flight guidance perfor-
mance represented by the cross-track deviation (XTK).
The navigation system error is based on the aircraft position error comput-
ed by the systems.

Figure 3:
Aircraft Navigation Error
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 009

The Performance-Based Navigation (PBN) concept was created on the ca-


pability to quantify this Total System Error.
On this basis, the PBN concept enables to design procedures that reduce the
separation with obstacles and the separation between aircraft.
To achieve this objective, the PBN concept specifies the following basic defini-
tions of navigation performance:
Navigation accuracy defines the estimation of error on the computed air-
craft position: The real aircraft position remains within a determined area for
95% of the flight time (refer to Figure 4). The navigation accuracy is the radius
of this determined area.
R PBN defines a minimum navigation performance for the need of the different
type of operations (RNP value). The navigation accuracy must be less than
1 x RNP value.

Note:
_
In Airbus aircraft cockpit, the Estimat-
ed Position Uncertainty (EPU) provide
the actual navigation accuracy value
(refer to Section 4.1.4).

Figure 4:
Navigation
Accuracy Criteria

Navigation integrity ensures a high level of trust in the aircraft navigation


computation: The real aircraft position remains within a determined area
for 99.999 % of the flight time considering undetected navigation systems
malfunctions (Refer to Figure 5). The navigation integrity is the radius of this
determined area.
R PBN defines a minimum navigation performance for the need of the differ-
ent type of operations (RNP value). The navigation integrity is compared
to 2 x RNP value.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 010

Note:
_
Only GNSS position source can
provide integrity indicators.
In Airbus aircraft cockpit, the GPS
PRIMARY status (or NAV PRIMARY
on A350) indicates that the integri-
ty criterion is met (refer to Section
4.1.3.2).

Figure 5:
Navigation
Integrity Criteria

Note:
_
For example, the order of magnitude It should be noticed that the integrity of the position is linked to the accuracy.
in normal conditions (with GNSS These two parameters are not fully segregated. If the value of the integrity in-
operative) for the aircraft position creases, the accuracy will also be impacted.
accuracy is around 20 m with in-
tegrity around 0.1 NM (i.e. 160 m).
This RNP value does not represent a corridor for the aircraft trajectory (i.e.
not a corridor where the aircraft can fly), but a limit that the aircraft computed
position must not exceed.

Navigation continuity ensures the computation of navigation information all


along the flight. This definition includes the GNSS services.

Based on these definitions several local initiatives defined their own require-
ments to fly some Area Navigation (RNAV) or Required Navigation Performance
(RNP) operations. This emerging environment led the ICAO to publish the PBN
manual (ICAO Doc 9613) and PANSOPS amendment (ICAO Doc 8168) in
order to standardize the PBN concept for area navigation. The PBN manual
specifies the scope of each RNAV and RNP operations (refer to Figure 6).
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 011

Navigation Accuracy (NM) per flight phase


En-Route Approach

e
emot

rm
l
nenta
nic R

rture
l Inte
inal

d
NAVIGATION

Misse
Term

Depa
Conti
Ocea

Initia

Final
MANUALS
SPECIFICATION

RNAV 10 (RNP 10) 10


ICAO PBN MANUAL RNAV5 5 5
(Doc 9613)

RNAV 2 2 2 2

RNAV 1 1 1 1 1 1

RNP 4 4

RNP 2 2 2
PANS-OPS
(Doc 8168)
RNP 1 1 1 1 1
Figure 6: RNP APCH 1 0.3 1
or angular
Application of
Navigation Specifica- RNP AR APCH 1-0.1 0.3-0.1 1-0.1
tion by Flight Phase

As presented on Figure 6, the PBN manual defines a differentiation between


RNAV and RNP: Both RNAV and RNP have the same requirements for nav-
igation; In addition the RNP requires to monitor the navigation performance,
and to alert the non-conformance with the navigation performance criteria. This
requirement is referred to as On Board Performance Monitoring and Alerting
(OBPMA). This differentiation enables aircraft without monitoring function to ac-
cess to several PBN environments.
The RNAV operations are mainly monitored by Air Traffic Control (ATC).

The Airbus aircraft are equipped with an OBPMA (alert message and XTK
check), and have a high navigation performance. Therefore, on Airbus aircraft
the flight crew operates both RNAV and RNP procedures in the same way:
With an OBPMA to monitor the position performance. Therefore, the RNAV
procedure is operated as an RNP procedure.
With an OBPMA set to the lower possible RNP value. Most part of the
time the flight crew operates the Airbus aircraft with a better navigation
performance than requested. For example, the required accuracy set by
the system for an RNAV 10 or a RNP 4 procedure may be 2 NM.

The PBN manual provides also some guidelines for navigation specifications.
These guidelines can be used by NAA to define their own rules. The Airbus air-
craft comply with the EASA and FAA rules, but do not have to comply directly
with the ICAO PBN manual.
In order to conduct PBN operations, the Operator should consider the PBN
route specifications, the required aircraft capability and operational require-
ments.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 012

#3
PBN
OPERATIONS
The following sections describe the scope of each PBN operation with the
requested aircraft capability and the Operators tasks.

3.1 EN-ROUTE
_
3.1.1 RNAV 10 (RNP 10)
RNAV 10 does not require on-board performance monitoring and alerting.
However, the designation of the airworthiness and operational material as well
as airspace/route designation remains RNP 10. Recognizing the extent of ex-
isting airspace designations and operational approvals under RNP 10 designa-
tion, it is anticipated that any new airspace designations and aircraft approvals
will continue to use the RNP 10 term.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 013

3.1.1.1 Scope
3.1.1.1.1 Operational Area
The RNAV 10 procedure can be operated in remote continental and oceanic
areas, where no ground-based NAVAID infrastructures are available (refer to
Figure 7: Figure 7). Oceanic and remote continental areas are considered as procedural
Area of Operations for RNAV 10 airspace because most of the time, they are not covered by radar installations.

RNAV 10 was initially used to cover the following airspaces for example:
Pacific ocean FIRs that includes PACific Organized Track System (PACOTS).
Gulf of Mexico (GoMex) routes.
Routes between European and South America (EUR-SAM).
Routes between Peru and Chile.
Note: Routes between Australia, Asia, Mid-East, and Europe.
_
Over the North Atlantic area, RNAV For example, refer to the Brazilian AIC A 20/2013 in Section 8:
10 (or less) operations will supersede All RNAV oceanic routes implemented in the EURO/SAM corridor located
the Minimum Navigation Perfor- in Atlantic FIR are RNAV 10. Only approved RNAV 10 (airworthiness and
mance Specification (MNPS) oper- operations) Operators and aircraft will be allowed to operate on RNAV routes
ations. Until PBN is implemented in
in the oceanic Brazilian Airspace.
the North Atlantic, aircraft that oper-
ates in this airspace are required to
meet MNPS (refer to Annex C for 3.1.1.1.2 Benefits
description of MNPS).
The RNAV 10 operations support the 50 NM lateral and longitudinal aircraft
separation minima (in place of 100 NM).
For example, refer to the AIP United States of America ENR 7.4.1.1:
On 20 October 2011, the FAA and the Mexican Air Traffic Service provider,
SENEAM, implemented 50 NM lateral separation between aircraft authorized
RNP10 or RNP4 operating in the Gulf of Mexico (GoMex) Oceanic Control
Areas (CTA).

3.1.1.1.3 Design criteria for IFR Procedure


The ICAO Procedures for Air Navigation Services - Aircraft Operations (PANS-
OPS) (Doc 8168) defines the lateral and vertical specifications for the construction
of RNAV operations.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 014

Any obstacle or other routes must not enter a corridor of [2 x 10 NM] + [a buffer
zone of 5 NM] on each side of the flight path. This corridor of a 50 NM width
corresponds to the minimum separation between two RNAV 10 routes.

3.1.1.2 Aircraft
RNAV 10 airworthiness and 3.1.1.2.1 Airworthiness Regulations
operational regulations:
The RNAV 10 capability of the aircraft is demonstrated and certified on the basis
* EASA AMC 20-12
of the compliance demonstration with the airworthiness regulations.
* FAA order 8400.12
and AC 90-105A The RNAV 10 airworthiness approval relies on the compliance with the airwor-
thiness section of the FAA order 8400.12 (revision A or subsequent revisions),
Required Navigation Performance (RNP-10) operational approval, in sections
10, 14, 15, and 16. The airworthiness requirements reply to the following items:
System performance.
Certification actions.
Continuing airworthiness considerations.
Then, EASA published the AMC 20-12 (or subsequent revisions), Recognition
of FAA order 8400.12A for RNP 10 operations, without additional requirements.

The revision A of FAA AC 90-105 includes the RNAV 10 requirements. This


revision A will be used instead of the existing FAA order, but the previous author-
izations in accordance with FAA order 8400.12 remain valid.

The airworthiness compliance of the aircraft with RNAV 10 requirements is


declared in the LIMITATIONS / 22 AUTOFLIGHT SYSTEM / Flight Management
System / Airworthiness Standards Compliance section of the AFM.
Figure8:
RNAV 10 capability in AFM The example of Figure 8 presents a possible extract of the AFM. This example
(A350 example) is for information only. The content depends on individual aircraft configuration.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 015

Notes: 3.1.1.2.1 Required Systems


_
The backup NAV mode on A320, As per requirements, the aircraft must be equipped with two independent and
A330 aircraft can be considered serviceable Long-Range Navigation Systems (LRNS) for continuity require-
as a second LRNS. ments in remote area due to the redundancy of the systems.
Some local or regional excep-
tions exist such as in in the Gulf These two LRNS can rely on hybridization of GNSS/IRS data or on IRS only data
of Mexico where two LRNS are to compute aircraft position.
not required.
The minimum equipment configuration requested to initiate the procedure is
provided in the special operations section (i.e. FCOM-PRO-SPO) of the FCOM.
This list should be taken into account in MEL for dispatch conditions.

Figure9: The example below presents a possible extract of the FCOM. This example is
RNAV 10 Description in FCOM for information only. The content depends on individual aircraft configuration.

Note: 3.1.1.2.3 Navigation Performance Requirements


_
The aircraft lateral performance is also According to the design criteria (RNP value equal to 10 NM), the aircraft lateral
referred to as Estimated Position Un- performance must be less or equal to 10 NM.
certainty (EPU, refer to Section 4.1.4).
3.1.1.2.4 Additional Requirements
When the IRS only position is used (GNSS not available), the Operator must
establish that the aircraft will comply with the time limit on the planned route.
The demonstrated time limitation is described in special operations section (i.e.
FCOM-PRO-SPO) of the FCOM.

Based on RNAV operations definition compared to RNP operations, RNAV 10


does not require an OBPMA. However, the Airbus aircraft are equipped with a
monitoring function, therefore the RNAV procedure is operated and monitored
as an RNP procedure.

3.1.1.2.5 Airbus Aircraft Eligibility


All Airbus aircraft are eligible for RNAV 10 operations.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 016

3.1.1.3 Operator
3.1.1.3.1 Operational Regulations
The operational regulations that apply to RNAV 10 are defined in the operational
sections 7 and 8 of the FAA order 8400.12 (revision A or subsequent revisions),
Required Navigation Performance (RNP-10) operational approval.

The NAA may require an operational approval. To obtain an operational approval from
NAA, the Operator should submit an application that includes the following items:
Aircraft capability for RNAV 10: The statement of aircraft compliance with
airworthiness regulations is provided in AFM (refer to Section 3.1.1.2.1).
Minimum equipment configuration: The minimum equipment configuration
requested to initiate the procedure is provided in the special operations sec-
tion of the FCOM. This configuration must also be taken into account in MEL
for dispatch conditions. There is no specific maintenance program to keep
RNAV10 capability.
Operational procedures and training program: The Operator defines
operational procedure that includes normal operations and contingency pro-
cedures, and appropriate training program. These procedures can be based
on description in special operations section of the FCOM.
The training of the flight crew is based on the knowledge of RNAV 10 opera-
tions and requirements, the FCOM content (normal/abnormal and contingency
procedures) and a presentation of the route charts.
Operating manuals and checklists: The Operators updates OMs to include
RNAV operations. The checklists can be based on the FCOM definitions.
Validation program for the Navigation Data Base (NDB): The Operator
describes the quality insurance process (compliance DO-200A/ ED-76) to
update the NDB for each AIRAC cycle.

EASA AIR OPERATIONS section SPA.PBN.105 defines the general guidelines


to obtain operational approval. It is based on the airworthiness approval, an
appropriate flight crew training, and the availability of the operating procedures.

In the scope of the operational approval application, NAA may request the
compliance of some equipment with the applicable TSO standards. Airbus
demonstrates the compliance of the aircraft architecture, which includes
equipment configuration, with the EASA and FAA regulations. This demon-
stration at aircraft level includes the requirements at equipment level.

3.1.1.3.2 Operational Procedure


The MEL must be updated in accordance with RNAV 10 operations, on the
basis of the minimum configuration defined in the special operations section (i.e.
FCOM-PRO-SPO) of the FCOM, and the MMEL.

The example below presents a possible extract of the MMEL. This example is
for information only. The content depends on individual aircraft configuration.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 017

Figure10:
RNAV 10 Description in MMEL

For the preflight phase, the Operator must perform all of the following:
Check NOTAMs (impact on procedure)
NAA may require to monitor the availability of GNSS for the procedure (refer
to Section 4.1.3.1).
Check the NDB validity (according to AIRAC cycle).
Insert RNAV 10 capability in the ATS flight plan, in accordance with the ICAO
or the NAA recommendations (refer to Annex E) for both of the following:
Insert the letter R in the first part of ITEM 10. The letter Z can also be added
to highlight that a complement on PBN capability is added in ITEM 18.
Insert the letter PBN/A1 in ITEM 18 for RNAV 10.

3.1.2 RNP 4
RNP 4 operations are referred to as RNP 4 en-route on some procedural charts,
airworthiness and operational material.

3.1.2.1 Scope
3.1.2.1.1 Operational Area
RNP 4 procedure can be operated in remote continental and oceanic areas,
where no ground-based NAVAID infrastructures are available (refer to Figure 11).
Oceanic and remote continental areas are considered as procedural airspace
because most of the time, they are not covered by radar installations.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 018

Figure11:
Area of Operations for RNP 4

The RNP 4 operations are deployed in North Atlantic, Pacific and Asian area
(refer to ICAO doc 7030).

3.1.2.1.2 Benefits
The RNP 4 capable Operators can benefit of reduced separations. RNP 4 oper-
ations support 30 NM lateral and longitudinal aircraft separation minima (in
place of standard 100 NM).

NAA may require the RNP 4 or less capability on some ATS routes, such as
L888 in western region of China, on some North Atlantic tracks specific flight
levels, or Pacific area.

For example, refer to the ICAO Doc 7030 Section PAC, chapter 4:
4.1.2.1.2 For flights on designated controlled oceanic routes or areas within
the Anchorage Arctic, Anchorage Continental, Anchorage Oceanic, Auckland
Oceanic, Nadi, Oakland Oceanic and Tahiti FIRs, a longitudinal separation
minimum of 55.5 km (30 NM) derived by RNAV may be applied between
RNAV-equipped aircraft approved to RNP 4 or better.

3.1.2.1.3 Design Criteria for IFR Procedure


The ICAO Procedures for Air Navigation Services Aircraft Operations (PANS-
OPS) (Doc 8168) defines the lateral and vertical specifications for the construction
of RNP operations.

Any obstacle or other routes must not enter a corridor of [2 x 4 NM] + [a buffer
zone] on each side of the flight path.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 019

3.1.2.2 Aircraft
RNP 4 airworthiness and 3.1.2.2.1 Airworthiness Regulations
operational regulations:
The RNP 4 capability of the aircraft is demonstrated and certified on the basis
* FAA order 8400.33 of the compliance demonstration with the airworthiness regulations.
and AC 90-105A
The RNP 4 airworthiness approval relies on the compliance with the airworthiness
section of the FAA Order 8400.33 (or subsequent revisions) Procedures for
obtaining authorization for required navigation performance 4 (RNP-4) oceanic
and remote area operations that reply to the following items:
System performance.
Aircraft configuration and acceptable installations.
Aircraft manuals and MMEL.
There is no formal EASA regulation (except old PP045 Information Paper referring
to FAA order 8400.33 and ICAO PBN manual (doc 9613).
The revision A of FAA AC 90-105 includes the RNP 4 requirements, superseding
the existing FAA order. This revision A will be used instead of the existing FAA order,
but the previous authorizations in accordance with FAA order 8400.33 remain valid.

The airworthiness compliance of the aircraft with RNP 4 requirements is declared


in the AFM part LIMITATIONS /22 AUTOFLIGHT SYSTEM / Flight Management
System / Airworthiness Standards Compliance.

Figure12: The example below shows a possible extract of the AFM. This example is for
RNP 4 Description in AFM information only. The content depends on individual aircraft configuration.

3.1.2.2.2 Required Systems


The aircraft must be equipped with two independent and serviceable LRNS for
Note: continuity requirements in remote area thanks to the redundancy of the systems.
_
The backup NAV mode can be These two LRNS rely on GNSS/IRS hybridization for aircraft positioning.
considered as a second LRNS.
The minimum equipment configuration requested to initiate the procedure is
provided in the special operations section (i.e. FCOM-PRO-SPO) of the FCOM.
This list should be taken into account in MEL for dispatch conditions.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 020

Figure13: The example below shows a possible extract of the FCOM. This example is
RNP 4 Description in FCOM for information only. The content depends on individual aircraft configuration.

Note:
3.1.2.2.3 Navigation Performance Requirements
_
the aircraft lateral performance is also According to the design criteria (RNP value equal to 4 NM), the aircraft lateral
referred to as Estimated Position Un- performance must be less or equal to 4 NM.
certainty (EPU, refer to Section 4.1.4).
3.1.2.2.4 Additional Requirements
GNSS position is required and monitored with GPS PRIMARY function (or NAV
PRIMARY on A350) and NAV ACCURACY functions on ND and MCDU/MFD
(refer to Section 4.1.3).
Note:
_
3.1.2.2.5 Airbus Aircraft Eligibility
Some additional local NAA require- All Airbus aircraft are eligible for RNP 4 operations when fitted with FMS and
ments may include use of automatic MMR or GPSSU.
dependent surveillance (ADS-C) and/
or controller pilot data link commu- 3.1.2.3 Operator
nication (CPDLC).
3.1.2.3.1 Operational Regulations
The operational regulation dedicated to RNP 4 is defined in the operational
sections 7 and 8 of FAA order 8400.33 (or subsequent revisions).

The NAA may require an operational approval. To obtain an operational approval from
NAA, the Operator should submit an application that includes the following items:
Aircraft capability for RNP 4: The statement of aircraft compliance with
airworthiness regulations is provided in AFM (refer to Section 3.1.2.2.1).
Minimum equipment configuration: The minimum equipment configuration
requested to initiate the procedure is provided in the special operations section
of the FCOM. This configuration must also be taken into account in MEL for
dispatch conditions. There is no specific maintenance program to keep RNP4
capability.
Operational procedures and training program: The Operator defines
operational procedure that includes normal operations and contingency pro-
cedures. These procedures can be based on description in special operations
section of the FCOM.
The Operator must define an appropriate training program of the flight crews
and ground Operators (dispatcher/maintenance) for the RNP operations.
The training of the flight crew is based on the knowledge of RNP 4 operations
and requirements, the FCOM content (normal/abnormal and contingency
procedures) and a presentation of the route charts.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 021

Operating manuals and checklists: The Operator updates OMs to include


RNP operations. The checklists can be based on the FCOM definitions.
Validation program for the NDB: The Operator describes the quality insur-
ance process (compliance DO-200A/ ED-76) and a program of continuous
verification of NDB for each AIRAC cycle.

EASA AIR OPERATIONS section SPA.PBN.105 defines also general guidelines


to obtain operational approval based on airworthiness approval, relevant flight
crew training and availability of the operating procedures.

In the scope of the operational approval application, NAA may request the
compliance of some equipment with the applicable TSO standards. Airbus
demonstrates the compliance of the aircraft architecture, which includes
equipment configuration, with the EASA and FAA regulations. This demon-
stration at aircraft level includes the requirements at equipment level.

3.1.2.3.2 Operational Procedure


The MEL should be updated in accordance with RNP 4 operations, on the
basis of the minimum configuration defined in the special operations section (i.e.
FCOM-PRO-SPO) of the FCOM, and the MMEL.

Figure14: The example below shows a possible extract of the MMEL. This example is for
RNP 4 Description in MMEL information only. The content depends on individual aircraft configuration.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 022

For the preflight phase, the Operator performs all of the following:
Check NOTAMs (impact on procedure) and GNSS availability (refer to
Section 4.1.3.1).
Check the NDB validity (according to AIRAC cycle).
Insert RNP 4 capability in the ATS flight plan in accordance with ICAO
or NAA recommendations (refer to Annex E):
Insert the letter G in the first part of ITEM 10 for GNSS.
Insert the letter R in the first part of ITEM 10. The letter Z can also be added
to highlight that a complement on PBN capability is added in ITEM 18.
Insert the letter PBN/L1 in ITEM 18 for RNP 4.

3.1.3 RNP 2
3.1.3.1 Scope
3.1.3.1.1 Operational Area
RNP 2 procedure can be operated in continental, remote continental and
oceanic areas, where no ground-based NAVAID infrastructure is available (refer
to Figure 15).
Figure15: Oceanic and remote continental areas are considered as procedural airspace
Area of Operations for RNP 2 because most of the time, they are not covered by radar installations.

RNP 2 is mainly used in Australia.

3.1.3.1.2 Benefits
RNP 2 aims to develop routes that are based on GNSS in areas with the
following characteristics:
With low to medium traffic.
With limited or no ATS surveillance.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 023

3.1.3.1.3 Design Criteria for IFR Procedure


The ICAO Procedures for Air Navigation Services Aircraft Operations (PANS-
OPS) (Doc 8168) defines the lateral and vertical specifications for the construction
of RNP operations.

Any obstacle or other routes must not enter a corridor of [2 x 2 NM] + [a buffer
zone] on each side of the flight path.

3.1.3.2 Aircraft
3.1.3.2.1 Airworthiness Regulations
The RNP 2 capability of the aircraft is demonstrated and certified on the basis
of the compliance demonstration with the airworthiness regulations.

There is currently no formal EASA airworthiness regulations released.


The FAA published RNP 2 requirements in AC 90-105A.
Therefore, until compliance demonstration exercise with at least FAA, RNP 2
operations is not declared in the AFM, but a compliance statement with appli-
cable regulation (CASA) can be provided via an Airbus dedicated note for the
operational authorization.

The only airworthiness materials available are:


Australian AC 91U-II-C-2(0) NAVIGATION AUTHORISATIONS RNP 2 Section 11.
ICAO PBN manual (doc 9613) in volume II, part C, chapter 2 Section 2.3.3.

Note: 3.1.3.2.2 Required Systems


_
The backup NAV mode can be con- As per requirements, the aircraft must be equipped with the following systems:
sidered as a second LRNS. In remote area: two independent and serviceable LRNS for continuity
requirements thanks to the redundancy of the systems.
In domestic/continental: one LRNS.

The minimum equipment configuration requested to initiate the procedure is


provided in the special operations section (i.e. FCOM-PRO-SPO) of the FCOM.
Depending on the RNP 2 environment, the Operator can refer to the following
sections:
RNP 4 operations for flights in oceanic/remote area, or
RNP 1 for flights in continental area.

This list should be taken into account in MEL for dispatch conditions.

Note: When compliance with AC 90-105A will be granted, new FCOM chapter dedicated
_
to RNP 2 will be introduced.
The aircraft lateral performance is also
referred to as Estimated Position Un-
certainty (EPU, refer to Section 4.1.4).. 3.1.3.2.3 Navigation Performance Requirements
According to the design criteria (RNP value equal to 2 NM), the aircraft lateral
performance must be less or equal to 2 NM.

3.1.3.2.4 Additional Requirements


GNSS position is required and monitored with GPS PRIMARY function (or NAV
PRIMARY on A350) and NAV ACCURACY functions on ND and MCDU/MFD
(refer to Section 4.1.3).
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 024

3.1.3.2.5 Airbus Aircraft Eligibility


All Airbus aircraft are eligible for RNP 2 operations when fitted with FMS2 and
MMR (or GPSSU).

3.1.3.3 Operator
3.1.3.3.1 Operational Regulations
RNP 2 airworthiness and
There is no operational approval delivered by EASA.
operational regulations:
The FAA developed operational requirements in AC 90-105A Appendix E
* FAA AC 90-105A published in March 2016.
The Australian NAA (CASA) also delivers operational authorization for RNP 2
operations in the scope of their PBN plan including a transition to RNP 2 airspace.
The operational regulation dedicated to RNP 2 is defined in operational part of
CASA AC 91U-II-C-2(0).

The NAA may require an operational approval. To obtain an operational approval


from NAA, the Operator should submit an application that includes the following
items:
Aircraft capability for RNP 2: until release of new AFM statement of compli-
ance with new FAA and EASA regulations, a statement of aircraft compliance
with airworthiness regulations is provided in an Airbus dedicated document
(i.e. compliance statement with CASA AC 91U-II-C-2(0)).
Minimum equipment configuration: The minimum equipment configuration
requested to initiate the procedure is provided in the special operations section
of the FCOM. This configuration must also be taken into account in MEL for
dispatch conditions. There is no specific maintenance program to keep RNP2
capability. The minimum configuration can be based RNP 4 operations for
flights in oceanic/remote area, or on RNP 1 for flights in continental area.
Operational procedures and training program: The Operator defines
operational procedure that includes normal operations and contingency pro-
cedures. These procedures can be based on description in special operations
section of the FCOM: on RNP 4 operations for flights in oceanic/remote area,
or on RNP 1 for flights in continental area.
The Operator must define an appropriate training program of the flight crews
and ground Operators (dispatcher/maintenance) for the RNP operations. The
training program can be common with other RNP or RNAV modules.
The training of the flight crew is based on the knowledge of RNP 2 operations
and requirements, the FCOM content (normal/abnormal and contingency pro-
cedures) and a presentation of the route charts.
Operating manuals and checklists: The Operator updates OMs to include
RNP operations. The checklists can be based on the FCOM definitions.
Validation program for the NDB: The Operator describes the quality insur-
ance process (compliance DO-200A/ ED-76) and a program of continuous
verification of NDB for each AIRAC cycle.

In the scope of the operational approval application, NAA may request the
compliance of some equipment with the applicable TSO standards. Airbus
demonstrates the compliance of the aircraft architecture, which includes
equipment configuration, with the EASA and FAA regulations. This demon-
stration at aircraft level includes the requirements at equipment level.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 025

Notes: 3.1.3.3.2 Operational Procedure


_
The ICAO did not define a harmo- The MEL should be updated in accordance with RNP 2 operations, on the
nized indication for RNP 2 opera- basis of the minimum configuration defined in the special operations section (i.e.
tions. The Operator should refer FCOM-PRO-SPO) of the FCOM, and the MMEL.
to the local rules (AIP) defined by
NAA to fill in the ATS flight plan. In For the preflight phase, the Operator performs all of the following:
Australia, for RNP 2 operations,
the item 18 could be NAV/RNP2 Check NOTAMs (impact on procedure) and GNSS availability (as required
(refer to the AIP Australia ENR by NAA, refer to Section 4.1.3.1).
1.10.3.3.2). Check the NDB validity (according AIRAC cycle).

The ICAO PBN manual refers Insert RNP 2 capability in the ATS flight plan in accordance with ICAO or NAA
to a training program which has recommendations (refer to Annex E):
been detailed in Australian AC Insert the letter G in the first part of ITEM 10 for GNSS.
91U-II-C-2(0) section 15.2. Insert the letter R in the first part of ITEM 10. The letter Z can also be added
to highlight that a complement on PBN capability is added in ITEM 18.
Insert the letter NAV/RNP2 in ITEM 18 for RNP 2.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 026

3.2 TERMINAL
_

3.2.1 RNAV5
RNAV5 operations are referred to as B-RNAV, Basic RNAV or RNP 5 on some
procedural charts, airworthiness and operational material.

3.2.1.1 Scope
3.2.1.1.1 Operational Area
Figure16: RNAV5 procedure can be operated in continental en-route and terminal areas
Area of Operations for RNAV5 (refer to Figure 16).

Since 1998, Europe has mandated a B-RNAV capability for operations in European
en-route airspace. The B-RNAV (RNAV5) is mainly deployed in European area
but does not apply over the U.S. airspace.

3.2.1.1.2 Benefits
RNAV5 enables some en-route capacity gains that can be achieved with a
minimum aircraft capability.

3.2.1.1.3 Design Criteria for IFR Procedure


The ICAO Procedures for Air Navigation Services Aircraft Operations (PANS-
OPS) (Doc 8168) defines the lateral and vertical specifications for the construction
of RNAV operations.

Any obstacle or other routes must not enter a corridor of [2 x 5 NM] + [a buffer
zone] on each side of the flight path.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 027

3.2.1.2 Aircraft
RNAV5 airworthiness and 3.2.1.2.1 Airworthiness Regulations
operational regulations:
The RNAV5 capability of the aircraft is demonstrated and certified on the basis
* EASA AMC 20-4
of the compliance demonstration with the airworthiness regulations.
* FAA AC 90-96
The RNAV5 airworthiness approval relies on the compliance with the airworthiness
section of the following guidance materials:
EASA AMC 20-4 (or subsequent revisions) Airworthiness Approval and
Operational Criteria For the Use of Navigation Systems in European Airspace
Designated For Basic RNAV Operations in section 4 that replies to the following
items:
System performance.
Aircraft configuration and acceptable installations.
Aircraft manuals and MMEL.

Note: FAA AC 90-96 (or subsequent revisions) Approval of U.S. Operators and
_ Aircraft To Operate Under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) In European Airspace
EASA AMC 20-4 supersedes the Designated For Basic Area Navigation (B-RNAV)/RNAV5 and Precision Area
former JAA general part 3 TGL2. Navigation (P-RNAV). The system performance and certification actions are
detailed in Section 4 and Appendix 1.

The airworthiness compliance of the aircraft with RNAV5 requirements is declared


in the AFM part LIMITATIONS / 22 AUTOFLIGHT SYSTEM / Flight Management
System / Airworthiness Standards Compliance.

Figure17: The example below shows a possible extract of the AFM. This example is for
RNAV5 Description in AFM information only. The content depends on individual aircraft configuration.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 028

3.2.1.2.2 Required Systems


As per requirements, the aircraft must be equipped with one RNAV system.

RNAV5 can be operated with GNSS/IRS hybridization or IRS/VOR/DME or IRS/


DME/DME.

The minimum equipment configuration requested to initiate the procedure is


provided in the special operations section (i.e. FCOM-PRO-SPO) of the FCOM.
This list should be taken into account in MEL for dispatch conditions.

Figure18: The example below shows a possible extract of the FCOM. This example is for
RNAV5 Description in FCOM information only. The content depends on individual aircraft configuration.

Note:
3.2.1.2.3 Navigation Performance Requirements
_
The aircraft lateral performance is also According to the design criteria (RNP value equal to 5 NM), the aircraft lateral
referred to as Estimated Position Un- performance must be less or equal to 5 NM.
certainty (EPU, refer to Section 4.1.4).
3.2.1.2.4 Additional Requirements
As per RNAV operations definition compared to RNP operations, RNAV5
does not require an OBPMA. However, the Airbus aircraft are equipped with a
monitoring function; therefore the RNAV procedure is operated and monitored
as an RNP procedure.

3.2.1.2.5 Airbus Aircraft Eligibility


All Airbus aircraft are eligible for RNAV5 operations.

3.2.1.3 Operator
3.2.1.3.1 Operational Regulations
The operational regulation dedicated to RNAV5 is defined in the operational
section of the following guidance materials:
EASA AMC 20-4 (or subsequent revisions) Airworthiness Approval and
Operational Criteria for the Use of Navigation Systems in European Airspace
Designated For Basic RNAV Operations in Section 5.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 029

Note: FAA AC 90-96 (or subsequent revisions) Approval of U.S. Operators and
_ Aircraft To Operate Under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) In European Airspace
RNAV 1 (P-RNAV) scope encom- Designated For Basic Area Navigation (B-RNAV)/RNAV5 and Precision Area
passes scope of RNAV5 require- Navigation (P-RNAV) in Section 7 and Appendix 1.
ments. RNAV 1 authorization may
be used as basis for RNAV5. The NAA may require an operational approval. To obtain an operational approval from
NAA, the Operator should submit an application that includes the following items:
Aircraft capability for RNAV5: The statement of aircraft compliance with
airworthiness regulations is provided in AFM (refer to Section 3.2.1.2.1).
Minimum equipment configuration: The minimum equipment configuration
requested to initiate the procedure is provided in the special operations section
of the FCOM. This configuration must also be taken into account in MEL for
dispatch conditions. There is no specific maintenance program to keep RNAV5
capability.
Operational procedures and training program: The Operator defines
operational procedure that includes normal operations and contingency pro-
cedures. These procedures can be based on description in special operations
section of the FCOM.
The Operator must define an appropriate training program of the flight crews
and ground Operators (dispatcher/maintenance) for the RNAV operations.
The training of the flight crew is based on the knowledge of RNAV 5 operations
and requirements, the FCOM content (normal/abnormal and
contingency procedures) and a presentation of the route charts
Operating manuals and checklists: The Operator updates OMs to include
RNAV5 operations. The checklists can be based on the FCOM definitions.
Validation program for the NDB: The Operator describes the quality insur-
ance process (compliance DO-200A/ ED-76) and a program of continuous
verification of NDB for each AIRAC cycle.

For the European airspace, as per EASA AIR Operations section SPA.PBN.100,
No specific approval is required for operations in area navigation 5 (RNAV5
(basic area navigation, B-RNAV)) designated airspace.

In the scope of the operational approval application, NAA may request the
compliance of some equipment with the applicable TSO standards. Airbus
demonstrates the compliance of the aircraft architecture, which includes
equipment configuration, with the EASA and FAA regulations. This demon-
stration at aircraft level includes the requirements at equipment level.

3.2.1.3.2 Operational Procedure


The MEL should be updated in accordance with RNAV5 operations, on the
basis of the minimum configuration defined in the special operations section (i.e.
FCOM-PRO-SPO) of the FCOM, and the MMEL.

For the preflight phase, the Operator performs all of the following:
Check NOTAMs (NAVAIDs availability, impact on procedure) and/or GNSS
availability (refer to Section 4.1.3.1).
Check the NDB validity (according to AIRAC cycle).
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 030

Insert RNAV5 capability in the ATS flight plan in accordance with ICAO or
NAA recommendations (refer to Annex E):
Insert the letter R in the first part of ITEM 10. The letter Z can also be added
to highlight that a complement on PBN capability is added in ITEM 18.
IInsert the letter PBN/B1 in ITEM 18 for RNAV5.

3.2.2 RNAV 2 / RNAV 1


RNAV 2 & RNAV 1 operations are referred to as Terminal RNAV or US-RNAV
in North America or Precision RNAV (P-RNAV) in Europe on some procedural
charts, airworthiness and operational material.

3.2.2.1 Scope
3.2.2.1.1 Operational Area
RNAV 2 & RNAV 1 procedures can be operated in continental and terminal
Figure19: areas (refer to Figure19). These procedures are mainly used for terminal area
Area of Operations (initial/intermediate/missed approach and departure), for SID and STAR, also
for RNAV 2 & RNAV 1 known as RNAV SID and RNAV STAR.

The RNAV 1 procedure is the minimum required accuracy on most of terminal


environment.

For example, refer to the French AIC A 28/15 Section 2.


Pursuant to the 20 of October 2015 decree3, aircraft to and from Paris-Charles
de Gaulle, Paris-Orly and Paris-Le Bourget shall be fitted with a functioning
on-board area navigation equipment which complies with navigation specification
RNAV 1 as defined in ICAO document n 9613:
from 10 of November 2016 for Paris-Charles de Gaulle (LFPG) and Paris-Orly
(LFPO) aerodromes,
from 8 of November 2018 for Paris-Le Bourget (LFPB) aerodrome.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 031

Refer also to Chinese AIP ENR 3.3-41 M503.


Operators shall not file flight plans for operations on M503 unless they have
obtained the airworthiness and the operational approval of RNAV2 based on
GNSS navigation for the aircraft. Operators shall ensure that the on-board
equipment, personnel qualification and operational procedures abide by the
operational requirements of the route.

Figure20 illustrates also a RNAV 1 chart of LFMN RNAV SID on runway 22L/R.

     


   

 
   
     RNAV1
 
   


  
   


 
GNSS
 
ou/or DME/DME*
  
   


  
 *(IRU requis/required)
 



    








  


  







 





    

 

 

 

  

 





    










 
 


 




 





  


 



 














  



  




 

 
   




 
 
 


 

 
  

 




 

 
    


 
  







  


 




 



 
   

 
 
 
  

 





  



 

 


    



  
 
 
    
 



 


    




 



 








 



  















  
















 
  


    


 
  
 
 




    
   

 

   

  
  




   



   



 
 

















  
  
 

 



    
       


Figure20:   

NOT FOR OPERATIONAL USE


Example of RNAV 1 Chart

3.2.2.1.2 Benefits
RNAV 1 & RNAV 2 operations were initially deployed to accommodate terminal
area procedures in smaller airspace.
RNAV 1 is also an intermediate step towards the RNP procedure in terminal area.

3.2.2.1.3 Design Criteria for IFR Procedure


The ICAO Procedures for Air Navigation Services Aircraft Operations (PANS-
OPS) (Doc 8168) defines the lateral and vertical specifications for the construction
of RNAV operations.

Any obstacle or other routes must not enter a corridor of [2 x 1 (or 2) NM] +
[a buffer zone] on each side of the flight path.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 032

3.2.2.2 Aircraft
RNAV 2 / RNAV 1 airworthiness 3.2.2.2.1 Airworthiness Regulations
and operational regulations:
The RNAV 2 and RNAV 1 capability of the aircraft is demonstrated and certified
* JAA TGL 10
on the basis of the compliance demonstration with the airworthiness regulations.
* FAA AC 90-100A
The RNAV 2 and RNAV 1 airworthiness approval relies on the compliance with
the airworthiness section of the following guidance materials:
JAA TGL10 (revision 1) AIRWORTHINESS AND OPERATIONAL APPROVAL
FOR PRECISION RNAV OPERATIONS IN DESIGNATED EUROPEAN AIRSPACE.
The airworthiness criteria are detailed in sections 6 to 9 that reply to the following
items:
Note: System performance.
_ Aircraft configuration, acceptable installations.
TGL10 is focused on P-RNAV
(RNAV 1). Aircraft manuals.

FAA AC 90-100 (revision A or subsequent revisions) U.S. Terminal and En Route


Area Navigation (RNAV) Operations. The system performance/standard and
certification actions are detailed in Sections 7 and 8, and Appendixes 1 and 2.

The airworthiness compliance of the aircraft with RNAV5 requirements is declared


in the AFM part LIMITATIONS / 22 AUTOFLIGHT SYSTEM / Flight Management
System / Airworthiness Standards Compliance.
Figure21:
RNAV 1 & RNAV 2 The example below shows a possible extract of the AFM. This example is for
Description in AFM information only. The content depends on individual aircraft configuration.

Note: 3.2.2.2.2 Required Systems


_
Optional requirements can be added As per requirements, the aircraft must be equipped with one RNAV system.
by NAA, such as GNSS requirement. RNAV 2 and RNAV 1 can be operated with GNSS/IRS hybridization or IRS/VOR/
DME or IRS/DME/DME.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 033

The minimum equipment configuration requested to initiate the procedure is


provided in the special operations section (i.e. FCOM-PRO-SPO) of the FCOM.
This list should be taken into account in MEL for dispatch conditions.

Figure22: The example below shows a possible extract of the FCOM. This example is for
RNAV 1 & RNAV 2 Description in FCOM information only. The content depends on individual aircraft configuration.

3.2.2.2.3 Navigation Performance Requirements


Note: According to the design criteria (RNP value equal to 1 or 2NM), the aircraft lateral
_ performance must be less or equal to:
The aircraft lateral performance is also 1 NM for RNAV 1 operations.
referred to as Estimated Position Un-
2 NM for RNAV 2 operations.
certainty (EPU, refer to Section 4.1.4).
3.2.2.2.4 Additional Requirements
As per RNAV operations definition compared to RNP operations, RNAV 2 and
RNAV 1 do not require an OBPMA. The performance monitoring is ensured
by ground ATC monitoring. However, the Airbus aircraft are equipped with a
monitoring function; therefore the RNAV procedure is operated and monitored
as an RNP procedure.

3.2.2.2.5 Airbus Aircraft Eligibility


All Airbus aircraft are eligible for RNAV 2 and RNAV 1 operations.

3.2.2.3 Operator
3.2.2.3.1 Operational Regulations
The operational regulation dedicated to RNAV 2 / RNAV 1 is defined in the
operational section of the following guidance materials:
JAA TGL10 (revision 1) AIRWORTHINESS AND OPERATIONAL APPROVAL
FOR PRECISION RNAV OPERATIONS IN DESIGNATED EUROPEAN AIRSPACE
in Section 10.
FAA AC 90-100 (revision A or subsequent revisions) U.S. Terminal and En
Route Area Navigation (RNAV) Operations in Section 9 and Appendix 1.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 034

The NAA may require an operational approval. But the Operators are not required
to obtain an FAA operation approval. To obtain an operational approval from
NAA, the Operator should submit an application that includes the following items:
Aircraft capability for RNAV 2/ RNAV 1: The statement of aircraft compliance
with airworthiness regulations is provided in AFM (refer to Section 3.2.2.2.1).
Minimum equipment configuration: The minimum equipment configuration
requested to initiate the procedure is provided in the special operations section
of the FCOM. This configuration must also be taken into account in MEL for
dispatch conditions. There is no specific maintenance program to keep RNAV1
and RNAV 2 capability.
Operational procedures and training program: The Operator defines
operational procedure that includes normal operations and contingency pro-
cedures. These procedures can be based on description in special operations
section of the FCOM.
The Operator must define an appropriate training program of the flight crews
and ground Operators (dispatcher/maintenance) for the RNAV operations.
The training of the flight crew is based on the knowledge of RNAV 1/RNAV 2
operations and requirements, the FCOM content (normal/abnormal and con-
tingency procedures) and a presentation of the route charts.
Operating manuals and checklists: The Operator updates OMs to include
RNAV operations. The checklists can be based on the FCOM definitions.
Validation program for the NDB: The Operator describes the quality insur-
ance process (compliance DO-200A/ ED-76) and a program of continuous
verification of NDB for each AIRAC cycle.

In the scope of the operational approval application, NAA may request the
compliance of some equipment with the applicable TSO standards. Airbus
demonstrates the compliance of the aircraft architecture, which includes
equipment configuration, with the EASA and FAA regulations. This demon-
stration at aircraft level includes the requirements at equipment level.

EASA AIR OPERATIONS section SPA.PBN.105 defines also general guidelines


to obtain operational approval based on airworthiness approval, relevant flight
crew training and availability of the operating procedures.

3.2.2.3.2 Operational Procedure


The MEL should be updated in accordance with RNAV 1 or RNAV 2 operations,
on the basis of the minimum configuration defined in the special operations
Note: section (i.e. FCOM-PRO-SPO) of the FCOM, and the MMEL.
_
Several alternate rules may still re- For the preflight phase, the Operator performs all of the following:
main. In Europe, some NAA intended
Check NOTAMs (NAVAIDs availability, impact on procedure) and/or GNSS
to indicate P in item 10. The ICAO
availability (refer to Section 4.1.3.1)
DOC 7030 also uses Z in item 10a
and NAV/EURPRNAV in item 18 of Check the NDB validity (according to AIRAC cycle).
the flight plan. The Operators should Insert RNAV 2 and RNAV 1 capability in the ATS flight plan in accordance
refer to the NAA AIP. with ICAO or NAA recommendations (refer to Annex E):
Insert the letter R in the first part of ITEM 10. The letter Z can also be added
to highlight that a complement on PBN capability is added in ITEM 18.
Insert the letter PBN/C1 in ITEM 18 for RNAV 2.
Insert the letter PBN/D1 in ITEM 18 for RNAV 1.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 035

Notes:
_
3.2.3 RNP 1
Basic prefix was initially added RNP 1 operations are referred to as Basic-RNP 1 or B-RNP 1 on some proce-
because of an Advanced RNP 1 dural charts, airworthiness and operational material.
that finally evolved in RNP 1 with
RF leg (part of A-RNP) refer to 3.2.3.1 Scope
Section 3.4.1.
3.2.3.1.1 Operational Area
RNP 1 is the minimum required ac- RNP 1 procedure can be operated in continental and terminal airspace (refer to
curacy on most of bigger terminal Figure23). This procedure is mainly used for terminal airspace (initial/intermediate/
environment. missed approach and departure), for SID and STAR, also known as RNAV SID
and RNAV STAR with RNP 1 capability.

Figure23:
Area of Operations for RNP 1

For example, refer to the AIP Honk Kong GEN 1.5 Section 3.5.2.1:
Any aircraft arriving or departing HKIA other than those exempted categories
of flights as specified in para 3.5.2.4 shall be equipped with appropriate sys-
tems and approved by the regulatory authority of the State of Registry/State
of the Operator in accordance with ICAO RNP 1 standard for the conduct of
RNP 1 SID and STAR. Carriage of a certified GNSS receiver is mandatory.

3.2.3.1.2 Benefits
Within a low to medium density traffic area, the RNP 1 routes connect the terminal
airspace to the en-route structure with a limited ATS surveillance.
The RNP 1 is based on GNSS. This navigation specification mainly applies for
environments where the DME infrastructures cannot support DME/DME area
navigation at the required performance level.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 036

Figure24 also illustrates a RNP 1 chart on Hong Kong VHHH airport SID
on runway 07R/L.

Figure24:
Example of RNP 1 Chart NOT FOR OPERATIONAL USE

3.2.3.1.3 Design Criteria for IFR Procedure


The ICAO Procedures for Air Navigation Services - Aircraft Operations (PANS-
OPS) (Doc 8168) defines the lateral and vertical specifications for the construction
of RNP operations.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 037

Any obstacle or other routes must not enter a corridor of [2 x 1 NM] + [a buffer
zone] on each side of the flight path.

3.2.3.2 Aircraft
RNP1 airworthiness and 3.2.3.2.1 Airworthiness Regulations
operational regulations:
The RNP 1 capability of the aircraft is demonstrated and certified on the basis
* FAA AC 90-105
of the compliance demonstration with the airworthiness regulations.

The RNP 1 airworthiness approval relies on the compliance with the airworthiness
section of the FAA AC 90-105 (or subsequent revisions) Approval Guidance for
RNP Operations and Barometric Vertical Navigation in the U.S. National Airspace
System in appendix 2 that replies to the following items:
Note:
_ System performance.
An acceptable alternate means of Aircraft configuration and acceptable installations.
compliance for aircraft equipped Aircraft manuals and MMEL.
with FMS 1 standard is the FAA AC
90-100 completed by aircraft archi-
There is no EASA applicable regulation.
tecture with GNSS equipment and
an OBPMA.
The airworthiness compliance of the aircraft with RNP 1 requirements is declared
in the AFM part LIMITATIONS / 22 AUTOFLIGHT SYSTEM / Flight Management
System / Airworthiness Standards Compliance.

Figure25: The example below shows a possible extract of the AFM. This example is for
RNP 1 Description in AFM information only. The content depends on individual aircraft configuration.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 038

Note: 3.2.3.2.2 Required Systems


_
As per requirements, the aircraft must be equipped with one RNAV system.
RNP 1 is operated with GNSS/IRS
hybridization on Airbus aircraft.
The minimum equipment configuration requested to initiate the procedure is
provided in the special operations section (i.e. FCOM-PRO-SPO) of the FCOM.
This list should be taken into account in MEL for dispatch conditions.

Figure26: The example below shows a possible extract of the FCOM. This example is for
RNP 1 Description in FCOM information only. The content depends on individual aircraft configuration.

Note:
3.2.3.2.3 Navigation Performance Requirements
_
The aircraft lateral performance is also According to the design criteria (RNP value equal to 1 NM), the aircraft lateral
referred to as Estimated Position Un- performance must be less or equal to 1 NM.
certainty (EPU, refer to Section 4.1.4).
3.2.3.2.4 Additional Requirements
GNSS position is required and monitored with GPS PRIMARY function (or NAV
PRIMARY on A350) and NAV ACCURACY functions on ND and MCDU/MFD
(refer to Section 4.1.3).

3.2.3.2.5 Airbus Aircraft Eligibility


All Airbus aircraft are eligible for RNP 1 operations when fitted with FMS2 and
MMR (or GPSSU).
Aircraft fitted with FMS 1 can be eligible for RNP 1 if also fitted with GNSS
equipment and an OBPMA. In this case a demonstration of compliance with the
FAA AC 90-100 (RNAV 1) mitigated by the aircraft architecture can be accepted
by NAA.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 039

3.2.3.3 Operator
3.2.3.3.1 Operational Regulations
The operational regulation dedicated to RNP 1 is defined in the operational
sections 8, 7 and appendix 2 of FAA AC 90-105 (or subsequent revisions).

The NAA may require an operational approval. To obtain an operational approval from
NAA, the Operator should submit an application that includes the following items:
Aircraft capability for RNP 1: The statement of aircraft compliance with
airworthiness regulations is provided in AFM (refer to Section 3.2.3.2.1).
Minimum equipment configuration: The minimum equipment configuration
requested to initiate the procedure is provided in the special operations section of
the FCOM. This configuration must also be taken into account in MEL for dispatch
conditions. There is no specific maintenance program to keep RNP1 capability.
Operational procedures and training program: The Operator defines
operational procedure that includes normal operations and contingency pro-
cedures. These procedures can be based on description in special operations
section of the FCOM.
The Operator must define an appropriate training program of the flight crews
and ground Operators (dispatcher/maintenance) for the RNP operations. The
training program can be common with other RNP or RNAV modules.
The training of the flight crew is based on the knowledge of RNP 1 operations
and requirements, the FCOM content (normal/abnormal and contingency
procedures) and a presentation of the route charts.
Operating manuals and checklists: The Operator updates OMs to include
RNP operations. The checklists can be based on the FCOM definitions.
Validation program for the NDB: The Operator describes the quality insur-
ance process (compliance DO-200A/ ED-76) and a program of continuous
verification of NDB for each AIRAC cycle.

In the scope of the operational approval application, NAA may request the
compliance of some equipment with the applicable TSO standards. Airbus
demonstrates the compliance of the aircraft architecture, which includes
equipment configuration, with the EASA and FAA regulations. This demon-
stration at aircraft level includes the requirements at equipment level.

EASA AIR OPERATIONS section SPA.PBN.105 defines also general guidelines


to obtain operational approval based on airworthiness approval, relevant flight
crew training and availability of the operating procedures.

3.2.3.3.2 Operational Procedure


The MEL should be updated in accordance with RNP 1 operations, on the
basis of the minimum configuration defined in the special operations section (i.e.
FCOM-PRO-SPO) of the FCOM, and the MMEL.

For the preflight phase, the Operator performs all of the following:
Check NOTAMs (impact on procedure) and GNSS availability (refer to
Section 4.1.3.1)
Check the NDB validity (according AIRAC cycle).
Insert RNP 1 capability in the ATS flight plan in accordance with ICAO or NAA
recommendations (refer to Annex E):
Insert the letter G in the first part of ITEM 10 for GNSS.
Insert the letter R in the first part of ITEM 10. The letter Z can also be added
to highlight that a complement on PBN capability is added in ITEM 18.
Insert the letter PBN/O1 in ITEM 18 for RNP 1.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 040

3.3 APPROACH
_

3.3.1 RNP APCH


RNAV (GNSS) or RNAV (GPS) designations are used on approach charts (for
example, RNAV (GNSS) Y 32L).

The procedure is identified as RNAV in the cockpit, and abbreviated as RNV on


the FMS page dedicated to approach selection.

The Airbus operational documentation uses RNAV (GNSS) designation, in order


to keep a consistency between the FMS interface and the charts used by the
flight crew.

The navigation specification of the ICAO PBN manual now uses RNP APCH
designation to describe all these operations.

In 2015, ICAO published the Circular 336, which recommends to replace RNAV
(GNSS) by RNP on approach charts (for example, RNP Y 32L).

In addition, the following minima can apply (refer to figure 28):


Note: LNAV, for procedure with no vertical guidance requirement, refer to Section
_ 3.3.1.1.
The approaches with LNAV/VNAV
minima can be referred to as RNP LNAV/VNAV, for procedure with requirements on vertical guidance along a
APCH with BaroVNAV, or with APV defined profile based on barometric altitude, refer to Section 3.3.1.1.
with BaroVNAV. LP or LPV, refer to Section 3.3.1.2.

3.3.1.1 RNP APCH with LNAV/VNAV or LNAV minima


3.3.1.1.1 Scope
3.3.1.1.1.1 Operational Area
The RNP APCH operations are used from IAF to end of missed approach.
Approach selection in the FMS consists of 2 elements:
Figure27: Approach transition from IAF to Final approach (for example VIA SULIT).
Operational area for RNP APCH Final approach (for example RNV 32L-Y).
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 041

  


 For example, refer to the French AIP ENR 1.5.5.1:
To follow a RNAV approach procedure (GNSS) (initial, intermediate, final
    and

    
 missed approach), the aircraft must be equipped with a RNAV system (GNSS)
certified in compliance with the RNP specification (APCH) of the Manual
    of 
the navigation based on performances (PBN) of the ICAO (Doc 9613).
 
 


   
 
   
           
      
    
                     

Figure28 also illustrates a RNP APCH chart of airport Approach in Paris-
                   
             
Le Bourget (LFPG) on runway 08L.
          


 ICAO PBN Approach Name

      
     
  Navigation specification
     
 

     

         
    
   

        




        



    
   
 
     

 
        
      
 

 
  

 
    


  

 

   
 
   
          


     

     
    
                    


   
 
   
         
  

   
 
   
           
                   



         
 
   
  
 
 
            
     

          
       
   
   
    
  

                 
                         

            
        
              

      
      


     
  

 
         
        



       



  
         
 
   
   




      
     
 
 

     



    


  







  


      
      
       

  

     
  

          
     

  




  


      
 



       





  

       
   
 
 
    

 






   
       
 

       




 



       


    
 

 


 

 


     


   
 



 
    
 
  

  
 


        
 



       
       
         
 
 
            

     


 
 
  

   


  
 

 



   



 

    






 
  
  
         
    




 
 
 
 
            


    
            


     


 



 


 

  
          
 



 


 




             

     
   

 

              


 



  
     
            
 


 
   
     
 
  

    


        

       
  
 

    

    
     



  



 


  

     


   
  

    

 

 

       
     
  

 
 




 

 
 



  
   
  
  
  
     
  
   
    
  
     
  

 
 

 
   
  
 


    
 
 


    


  
       
             

 
    

     
       
         
 
 
 
      
               
   
    
          

Figure28:
    
 
     
   
 Example  
of RNP APCH Chart       
         
    
    


         
 
   
on
 LFPG Airport  
      
  

    
  
    LNAV       
 

  

  LNAV/VNAV Minima


    
    
 






             
    
  
  
  
  
             


Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 042

3.3.1.1.1.2 Benefits
RNP APCH provides an operational solution for the airport runways which are
not equipped with precision approach systems, or as backup service in the case
of inoperative precision approach systems (i.e. failure, maintenance or snow
conditions).
The vertical guidance (LNAV/VNAV minima) further improves the safety of the
operations.

The procedure for RNP APCH with LNAV/VNAV minima enables decision height
as low as 250 ft depending on obstacle clearance.

3.3.1.1.1.3 Design Criteria for IFR Procedure


The ICAO Procedures for Air Navigation Services Aircraft Operations (PANS-
OPS) (Doc 8168) defines the lateral and vertical specifications for the construction
of RNP APCH operations.

As illustrated on Figure26, RNP APCH procedure design considers the following


requirements:
During the initial, intermediate and missed approach, the protection area around
the flight path corresponds to the RNP 1 criteria.
After the FAP (or FAF):
The final leg is straight.
If the approach is flown to LNAV minima, the vertical obstacle clearance is
ensured by crossing altitude on specified fixes, as illustrated on Figure29.

Figure29:
Example of Vertical Design Procedure
for RNP APCH with LNAV Minima

If the approach is flown to LNAV/VNAV minima, the vertical obstacle clearance
is ensured by maximum vertical deviation to the flight path (Obstacle Clearance
Surface (OCS)), as illustrated on Figure30.

Figure30:
Example of Vertical Design Procedure
for RNP APCH with LNAV/VNAV Minima
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 043

3.3.1.1.2 Aircraft
RNP APCH with LNAV/VNAV
3.3.1.1.2.1 Airworthiness Regulations
or LNAV airworthiness and
operational regulations: The RNP APCH capability of the aircraft is demonstrated and certified on the
* EASA AMC 20-27 basis of the compliance demonstration with the airworthiness regulations.
* FAA AC 90-105
The RNP APCH airworthiness approval relies on the compliance with the airwor-
thiness section of the following guidance materials:
EASA AMC 20-27 (or subsequent revisions) Airworthiness Approval and
Operational Criteria for RNP APPROACH (RNP APCH) Operations Including APV
BAROVNAV Operations in sections 6 to 8 that reply to the following items:
System performance.
Aircraft configuration and acceptable installations.
Aircraft manuals and MMEL.

FAA AC 90-105 (or subsequent revisions) Approval Guidance for RNP


Operations and Barometric Vertical Navigation in the U.S. National Airspace
System in Appendix 2.

The airworthiness compliance of the aircraft with RNP APCH requirements is


declared in the AFM part LIMITATIONS / 22 AUTOFLIGHT SYSTEM / Flight
Management System / Airworthiness Standards Compliance.

Figure31: The example below shows a possible extract of the AFM. This example is for
RNP APCH Description in AFM information only. The content depends on individual aircraft configuration.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 044

3.3.1.1.2.2 Required Systems


As per requirements, the aircraft must be fitted with one RNAV system that
uses GNSS.

The minimum equipment configuration requested to initiate the procedure is


provided in the special operations section (i.e. FCOM-PRO-SPO) of the FCOM.
This list should be taken into account in MEL for dispatch conditions.

Figure32: The example below shows a possible extract of the FCOM. This example is for
RNP APCH Description in FCOM information only. The content depends on individual aircraft configuration.

Notes: 3.3.1.1.2.3 Navigation Performance Requirements


_
Approach mode using angular de- According to the design criteria (RNP value for RNP APCH operations), the aircraft
viation such as FLS can be used. lateral performance must be less or equal to :
The monitoring of the lateral devi- 0,3 NM in straight final approach segment.
ation is detailed in Section 4.3.4.
1 NM in initial, intermediate and missed approach segment.

The aircraft lateral performance is If the approach is flown to LNAV/VNAV minima, the vertical deviation in straight
also referred to as Estimated Po- final approach must be less than 75 ft below the vertical flight path.
sition Uncertainty (EPU, refer to
Section 4.1.4). 3.3.1.1.2.4 Additional Requirements
RNP APCH operations monitoring is ensured by the following items:
The GPS PRIMARY function (or NAV PRIMARY on A350) to monitor the required
GNSS position (refer to Section 4.1.3).
The display of the lateral deviation.
The display of vertical deviation for LNAV/VNAV minima.

3.3.1.1.2.5 Airbus Aircraft Eligibility


All A320/A330/A340/A350/A380 Airbus aircraft are eligible for RNP APCH with
LNAV/VNAV operations when fitted with MMR (or GPSSU).

A300/A310 Airbus aircraft are eligible for RNP APCH with LNAV when fitted with
MMR (or GPSSU).
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 045

3.3.1.1.3 Operator
3.3.1.1.3.1 Operational Regulations
The operational regulation dedicated to RNP APCH is defined in the operational
section of the following guidance materials:
EASA AMC 20-27 (or subsequent revisions) Airworthiness Approval and
Operational Criteria for RNP APPROACH (RNP APCH) Operations Including
APV BARO VNAV Operations in Section 10.
FAA AC 90-105 (or subsequent revisions) Approval Guidance for RNP
Operations and Barometric Vertical Navigation in the U.S. National Airspace
System in Section 9 and Appendix 1 Section 6.

The NAA may require an operational approval. To obtain an operational approval from
NAA, the Operator should submit an application that includes the following items:

Aircraft capability for RNP APCH with LNAV/VNAV or LNAV: The statement
of aircraft compliance with airworthiness regulations is provided in AFM (refer
to Section 3.3.1.1.2.1).
Minimum equipment configuration: The minimum equipment configuration
requested to initiate the procedure is provided in the special operations sec-
tion of the FCOM. This configuration must also be taken into account in MEL
for dispatch conditions. There is no specific maintenance program to keep
RNPAPCH capability.
Operational procedures and training program: The Operator defines operational
procedure that includes normal operations and contingency procedures. These
procedures can be based on description in special operations section of the FCOM.
The Operator define an appropriate training program of the flight crews and
ground Operators (dispatcher/maintenance) for the RNP APCH operation.
The generic training of the flight crew is necessary based on the following items:
The knowledge of RNP APCH operations and requirements with an highlight
on the approach charts and the related aircraft design.
 he normal/abnormal and contingency procedures defined in the FCOM.
T
In addition, a recurrent training may be required.
Operating manuals and checklists: The Operator updates OMs to include
RNP APCH operations. The checklists can be based on the FCOM definitions.
Bullet Validation program for the NDB: The Operator describes the quality
insurance process (compliance DO-200A/ ED-76 and LOA type 2) to update
the NDB for each AIRAC cycle.

 ASA AIR OPERATIONS section SPA.PBN.105 defines the general guidelines


E
to obtain operational approval. It is based on the airworthiness approval, an
appropriate flight crew training, and the availability of the operating procedures.

In the scope of the operational approval application, NAA may request the
compliance of some equipment with the applicable TSO standards. Airbus
demonstrates the compliance of the aircraft architecture, which includes
equipment configuration, with the EASA and FAA regulations. This demon-
stration at aircraft level includes the requirements at equipment level.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 046

3.3.1.1.3.2 Operational Procedure


The MEL should be updated in accordance with RNP APCH operations, on the
basis of the minimum configuration defined in the special operations section (i.e.
FCOM-PRO-SPO) of the FCOM and MMEL.

For the preflight phase, the Operator performs all of the following:
Check NOTAMs (impact on procedure) and GNSS availability (refer to Section
4.1.3.1).
Check the NDB validity (according AIRAC cycle).
Flight crew ensures sufficient means are available to navigate and land at the
destination or at an alternate aerodrome in the case of loss of RNP APCH
airborne capability.
In particular, the pilot checks that:
A non RNP APCH procedure is available at the alternate, where a
destination alternate is required.
At least one non RNP APCH procedure is available at the destination
aerodrome, where a destination alternate is not required.
Insert RNP APCH capability in the ATS flight plan in accordance with ICAO
or NAA recommendations (refer to Annex E):
Insert the letter G in the first part of ITEM 10 for GNSS.
Insert the letter R in the first part of ITEM 10. The letter Z can also be added
to highlight that a complement on PBN capability is added in ITEM 18.
Insert the letter PBN/S1 in ITEM 18 for RNP APCH with LNAV.
Insert the letter PBN/S2 in ITEM 18 for RNP APCH with LNAV/VNAV.

3.3.1.2 RNP APCH with LPV (or LP) minima


Section 3.3.1.1 details the different designations in charts, cockpit interfaces,
aircraft documentation and PBN navigation specification RNP APCH with LPV
(or LP) minima.
Note:
3.3.1.2.1 Scope
_
SBAS coverage is limited. for exam- 3.3.1.2.1.1 Operational Area
ple, SBAS is supported by WAAS
constellation for North America, and RNP APCH procedure can be operated down to Localizer Performance with
EGNOS constellation for Europe (re- Vertical guidance (LPV) (or Localizer Performance (LP)) minima using Satellite-
fer to Section 4.2.2.1.2). SBAS is Based Augmentation System (SBAS).
composed of geostationary satellites The SBAS technology provides a geometric reference for the vertical guidance
and ground stations spread over the definition: The augmented GNSS altitude is used instead of the barometric
territories. This ground network ena- altitude (refer to Section 4.2.2.1.2 for additional details on the technology and
bles defining differential GNSS data. the Airbus solution).

The operational area is the same as RN P APCH with LNAV or LNAV/VNAV


minima (refer to Figure27 of Section 3.3.1.1.1.1).
    

    Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 047
 


   
 
   
         
      
    
                    
                   
            

For example,        


refer to the French AIP Paris LFPG airport Approach on runway


 08L on Figure33.   
      
      
      

ICAO PBN Approach Name


LPV Chanel
       
  Navigation specification

        

      
 
    

        
 
 


 
 

    
   
    
   






        

    

   
 
   
 
 
 
 
   

     

    
      
 
 
     
  
   
 
   
          

   

   
 
   
           
      
    
                    

   
 
   
         
                   
  


  
            
      
    
         
      
    
          
      

   
 
   
                
       

                   
                 
      
    
                   
                     

 
 
                    
             
 
 

            
      
      

     
 
  


                 

        

        
 
       
 


 



    
 
      
     
  
     



 
     

 


      
    


  
 




     



      
    
        
 

     
  


       
       

  
     
  




    



         
     



        



   
 

        
  
     

   
 
 

 



    



 
    





  

   


     
 


 

    




 
   
    

     

  


    






  

     

    
  



     

 
  
             

    



      
       

       
      



   

  
 

     
 
 




 



      




 
       
 


  



     
 

         
    
 


     
      
 



      


 
  

 
        
     


 



  






   

 
    



  


 



 
     
   
   
   
   
     

  
 
 
 
   
            


   



 
            


          



   
   
     
 LPV   
 
Minima



 


    

 



   
       
          





 
   


 


        
 

 


 

    

 
  

 

   
     
  
  






 

  


       


 

       
 









 
      
 

       
   

 

    
     
     
        
  
   
 

 
   
         

 
 
 


 

   
    
         
     
   
     


    
         
         



 




 

  
 

   


   

         




Figure33:        
  
  
 

     
  
  
    
  Example
 
of Chart for 
   
 


 
  


 
 
  
 
  


RNP APCH with LPV
  Minima  
    
     
       
    

           

         

  


  
 

    
    

  

 
 

  






  

           


    
  


            
   
 

 3.3.1.2.1.2.
 Benefits

    
      
            
 

             

   LPV 
             
  RNP APCH with  minima is charted as non-precision
  
     


approach, but enables
 

 similar minima as ILS
CAT I operations. RNP APCH with LPV minima enables
  
     
 decisionheight 
as low as200 ft depending 
on obstacle clearance 
(LPV 200).
 
        



       
 
        

  


 
       
   

  
   


     




   
  



 
   
    
  

  
 


 
    
  

  
   
  
 


  


  
 
  

 







     
    





 
    



   

 

 
    
 
  


  
   
        
 
    
 
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 048

3.3.1.2.1.3 Design Criteria for IFR Procedure


The ICAO Procedures for Air Navigation Services Aircraft Operations (PANS-
OPS) (Doc 8168) defines the lateral and vertical specifications for the construction
of RNP APCH operations with SBAS.

The design criteria for the RNP APCH with LPV (or LP) minima are equivalent
to RNP APCH with LNAV/VNAV minima except on the final leg that considers
an angular segment before the runway threshold. Vertical requirements are also
angular in the final leg segment.

RNP APCH with LPV airworthi- 3.3.1.2.2 Aircraft


ness and operational
3.3.1.2.2.1 Airworthiness Regulations
regulations:
The RNP APCH with LPV (or LP) capability of the aircraft is demonstrated on
* EASA AMC 20-28 the basis of the demonstration of compliance with the airworthiness regulations.
* FAA AC 90-107
The airworthiness approval of RNP APCH with LPV (or LP) minima relies on the
compliance with the airworthiness section of the following guidance materials:
EASA AMC 20-28 (or subsequent revisions) Airworthiness Approval and
Operational Criteria related to Area Navigation for Global Navigation Satellite
System approach operation to Localizer Performance with Vertical guidance
minima using Satellite Based Augmentation System in Sections 6 to 8 that
reply to the following items:
System performance.
Aircraft configuration and acceptable installations.
Aircraft manuals and MMEL.
FAA AC 90-107 (or subsequent revisions) Guidance for Localizer Performance
with Vertical Guidance and Localizer Performance without Vertical Guidance
Approach Operations in the U.S. National Airspace System in Section 10.

Figure34: The airworthiness compliance of the aircraft with RNP APCH with LPV (or LP)
RNP APCH with LPV minima requirements is declared in the AFM part LIMITATIONS / 22 AUTOFLIGHT
(or LP) Minima Description in AFM SYSTEM / Flight Management System / Airworthiness Standards Compliance.

The example below shows a possible extract of the AFM. This example is for
information only. The content depends on individual aircraft configuration.

3.3.1.2.2.2 Required Systems


As per requirements, the aircraft must be equipped with:
One RNAV system that uses GNSS.
SBAS capability. The lateral and vertical guidance is based on the differential
GNSS altitude and SBAS parameters.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 049

The minimum equipment configuration requested to initiate the procedure is


provided in the special operations section (i.e. FCOM-PRO-SPO) of the FCOM.
This list should be taken into account in MEL for dispatch conditions.
Figure35:
RNP APCH with LPV (or LP) The example above shows a possible extract of the FCOM. This example is for
Minima Description in FCOM information only. The content depends on individual aircraft configuration.

Note: 3.3.1.2.2.3 Navigation Performance Requirements


_
The aircraft lateral performance is also According to the design criteria (RNP value for RNP APCH operations), the aircraft
referred to as Estimated Position Un- lateral performance must be :
certainty (EPU, refer to Section 4.1.4). Equivalent to the requirements for ILS CAT I operations in straight final approach
segment.
Less or equal to 1 NM in initial, intermediate and missed approach segment.

3.3.1.2.2.4 Additional Requirements


For initial, intermediate and missed approach segment, RNP APCH operations
monitoring is ensured by the following items:
The GPS PRIMARY function (NAV PRIMARY on A350).
The display of the lateral deviation (XTK on ND).

In final approach segment, the flight crew uses angular flight guidance as for
ILS CAT I operations: The availability of the deviations (LOC and G/S) ensures
the integrity of the signal.

3.3.1.2.2.5 Airbus Aircraft Eligibility


Airbus aircraft are eligible for RNP APCH with LPV (or LP) minima when fitted
with optional modification for SLS function activation (available for A350 aircraft).

3.3.1.2.3 Operator
3.3.1.2.3.1 Operational Regulations
The operational regulation dedicated to RNP APCH with LPV minima is defined
in the operational section of the following guidance materials:
EASA AMC 20-28 (or subsequent revisions) Airworthiness Approval and Operational
Criteria related to Area Navigation for Global Navigation Satellite System approach
operation to Localizer Performance with Vertical guidance minima using Satellite
Based Augmentation System in Sections 9 & 10, Appendix 1 to 3.
FAA AC 90-107 (or subsequent revisions) Guidance for Localizer Performance
with Vertical Guidance and Localizer Performance without Vertical Guidance
Approach Operations in the U.S. National Airspace System in Sections 8 to 10.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 050

The NAA may require an operational approval. To obtain an operational approval from
NAA, the Operator should submit an application that includes the following items:
Aircraft capability for RNP APCH with LPV (or LP) minima: The statement
of aircraft compliance with airworthiness regulations is provided in AFM (refer
to Section 3.3.1.2.2.1).
Minimum equipment configuration: The minimum equipment configuration
requested to initiate the procedure is provided in the special operations sec-
tion of the FCOM. This configuration must also be taken into account in MEL
for dispatch conditions. There is no specific maintenance program to keep
RNP APCH capability.
Operational procedures and training program: The Operator defines
operational procedure that includes normal operations and contingency pro-
cedures. These procedures can be based on description in special operations
section of the FCOM.
The Operator defines an appropriate training program of the flight crews and
ground operators (dispatcher/maintenance) for the RNP with LPV (or LP)
operations.
The generic training of the flight crew is based on the following items:
The knowledge of RNP APCH operations and requirements with an highlight
on the approach charts, the related aircraft design on SBAS.
The normal/abnormal and contingency procedures defined in the FCOM.
In addition, a recurrent training may be required.
The training program is part of the operational approval dossier.
Operating manuals and checklists: The Operator updates OMs to include
RNP with LPV (or LP) operations. The checklists can be based on the FCOM
definitions.
Validation program for the NDB: The Operator describes the quality insurance
process (compliance DO-200A/ ED-76) to update the NDB for each AIRAC
cycle.

EASA AIR OPERATIONS section SPA.PBN.105 defines also general guidelines


to obtain operational approval based on airworthiness approval, relevant flight
crew training and availability of the operating procedures.

In the scope of the operational approval application, NAA may request the
compliance of some equipment with the applicable TSO standards. Airbus
demonstrates the compliance of the aircraft architecture, which includes
equipment configuration, with the EASA and FAA regulations. This demon-
stration at aircraft level includes the requirements at equipment level.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 051

3.3.1.2.3.2 Operational Procedure


The MEL should be updated in accordance with RNP APCH with LPV (or LP)
minima operations, on the basis of the minimum configuration defined in the
special operations section (i.e. FCOM-PRO-SPO) of the FCOM, and the MMEL.

For the preflight phase, the Operator performs all of the following:
Check NOTAMs (impact on procedure) and GNSS availability (refer to
Section 4.1.3.1).
Check the NDB validity (according AIRAC cycle).
Flight crew ensures sufficient means are available to navigate and land at the
destination or at an alternate aerodrome in the case of loss of RNP APCH
airborne capability.
In particular, the pilot checks that:
 non RNP APCH procedure is available at the alternate, where a des-
A
tination alternate is required.
At least one non RNP APCH procedure is available at the destination
aerodrome, where a destination alternate is not required.
Insert RNP APCH with LPV minima capability in the ATS flight plan in accord-
ance with ICAO or NAA recommendations (refer to Annex E):
Insert the letter G in the first part of ITEM 10 for GNSS.
Insert the letter R in the first part of ITEM 10. The letter Z can also be added
to highlight that a complement on PBN capability is added in ITEM 18.
IInsert the letter PBN/SBAS in ITEM 18 for RNP APCH with LPV minima.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 052

3.3.2 RNP AR
RNP AR stands for Required Navigation Performance procedure with
Authorization Required. This type of instrument operation was previously referred
to as Special Aircraft and Aircrew Authorization Required (SAAAR).

RNAV (RNP), or RNP (AR) designations are used on approach charts


(for example, RNAV (RNP) Y 32L).

The procedure is identified as RNAV (RNP) or RNAV in the cockpit (ND), and
abbreviated as RNV (RNP) or RNV on the FMS page dedicated to approach
selection.

The Airbus operational documentation uses RNAV (RNP) designation, in order


to keep a consistency between the FMS interface and the charts used by the
flight crew.

The navigation specification of the ICAO PBN manual now uses RNP AR APCH
designation to describe this type of operation.

3.3.2.1 Scope
3.3.2.1.1 Operational Area
The RNP AR procedure can be operated in the terminal area (departure and
initial, intermediate, final, or missed approach).
Initially, RNP AR procedure was defined to perform operations where procedure
designers were not able to define some RNAV and RNP procedures with the use
of the conventional rules. This occured mainly in environments where the terrain
Figure36: is difficult. The RNP AR is now also deployed to manage environments where
Area of Operations for RNP AR there is dense traffic, as well as noise and environmental constraints.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 053

The RNP AR procedures can be used in the following examples:


CAT: A 
B CADpproaches with a late turn to manage traffic conflicts between airports that XIAHE - ZLX
CAT: A B C D AD ELEV: 10465', THR ELEV: 10463' (328 hPa) XIAHE - ZLXH
AD ELEV: 10465', THR ELEV: are10463'
not(328
farhPa)
from each other, or that have difficult terrains. Figure37 RNAVillustrates
(RNP) RWY 10
RNAV (RNP) RWY
TWR: 118.600 (130.000) TRANS ALT: 22600' AUTHORIZATION REQUIRED VAR: 1.5W (14) APP 1
TWR: 118.600 (130.000) an RNP AR approachTRANS onALT:
P359 mountainous
22600' terrainP360AUTHORIZATION
of Xiahe airportREQUIRED (ZLXH).
VAR:
For non-baro 1.5W (14)aircraft:
compensated APP 1
ARP: 3449'09"N - 10237'19 IAF

35 20' 00" N
Minimum Temperature:
3449'09"N-25C

175
P359 P360 For non-baro compensated aircraft: ARP: - 10237'19"E
IAF XH600 Max IAF Minimum Temperature: -25C

35 20' 00" N
175 175
XH600 Max 19700 250 kt
IAF XH700 Max

175

50
19700 250 kt XH700 Max
RNP 0.3 13117 19700 250 kt
ZLXH

NM
CAT: A B C D

50
RNP 0.3 13117 19700 250 kt RNP 0.3 XIAHE -

165 7
14397

NM

AR
AD ELEV: 10465', THR ELEV: 10463' (328 hPa)


RNP 0.3 RNAV (RNP) RWY 10

165 7
14397

206
1440

P
00
5.

151 .0

AR

XH698

206

2
1440
181

P
0
166

00
5.

151 .0
TWR: 118.600 (130.000) XH440 XH698TRANS ALT: 22600' AUTHORIZATION REQUIRED VAR: 1.5W (14) APP 1

2
12310

185 1

0
175166

15 6.0 c
P363 XH440

r
XH438

8A
P359 12310 P360 14039 For non-baro compensated aircraft: ARP: 3449'09"N - 10237'19"ETrans. Level : 24600'/7500m

15 6.0 c
P363 IAF IAF

0
r
XH438

35 20' 00" N
Minimum Temperature: -25C

8A

10
IAF XH600 Max 14039
Trans. Level : 24600'/7500m
XH900 Max 249 IAF Trans. Alt QNH

17

0
10

35
XH900 Max 19700
250 kt XH700 Max
XHA90
12
6 17500 250 kt 249 Trans. Alt QNH

NM
979 hPa

35
8 Arc
21700'/6600m

50
12 17500 RNP 0.3 13117 19700 250 kt
18700250 kt X H 5.0

11.8
XHA90 6 RNP 1.0 -> 0.3 14033

NM
NM
979 hPa

8 Arc
RNP 0.3 21700'/6600m 22600'/6900m

AR
11.8

165 7
14397
18700 X H 5.0 RNP 1.0 -> 0.3 14033 A9 1 6 .2

AR
12


22600'/6900m

AR

P
A

206
1440
A9 6 16.2 23600'/7200m 1031 hPa

P
00
5.

151 .0
12 XH698

P
A

2
6

181
6.0 23600'/7200m 1031 hPa

0
166
13563 13790 XH434 XH436
XH440 12310
6.0 XH434 15100

15 6.0 c
P363 XH436 249
50 NM AR13563 13790

r
13938 XH438

8A
14016 14039
S A 4 9 15100 13938
IAF 4.3 XH434 Trans. Level : 24600'/7500m Direction FMC Name

0
P 2
A 5 0 N M AR P

10
M 14016 4.3 XH9001.8 13481
249 XH434 Direction Trans. Alt FMC Name
MS

35 00' 00" N
Max QNH
XH456 13481 249 .6

35
35 N M 1.8 12 6 Arc XH418 Max XH454
35 00' 00" N
17500 250 kt
SAXH456 6AArc XHA90 15600 6 249 .6 2 5 Arc 21700'/6600m 979 hPaGUOLUO STAR XHA5A + via XH

NM
RP

8 Arc
35 N M A RNP 1.0 XH418 Max XH454 15500

11.8
SA R M 15600 18700 X H 5.0 XH454 -> 0.3 14033 15800 230 kt 2 5 GUOLUO STAR XHA5A + via XH500
P 15500 A 22600'/6900m

AR
M A9 15800 230 kt rc 6 .7

XH454 16.2
31 A 15500 12 FAP/VIP 13793 10 P359 via XH600
XH452 6.7 XH414 Max

P
6
1 215500 NM 0 via XH600 1031 hPa
23600'/7200m

6 A .6
FAP/VIP 13793
XH434 10 N
13783 XH414 14800 80 P359
23 6.0 13790 XH406 AR XH452 0 Max
13 14400 230 kt

6 A .6
13563
13783 M XH436 80

rc
1
XH406

6.4 c
13800 4.3 249ARP 15100 13938 P 14800 13 14400 230 kt P360 via XH700

r
13990

rc
1
S A 5 0 N M AR P

5A
17000' 14016

12
via XH700 FMC Name

6.4 c
13800 XH434 P360 Direction

r
M 13990 13481

5A
.5
17000' 1.8

12
13924

35 00' 00" N
12973 249 6 OMBON STAR XHA8A + via XH
16600' SA (1) ARP
XH456

.5
35 N M XH454

6 Arc
13924 6 Arc XH418 MaxXH428 2. XH418 MaxSTAR
GUOLUO STAR + viaXH800
16600' (1) 12973 15600 OMBON XHA8AXHA5A + via XH500

13800
10890 XH418 Max 6.5 Arc

6 Arc
XH428 15500

1.8
M 15800 230 kt
339

XH454 See Missed Approach

13800
10890 15800 P359230 kt

1.8
12809 (427) 7 P363 STAR XHA9A + via XH

32
339

31 15500 FAP/VIP See Missed Approach 8 A10 15800 Max 230 kt via XH600
212809 (427) 10
13793 Chart (APP 3) XH452 XH414 P363 STAR XHA9A + via XH900

32

5 1.0 rcNM A 00

6 A .6
1013773 8A
XH406 13783
14800XH450 38
Chart (APP 3)

5 r c 1 14400 230 kt

rc
1
17500' 13773 1 11.1 R

6.4 c
.0.0
13800 PXH450 P360 via XH700

r
13990
XH422 059 00 8

175 1.9
5A
17500' 17000' 11.1

12
8.0 13793
(1):18100' 12300

13800
175 1.9
.5
XH422 059(1) 0 8 12973 13924 11162 13793
(1):18100' 16600' 12300 5 OMBON STAR XHA8A + via XH800

13800
0 13616

6 Arc
11162 1 XH428 XH418
158 XH420 XH420 RW10 Max

13800
13616 10890

1.8
RW10 11146 Approach11510 XH410 15800 230 kt
339

12809 11146 (427) 11510 See Missed


3) XH410
Max P363 STAR XHA9A + via XH900

32
105 8A
Chart (APP11687

6
Max

XH498 13773 1.0 rc


XHE01 Max
XHE01 230.0kt 11687 MaxXH450
11201
10.2

10
XH498 17500' 230 kt XH422 059 00 8
11.1 11201 12107 230 kt
10.2

175 1.9
10

.0
1210711162 13793

170

5 Arc
(1):18100' 59 00 12300 230 kt

13800
.0
170

5 Arc
8

8.2
0 158 13616 1 5
XHA50059 5800 XH420 RW10 13924

8.2
31 0
XHA50 11146 11510 XH410 13924

15
1

31 0

8
A 077 18700 XH424 A 077 Max
XHA5

15

80
8
18700 2.5 XH424
Max 12809 FAP/VIP
XHA5
XHE01 11687

80
XH498 230 kt 1280911201 FAP/VIP
10.2

10
34 40' 00" N

12107
2.5 0 2.0 15800rc
230 kt
XH406 12973 ALT / (HGT): ft

5 A .2
34 40' 00" N

.0
077 0

170

5 Arc
2.0 14476 0
XH406 12973 ALT / (HGT): ft

5 A .2
0
14476 077 0 158 Arc 059 1580

8.2
5. 8A Distances: NM

rc
XHA50

6
XH430 13924

31
5. 13800 Distances: NM

rc
6
XH430

15
8 13800

8
18700 IAF H A 5A 077

80
GUOLUO
IAF X .5 XH424 12809 FAP/VIP

0
GUOLUO 2 XH420
34 40' 00" N

14476 XH500 2.0 15800rc XH406 12973 XH420 ALT / (HGT): ft

5 A .2
Max 077 14000' - 15000'
Max XH500 EAST 5.0 VISUALCAUTION: 8A IN FINAL, VISUAL SEGMENT 14000' - 15000'
Distances: NM

rc
CAUTION: IN FINAL, SEGMENT Max

6
EAST XH430 13800 Max
250 kt 17500 250 kt 17500 IAF 13000' - 14000'
GUOLUO
SURFACE (VSS)Max PENETRATED SURFACE
FOR CAT(VSS) D. PENETRATED FOR CAT D.
12832 SEGMENT 12832 230 kt XH420 230 13000'
kt - 14000'
RNP 1.0 -> 0.3 EAST RNP 1.0 -> 0.3 XH500 CAUTION: IN FINAL, VISUAL 1/300 000 Max
14000' - 15000'
12000' - 13000'
250 kt 17500 1/300 000 12000' - 13000'

20
13000' - 14000'

20
SURFACE (VSS) PENETRATED FOR CAT D. 12832 230 kt

.0
11000' - 12000'

.0
RNP 1.0 -> 0.3 1/300 000 11000' - 12000'
12000' - 13000'

20
102 00' 00" E 102 00' 00" E 102 30' 00" E 102 30' 00" E 12461
12461

.0
11000' - 12000'
103 103 30' 00" E
102 00' 00" E 102 30' 00" E
Missed Approach 12461 IAF IAF30' 00" E
IF FAP/VIP IF FAP/VIP MAPt MAPt Missed Approach 103 30' 00" E

34 30' 00" N
Max XH800M.A. Climb Gradient : 2.5% 152 M.A. Climb Gradient : 2.5% 152 ft/NM

34 30' 00" N
Missed Approach IAF
XH414 XH406 XH414 XH406 IF FAP/VIP
RW10 RW10 MAPt Max XH800 ft/NM

34 30' 00" N
Max XH800 250 kt M.A. Climb Gradient : 2.5% 152 ft/NM
XH452 13800'XH414 XH406
10513'RW10 18100

15
XH452 13800' 10513' 250 kt 18100 RNP AR FINAL 0.3

15
RNP AR FINAL 0.3 0.3

31
31
250 kt 18100

80
RF XH452 13800' 10513'

15
80
RF RNP AR FINAL

9
31
Climb toto 17500' viaRNAV
the RNAV (RNP)approach
missedRNPapproach

0
80
RF Climb to 17500' via the RNAVClimb (RNP) missed viaapproach CATRNP 1.0 CAT
-> 0.3

0
Figure37:
105 1.0 -> 0.3

9
105 17500' the (RNP) missed CAT MA RNP 0.3

0
105 RNP 1.0 -> 0.3 MA RNP
MA 0.3
RNP 0.3
track to XH500. tracktotoXH500.
track XH500.
2.8 2.8
AtXH500
At hold
hold or start a newapproach XHA80
via XH500.via XH500. XHA80 XHA80 DA (DH) DA (DH) VIS VIS DA (DH)
VIS NO
VIS NO ALS VIS
ALS VIS NO ALS
13800' 2.8 2.8 2.8 13800' 2.8 At XH500 hold or start a newapproach XH500 viaorXH500.
start a newapproach

5.0 8 A
XH
13800'

5.0 8 A
31

XH
5.0 8 A

31
XH
11030' (570')A3200m
Example of(3337')
RNP AR (3337') 3200m 3600m 3200m

31
18700 A 11030' (570')
A 11030'
18700 (570') 3600m 3600m

9
If able
abletotoreach 18100' beforebefore advise ATC
XH800, XH800, to ATC 18700

9
A
9
(3337') If able to 105 18100' beforeIfXH800,
reach reach
advise 18100'
ATC to advise to

A
A
105 10 5 hold over XH800 or start a new approach via XH800. B 11050' (590') 3300m 3700m
holdDAover 10463a new
or start
RDH: 50 THR:
XH800
RDH: 50 THR: 10463
hold over XH800
approach or start a new approach via XH800.
via XH800. B 11050' (590')
11060' (600')
B3300m 11050'
3400m
(590')
3700m
3800m 3300m 3700m
DA 11.1 10463
RDH: 50 THR: DA Next WPt (NM) C
Approach on11.1Xiahe 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 Next WPt (NM) 0.0 Next WPt (NM)
RW10 (NM) 103 00' 00" E
OMBON
C
OMBON
D
11060'
D
OMBON
11070'
11070' (610')C 3400m
(600')
(610') 3400m
DAIRBUS
11060' (600')
3400m
11070'
3900m 3400m
3800m
3900m
(610') 3400m
3800m
3900m
NOT FOR0.0OPERATIONAL
RW10 (NM) 0.0
USE RW10 (NM) V1.2 103 00'CHG:
30 OCT 2015 00" E RNP values, ALT XH454.103 00' 00" E PROSKY GoTITAN & AIP-GIS Charting

NOT FOR OPERATIONAL USE


NOT FOR OPERATIONAL USE AIRBUS PROSKY GoTITAN & AIP-GIS Charting GoTITAN & AIP-GIS Cha
V1.2 30 OCT 2015 CHG: V1.2
RNP values, ALT2015
30 OCT XH454.CHG: RNP values, ALT XH454. AIRBUS PROSKY

Missed
Approach Procedure Approach
Procedure Minima

Routes that requires a lateral performance down to 0.1 NM for departure,


approach, and missed approach. Figure38 illustrates an RNP AR approach
on runway 16R of Seattle airport (KSEA) that enhances the management of
Closely-Spaced Parallel Operations.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 054

Approach Name

NW-1, 28 APR 2016 to 26 MAY 2016


NW-1,
NW-1,28

2016
2016
2016
MAY
MAY
28APR

MAY
APR2016

26
tototo 26
26
2016toto26

2016
2016
2016
APR
26MAY

APR
APR
MAY2016

NW-1,2828
28
2016

NW-1,
NW-1,
Approach
Procedure Minima

Figure38:
Example of RNP AR
Approach on Seattle NOT FOR OPERATIONAL USE

The RNP AR procedure allows decreasing the margins on protection areas. The
requirements on navigation are close to the actual aircraft navigation performance.

3.3.2.1.2 Benefits
Due to design flexibility, the RNP AR procedure brings some new benefits:
Better accessibility on some airport environments where the terrain is difficult
Significant fuel and time savings due to shorter routes.
Reduced of the lateral and longitudinal separations
(increase of the capacity on congested airports).
Avoid sensitive areas (noise, airspace that is not authorized).

3.3.2.1.3 Design Criteria for IFR Procedure


The ICAO RNP AR Procedure Design Manual (doc 9905) includes the design
criteria adapted to the challenging procedures specific to RNP AR.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 055

The RNP AR procedure uses normally Track-to-Fix (TF) and Radius-to-Fix (RF)
legs (refer to section 3.4.1 for additional details on RF leg).
For example, refer to Figure39 that illustrates the tailored approach on Madeira
airport (LPMA) designed by NAVBLUE. As part of the analysis of the private
procedure, a GeoTITAN analysis checks the obstacle compatibility with RNP
AR corridor.
CAT: A B C D MADEIRA - LPMA
AD ELEV: 191, THR ELEV: 144 (5 hPa) RNAV (RNP) Z RWY 05
TWR: 118.350 - APP: 119.600 - ATIS: 124.400 AUTHORIZATION REQUIRED VAR: 5W (13) APP 1
M
A 25 N M A5 For non-baro compensated aircraft: ARP: 3241'39"N - 01646'41"W
MS 32 Minimum Temperature: +7.5C


2000

210
in Max 230 kt 1
110 1m
[R05Z] via MA532

00
04

7
M

30

22
0N
8200 1

20
3000

025 IAF

00 7
2.0
32 50' 00" N

20 22
MA532 Max
MA530
3000 250 kt
RNP 1.0 -> 0.3

rc
5A
2.0
FUN 112.20 MA528
CTR MADEIRA
Ch 59X CAUTION: IN FINAL, VISUAL SEGMENT

204
2000
SURFACE (VSS) PENETRATED BY OBSTACLES.

SFC

709

856
367

82
RW05

0
10.0

0.6
05
662
Arc MA552 (518)
4.1 2.1 354 MA502
MA550 Max 433
210 kt 369
0

RW05 (225)
05

755
1.4

10 NM
MA502 MA532 (611)
607 1/100.000
0.650

2.0 Arc
32 40' 00" N

0
1.6

4.8 Arc
MA504

13.2
1.0
005

ALT/(HGT): ft
MA520 MA526 Distances: NM
Max 1 Max Pressure Altitude 10000'
2.0 .5

16 50' 00" W 195 kt


Arc

5500' - 6500'
2

c
A 25 N M M A5 3.0 Ar 4500' - 5500'
MS 14 4.7
FAP/VIP 3500' - 4500'
8200

MA522 Max
215

MA514 Max 2500' - 3500'

29
125 2000 160 kt
3000 250 kt 6 1500' - 2500'
23 MA554
.2 700' - 1500'
1 Max 230 kt 12
205
n
1 mi

2900
3000
025

Not to scale 16 30' 00" W

TA: 5000 Missed Approach


FAP/VIP
MA526 MA522 MA520 MA504 MA502 RW05 Climb to 3000 (2856) via the RNAV (RNP) missed
2000 2000 1200 890 390 194 approach track to MA514. At MA514 hold or
start a new approach via MA514 or follow ATC
instructions.
RF
RCF: Squawk 7600.
RF 005 Proceed as above.
3.0 3 - 5.2
On MA514 holding, make one complete holding

Figure39:
% 05
1000 (044.70
RF T) 050 pattern at 3000 and then proceed to perform
(856) OCA RDH: 50 THR: 144 RNAV (RNP) Y RWY 05 Procedure.
4.5 2.5 1.0 1.6 0.6 Next WPt (NM)

GeoTITAN analysis for RNP AR 10.2 5.7


AD minima : Altitude and Height in feet.
CAT A CAT B
3.2

CAT C
2.2 0.6

CAT D
0.0 RW05 (NM)
REF HGT: THR ELEV.

procedure on LMPA designed RNP 0.3


OCA (H)
885 (741)
OCA (H)
897 (753)
OCA (H)
905 (761)
OCA (H)
916 (772)

by NAVBLUE
RNP 0.2 2 792 (648) 804 (660) 812 (668) 823 (679)
2 RNP 0.1/0.2 is required until MA552
RNP 0.1 2 499 (355) 511 (367) 519 (375) 530 (386)

NOT FOR OPERATIONAL USE V1.3 02 JUN 2015 CHG: RFC1. AIRBUS PROSKY GoTITAN & AIP-GIS Charting

In accordance with the general RNP AR procedure, any obstacle or other routes
must not enter a half corridor of [2 x RNP value] on each side of the flight path
(without any additional buffer zone), as illustrated on the following Figure40.

Figure40:
Lateral Design Criteria
for RNP AR procedure
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 056

The RNP values of the RNP AR procedure are published on the chart. The same
procedure can propose different RNP values with their associated minima.

In the vertical plane, after the FAP, the vertical obstacle clearance is ensured
by a Vertical Error Budget (VEB) to the flight path (Obstacle Clearance Surface
(OCS)), as illustrated on Figure41:

Figure41:
Vertical Design Criteria
for RNP AR procedure

3.3.2.1.4 Public or Private Procedures


The Operator can operate a public (or generic) RNP AR procedure published by
the NAA in AIP, or develop a private procedure.

In the case of a private procedure, the Operator or the procedure provider


performs additional validations (e.g. independent design review, simulator and
flight evaluation).

3.3.2.2 Aircraft
RNP AR airworthiness and 3.3.2.2.1 Airworthiness Regulations
operational regulations:
The RNP AR capability of the aircraft is demonstrated and certified on the basis
* EASA AMC 20-26
of the compliance demonstration with the airworthiness regulations.
* FAA AC 90-101A
and AC 20-138C
The RNP AR airworthiness approval relies on the compliance with the airworthiness
section of the following guidance materials:

EASA AMC 20-26 (or subsequent revisions), Airworthiness Approval and


Operational Criteria for RNP Authorization Required (RNP AR) Operations in
Sections 6, 8, and 9, that reply to all of the following:
Note: System performance.
_ Aircraft configuration and acceptable installations.
On A320 and A330 family aircraft, Safety assessment.
some initial certifications of RNP AR Data Base integrity.
capability were compliant with FAA
Aircraft manuals and MMEL.
guidance material before the pub-
lishing of the of the current basis. FAA AC 90-101 (revision A or subsequent revisions) in appendix 2 Approval
However, the AMC 20-26, AC 20- Guidance for RNP Procedures with AR.
138C, and AC 90-101A remains the FAA AC 20-138 (revision C or subsequent revisions) in appendix 2 (RNP AR),
references for RNP AR operational Airworthiness Approval of Positioning and Navigation Systems (requested
approval. by AC 90-101A).
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 057

Both FAA AC 90-101A and AMC 20-26 define similar airworthiness requirements.
However, with a conventional aircraft architecture the EASA limits RNP AR to
0.3 NM (except for A350 specific RNP AR design), whereas FAA accepts RNP
AR below 0.3 NM.

As a result, the following RNP AR levels are certified for both A320 and A330 aircraft:
RNP AR 0.3, in accordance with EASA AMC20-26.
RNP AR 0.1, in accordance with FAA AC90-101A and AC20-138C.

However, the EASA recognizes the use of operational mitigation means (for
example, additional tests performed in the scope of the Flight Operational Safety
Assessment (FOSA), refer to section 3.3.2.3.2) to enable a reduction in the RNP
AR level down to 0.1 NM, during the operational approval process with the NAA.

For example: The Danish Authorities granted an operational approval for RNP AR
0.1 procedure on the A319 aircraft for Vgar airport (Faroe Islands) with strong
winds and mountainous environment.

Both the EASA and the FAA certified the basic configuration of the A350 aircraft
for RNP AR 0.1 NM operations. The system architecture takes into account the
failure cases without any additional operational mitigation means.

The compliance of the aircraft with RNP AR airworthiness regulations is declared


in the LIMITATIONS / 22 AUTOFLIGHT SYSTEM / Flight Management System /
Airworthiness Standards Compliance section of the AFM.

Figure42: The example below shows a possible extract of the AFM. This example is for
RNP AR Description in AFM information only. The content depends on individual aircraft configuration.

3.3.2.2.2 Required Functions and Systems


The required functions are described in section 7 of the EASA AMC 20-26, and
appendix 2 of the FAA AC90-101A.

The minimum equipment configuration to initiate the procedure is provided in the


special operations section (i.e. FCOM-PRO-SPO) of the FCOM, in the dedicated
Aircraft Capability Declaration (ACD), and in the MMEL. This list should be taken
into account in MEL for dispatch conditions.

The minimum equipment configuration may differ between RNP AR 0.3 NM


operations and RNP AR below 0.3 NM operations.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 058

Note: 3.3.2.2.3 Navigation Performance Requirements


_
The aircraft lateral performance is also According to the design criteria (RNP value for RNP AR APCH operations), the
referred to as Estimated Position Un- aircraft lateral performance can be basically 0.3 NM, or below 0.3 NM (down to
certainty (EPU, refer to Section 4.1.4). 0.1 NM) depending on the RNP AR procedure.

3.3.2.2.4 Airbus Aircraft Eligibility


Based on functional and performance requirements of airworthiness regulations,
only the Airbus aircraft with a specific RNP AR configuration can obtain RNP
AR capability.
The RNP AR capability of an aircraft is managed by a specific modification to
the Type Design of the aircraft.

On A350 aircraft, the modification for RNP AR 0.1 is part of the basic definition.
On A380 aircraft, the modification for RNP AR 0.3 is optional.
On A320 and A330 aircraft, RNP AR modifications are optional and separated
into two categories:
RNP AR down to 0.1 NM, or
RNP AR limited to 0.3 NM: Applicable to a greater variation of aircraft config-
uration (for example more ADIRU standards).

3.3.2.3 Operator
3.3.2.3.1 Operational Regulations
The operational regulations dedicated to RNP AR are defined in the operational
section of both of the following guidance materials:
EASA AMC 20-26 (or subsequent revisions) Airworthiness Approval and
Operational Criteria for RNP Authorization Required (RNP AR) Operations in
Section 10.
FAA AC 90-101 (revision A or subsequent) Approval Guidance for RNP
Procedures with AR in Section 5.

3.3.2.3.2 Basic Operational Approval Dossier


The operational approval for each individual aircraft must be obtained in accord-
ance with the NAA operating rules. To obtain an operational approval from NAA,
the Operator should submit an application that includes the following items:
Aircraft capability for RNP AR: The statement of aircraft compliance with
airworthiness regulations is provided in AFM (refer to Section 3.3.2.2.1).
Minimum equipment configuration: The minimum equipment configuration
requested to initiate the procedure is provided in the special operations section
of the FCOM, ACD, and MMEL. This configuration must be taken into account
in MEL for dispatch conditions. There is no specific maintenance program to
keep RNP AR capability.
Operational procedures and training program: The Operator defines opera-
tional procedure that includes normal operations and contingency procedures.
These procedures can be based on the ACD, and standard operating proce-
dure (SOP), supplementary procedures (SUPP), special operations (SPO) and
limitations (LIM) sections of the FCOM.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 059

Flight crew and ground operators training program: The Operator defines
an appropriate training program of the flight crews and ground Operators
(dispatcher/maintenance) for the RNP AR operations. The training requirements
are detailed in appendix 2 of the EASA AMC 20-26 and appendix 5 of the FAA
AC 90-101A. The training must include all of the following:
Correspond to the different types of operated RNP AR procedures.
Address the applicable requirements of the regulations.
Include the normal, abnormal, and contingency procedures covered in the FOSA.
Assess the level of skills and knowledge on RNP AR operations of the pilots.
In addition, a recurrent training is required to maintain the flight crew qualification.
Operating manuals and checklists: The Operator updates OMs to include
RNP AR operations. The checklists can be based on the FCOM definitions.
Validation program for the NDB: The Operator describes the quality insur-
ance process (compliance DO-200A/ ED-76) and a program of continuous
verification of NDB for each AIRAC cycle.
Monitoring program for RNP AR: The Operator describes their program for the
collection of data on RNP AR flights to identify any negative trends in performance.

EASA AIR OPERATIONS section SPA.PBN.105 defines the general guidelines


to obtain operational approval. It is based on the airworthiness approval, an
appropriate flight crew training, and the availability of the operating procedures.

In the scope of the operational approval application, NAA may request the
compliance of some equipment with the applicable TSO standards. Airbus
demonstrates the compliance of the aircraft architecture, which includes
equipment configuration, with the EASA and FAA regulations. This demon-
stration at aircraft level includes the requirements at equipment level.

Figure43: The example below shows a possible extract of the FCOM. This example is
RNP AR Description in FCOM for information only. The content depends on individual aircraft configuration.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 060

3.3.2.3.3 FOSA
In order to assess if the RNP AR procedure can be performed by an aircraft in
the expected environment, a Flight Operational Safety Assessment (FOSA) is also
required. A FOSA may be requested for both public and private RNP AR procedures.
A detailed FOSA should be performed for each RNP AR approach procedure,
where the most demanding design criteria of the nominal procedure (as per
ICAO Doc 9905) are applied:
RF legs after the FAP.
Missed approaches with RNP less than 1 NM.
Final approaches with RNP less than 0.3 NM.
Where the application of the procedure design requires deviations from the
default criteria.

The reference document for RNP AR APCH FOSA is the Eurocontrol, "Guidance
Material on Flight Operational Safety Assessment (FOSA) for RNP AR APCH."

The FOSA may check that the proposed RNP AR procedure is appropriate with:
Operating conditions (minimum/maximum temperature, wind, ISA, visibility).
ATC operations and airport infrastructure, particularly for creation of a new
procedure.
Navigation services (implementation of NDB on the FMS).
Flight crew operations: Assessment of normal SOPs and specific procedures,
particularly for both of the following:
Deviations from ICAO criteria (high bank angle, short last segment, etc.).
Highly challenging operations (steep slope, high climb gradient, close terrain,
complexity of the procedure, narrow RF legs, multiple speed restrictions, high
MSA, use of SPD BRK, unusual extension of L/G, etc.).
Aircraft Performance: Assessment of the performance limits, TOW, missed
approach, engine out track and other specific operating procedures (EO ACC
ALT, etc.).
Aircraft Failures: Management of failures cases with an effect on path excursion:
Engine failure.
Failure with effect on the guidance systems (AP, FD, etc.).
Loss of GNSS signal.
Minimum equipment required.

3.3.2.3.3 RNP Level


Some aircraft failures can be a limiting factor to the RNP level. The operators
should particularly consider the failures with effect on guidance performance.

The aircraft compliance with EASA AMC 20-26 considers all of the following
failure with an effect on the path excursion:
Probable failure conditions (i.e. the probability of occurrence is greater than
one per 100 000 flight hours (this can be compared to the operational life of
an aircraft)) must not lead to a path excursion of more than 1 RNP value.
One Engine Inoperative (OEI) condition must not lead to a path excursion of
more than 1 RNP value.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 061

Remote failure conditions (i.e. the failure can occurs more than one time per
10 million of flight hours but less than one time per 100 000 flight hours) must
not lead to a path excursion of more than 2 RNP.
In case of extremely remote failure conditions (i.e. the failure can occurs more
than one time per 1 billion of flight hours but less than one time per 10 million
of flight hours), aircraft must remain maneuverable for a safe extraction.

This demonstration, performed by Airbus, led to the publication of the ACD. Based
on the flights tests or simulator sessions, this document provides the demonstrated
values for the lateral performance demonstrated and associated procedures.

This demonstration avoids the need for additional assessments of these failure
conditions. Therefore the published lateral performance reduces the work done
in the FOSA.

However, the NAA can approve operations for RNP level below the demonstrated
values that are published in the ACD (on a case by case basis). In this case the
Operator performs an additional assessment of the failures effect, in the particular
scope of their operations, and defines appropriate operational mitigation means.
However, some specific test means may be required to validate this additional
assessment.

Figure44:
Example of A320 RNP AR Level,
function of Demonstration
of Failure Assessment

The following part illustrates an example of additional assessment of one failure


case, AP roll runaway, to reduce the RNP level:
During the Airbus airworthiness certification, among all identified failure conditions,
the assessment of AP roll runaway remote failure led to a path excursion of
0.40 NM in a worstcase scenario (i.e. in a turn). Therefore the AP roll runaway
failure does not require an additional assessment if the Operator wants to reach
a RNP level at or above 0.2 NM (i.e. the path excursion is contained within the
RNP corridor of 2 RNP).
If the Operator needs to reach a RNP level of 0.17 NM (i.e. RNP corridor of
0.34 NM), AP roll runaway failure requires an additional assessment in the
specific context of the RNP AR procedure. The maximum path excursion during
this failure must be 0.34 NM or less.
If the procedure is on a straight segment, the detection of AP roll runaway
failure and the action by the flight crew is faster. Therefore, the path excursion
should be less than 0.34 NM. In that case, the geometrical configuration of the
procedure may be an acceptable mitigation mean to decrease the RNP level.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 062

The A350 aircraft is specifically designed to have the capability of RNP AR 0.1
without any additional mitigation means. Airbus demonstrates that failure cases
lead to a path excursion that is contained within 0.1 NM. Moreover, Airbus
introduced new functionalities as backup in case of extremely remote failures.
Refer to Section 4.4.

3.3.2.3.4 Operational Procedure


The Operator must propose a training program to the ground personnel on RNP
AR procedures and the required equipment.

The MEL should be updated in accordance with RNP AR operations, on the


basis of the minimum configuration defined in the special operations section (i.e.
FCOM-PRO-SPO) of the FCOM, the MMEL or the ACD.

Figure45: The example below shows a possible extract of the MMEL. This example is for
RNP AR Description in MMEL information only. The content depends on individual aircraft configuration.

For the preflight phase, the Operator performs all of the following:
Check NOTAMs (impact on procedure) and GNSS availability (refer to Section
4.1.3.1).
Check the NDB validity (according AIRAC cycle).
Flight crew ensures sufficient means are available to navigate and land at the
destination or at an alternate aerodrome in the case of loss of RNP AR airborne
capability.
The pilot checks that:
A non RNP AR procedure is available at the alternate, where a destination
alternate is required.
At least one non RNP AR procedure is available at the destination aerodrome
or contingency procedure is defined, where a destination alternate is not
required.
Insert RNP AR capability in the ATS flight plan in accordance with ICAO or
NAA recommendations (refer to Annex E):
Insert the letter G in the first part of ITEM 10 for GNSS.
Insert the letter R in the first part of ITEM 10. The letter Z can also be added
to highlight that a complement on PBN capability is added in ITEM 18.
Insert the letter PBN/T1 in ITEM 18 for RNP AR with RF leg.
Insert the letter PBN/T2 in ITEM 18 for RNP AR without RF leg.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 063

3.4 OTHER
_

3.4.1 RNP with RF leg CAPABILITY


The RNP with RF leg capability is mentioned in the Advanced RNP concept.
Refer to Section 3.4.2 for other Advanced RNP features.

3.4.1.1 Scope
3.4.1.1.1 Operational Area
The Radius to Fix (RF) leg procedure is an additional capability to existing RNP
operations. The RF leg can be used in the following RNP procedures:
RNP 1.
RNP APCH in initial, intermediate and missed approach segments. The design
criteria are identical to RNP 1 design criteria.
RNP AR.

This chapter considers only the RF leg on RNP 1 and RNP APCH procedures.
For RNP AR, refer to Section 3.3.2

RF leg avoids FMS computed transitions (tangential arc of circle) and thus reduces
the protection area on turn. Initially this function is coupled with RNP1 navigation
specifications (SID, STARS) and also RNP APCH operations (in terminal area
except in final approach segment, and in initial and intermediate segment of
missed approach, with 1 NM RNP value).

Figure46:
RF Leg Transition
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 064

Figure47 provides an example of chart with RF leg on Hong Kong - VHHH airport
RNAV (GNSS) SID on runway 07.

NOT FOR OPERATIONAL USE

Figure47:
Example of Chart for
RNP 1 SID with RF Leg
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 065

3.4.1.1.2 Benefits
The RF leg is a flexibility for the procedure design of the RNP procedures in order
to avoid terrain or obstacles.

As illustrated on Figure48, compared to TF-TF transition, the protection areas


are smaller in RF leg:
On TF-TF transition, the FMS computes a fly-by transition with a constant bank
angle. The bank angle depends on the ground speed or the fly-by algorithm
of the FMS.
On RF leg, the FMS adapts the bank angle to the defined trajectory. All aircraft
perform the same repeatable trajectory.

Figure48:
RF Leg Transition Compared RF Transition TF-TF Transition
to TF-TF Transition

3.4.1.1.3 Design Criteria for IFR Procedure


Note: The design criteria are identical to RNP 1 criteria (refer to Section 3.2.3.1.3).
_
Some specific criteria can be defined The ICAO Procedures for Air Navigation Services Aircraft Operations (PANS-
for RF leg use: OPS) (Doc 8168) defines the lateral and vertical specifications for the construction
Radius limitation. of RNP 1 operations and specific features for RF leg definition (i.e. maximum
Straight to RF leg tangential radius, protection area, etc.).
transition.
Speed constraint.
3.4.1.2 Aircraft
Reduced protection area
compared to classical transition. 3.4.1.2.1 Airworthiness Regulations
The RNP 1 or RNP APCH with RF leg capability of the aircraft is demonstrated
and certified on the basis of the compliance demonstration with the airworthiness
regulations.

The airworthiness approval of RNP 1 or RNP APCH with RF leg relies on the
compliance with the airworthiness section of the FAA AC 90-105 (or subsequent
revisions) Approval Guidance for RNP Operations and Barometric Vertical
Navigation in the U.S. National Airspace System in appendix 5 that replies to
the following items:
System performance.
Aircraft configuration and acceptable installations.
Aircraft manuals and MMEL.

There is no published EASA regulation.


Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 066

The airworthiness compliance of the aircraft with RNP 1 or RNP APCH with RF
leg requirements is declared in the AFM part LIMITATIONS / 22 AUTOFLIGHT
SYSTEM / Flight Management System / Airworthiness Standards Compliance.

Figure49: The example below shows a possible extract of the AFM. This example is for
RF Leg Description in AFM information only. The content depends on individual aircraft configuration.

3.4.1.2.2 Required Systems


The minimum configuration is identical to RNP 1 and RNP APCH configuration
(Refer to Sections 3.2.3.2.2 and 3.3.1.1.2.2).

The minimum equipment configuration requested to initiate the procedure is


provided in the special operations section (i.e. FCOM-PRO-SPO) of the FCOM.
This list should be taken into account in MEL for dispatch conditions.

3.4.1.2.3 Navigation Performance Requirements


Notes:
The basic performance criteria are identical to RNP 1 and RNP APCH performance
_
criteria (refer to Sections 3.2.3.2.3 and 3.3.1.1.2.3).
FMS 1 generation is not able to
decode RF legs.
3.4.1.2.4 Airbus Aircraft Eligibility
All Airbus aircraft are eligible for RNP 1 or RNP APCH with RF leg operations
when fitted with FMS2 and MMR (or GPSSU).

3.4.1.3 Operator
3.4.1.3.1 Operational Regulations
The applicable operational regulations are identical to RNP 1 and RNP APCH
Regulations (refer to sections 3.2.3.3.1 and 3.3.1.1.3.1) with additional opera-
tional considerations on RF legs detailed in appendix 5 of FAA AC 90-105 (or
subsequent version) Approval Guidance for RNP Operations and Barometric
Vertical Navigation in the U.S. National Airspace System.

The training requirements are based on RNP 1 and RNP APCH training require-
ments(refer to Sections 3.2.3.3.1 and 3.3.1.1.3.1) with additional training
part dedicated to the RF leg operation.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 067

A dedicated chapter in FCTM/SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION/RADIUS TO


FIX (RF) LEGS details the RF leg management (use of AP/FD, speed/wind/bank
angle management).

For RNP AR operations, the operational part of the ACD provides additional
specific constraints (e.g. bank angle limitation).

3.4.1.3.2 Operational Procedure


The dispatch conditions are identical to RNP 1 and RNP APCH dispatch con-
ditions (refer to Sections 3.2.3.3.2 and 3.3.1.1.3.2).

3.4.2 Advanced RNP


Advanced RNP operations are referred to as A-RNP or ARNP.

3.4.2.1 Scope
Figure50: A-RNP is composed of several functionalities introduced in the ICAO PBN
Area of Operations for A-RNP manual in addition of NAV spec RNAV5, 2, 1, and RNP 2, 1 and RNP APCH.

The PBN Manual (ICAO Doc 9613), in its fourth edition published in 2013,
provides six A-RNP functions. Some are required (R), others are optional (O).
The six functions are:
RF leg (R).
Parallel offset (R).
RNP scalability (O).
RNAV holding (R).
Fixed Radius Transition (O).
TOAC (O), not yet defined.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 068

3.4.2.1.1 Advanced RNP Functions


3.4.2.1.1.1 RF Leg
Refer to dedicated Section 3.4.1.

3.4.2.1.1.2 Parallel Offset


Parallel offsets are only used in en-route and terminal areas. This function rep-
licates all of the centerline route characteristics at the desired offset, to the left
or right of the centerline route.

3.4.2.1.1.3 RNP Scalability


The aim of the scalability function is to enable the design of procedure with
reduced protection area (refer to Figure51).
As defined by the ICAO, the scalability enables the use of a RNP value less than
1 NM and as low as 0.3 NM in the terminal area. However, A-RNP operations
are not part of RNP AR operations.

Figure51:
Comparison of protection zone for
various PBN operations in terminal area:
RNP 1, RNP AR 0.3 NM and A-RNP
with scalable RNP value 0.3NM.

3.4.2.1.1.4 RNAV Holding


The aim of RNAV holding is to enable aircraft to fly either published, or ATC-defined
(manually entered) holding patterns, with the appropriate aircraft performance,
monitoring and alert associated to the RNP level.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 069

3.4.2.1.1.5 Fixed Radius Transition (FRT)


This function is for the en-route flight phase. FRT enables curved transitions
between two legs with a defined constant radius, as illustrated on Figure52.

Figure52:
Fixed Radius Transition

3.4.2.1.1.6 Time Of Arrival Control (TOAC)


This function is not yet defined by the ICAO.

The TOAC is studied in the SESAR i4D project.

3.4.2.1.2 Benefits
The A-RNP functions provide a design flexibility that supports the RNP procedures,
in order to manage some operational constraints.

3.4.2.1.3 Design Criteria for IFR Procedure


The ICAO DOC 8168 (PANS-OPS) Construction of Visual and Instrument
Flight Procedures, revision 6, published in November 2014, is the reference for
procedure designers.
The document defines the design rules for IFR procedures. A specific chapter
on A-RNP with scalability option was added.

The protection areas for A-RNP can be different from protection areas of other
PBN operations as illustrated on Figure51 on terminal area.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 070

3.4.2.2 Aircraft
A-RNP airworthiness and
3.4.2.2.1 Airworthiness Regulations
operational regulations:
The A-RNP capability of the aircraft is demonstrated and certified on the basis
* FAA AC 90-105A
and AC 20-138D of the compliance demonstration with the airworthiness regulations.
EASA CS-ACNS will consider the A-RNP airworthiness requirements.

The airworthiness section of the FAA AC 20-138D (or subsequent revisions)


Approval Guidance for RNP Operations and Barometric Vertical Navigation in
the U.S. National Airspace System appendix 3, provide guidelines for A-RNP.
The FAA AC 90-105A also considers the A-RNP.

The airworthiness compliance of the aircraft with A-RNP leg requirements will be
declared in the LIMITATIONS / 22 AUTOFLIGHT SYSTEM / Flight Management
System / Airworthiness Standards Compliance section of the AFM.

3.4.2.2.2 Required Systems


The minimum configuration is identical to the configuration of the following RNP
procedures:
RNP 2 for the en-route environment (refer to Section 3.1.3.2.2).
RNP 1 in the terminal area (refer to Section 3.2.3.2.2).
RNP APCH in the approach phase (refer to Section 3.3.1.1.2.2 and 3.3.1.2.2.2).

3.4.2.2.3 Navigation Performance Requirements


If not specified in the A-RNP procedure, the required accuracy is linked to the
expected operations.

3.4.2.2.4 Additional Requirements


The PBN Manual considers both RNAV and RNP in A-RNP operations. However,
FAA regulations focus on RNP operations only.

3.4.2.2.5 Airbus Aircraft Eligibility


Airbus is working on the A-RNP capability demonstration for A320, A330, A340
and A380 aircraft.
On A350 aircraft, this modification for A-RNP is part of the basic definition.
A300/A310 aircraft are not eligible for A-RNP operations.

3.4.2.3 Operator
EASA new material will be developed to include the A-RNP operational
requirements.
FAA AC 90-105A defines operational requirements dedicated to A-RNP.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 071

#4
Airbus
Aircraft Solutions

During PBN procedure, the aircraft navigation system enables the flight crew to
set and monitor the appropriate navigation and approach mode.

All along the flight, the aircraft systems perform the following tasks:
Compute a position on the basis of the sensors inputs.
Estimate the accuracy and integrity of the aircraft position.
Set limits defined in NDB or by phase of flight in accordance with PBN
specifications.
Monitor the accuracy and integrity with regard to these limits and trigger alerts
to the flight crew.

In this way, the existing aircraft functions that define and monitor the aircraft
position, answer to the PBN requirements.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 072

The following chapters describe the Airbus system solutions for PBN procedures
that enable the flight crew to:
Monitor the aircraft performance.
Select the appropriate flight guidance mode.
Monitor the deviations from the intended flight path.

4.1 AIRCRAFT POSITIONING


AND MONITORING
_
This part explains how the aircraft navigation system monitors the aircraft per-
formance on the basis of the aircraft position design.

4.1.1 Aircraft Position


The navigation system collects position from different sources, as illustrated on
Figure53:
Inertial position from ADIRS.
GNSS position from MMR.
Radio position from NAVAIDs (VOR and DME).

Figure53:
Example of Aircraft
Position Sources

With these different sources of aircraft position, the navigation system computes
the following three different positions:
GNSS/inertial position (also known as Global Positioning and Inertial Reference
System (GPIRS)), that merges data from GNSS and Inertial positions.
NAVAIDS/inertial position, that merges distance from DME and/or VOR ground
stations and Inertial positions.
Inertial only position, that merges different inertial positions.

All these positioning modes are referred to as Navigation Modes.


Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 073

The navigation system (FMS, or ADIRS on A350) constantly checks and selects
the best mode to use, based on the estimation of accuracy and the integrity.
The GNSS/inertial (GPIRS) is the main navigation mode, used as long as GNSS
data are available.

The GNSS/inertial position is continuously calibrated by a filter that uses the


inertial data from IRS and the GNSS data from MMR.

The filters characteristics can differ between the different navigation system
(FMS or ADIRS) suppliers

The ADIRS ensures the continuity of the provision of the aircraft position. If the
GNSS is lost, the GPS PRIMARY (or NAV primary on A350) status will remain for
a certain time due to the extrapolation function in the FMS or ADIRS.

When GNSS/inertial (GPIRS) data is not available, or does not comply with the
accuracy and integrity limits, then the FMS automatically reverts to one of the
other modes, based on the sensor availability and the estimated position errors.

Note: 4.1.2 Accuracy and Integrity Limits


_
Airbus considers also the high level PBN operations associate a RNP value to the different legs of the procedure. This
of aircraft navigation performance. RNP value must be set in the aircraft navigation system to define the accuracy
For RNP above 0.3 NM, the limit is and integrity limits. These limits enable to monitor the aircraft position and trigger
a fixed value that is lower than the messages in the cockpit.
RNP value selected. For example,
for a RNP 4 procedure the aircraft
navigation system considers a lower
RNP value than 4 NM (typically 2NM).
Indeed, the RNP value selected by
the systems can be lower than the
RNP value specified on the navigation.

Figure54:
MCDU PROG Page and A350 MFD
POSITION/MONITOR Page with
RNP Value

There are three possible methods to set the RNP value:


Note: A value extracted from the NDB (if the value is specifically coded in the NDB).
_
A default value per flight zone from FMS data base (if the value is not coded
The pilot should not modify the se-
lected RNP value if not requested by in the NDB).
the FCOM procedure. A manually-entered value in the MCDU or MFD (not required, refer to FCOM
description of manually-entered value).
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 074

4.1.3 Monitoring of GNSS/Inertial Mode (GPS PRIMARY)


4.1.3.1 Monitoring of GNSS Availability
For PBN operations that use a GNSS-based position, the operational regulations
may require the operator to determine the availability of the GNSS-based position
before departure.

For most of Airbus aircraft (depending on ADIRU standard), the GNSS-based


position availability (i.e. GPS PRIMARY function, refer to section 4.1.3.2) is
demonstrated as follows:
For operations with RNP value above 0.2 NM, as soon as 24 satellites are operative,
the GPS PRIMARY function is available all the time with a worldwide coverage.
On A350 aircraft, as soon as the RNP value is above 0.15 NM, NAV PRIMARY
function is available all the time with a worldwide coverage, without any minimum
number of available satellites.

The Operator can check the satellite constellation availability using NOTAM or
appropriate web-sites (for example NANUs from US coastguards).
A Ground-Based Prediction Program (GBPP) could be used to assess GNSS
availability in following cases:
GNSS availability demonstration is not declared in the AFM, or
Less than 24 satellites are available, or
Potential masking of GNSS signal in some mountainous areas
Figure55:
FCOM Description of GNSS
(for RNP AR procedures only), or
Availability Requirements Low RNP values (for RNP AR below 0.2 NM only).

NAVBLUE provides a service to help the Operator to manage the GNSS


availability on the fleet as illustrated on Figure56.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 075

Figure56:
Example of GNSS Availability
Prediction Tool proposed by NAVBLUE

Note: 4.1.3.2 Monitoring of Position integrity


_
The integrity of the aircraft position In GNSS/inertial mode, the GPS PRIMARY function (or NAV PRIMARY on A350)
can be monitored only in GNSS/in- monitors the integrity of the aircraft position.
ertial mode (no integrity parameters If the position integrity exceeds the defined value or a maximum threshold, a GPS
provided in NAVAIDS/inertial or Iner- PRIMARY LOST amber message (or NAV PRIMARY LOST on A350) is displayed
tial only modes). on MCDU or MFD scratchpad and on the bottom of the ND.
Based on this message, the flight crew can decide to abort or continue the RNP
procedure.

Except for some RNP AR operations (below 0.15 NM), the systems triggers the
GPS PRIMARY LOST (or NAV PRIMARY LOST on A350) message regardless
of the selected RNP value.
On A350 aircraft, the monitoring function of RNP AR operations is managed by
a specific management (refer to section 4.4 for additional information).

Figure57:
Example of A380 GPS PRIMARY LOST
amber message on ND and MFD
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 076

4.1.4 Monitoring of Other Navigation Modes


(Navigation Accuracy (HIGH/LOW))
When GPS PRIMARY is lost, the navigation system will automatically revert to another
navigation mode. The navigation system may revert to NAVAIDS/Inertial or to Inertial
only mode when no NAVAIDs can be used for the aircraft positioning computation.
For each navigation mode, the FMS provides the Estimated Position Uncertainty
(EPU, also referred to as Estimated Position Error EPE) that can be compared
to the navigation accuracy.
The best navigation mode is selected on the basis of the comparison of the EPU
of each navigation mode.
As illustrated on Figure58, the EPU is continuously compared with the required
accuracy to provide an appropriate alerting, in the case of an accuracy loss.
When the EPU is higher than the required accuracy, the navigation accuracy
switches to LOW, and the NAV ACCUR DOWNGRADED message is displayed
on MCDU/MFD scratchpad and on the ND.
When the EPU is lower than the required accuracy, the navigation accuracy
Figure58:
Aircraft Monitoring reverts to HIGH, and the NAV ACCUR UPGRADED message is displayed
of Position Accuracy on MCDU/MFD scratchpad on the bottom of the ND.
The navigation accuracy may be used in degraded conditions to support flight
crew decisions.

4.1.5 Example
As a summary, Figure59 illustrates an aircraft in the GNSS/Inertial navigation
mode facing a total loss of GNSS position.
When the GNSS position is lost, the following events occur:
An extrapolation of the aircraft position is performed. If the integrity criteria is
not met, the GPS PRIMARY LOST message appears.
Figure59:
Example of Navigation System
Then, the aircraft position used by FMS is only based on inertial data. If the
Monitoring with Total GNSS Loss position accuracy diverges and exceeds 1 RNP: the NAV ACCUR DOWNGRAD
(in low RNP operations) message appears.

As a result:
GPS PRIMARY function monitors the position integrity of GNSS/Inertial navi-
gation mode
NAV ACCURACY function monitors the position accuracy of the NAVAIDS/
Inertial and Inertial only navigation modes.
RNP operations rely on position integrity monitoring. Therefore RNP operations
can only be performed when the aircraft is in the GNSS/Inertial navigation mode.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 077

4.2 FLIGHT GUIDANCE MODES


_
Aircraft navigation system provides flight guidance modes to enable flight crew
to efficiently follow the PBN procedures. This part describes the different aircraft
flight guidance functions, and which one to use during PBN operations.

4.2.1 NAV Mode


The guidance in NAV mode ensures that the aircraft lateral deviation converges
with the intended flight path (i.e. XTK=0) as requested by the PBN operations.
Therefore the NAV mode is widely used for PBN operations except in approach
(refer to Section 4.2.2).

4.2.2 Approach Mode


The guidance modes used for PBN operations during the approach phase (RNP
APCH, and RNP AR) are described in the following sections.
Note:
_ 4.2.2.1 xLS
GLS function, also part of the xLS
Airbus introduced the X Landing System (xLS) concept, which provides a common
concept, is not a PBN operation
and thus is not addressed in this ILS look-alike HMI for straight in approaches (refer to Figure60).
document. As part of xLS concept, the followings sections describe the FLS and SLS functions.

xLS function
Guidance modes scales Approach Capability

Figure60:
xLS display on PFD
Approach xLS function
characteristics scales Deviations
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 078

4.2.2.1.1 FLS
The FMS Landing System (FLS) provides an ILS look-alike HMI with vertical and
lateral guidance for Non-Precision Approaches (NPA).

As described in the Figure61, the MMR computes both of the following:


A virtual beam from the runway threshold provided by FMS NDB
Associated lateral and vertical deviations based on the aircraft GNSS position
compared to the track and slope components stored in the FMS NDB.
Note:
_
The guidance laws are the same as those for an ILS approach, with a pseudo
The FLS virtual beam is tempera-
LOC referred to as F-LOC and a pseudo glide referred to as F-G/S.
ture compensated for cold weather
operations. The FLS vertical beam relies on the barometric reference.

Figure61:
Virtual Beam construction
for FLS Approach

FLS can be used on RNP APCH operations.


The F-APP approach capability on PFD is required for operations of RNP APCH
with LNAV or LNAV/VNAV minima. RNP APCH operations cannot be performed
with F-APP+RAW or RAW ONLY. The RAW mode relies on NAVAIDS data
instead of GNSS data.

4.2.2.1.2 SLS
The SBAS Landing System (SLS) provides an ILS look-alike HMI with vertical
and lateral guidance mode for RNP APCH with LPV minima.

The concept of the SBAS is described on the Figure62: The reference ground
stations in the area provides SBAS geostationary satellites constellation with the
corrections and integrity parameters to apply to the GNSS position. The SBAS
geostationary satellites transmit this information to the on-board avionics (i.e. MMR).
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 079

Figure62:
Virtual Beam construction
for SLS Approach

As described on Figure63, the MMR computes the following parameters to


support the SLS approach:
A virtual beam from the Final Approach Segment (FAS) Data Block
Associated lateral and vertical deviations, based on the aircraft GNSS posi-
tion with associated SBAS parameters compared to the track and slope
components.

To compute the virtual beam, the MMR uses the FAS Data Block that is com-
posed of the following parameters:
Runway threshold coordinates (anchor point).
Virtual Beam Slope.
Virtual Beam Track.

The FAS Data Block are identified on charts by a dedicated channel, and coded
in the NDB. The Airbus design automatically selects the channel via the FMS
approach selection.

Note: The guidance laws are the same as those for an ILS approach (i.e. LOC and
_ G/S). The SLS vertical beam relies on the augmented GNSS altitude when the
SLS is an option on A350 aircraft. approach modes are engaged.

Figure63:
Virtual Beam construction
for SLS Approach
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 080

4.2.2.2 FPA | NAV


For approaches without vertical requirements (RNP APCH with LNAV minima),
the FPA | NAV mode is available.
NAV mode is the lateral guidance. For the vertical guidance, the FPA mode can
be used.

4.2.2.3 FINAL APP and APP DES


The FINAL APP mode provides the following components:
Note:
_ A lateral guidance equivalent to the NAV mode.
The vertical profile of FINAL APP and A vertical guidance tracking the FMS profile.
APP DES | NAV modes is dependent
of the Barometric reference and is not On the A350 aircraft, APP-DES | NAV mode has been developed from the FINAL
temperature compensated. APP mode with enhancements.

4.2.3 Flight Guidance Modes for PBN operations


After the description of the different flight guidance modes available on the aircraft,
this section associates these modes to the PBN operations.

4.2.3.1 For all PBN Operations


The NAV mode is mainly used for all PBN cruise operations.

4.2.3.2 For RNP APCH in Final Approach Segment


4.2.3.2.1 Approach with LNAV Minima
For approaches with LNAV minima, the flight crew can operate the following
modes in the final segment:
FPA | NAV, or
FINAL APP or FLS as advisory guidance.

Even if the approach is operated with FINAL APP or FLS mode (vertically-managed
mode), the flight crew should monitor the vertical deviation with the checking of
the altitudes and distances on step down fixes, and not the checking of the V/
DEV or F-G/S deviation.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 081

4.2.3.2.2 Approach with LNAV/VNAV Minima


FINAL APP or FLS can be used for approaches with LNAV/VNAV minima,
depending on the option installed on the aircraft.
For A320 and A330 aircraft with FLS function, A350 and A380, F-LOC and
F-G/S guidance modes are provided (similar to LOC and G/S, based on the
FMS virtual beam).

4.2.3.2.3 Approach with LPV (or LP) Minima


SLS function is used for approaches with LPV (or LP) minima and LOC and G/S
guidance modes (or LOC only for LP).

4.2.3.3 For RNP AR


For the final segment of RNP AR approaches the following modes are used:
FINAL APP mode for the A320 or A330/A340 family aircraft.
APP-DES | NAV mode for the A350 aircraft.

For RNP AR operations on A380 aircraft, refer to the specific aircraft operational
manuals.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 082

4.3 DISPLAYS AND MONITORING OF DEVIATIONS


TO THE FLIGHT PATH
_
For PBN operations, the aircraft navigation system enables the flight crew to
monitor the guidance and deviations to the intended flight path. This sections
details all the ND and PFD indications for PBN operations.

4.3.1 XTK on ND
The ND provides the flight crew with numerical or non-numerical (left /right) indi-
cation on Flight Technical Error (FTE) via the display of the cross-track deviation
(XTK), refer to Figure64.

Figure64:
XTK Display on ND
XTK
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 083

4.3.2 Lateral Deviation on PFD


The lateral deviation (L/DEV) displayed on PFD enables to monitor the lateral
guidance (FTE).

The L/DEV scale and index on the PFD provide a graphical display of current
XTK (also displayed on ND) with an extended scale well adapted to the RNP AR
operations below 0.3 NM.

The L/DEV full-scale deviation is 0.2 NM (1 dot = 0.1 NM).

The L/DEV scale or index may be automatically inhibited in specific cases to


ensure that it always corresponds to meaningful information.

The L/DEV function is mandatory for RNP AR operations with RNP values strictly
below 0.3 NM.

The display of the L/DEV function is managed by a dedicated modification on


A320 and A330 family and is basic on A350.

Figure65:
L/DEV Display on PFD

0.08 NM

Lateral
deviation
L/DEV
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 084

4.3.3 Vertical Deviation on PFD Note:


_
For RNP APCH with LNAV/VNAV minima and RNP AR, the V/DEV displayed on The V/DEV inhibits the usual vertical
the PFD enables to monitor the vertical guidance. deviation indication used for normal
descent management (i.e. a green
The V/DEV full-scale deviation is 200 ft (1 dot = 100 ft). yoyo dot next to the altitude scale).

70 ft

Figure66:
V/DEV Display on PFD

4.3.4 SLS and FLS Deviation on PFD


The SLS function provides an ILS look-alike HMI with same deviation indicators.

For example, Figure67 illustrates the display of SLS deviations on PFD.


Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 085

Figure67:
Display of SLS deviations on PFD

The FLS function provides an ILS look-alike HMI with similar deviation indica-
tors. A double diamond is displayed (instead of single diamond) to highlight the
difference with FLS and precision approaches.

For example, Figure68 illustrates the display of FLS deviations on PFD.

Figure68:
Display of FLS deviations
With SLS and FLS functions, the flight crew monitors the lateral and vertical
deviations as for an ILS approach.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 086

During RNP APCH operations with LNAV/VNAV minima, the requirement on


lateral deviation is linear (RNP value = 0.3 NM on the final leg). In FLS approach
Figure69: mode, F-LOC deviation is angular. Therefore the deviation width depends on
Linear RNP requirement the distance to the threshold. As illustrated on figure 69, F-LOC deviation of 1
versus angular FLS deviation. dot corresponds to 0.3 NM at 17 NM from runway threshold.

As long as F-LOC deviation remains less than 1 dot and distance to the runway
threshold is less than 17 NM, the RNP requirement of 0.3 NM is respected.

During RNP APCH operations with LPV minima, the requirement on lateral
deviation is angular.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 087

4.4 A350 SPECIFIC FEATURES


FOR RNP AR OPERATIONS
_
The A350 aircraft is the first Airbus aircraft with a specific design for RNP AR
operations. Airbus established new system architecture and new HMIs that consider
the requirements of EASA AMC 20-26, and improve situational awareness of
the flight crew during this operation. This section describes these new features.

4.4.1 HMI Enhancement


4.4.1.1 RNP AR Tag in NDB
A RNP AR tag coded in NDB is associated with related procedures. This tag
enables the display of dedicated RNP AR information on MFD, PFD and ND.

As part of the NDB validation required for RNP AR operations, the Operator
verify the coding of the RNP AR tag on each RNP AR procedure in the NDB.

4.4.1.2 On MFD
On A350 aircraft, the RNP value that are coded in the NDB, are indicated on
the FPLN page. The RNP label is also indicated on procedure selection as
illustrated on Figure70.

Figure70:
RNP Label and Value
on A350 MFD FLPN page

4.4.1.3 On PFD
For an RNP AR procedure, a RNP AR label is displayed on the bottom right
side of the PFD (refer to Figure71).
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 088

Figure71:
A350 RNP AR labels on PFD

The lateral and vertical deviation scale flash if there is an excessive lateral or
vertical deviation.

4.4.1.4 On ND
The RNAV (RNP) label of the related procedure is indicated at the top of the ND.
The RNP value of the active flight leg is also indicated at the bottom of the ND
as illustrated on Figure72.

Figure72:
A350 RNP AR labels on ND
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 089

4.4.1.5 Management of RNP AR capability


Airbus established a new management of the system failures on A350 aircraft.

The aircraft systems compute a RNP AR status in accordance with data provided
by the systems that are involved in the RNP AR function.
The RNP AR status reflects current aircraft capability to ensure RNP AR monitoring
in accordance with equipment availability and required navigation performance
(accuracy and integrity).

The RNP AR capability function has three states:


Normal state: Aircraft has full RNP AR capability (down to 0.1 NM), i.e.
equipment redundancy and navigation performance is ensured, or
RNP AR LIMITED to 0.30: In the case of loss of equipment redundancy. In
the absence of additional failure, the navigation performance is maintained, or
RNP AR CAPABILITY LOST: In the case of functional loss, loss of navi-
gation performance or availability of RNP AR function for a limited duration.
Nevertheless the aircraft systems provide the flight crew with guidance to
safely extract the aircraft from the current procedure.

When a system failure occurs that downgrades the RNP capability, an alert
message is displayed on ECAM or ND.

For example, Figure73 illustrates the ECAM status in the case of RNP AR
LIMITED TO 0.30.

Figure73:
RNP AR Memo on ECAM in case of
RNP AR LIMITED to 0.30
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 090

Figure74:
RNP AR Capability Lost on ND

Figure75:
RNP Memo on ECAM in case
of RNP AR Capability Lost

4.4.2 Management of Degraded Navigation


4.4.2.1 FCU Backup
In the case of total loss of the FCU, the A350 aircraft has an FCU backup function
(non-specific to RNP AR function) hosted in the MFD (refer to Figure76). The FCU
backup function enables the continuation of RNP AR procedure after FCU failure.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 091

Figure76:
FCU Backup on MFD

4.4.2.2 Automatic Reconfiguration after FMS Loss


On A350 aircraft, in the case of single FMS loss, the AutoPilot (AP) and the
managed modes (i.e. DES|NAV and APP-DES|NAV) are maintained.

4.4.2.3 Display and Guidance Backup


On A350 aircraft, in the case of double FMS loss, a display backup function enables
the display of the aircraft trajectory (referred to as BACKUP TRAJ), and the third
FMS provides a guidance backup along the stored FPLN, refer to Figure77.

Figure77:
ND and VD Backup Display
after Double FMS Failure
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 092

#5
Summary
Following the initial conventional navigation, some new methods of navigation
emerged with the introduction of new Inertial Reference and Global Navigation
Satellite System (GNSS) navigation that supply the FMS navigation function.

As illustrated on Figure78, the PBN concept aimed at optimizing the aircraft trajec-
tory on the basis of the high performance of these new aircraft navigation means.

Figure78:
Example of Traffic Dispersion
Before and After Deployment of RNAV 1
procedures on Atlanta Airport (KATL)
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 093

The objective of the PBN procedure is to increase the airspace capacity and flight
efficiency, and to maintain the accessibility to airports in challenging environment
such as congested, mountainous or noise sensitive area.

The PBN procedures have been categorized by ICAO in RNAV and RNP types.
The requested level of navigation performance is adapted to the flight phase and
the environment of the procedure, from RNAV 10 to RNP AR down to 0.1 NM.
Even if OBPMA is required only for RNAV operations, the Airbus aircraft are equipped
with an OBPMA, and have a high navigation performance. Therefore the flight crew
operates both RNAV and RNP procedures in the same way:
With an OBPMA to monitor the position performance.
With an OBPMA set to the lower possible RNP value (often less than specified
by the procedure).

The following Figure79 summarizes the operational area of the different RNAV
and RNP procedures.

Figure79:
RNAV and RNP Operational Area

The NAA may require an operational approval for the Operators intended PBN
operations.
Before any PBN operations, the Operator demonstrates the following:
The individual aircraft capability.
The update of relevant operational manuals and aircraft documentation.
The appropriate training of the flight crew and ground operators.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 094

For each type of PBN operations, Airbus demonstrated the aircraft compliance
with the applicable airworthiness regulations from EASA and FAA. This aircraft
capability ensures the appropriate configuration for the intended PBN operations.

The following tables provide an overview of the Airbus aircraft eligibility to RNAV
and RNP procedures.

Type RNAV
Flight Area En-Route Terminal
ICAO PNB RNAV 10 RNAV5 RNAV 1 / RNAV 2
Manuel
Charts RNP 10 B-RNAV P-RNAV Terminal RNAV
FAA order EASA AMC FAA EASA FAA
Regulations 8400.12C 20-4 / TGL AC90-96A TGL10 AC90-100
AC90-105A

without FMS - - - - -

A300 with FMS and -


A310 without GNSS

with FMS -
and GNSS

without GNSS

A320
FMS1
A330
with GNSS
A340

FMS2
with GNSS

A380 All

A350 All

Table 1:
Aircraft Eligibility to RNAV operations
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 095

Type RNP
Flight Area En-Route Terminal Approach All Term/
App
ICAO PNB RNP 4 RNP 2 RNP 1 RNP APCH RNP APCH RNP AR APCH RF legs A-RNP
Manuel LNAV & LNAV/VNAV LPV (or LP) capability
RNP 1
Charts RNP 4 N/A (Terminal) RNAV (GNSS) RNAV (RNP) - -
EASA
FAA order FAA FAA FAA FAA CS-ACNS
EASA EASA EASA FAA FAA
Regulations 8400.33 AC90-105A AC90-105 AMC20-27 AC90-105 AMC20-28 AMC20-26 AC90-101A AC20-138C AC90-105 FAA
AC90-105A (CASA) app2 app1&4 app5 AC20-138D
AC90-105A

without FMS - - - - - - - - - - -

A300 with FMS and


- - - - - - - - - -
A310 without GNSS

with FMS - LNAV - - - - - - -


and GNSS

without GNSS - - - - - - - - - - -

A320
FMS1
A330 - - - - - - - -
with GNSS
A340

FMS2 - -
with GNSS option option option

A380 All - -
option option option

A350 All -
option

Table 2:
Aircraft Eligibility to RNP operations
Note:
_
Some PBN operations require an air- In order to prepare RNAV and RNP operations, update their Operations Manuals
craft configuration that may require a and aircraft documentations, and define a training program, the Operator should
dedicated modification to the aircraft refer to the operational documentation of the aircraft:
Type Design (referred to as option
in the table).
AFM: The aircraft capability for RNAV and RNP operations is declared in the
LIMITATIONS section (i.e. LIM-22-Flight Management System-Airworthiness
Standards Compliance) of the AFM.
For RNP AR operations, the ACD referenced in the AFM provides a technical
complement on the demonstration of compliance with airworthiness and oper-
ational requirements.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 096

FCOM: This operational manual provides the following information for each
RNAV or RNP operations:
In the special operations section (i.e. FCOM-PRO-SPO)
R
The minimum equipment configuration requested to initiate the procedure.
R
The approaches procedures.
R
The operational limitations, if any (for example,
the time limitation when the IRS only position is used).
R
The recommendations on the use of the navigation modes.
In the normal procedure section (i.e. FCOM-PRO-NOR-22) of the FCOM.
R
The procedures for NPA.

FCTM: Some additional details on aircraft functions and procedures are provided
in the following sections:
in SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:
R
A dedicated chapter RADIUS TO FIX (RF) LEGS details the RF leg manage-
ment (use of AP/FD, speed/wind/bank angle management).
R
A chapter NAVIGATION ACCURACY details the navigation position compu-
tation and indications, and use of FMS.
In NORMAL OPERATIONS:
R
A dedicated chapter NON PRECISION APPROACH details the characteristics
of the NPA.

MMEL: The MMEL Items linked to the minimum configuration for RNAV and
RNP operations should be taken into account in MEL for dispatch conditions.

Airbus provides some cockpit functions to operate PBN procedures and ease
the flight crew tasks:
An accurate aircraft position and flight guidance (refer to Section 4.1 and 4.2).
A monitoring of the aircraft performance and capability (refer to Section 4.1).
Some dedicated HMIs and failure messages (refer to Section 4.3) to monitor
deviations to the intended flight path.
High commonality of the NPA (FLS and SLS) with ILS precision approach (refer
to Section 4.3.4).
The cockpit design and architecture of the A350 aircraft are RNP AR oriented
with specific HMIs and management of abnormal conditions (refer to Section 4.4).

For Navigation, the next step will be to introduce the time in addition to the 3D
navigation constraints, so that the flight can be managed as closely as possible to
the airspace users ideal profile, while optimizing the flow of air traffic.

The PBN operations are part of a long term vision. Several initiatives such as
European SESAR project, US NextGEN project or Japanese CARATS are creating
efforts to develop technologies and procedures for a new-generation of the ATM.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 097

Annexes
#A DEFINITIONS


_
For the purpose of this document, the following definitions apply:

A A-RNP....Advanced RNP C CASA......Civil Aviation Safety


_ AC...........Advisory Circular _ Authority (Australia)
(FAA/CASA) CAT........CATegory
ACD........Airworthiness (approach and landing)
Compliance Document CDA........Continuous
ACCUR...ACCURacy Descent Approach
ADIRS.....Air Data and Inertial CNS........Communications,
Reference System Navigation and
ADS-B....Automatic Dependent Surveillance
Surveillance Broadcast CONF.....CONFiguration
ADS-C....Automated Dependent CPDLC...Controller-Pilot DataLink
Surveillance Contract Communication
AFM........Airplane Flight Manual CS...........Certification Specifications
AIC..........Aeronautical
Information Circular D DA...........Decision Altitude
AIP..........Aeronautical _ DES........DEScent
Information Publication DGAC.....Direction Gnrale de
AIRAC.....Aeronautical Information lAviation Civile/ Direccion
Regulation And Control General de Aeronautica
AMC.......Acceptable Means Civil
of Compliance (EASA) DME.......Distance Measuring
ANSP......Air Navigation Equipment
Service Provider DO..........DOcument (RTCA)
APP........APProach
AOC........Airline Operational E EASA......European Aviation
Communication _ Safety Agency
AP...........Auto-Pilot ECAC......European Civil
APCH......APproaCH Aviation Conference
APV.........Approach Procedure ECAM.....Electronic Centralized
with Vertical guidance Aircraft Monitoring
AR...........Authorization Required ED...........Eurocae Document
ARMA.....African Regional EGNOS...European Geostationary
Monitoring Agency Navigation Overlay
ASE.........Altimetry System Error Service
ATC........Air Traffic Control ENR........EN-Route
ATM........Air Traffic Management EO...........Engine Out
ATS.........Air Traffic Service EO ACC A LT Engine Out
AUSOTS.AUStralian Organized ACCelaration ALTitude
Track System EPE.........Estimated Position
Error (equivalent to EPU)
B B-RNAV.. Basic RNAV (RNAV5) EPU........Estimated Position
_ B-RNP....Basic RNP (RNP 1) Uncertainty
BARO.....BAROmetric EUR........EURope
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 098

EUROCAE European Organisation IFR..........Instrument Flight Rules


for Civil Aviation ILS...........Instrument
Equipment Landing System
EUROCONTROL European INS..........Inertial Navigation System
Organisation for the IRS..........Inertial Reference System
Safety of Air Navigation ISA..........International Standard
Atmosphere
F F-G/S......FLS Glide Slope ITP..........In-Trail Procedure
_ F-LOC.....FLS LOCalizer
FAA.........Federal Aviation J JAA.........Joint Aviation Authorities
Administration _
FAF.........Final Approach Fix L L/DEV.....Lateral DEViation
FAP.........Final Approach Point _ L/G.........Landing Gear
FCOM.....Flight Crew LIM.........LIMitation part (FCOM)
Operating Manual LNAV......Lateral NAVigation
FCU........Flight Control Unit LOA........Letter Of Authorization/
FD...........Flight Director Letter Of Acceptance
FH...........Flight Hour LOC........LOCalizer
FIR..........Flight Information Region LORAN...Long Range Aid
to Air Navigation
FL...........Flight Level
LP...........Localizer Performance
FLS.........FMS Landing System LPV.........Localizer Performance
FMA........Flight Mode Annunciator with Vertical guidance
FMS........Flight Management LRNS......Long-Range
System Navigation System
FOSA......Flight Operational
Safety Assessment M MCDU.....Multifunction Control
FPA.........Flight Path Angle _ and Display Unit
FPLN......Flight PLaN MDA....... Minimum Descent Altitude
FRT.........Fixed Radius Transition MEL........Minimum Equipment List
FT...........Flight Time MFD........Multi-Function Display
FTE.........Flight Technical Error MMEL.....Master Minimum
Equipment List
G G/S.........Glide Slope MMR.......Minimum Monitoring
_ GBAS......Ground-Based Requirement
Augmentation System MMR. . .....Multi-Mode Receiver
GEN........GENeral MNPS..... M inimum Navigation
Performance Specification
GLS........GBAS Landing System
MOC.......Minimum Obstacle
GNSS......Global Navigation Clearance
Satellite System
MPD.......Maintenance Planning
GPIRS.....Global Positioning and Document
Inertial Reference System MRB........ Maintenance Review Board
GPS........Global Positioning System MSA........Minimum Sector Altitude
GPSSU...Global Positioning System
Sensor Unit N NAA........ National Aviation Authority
_ NAARMO North American Approvals
H HDG........HeaDinG Registry and Monitoring
_ HF...........High Frequency Organization
HMI.........Human-Machine Interface NANU.....Notice Advisory to
NAVSTAR Users
I IAP..........Instrument Approach NAV........NAVigation
_ Procedure NAVAID .NAVigation AID
ICAO.......International Civil NAT........North ATlantic
Aviation Organization ND..........Navigation Display
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 099

NDB........Navigation Data Base S SAAR......Special Aircraft and


NDB........Non-Directional Beacon _ Aircrew Authorization
(see 2) Required
NM..........Nautical Mile SAM........South America
NORM....NORMal Procedures SB...........Service Bulletin
(FCOM) SBAS......Satellite-Based
NOTAM..Notice To AirMen Augmentation System
NPA........Non Precision Approach SENEAM S  ervicis a la Navegacion
NSE........Navigation System Error en el Espacio Areo
Mexicano
O OBPMA..On Board Performance SESAR....Single European
_ Monitoring and Alerting Sky ATM Research
OCS........Obstacle SID..........Standard Instrument
Clearance Surface Departure
OEI..........One Engine Inoperative SLS.........Satellite Landing System
OESB......Oceanic Errors SOP........Standard Operating
Safety Bulletin Procedures (FCOM)
OM..........Operations Manual SPA........SPecial Approval
OTS........Organized Track System SPD BRK SPeeD BReaK
SPO.........SPecial Operations (FCOM)
P P-RNAV..Precision RNAV SSR........Secondary Surveillance
_ (RNAV 2 / RNAV 1) Radar
PAC........PACifique STAR......STandard
PACOTS.PACific Organized Track instrument ARrival
PANS-OPS Procedures for Air SUPP......SUPPlementary
Navigation Services procedures (FCOM)
Aircraft Operations (ICAO)
PANS-ATM Procedures for Air T TAWS.....Terrain Awareness
Navigation Services _ and Warning System
Air Traffic Management TF...........Track-to-Fix
(ICAO) TGL.........Temporary Guidance
PARMO..Pacific Approvals Leaflet (JAA)
Registry and Monitoring TLS.........Target Level of Safety
Organization TOAC......Time Of Arrival Control
PBN........Performance TOW.......Take-Off Weight
Based Navigation
TSE.........Total System Error
PFD........Primary Flight Display
TSO........Technical Standard Order
PRO........PROcedures (FCOM part)
PSR........Primary U US...........United States of America
Surveillance Radar _
V V/DEV.....Vertical DEViation
R RADAR...RAdio Detection _ VD...........Vertical Display
_ and Ranging
VEB.........Vertical Error Budget
RAIM......Receiver Autonomous
VHF.........Very High Frequency
Integrity Monitoring
VNAV......Vertical NAVigation
RF...........Radius-to-Fix
RMA....... Regional Monitoring VOR........VHF Omnidirectional
Agency radio Range
RNAV......Area Navigation W WAAS.....Wide Area
RNP........Required Navigation _ Augmentation System
Performance
RVSM.....Reduced Vertical X XTK.........Cross-Track deviation
Separation Minimum _
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 100

#B RVSM


_
1. SCOPE
_
The Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) airspace was created to
take into account the requirement for more fuel optimized profiles and increased
the airspace capacity.

As described on Figure80, the scope of the RVSM airspace is defined between


FL290 and FL410 included. Within these flight levels, the vertical separation
of the tracks is reduced to 1000 ft (instead of 2000 ft in non-RVSM airspace).

NON-RVSM RVSM

FL410 FL410
FL400
FL390 FL390
FL380
FL370 FL370
FL360
FL350 FL350
FL340
FL330 FL330
FL320
Figure80: FL310 FL310
RVSM flight FL300
levels definition FL290 FL290

Initially deployed in the North Atlantic area in 1997, the RVSM is deployed
worldwide since 2008, as illustrated on Figure81.

Figure81:
Overview of Worldwide
Deployment of the RVSM
(November 2011)

For example, refer to Australian AIP GEN 1.5 Section 10:


10. RVSM Approval and operations In Australia, RVSM is applied in accord-
ance with the ICAO standard.

NAA may require an operational approval for the use of RVSM airspace in order
to ensure that the aircraft will be able to maintain an accurate FL.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 101

The following chapters describe the requirements for operators to operate RVSM
airspace: The airworthiness approval is completed by additional requirements
for the Operators in order to obtain the initial operational approval. This opera-
tional approval will be regularly monitored by the NAA and RVSM management
organizations.

2. AIRCRAFT
_
2.1 Airworthiness Regulations
The RVSM capability of the aircraft is demonstrated and certified on the basis
of the compliance demonstration with the airworthiness regulations.

The RVSM airworthiness approval relies on the compliance with the airworthiness
section of the following guidance materials:
ICAO Annex 6 (Appendix 4 & Section 7.2)
FAA AC 91-85 Section 10 (superseding FAA Interim guidelines 91-RVSM)
EASA CS-ACNS.E.RVSM (superseding JAA TGL 6 Rev1).

The compliance of the aircraft with RVSM airworthiness regulations is declared


in the LIMITATIONS / 34 Navigation / RVSM section of the AFM.
Figure82:
RVSM Capability The example below shows a possible extract of the AFM. This example is for
Declaration in AFM information only. The content depends on individual aircraft configuration.

2.2 Requirements on Systems


The minimum equipment configuration is provided in the AFM-NORM-34
NAV-RVSM Section of the AFM. This list should be taken into account in MEL
for dispatch conditions.
Figure83:
Minimum Equipment The example below shows a possible extract of the AFM. This example is for
Configuration in AFM information only. The content depends on individual aircraft configuration.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 102

2.3 Navigation Performance Requirements


The aircraft performance requirements are mainly defined by the following criteria:
Aircraft Mean Altimetry System Error (ASE) is less than 80 ft.
Aircraft Mean ASE + 3 standard deviation is less than 200 ft.
AP keep the aircraft altitude less than 65 ft from the selected altitude under
non turbulent, no gust conditions.

2.4 Airbus Aircraft Eligibility


RVSM capability is basic on all Airbus aircraft in production.

3. OPERATOR
_
3.1 Operational Regulations
The section SPA.RVSM of EASA AIR OPERATIONS requires to obtain an oper-
ational approval to operate the RVSM airspace, based on the following items:
Aircraft airworthiness approval.
Program of Monitoring of the height-keeping errors.
Flight crew training program.
Operating procedures and operational manual update that takes into account
the normal/abnormal and contingency procedures in RVSM environment.

This operational regulation also defines the minimum equipment list and criteria
for height-keeping errors.

In addition the Operator provides evidences of a validation flight for initial approval,
and then performs a recurrent monitoring flight.

Some organizations dedicated to RVSM (for example NAARMO for North


American area, PARMO for Pacific area, RMA for the European area, or ARMA
for the African and Indian ocean area) monitor the approved RVSM aircraft.

These organizations maintain databases of RVSM-approved aircraft based


on aircraft data, validation flights, and monitoring flight that demonstrates
height-keeping performance. The validation flight is performed on the basis of
a flight over a fixed ground station (refer to as Height Monitoring Unit method)
or with the use of an autonomous GPS station on-board (refer to as GPS
Monitoring Unit method).

The Operator must perform a monitoring flight at least every 1000 flights or two
years. This flight is initiated by the Operator, on each aircraft or on partial fleet
(depending on the aircraft category, refer to the definition of RVSM Minimum
Monitoring Requirement (MMR) Tables (or MMR chart) on above organizations
website).
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 103

3.2 Operator Procedure


3.2.1 Dispatch

Figure84: The MEL is updated in accordance with RVSM operations. The MEL can be
Aircraft Minimum Configuration based on MMEL and the minimum configuration defined in the special operations
for RVSM Operations FCOM-PRO-SPO-RVSM of the FCOM (refer to the Figure84).

For the preflight phase, the Operator performs the following tasks:
Check the NOTAMS.
Insert RVSM capability in the ATS flight plan in accordance with the ICAO
or the NAA recommendations (refer to Annex E): W indication is inserted
in the first part of ITEM 10 (or Q indication for repetitive flight plan).
Inspect the external fuselage skin around static probes.

During cockpit preparation, the flight crew performs the following tasks:
Compare altimeter sources: The difference shall not exceed specified limits
defined in the FCOM.
Check the warning messages before take-off.

3.2.2 Flight Crew


A Training of the flight crew is necessary. The training should focus on the
following elements:
Knowledge and understanding of the RVSM concepts and associated ATC
phraseology.
FCOM content (normal/abnormal/contingency procedures, limitations).
Knowledge of the requirements for RVSM provided in the Guidance concerning
Air Navigation in and above the North Atlantic MNPS Airspace (NAT Doc 007).
Additional airspace characteristics (for example, the Oceanic Errors Safety
Bulletin (OESB)).
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 104

#C MNPS/HLA
_
1. SCOPE
_
The initial Minimum Navigation Performance Specification (MNPS) was established
in 1977 to ensure that the risk of collision, as a result of a loss of horizontal
separation, will be contained within an agreed Target Level of Safety.
The NAT MNPS has been re-designated NAT High Level Airspace (NAT HLA)
in 2016.

The NAT HLA airspace is defined between FL285 and FL420 inclusive. Only
HLA MNPS-approved aircraft are permitted to operate within the NAT HLA
airspace in order to ensure the safe separation between aircraft. As illustrated
on Figure 85, the HLA mainly applies for the North Atlantic area.
Note:
_
Since 4 February 2016, the NAT
MNPS airspace is re-designated
NAT HLA airspace (HLA). This
change supports the MNPS to
Performance-Based Navigation
(PBN) transition plan. HLA MNPS
approval requires RNP 4 or RNAV
10 (RNP 10) capability.

Figure85:
MNPS Operational Area
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 105

2. AIRCRAFT
_
Aircraft that operate in this airspace are required to comply with HLA MNPS
requirements. The requirements are provided in the NAT Doc 007.

As per NAT Doc 007 Section 1, the aircraft shall :


Be equipped with two LRNS with continuous indication of the aircraft position
relative to the desired track.
Have at least RNP 4 or RNAV 10 capability which comply with the navigation
Figure86:
performance criteria.
MNPS capability requirements Have RVSM capability.

The minimum equipment configuration is based on requirements of RNP 4 or


RNAV 10, and RVSM configuration, which is provided in the special operations
section (i.e. FCOM-PRO-SPO) of the FCOM. This list should be taken into
account in MEL for dispatch conditions.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 106

3. OPERATOR
Note: _
_
Aircraft that have been NAT Aircraft without NAT HLA MNPS Approvals may fly across the North Atlantic
MNPS-approved by NAA are per- below FL285.
mitted to operate in the NAT HLA
until 2020. The requirements for NAT HLA operations are defined in NAT Doc 007. The
ICAO NAT SUPPs and Doc 7030, the EASA AIR OPERATIONS (existing SPA.
MNPS), FAA material will be updated in accordance with HLA specification of
NAT Doc 007.

The HLA MNPS operational approval will be based on former MNPS approval
that is based on the following items:
Navigation equipment in accordance with performance requirements.
Navigation displays, indicators and controls.
Appropriate flight crew training.
Availability of the operating procedures.

For the preflight phase, the Operator indicates both the HLA/ MNPS and RVSM
capability in the ATS flight plan in accordance with ICAO or NAA recommendations:
Insert the letter X indication for HLA/ MNPS in the first part of the ITEM 10.
Insert the letter W indication for RVSM in the first part of the ITEM 10.

Additional requirements are detailed in NAT Doc 007 Section 4, depending on


aircraft navigation and communication capability.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 107

#D ORGANIZED TRACKS
_
An Organized Track System (OTS) provides cost-saving opportunities for
Operators on fuel burn and flight time. Figure87 illustrates the existing NAT
OTS in North Atlantic, PACOTS in Pacific, and AUSOTS in Australia.

These flexible tracks, which provide some optimized routes, take into account
meteorological conditions (i.e. jet stream), as well as user needs, military activity,
volcanic activity and other limitations.

Figure87:
Example of Organized
Track Systems

A significant part of the oceanic traffic operates on tracks, which vary from day to day.

The variability of winds makes a fixed track system not optimized in terms of
flight time and fuel usage. However, due to the traffic flow, the absence of any
designated tracks (i.e. a free flow system) may not be possible to manage
because of the large procedural separation standards in airspace without radar
surveillance.

As a result, an OTS is established on a day to day basis for each of the Westbound
and Eastbound flows. Each OTS includes a set of tracks. The position of these
tracks takes into account the different constraints to suit the traffic.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 108

#E FLIGHT PLAN IMPACT


_

Figure88:
Example of Organized
Track Systems

During the preflight phase, the NAAs require to include the PBN capability in
the ATS flight plan request in order to receive the desired PBN routing.

The ICAO Procedures for Air Navigation Services Air Traffic Management
(ICAO PANS-ATM Doc. 4444 Annex 2) provides guidance for NAA to define
their standard of flight plan, particularly for item 10 and 18.
The amendment 1 to PANS-ATM (referred to as FPL2012) provided new indi-
cations for the provision of CNS capabilities.

Eurocontrol has published a leaflet providing recommendations for operators to fill


in the ICAO flight plan. It is available at http://contentzone.eurocontrol.int/FPL/

The FAA has also published recommendations for operators to fill in the flight
plan on the following website:
http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/ato/service_units/
air_traffic_services/flight_plan_filing/

Particularly, if the aircraft has more than 8 PBN capabilities, the following website
provides some additional guidelines:
http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/ato/service_units/
air_traffic_services/flight_plan_filing/media/Guidance_Item_10_18.pdf

Or refer to the following website, which provides a guidance table for FAA
operational approval:
http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/ato/service_units/
air_traffic_services/flight_plan_filing/media/op_approval_guidance.pdf
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 109

The summary of the PBN

IR
sors ed

M E/
indications is described

sen ermitt

ME

ANC
DM
E/D

E/D
in the following table:

/
All p

GNS

VOR

LOR
DM

DM
RNAV 10 A1 - - - - -
OCEANIC
RNP 4 L1 - - - - -

RNAV5 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6
EN-ROUTE RNAV 2 C1 C2 C3 - C4 -

RNAV 1 D1 D2 D3 - D4
RNAV 1 D1 D2 D3 - D4
TERMINAL
RNP 1 O1 O2 O3 - O4
RNP APCH S1 - - - - -

RNP APCH
with Baro VNAV
S2 - - - - -

FINAL
RNP AR APCH
with RF
T1 - - - - -

RNP AR APCH
without RF
T2 - - - - -

Table 3:
ATS Flight Plan Coding

If the aircraft has several PBN capabilities, they must be concatenated in ITEM
18 (Example: PBN/A1L1B1C1D1O1S2).

If the aircraft has PBN capability for all permitted sensors, each single capability
must not be concatenated (for example, set B1 instead of B1B2B3B4B5B6).

For RNP APCH, the Operator should select S1 or S2. For RNP APCH with
LPV operations, in addition to PBN/S1 or S2, the Operator should add NAV/
SBAS in item 18.)

For RNP AR APCH, the operator should select T1 or T2 (aircraft capable of


RNP AR APCH with RF are also capable of RNP AR APCH without RF leg).

For RNP 2 operations, the Operator should refer to the local State AIP/AIC. In
Australia, for RNP 2 operations, the item 18 could be NAV/RNP2 (refer to the
AIP Australia ENR 1.10.3.3.2).

The implementation of the ICAO guidance by the NAA may differ, but the
guidance are defined in the State AIP/AIC.

For example, refer to French AIP ENR 1.10:


To indicate P-RNAV equipment based solely on VOR / DME position fixing,
operators enter the letter 'Z' in field 10 of the flight plan and the descriptor
"EURPRNAV" after the indicator NAV/ in the field 18.
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 110

#F REFERENCES
_
1. ICAO
_
ICAO ANNEX 6 Part I: Operation of Aircraft 9 Ed. 2010.
http://www.icao.int/publications/Pages/catalogue.aspx

ICAO DOC 4444: Procedures for Air Navigation Services


Air Traffic Management 15 Ed. 2007.
http://www.icao.int/publications/Pages/catalogue.aspx

ICAO DOC 7030: Regional Supplementary Procedures 5 Ed. 2008.


http://www.icao.int/publications/Pages/catalogue.aspx

ICAO DOC 8168: Procedures for Air Navigation Services


Aircraft Operations Volume I: 5 Ed. 2006 / Volume II: 6 Ed. 2014.
http://www.icao.int/publications/Pages/catalogue.aspx

ICAO DOC 9613: Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Manual 4 Ed. 2013.


http://www.icao.int/publications/Pages/catalogue.aspx

ICAO DOC 9905: Required Navigation Performance Authorization Required


(RNP AR) Procedure Design Manual 1 Ed. 2009.
http://www.icao.int/publications/Pages/catalogue.aspx

ICAO NAT DOC 007: North Atlantic Operations and Airspace Manual
 http://www2010.icao.int/EURNAT/EUR%20and%20NAT%2Documents
NAT%20Documents/NAT%20Doc%20007/NAT%20Doc%20007V-
2016-1.pdf

2. EASA (AND JAA)


_
EASA AIR OPERATIONS: Commission Regulation (EU) No 965/2012 of
5 October 2012 laying down technical requirements and administrative proce-
dures related to air operations (superseding former JAR-OPS and EU-OPS).
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/
HTML/?uri=CELEX:02012R0965-20150514&qid=1433152602876&from=EN

EASA AMC 20-4 (part of AMC 20 initial issue - ED Decision 2003/12/


RM): Airworthiness Approval and Operational Criteria For the Use
of Navigation Systems in European Airspace Designated For Basic
RNAV Operations 05 November 2003.
https://www.easa.europa.eu/certification-specifications/amc-20-gener-
al-acceptable-means-compliance-airworthiness-products-parts
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 111

EASA AMC 20-12 (part of AMC 20 amendment 1 - ED Decision


2006/12/R Annex I): Recognition Of FAA Order 8400.12a
For RNP-10 Operations 22 December 2006.
https://www.easa.europa.eu/certification-specifications/amc-20-gener-
al-acceptable-means-compliance-airworthiness-products-parts

EASA AMC 20-26 (part of AMC 20 amendment 5 - ED Decision


2009/019/R Annex II): Airworthiness Approval and Operational Criteria
for RNP Authorisation Required (RNP AR) Operations 23 December 2009.
https://www.easa.europa.eu/certification-specifications/amc-20-gener-
al-acceptable-means-compliance-airworthiness-products-parts

EASA AMC 20-27 (part of AMC 20 amendment 5 - ED Decision


2009/019/R Annex III): Airworthiness Approval and Operational Criteria
for RNP APPROACH (RNP APCH) Operations Including APV BAROVNAV
Operations 23 December 2009.
https://www.easa.europa.eu/certification-specifications/amc-20-gener-
al-acceptable-means-compliance-airworthiness-products-parts

EASA AMC 20-28 (part of AMC 20 amendment 9 - ED Decision


2012/014/R Annex II): Airworthiness Approval and Operational Criteria
related to Area Navigation for Global Navigation Satellite System approach
operation to Localiser Performance with Vertical guidance minima using
Satellite Based Augmentation System 24 September 2012.
 https://www.easa.europa.eu/certification-specifications/amc-20-gener-
al-acceptable-means-compliance-airworthiness-products-parts

EASA CS-ACNS: Certification Specifications and Acceptable Means


of Compliance for Airborne Communications, Navigation and Surveillance
CS-ACNS 17 December 2013.
 https://www.easa.europa.eu/document-library/
certification-specifications/cs-acns-initial-issue

JAA TGL10 revision 1: Airworthiness And Operational Approval


For Precision RNAV Operations In Designated European Airspace
01 October 2005.
http://publish.eurocontrol.int/sites/default/files/content/documents/navi-
gation/tgl-10-jaa.pdf

JAA TGL6 revision 1: Guidance Material On The Approval Of Aircraft


And Operators FOR Flight In Airspace Above Flight Level 290 Where a 300M
(1,000 FT) Vertical Separation minimum Is Applied 01 October 1999.
http://www.skybrary.aero/bookshelf/books/157.pdf
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 112

3. FAA
_
FAA order 8400.12A: Required Navigation Performance 10 (RNP-10)
operational approval 09 February 1998.
http://www.faa.gov/documentLibrary/media/Order/8400.12A.pdf

FAA order 8400.33: Procedures for Obtaining Authorization for Required


Navigation Performance 4 (RNP-4) Oceanic and Remote Area Operations
15 September 2005.
http://www.faa.gov/documentlibrary/media/order/8400_33.pdf

FAA AC 20-138C: Airworthiness Approval of Positioning and Navigation


Systems 08 May 2012.
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/
go/document.information/documentID/1019965

FAA AC 20-138D: Airworthiness Approval of Positioning and Navigation


Systems 28 March 2014.
 http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/
go/document.information/documentID/1023966

FAA AC 90-96A change 1: Approval of U.S. Operators and Aircraft


to Operate under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) in European Airspace
Designated for Basic Area Navigation (B-RNAV)/RNAV5 and Precision
Area Navigation (P-RNAV) 12 November 2010.
 http://www.faa.gov/documentLibrary/media/Advisory_Circular/AC%20
90-96A%20CHG%201.pdf

FAA AC 90-100A change 2: U.S. Terminal and En Route Area Navigation


(RNAV) Operations 14 April 2015.
 http://www.faa.gov/documentLibrary/media/Advisory_Circular/AC_90-
100A_CHG_2.pdf

FAA AC 90-101A change 1: Approval Guidance for RNP Procedures


with AR 09 February 2016.
 http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/
go/document.information/documentID/903610

FAA AC 90-105A: Approval Guidance for RNP Operations and


Barometric Vertical Navigation in the U.S. National Airspace System
and in Oceanic and Remote Continental Airspace 07 March 2016.
 http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/
go/document.information/documentID/1029146

FAA AC 90-107: Guidance for Localizer Performance with Vertical


Guidance and Localizer Performance without Vertical Guidance Approach
Operations in the U.S. National Airspace System 11 February 2011.
 http://www.faa.gov/documentLibrary/media/Advisory_Circular/AC%20
90-107.pdf

FAA AC 91-85: Authorization of Aircraft and Operators for Flight in


Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum Airspace 21 August 2009.
 http://www.faa.gov/documentlibrary/media/advisory_circular/ac%20
91-85.pdf
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 113

4. OTHER NAA
_
AIC Brasil A 20/2013: Performance-Based Navigation (PBN)
Implementation in theBrazilian Airspace 2013.
http://ais.decea.gov.br/?i=home&lingua=en

AIC France A 28/15: Mandatory Compliance of On-board Navigation


Equipment with ICAO RNAV 1 Specification for Aircraft To and From
PARIS-CHARLES DE GAULLE, PARIS-ORLY and PARIS-LE BOURGET
Aerodromes 26 November 2015.
 https://www.sia.aviation-civile.gouv.fr/dossier/aicfrancea/
AIC_A_2015_28_EN.pdf

AIP Australia ENR 1.10-3.3.2: GNSS Notification 21 august 2014.


http://www.airservicesaustralia.com/aip/aip.asp

AIP China ENR 3.3: M503 01 March 2015.


http://aipchina.org/Version/201505/Html/MaterialVersion.htm#

AIP France ENR 1.5.5: RNAV (GNSS) APPROACH PROCEDURES


28 April 2016.
https://www.sia.aviation-civile.gouv.fr/

AIP France ENR 1.10: Flight planning 28 April 2016.


https://www.sia.aviation-civile.gouv.fr/

AIP Hong Kong GEN 1.5 3.5.2: RNP 1 SID / STAR.


http://www.ais.gov.hk/HK_AIP/AIP/GEN/HK_GEN1.5.pdf

AIP USA ENR 7.4: Operational Policy 50 NM Lateral Separation


January 2015.
http://www.faa.gov/air_traffic/publications/media/AIP.pdf

CASA AC 91U-II-C-2(0): Navigation Authorisations RNP 2


September 2012.
 https://www.casa.gov.au/sites/g/files/net351/f/_assets/main/rules/
1998casr/091/091uc02-c02.pdf

5. RTCA
_
RTCA/DO-200A: Standards for Processing Aeronautical Data
28 September 1998.
http://www.rtca.org/store_list.asp
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 114

6. EUROCAE
_
EUROCAE/ED-76: Standards for Processing Aeronautical Data
October 1998
https://www.eurocae.net/publications/search/

7. AIRBUS
_
C NS|ATM website - functionnal descriptions, existing operational mandates
Go to www.airbusworld.com Section Content library/Flight Operations/
Operational Material
https://w3.airbus.com/crs/A233_Flight_Ops_GN60_Inst_Supp/CNS-
ATM/eSite/index.html

Getting to grips with Surveillance addressing TCAS, Transponder,


ADS-B OUT, ADS-B IN (ATSAW/ITP), TAWS (EGPWS), Weather RADAR,
Airport Navigation (OANS/ANF).
Go to www.airbusworld.com Section Content library/Flight Operations/
Operational Expertise/Getting to Grips/Surveillance.

Getting to grips with FANS addressing datalink communication concept


using FANS (CPDLC, OCL, DCL, D-ATIS, ATS623, ACARS, ATN).
Go to www.airbusworld.com Section Content library/Flight Operations/
Operational Expertise/Getting to Grips/FANS.

8. MISCELLANEOUS
_
ARMA: AFI RVSM Regional Monitoring Agency
http://www.atns.co.za/arma.php

NAARMO: North American Approvals Registry and Monitoring Organization


http://www.faa.gov/air_traffic/separation_standards/naarmo/

PARMO: Pacific Approvals Registry and Monitoring Organization


https://www.faa.gov/air_traffic/separation_standards/parmo/

RMA: European Regional Monitoring Agency


http://www.eurocontrol.int/articles/european-rvsm-approvals
Getting to Grips with PBN - Issue 1 115

AIRBUS S.A.S. 31707 Blagnac Cedex, France


AIRBUS S.A.S. 2016 - All rights reserved, Airbus, its
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October2016. Concept design by Airbus Multi Media
Support 20162377. Photos by Airbus.