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Before plunging headrst into myriad industrial heat tracing designs,

products and applications, one must rst have an understanding of the

basics of heat loss.

Figure 1. This sectional view of a typical pipe system consists of the pipe, insulation, a weather Figure 2. To

barrier and gaps between each layer.

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December 1, 2016 that must transport substances that solidify at ambient

MarkCrombie,Chromalox

temperatures, as well as for freeze protection and to maintain

process uids at ow temperature. Both electrically heated and

steam-heating tracing is used for industrial thermal processes.

Typical electric heat tracing include constant wattage and self-regulating heat tracing.

Though all heat tracing is subject to heat losses, by understanding the basics of heat loss,

you can design a heat tracing solution that will effectively maintain your industrial process

piping temperature.

This article deals with the basic principles of heat transfer and the calculations used for pipes and

vessels. By understanding fundamental heat transfer concepts, you can use them used to arrive at a

general formula that is used in heat loss calculations.

Figure 1 depicts a sectional view of a typical pipe system. It consists of the pipe, insulation, a weather

barrier and gaps between each layer. If the pipe and its contents are warmer than the surrounding

environment, heat will be transferred from the pipe to the air. If enough heat is transferred out of the

pipe, the pipe contents may thicken or solidify, resulting in damage to pipes or pumping equipment.

Heat ows from one object to another in much the same way as water. Objects of unequal temperatures

in a thermal system tend toward thermal equilibrium. The hotter object transfers some of its heat to

the colder object until the objects are the same temperature. Heat can be transferred by way of

conduction, convection and radiation.

way of direct contact. The rate of heat transfer is dependent upon how much resistance exists between

objects of differing temperatures. In many cases, the transfer of heat from one medium to another is

desired. Cooking is an everyday example of intended heat transfer. Also, most electronic components

operate more ef ciently if excess heat generated by the equipment is dissipated to a medium not

adversely affected by the addition of heat.

In contrast, preserving heat in a system can be just as important as heat transfer. Keeping a pipe's

contents above freezing in cold weather is a common practice of minimizing heat transfer.

Whether a substance acts as a thermal conductor or insulator depends on the thermal resistive

properties of the substance. Thermal resistance (R) is a measure of an object's ability to retard heat

transfer by way of conduction through a given thickness of the substance. Mathematically, R is:

where

L is the insulation thickness in inches,

k is thermal conductivity, (BTU)(in)/(ft2)(oF)(hr)

As the thickness (L) changes, it affects the R value, or thermal resistance of an insulation. K values are

constants that are speci c to the physical properties of a given material. They measure a material's

ability to transfer heat. Some common K values, as measured at room temperature, of materials are

325.300 for steel, 2750.700 for copper, 0.250 for berglass and 0.167 for air.

Convection.Losses by convection can be seen to be negligible in a system without extensive

calculations. In any piping system, small air gaps exist between the surface wall and insulation. The air

gaps normally are slight -- less than one-tenth of an inch -- and prevent the ow of air which restricts

convection. Although small air gaps do not affect heat loss via convection, their thermal resistive

properties should be analyzed to determine the contribution to system heat loss through conduction.

To illustrate, suppose the pipe shown in gure 1 consists of 1" berglass insulation, and the air gap

between the pipe wall and insulation is 0.05". Using the R value equation, you can calculate the

resistance of the insulation and air gap. A ratio of the two resistances indicates that insulation has the

greatest impact in overall thermal resistance, and minor imperfections in applying insulation are

minimal.

The percentage of resistance due to the air gap is 0.299 divided by 4.299, or 6.95 percent.

Radiation.Radiant heat loss occurs as a result of highly energized molecules transmitting heat by way

of waves or particles. For signi cant heat loss to occur from radiation, the hotter surface must be well

above ambient temperature -- much higher than what is observed in typical heat trace applications.

Therefore, heat loss from radiation can be ignored.

In practical low-to-medium temperature applications, convection and radiation account for about 10

percent of the overall heat loss of a system. By adding 10 percent, the general formula for calculating

the heat loss of a system via conduction, convection and radiation can be calculated.

Flat Surface Heat Loss Calculations.The term heat loss commonly refers to the heat transfer of an

object to its ambient environment. This implies that the object in question -- a wall, for example -- is at

a temperature above the ambient temperature ( gure 2). Mathematically, the formula for calculating

the heat loss of a system through conduction, expressed in BTU/hour is:

where

U is the conductance, BTU/(ft2)(oF)(hr)

2

A is the surface area of object, ft2

T is the temperature difference (T1 -T2), oF

another way to express the basic heat loss (Q) is:

BTUs and Watts: A Comparison.The equation above calculates the heat loss of an entire at area in

BTU/hr, but electricity is normally sold by kilowatt hours. Therefore, the equation needs a conversion

factor to convert from BTU to watts. One watt equals 3.412 BTU. Modifying the equation yields a new

formula:

The equation above is based on the heat loss of an entire at area where the inside area of the

insulation wall is the same as the outside area. To simplify heat loss calculations, pipe heat loss is based

on the heat loss per linear foot rather than the entire area of any given length.

Also, for pipe insulation, the outer area of insulation is greater than the inner area due to wrapping

insulation around the cylindrical shape of a pipe. As a result, consideration must be made for this

difference when calculating heat loss for pipes.

Because pipe heat loss is based on watts per linear foot rather than the entire pipe area, the mean

insulation area for one linear foot of pipe is calculated ( gure 3). The mean area (A) is the natural

logarithm ratio of the outer and inner insulation diameters. To calculate pipe heat loss, the basic heat

loss equation (Q) is rewritten as:

where

2 is part of the formula for calculating the area of a cylinder

40.944 is 12" of pipe multiplied by the 3.412 conversion factor

Do is the outer insulation diameter,

Di is the inner insulation diameter

ln(Do/Di) is the mean circumference of insulation

However, that basic equation is the heat loss for pipes due to conduction only. By adding 10 percent for

convective and radiant losses, the nal form of the basic heat loss formula is:

Primary heating is the process of adding heat to raise the temperature of a system, whereas

supplemental heating is intended to only maintain the heat of a system at its current level. Typically, a

higher density of heat must be added for primary heat as opposed to supplemental heating. As an

analogous example, consider the amount of gasoline required to accelerate from 0 to 60 mph and

maintain speed at 60 mph. The amount of fuel and energy required to accelerate is much greater than

the amount of fuel needed to simply maintain speed.

Primary Heat.Primary heating is used to raise the temperature of a material or materials. The basic

formula for calculating the amount of heat required for primary heating in watts/hour is:

where

m is the mass (weight) of the material(s)

c is the speci c heat of the material(s)

T is the required temperature increase

3.412 is conversion from BTU to watts

This formula can be used provided that no material is changing state, i.e., changing from solid to liquid

or liquid to gas. In the event that materials are changing state, additional heat must be added to

accommodate for the latent heat of fusion and/or vaporization. When multiple materials are to be

heated, the formula can be expanded as follows.

where

m is the mass (weight) of the material(s)

c is the speci c heat of the material(s)

T is the required temperature increase

3.412 is conversion from BTU to watts

n is the number of materials

Each material's weight and speci c heat are multiplied then added together. The result is then

multiplied by the temperature increase and nally converted to watts per hour.

The amount of primary heat required is proportional to the time required to achieve the nal

temperature. If one-hour heatup requires 10 W, then a two-hour heatup requires 5 W/hr for two hours.

Conversely, a half-hour heatup requires 20 W to heat the system.

An example will help illustrate the point. Suppose you want to raise a 4" steel pipe lled with water

from 40oF (4.4oC) to 90oF (32oC) in one hour. Base the calculation on one foot of pipe. From various

tables found in engineering handbooks, the information in table 1 is gathered and inserted in the basic

heat equation.

If two hours were acceptable, the amount of primary heat to be supplied per linear foot on the pipe is

49.8 W/hr for two hours.

Supplemental Heat.Supplemental heat is a more formal term for the heat loss calculations.

Supplemental heat is the amount of heat required to maintain the existing heat level.

To illustrate, consider again the steel pipe example. Suppose you want to calculate the amount of heat

loss, or supplemental heat, required to maintain the pipe and water at 90oF in a 40oF ambient using 1"

of berglass insulation. The K factor for berglass is 0.25 BTU-in/hr-ft2-oF. The 4" pipe has an outside

diameter of 4.5". We know that

Comparing primary to supplemental heat for this example, it is apparent that applying supplemental

heat is much more economical since it uses 17.4 times less heat to maintain the nal temperature than

to raise the temperature.

Insulation.Insulation is typically the largest resistance component in a heat loss system. The better the

insulation resistance, the longer it takes to reach thermal equilibrium. Factors such as insulation type,

thickness and operating temperature conditions affect overall insulation resistance.

The K factor determines the ef ciency of insulation (table 2). The lower the K factor, the better it acts

as an insulator. Conversely, insulation with higher K factors result in less ef ciency. Although the K

factor is regarded as a constant value, K factors are affected by temperature. This is due to the fact that

many types of insulation become less ef cient as temperature increases. As a result, the K factor is

averaged across the insulating layer between the maintenance and ambient temperatures. Use the

following equation to determine the mean K factor.

When designing a heat tracing system, keep in mind that designing for the lowest heat loss may not

always obtain the best results. For example, polyurethane is a better insulator than berglass but has

an upper service temperature limit of only 200oF. Cellular glass does not insulate as well as berglass

but will not absorb liquids in the event of leaks. In most cases though, the decision of which insulation

to use is best left to the plant speci cation.

On rare occasions, multiple layers of different insulation materials are used. When this occurs, the

overall thermal resistance of the system is calculated. Each material's resistance is calculated

separately, then summed into the overall system resistance.

This article was originally published in the January 2006 issue of Process Heating magazine.

Mark Crombie is sales manager at Chromalox, LaVergne,

Installation Tips for Heat Tracing Cable Tenn., a manufacturer of heat tracing, heaters, sensors and

controls. For more information, call (800) 443-2640; e-mail

How to Select, Install, Operate and Maintain litreq@chromalox.com or visit www.chromalox.com.

Electric Heat Tracing Cable

Electrical Heat Trace Systems

Copyright 2017. All Rights Reserved BNP Media.

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