Está en la página 1de 148

.

.

.

NORWAY.61st Congress \ qfn atf / Document bJiJNAlJL 2d Session / j No. 1910. — Referred to the Select Committee to Investigate Wages and Prices of Commodities and ordered to be printed WASHINGTON GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1910 . BULGARIA. AND THE UNITED KINGDOM £ PRESENTED BY MR. SWEDEN. 631 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES DIGEST OF RECENT STATISTICAL PUB- LICATIONS RELATIVE TO PRICES AND WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN AUSTRIA. FIN- LAND. ITALY. BELGIUM. FRANCE. LODGE June 15.

^ JUL S3 WO .

1905. — Coal. The investigation covers 38 mines. by summarized statements. These tables are preceded by a comprehensive analysis and by a reproduction of the schedules of inquiry used and instructions issued for guidance in the prosecution of the work of the investigation. 1900. which constitutes the first part of the entire report.(to WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. This district includes the Crown lands of Moravia and Silesia. This report is the result of an investigation of labor conditions in Austria undertaken in 1901 by the Austrian bureau of labor statistics. 1901. manufacturing establishments. 1901. relates to the hours of labor. the wages and the income of coal-mine employees. The inquiry embraced in its scope the labor conditionsincoal mining. 128. and earnings of wageworkers. to June 30. in various combinations. AUSTRIA.Karwiner SteinJcoMenreviere. to June 30. Lohn. und Einkommens- verhaltnisse. Arbeitsleistungen. May.Arbeit sstatistischen Amte im Handelsministerium. [From Bulletin 58. for the entire district. The main part of the volume consists of a series of tables covering 583 pages.925 mine workers. in which about one- half of all the Austrian coal-mine workers are employed. The following table shows by occupations the actual number of mine work- ers employed in the entire district during each month and the average number for the entire year from July 1. various handicrafts. By far the greater part of the report is devoted to coal-mine labor. Hi. This volume. The statistical presentation shows. the number of mine workers. 1900. and contains the detailed results of the investigation.] Arbeiterverhaltnisse im Ostrau. Theil. Darge- stellt vom K. the number of shifts worked. I. for each mine separately and. K. cokingplants. 3 . covering what is known as the Ostrau-Karwin coal-mine district. 583* pp. and agriculture. of the United States Bureau of Labor. efficiency. for the period from July 1. 1904. employing an average of 34. Arbeitszeit.

.306 5.926 1.580 24. 85 2.576 Above ground: Foremen.200 9.137 35.048 2.253 64.112 2.618 12. 1900. Aver- July.074 2.95 .165 2.914 12. The following two tables show the average gross earnings and wage deductions of coal-mine workers in this district and the number of shifts worked during the year ending June 30.311 2. 2. Average Occupation. 59 $10.203 2. 2..16 227.674 36.30 .349 144. 1900.576 176. Below ground: Mine bosses.228 32.884 27. etc 147 148 150 158 162 160 161 162 161 161 165 167 158 Enginemen 894 894 900 903 895 896 906 904 910 906 894 889 900 Skilled workers.272 9. Oct. .. Feb.505 32.684 104.750 8. etc.51 1.010 137. and in June a decrease of 1.123 2.802 12. 9100. School con- Wages.57 Enginemen 104 223.884 4.028 206. Mar.527 4.292 2. 14 3.647 12. b $0.130 8.721 12.33 Total 26.028 Laborers.657 5.925 168.966 27.563 8..33 170. 64 Above ground: Foremen.716 Trammers 7. 11 a After deductions for explosives.812 34.149 2. 1.069 5. During the succeeding 3 months the number fluctuated somewhat.26 146. the total increase in the nine months being equal to 13. Jan.576 27. 1900.367 24.302 36.62 227.349 Total above an d below ground 32.. Aug. . In April there was a decline of 1 per cent. .669 Helpers 3. 1900.8 per cent.771 2. female.69 219. 1901. tributions.999 36. WAGE DEDUCTIONS.910 2. 407 410 410 408 410 410 401 399 397 394 391 389 403 Enginemen 104 104 104 104 104 103 104 104 103 104 106 107 104 Miners 12.846 35. 98 ..253 Total 7.757 12..315 2.648 8. PER EM- PLOYEE OF COAL-MINE WORKERS IN THE OSTRAU-KARWIN COAL-MINE DISTRICT DURING THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30.207 3.61 .876 12.997 3.91 .164 26.861 7.131 2.052 2. number of employees.86 . 26 . for year. Gratuities.090 2.693 3.708 8.74 10.298 8.52 Miners 12.777 3.443 12.925 7. inclusive. 1900. 85 .84 .976 2. : 4 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. ACTUAL NUMBER OF COAL-MINE EMPLOYEES IN THE OSTRAU-KARWIN COAL-MINE DISTRICT EACH MONTH DURING THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30.226 2.820 8. Below ground: Mine bosses. 86 . 92 Helpers 4.31 138.629 27.992 2. 1901.284 9.718 26.954 1. 1901 AVERAGE GROSS EARNINGS.23 104. 1901.669 138. 1901.190 3.278 5.77 Laborers. male.11 .159 3.91 .372 2.423 8.12 241. male 3.096 9. June. May. AND NET EARNINGS. 45 Trammers 8. etc 158 229.870 27. 15 Total above and below ground 34. 1901. foremen. 1901.6 per cent.87 Total 8.110 2.892 33. 1901.3 per cent.961 1.673 8.002. age Occupations.195 5. 10 . Gross earnings.269 8.780 2.01 64.99 $277.94 .642 7. 72 1.266 4.979 9. Sept. Nov.815 8.37 Laborers. etc.04 Enginemen 900 215.267 8.350 5.35 177.684 Total 24. Apr. female 2.925 Anexamination of the foregoing table shows that from July.545 7..716 225.837 2.716 12. 1901.393 2.010 2.18 1.. 34 . Dec.130 3. (o) Total.447 36. etc 403 $264.170 3.577 26.010 Laborers.357 2..700 12. 408 35.119 8. to March.994 2.959 8.692 12.74 Skilled workers 2. in May a slight increase of 0.016 2. foremen.913 25. 1901.21 207.61 . 1900.700 12. 99 $1.05 138.208 4.658 27. there was a steady increase each month in the total number of employees.848 34.979 8.

812 coal-mine workers employed on June 30. etc .25 11.89 .2 4.01 7. Average number of shifts worked during year..23 $266.29 210.253 265.50 1.349 287. 67 Helpers .85 .010 286.78 133.01 3.18 162.17 Total .44 170.70 217. etc 158 336.40 08 5. Per cent Number. 43 Miners . 00 6. 54 a $0. 925 266.43 1. etc.4 43.50 30.0 Total.01 10.50 1. 25 70. were piece or contract workers.10 $0.684 254.3 Total above and below ground 34. Sick Net benefits Actual Occupation.75 22. come.50 1.50 1. Total. 900 336.05 $12.61 .07 . 82 .8 Total 8.10 . male .00 25.1 2.03 9. 2. or 71.07 . Below ground: Mine bosses.25 39.64 200. 50 67.49 Total ..35 139.09 . Wage deductions. were paid by the shift. 75 135.04 . 35 Enginemen . 50 38. SHIFTS WORKED BY COAL-MINE WORKERS IN THE OSTRAU-KARWIN COAL-MINE DISTRICT DURING THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30.57 133.61 218. .01 2. Average number Night shifts.21 .75 2.2 Enginemen 104 328.00 .03 9.028 287.01 9. female.02 131.00 5.01 6.03 7.7 Above ground: Foremen.15 199. Per cent of total. nifica. AVERAGE GROSS EARNINGS.45 $265.2 17.80 1.22 1.90 100. 3. ance.01 6. 93 1. ceived. earn.97 .3 40.02 6. or 28.08 231. IN THE OSTRAU-KARWIN COAL-MINE DISTRICT DURING THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30. 1884. 12 $1.50 40.33 . Sunday and holiday Occupation.14 9. Total.41 Skilled workers .25 9. total in- Tools.07 .37 62.19 . 85 Trammers .75 12.47 .20 .01 $12. 00 42. 75 96.02 6.. Mar.757.36 $0.3 per cent were paid by the shift.10 .716 265.004.45 .11 3. foremen. 88 Enginemen .96 211.01 6. and of the surface workers 69.09 7.99 . the pieceworkers predominating below and the time workers above ground. ings. 32 Laborers.13 . 00 127. 50 40. and 10.8 Helpers 4.9 Laborers.002.6 4.74 2.8 Enginemen. 50 67.24 230.71 171.01 .33 . Below ground: Mine bosses. PER EM- PLOYEE. The hours of labor of underground mine workers are regulated by the law of June 21. 25 32.1 per cent. 80 1. 1901. AND NET EARNINGS.25 24.5 per cent were pieceworkers.53 134.669 251. 25 105. 25. b $0.14 1.9 Of the 35.3 4.3 4.3 29.03 . 2. tions. foremen.11 7.5 20.576 260.75 1.50 .11 . Of the underground workers 93.06 2.61 164.91 Above ground: Foremen.11 219.22 .25 12.71 217.01 5. 1901— Continued. WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.25 134.08 Total above and below ground . 75 40.6 Miners 12.00 11.02 (o) 9.7 Trammers 8. Number.1 Skilled workers.04 9.27 . 20 1. 403 317.055. fees.9 per cent. shifts. 1901.09 .30 . . Insur- Indem.67 63. etc $0. 75 109.2 7.86 Laborers.12 .02 . 26.4 IS. 50 75.2 Laborers.75 1. of total.06 101.25 23.02 9. 00 99.75 101.50 7. which provides that the duration of the shift . re- riage Fines. of em- ployees. male.9 38.02 8.05 .73 . OF COAL-MINE WORKERS.28 141.03 $0. 75 41. WAGE DEDUCTIONS. etc. . female .

267 2. Jan. The data relating to coke workers cover 8 establishments. 1900. In this coal-mine district it was found that of the 38 mines investigated. m.. June. including time for descending and ascending. m. and 10 p.179 2. to June 30.381 2. with an intermission of 2 hours.. 1901. Dec. however. May. 1901 ACTUAL NUMBER OF COKE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN THE OSTRAU-KARWIN COAL- MINE DISTRICT EACH MONTH DURING THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30. Sept. the day shift in 24 mines beginning at 6 a. Enginemen and firemen employed above ground at the pumping. Aver- July. m.287 persons.373 2. including the time for descend- ing. The hours of labor of surface workers were mostly 12 per day. for year. In the remaining 32 mines the length of the shift for each individual mine worker. 1901.287 . to 2 a. while in 8 mines the day shifts were the same but the night shifts were from 4 p. by occupations. m. m. 1901. m. 1901.. Nov.272 2. the shifts beginning at 6 a. the wages..221 2..163 2. mine workers at certain classes of difficult or straining occupations were found to work only 8 hours.. The following table shows.358 2. m. m. was 10 hours. compressing. m. female 287 275 273 272 276 277 303 316 317 317 318 311 295 Total 2. 1901. the actual number of coke workers employed in the entire district during each month. from July 1. and the earnings of employees. and shows in various combinations the number number of shifts of employees. Aug. m. Apr. 1900. m. male 618 620 634 678 706 705 713 743 759 773 788 752 707 Laborers. 1900. There was no over- time worked at any of the mines in the Ostrau-Karwin district during the year. The statistical presentation is analogous to that relating to coal-mine workers. such as wheelers. : 6 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. the time between which the first man — arrived and the last man departed was 10 hours per day. and electrical machinery worked 8 hours per day in a number of the mines. but hoist- ing engineers as a rule worked 8 hours per day. but exclusive of that required for ascending. and loaders. shall not exceed 12 hours. 1901. and the average number for the entire period. — Coke.348 2. Mar. etc 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 16 16 16 16 17 Enginemen 115 117 118 118 119 120 121 121 120 120 124 124 120 Skilled workers 151 154 150 155 161 161 163 169 168 178 180 180 164 Furnace men 978 980 987 981 988 992 993 992 993 977 980 965 984 Laborers. including time for descending and ascending... while the actual working time shall not exceed 10 hours. and ending at 4 p. to 4 a. 1900.166 2. Oct. and ending at 4 a. Feb. age Occupation. In 4 mines the regular working shifts of all mine workers — that is. even though the customary shift was 10 hours. and from 6 p. In individual cases.. worked 10 hours without intermission. m. 1901. 1900. 2 p. Persons employed in handling the coal at the mouth of the pit. Foremen. 1900..406 2. the hours being from 6 a. ventilating. screeners. to 4 p. employing an average of 2. the worked.310 2. and the night shift begin- ning at 6 p.. 1900. m. the length of the shift worked by each indi- vidual worker was 8 hours in 2 mines.

ceiv- ploy.76 201.75 8.75 37. 1901.01 5.3 Total 2. tribu.27 170.002. 1900.05 2.25 8. 57 1. 25 44.48 77.00 120.0 27.02 7.52 320.02 .62 200.287 175. 2. WAGES AND PEICES OF COMMODITIES. 39 . ber of Gra. 82 Laborers. They show the average earn- ings of coke workers in this district.51 . 10 1.60 335. School earn. The foregoing table shows that while there was a slight decrease in the total number of employees in August.Fines. tions.48 . The total deductions . Per cent of total.01 0. In.00 26.75 9. and the number of shifts worked during the year ending June 30. etc.83 Furnace men. 25 132.44 221. Wa.30 0.50 36.7 30. 25 142.07 78.40 132. c Too small to estimate. .03 . Number. con. to May.01 .7 The the foregoing tables shows that the average gross wages first of per employee during the year amounted to $175.62 Total .22 14. In the last month there was a decrease of 2.50 151. 96 1.41 188.00 111.4 Enginemen 120 331. 00 45. female 295 295. Per cent of total. ployees. 27 (a) . AND NET EARNINGS.8 18.07 8.01 2.00 108.82 168. OF COKE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN THE OSTRAU-KARWIN COAL-MINE DISTRICT DURING THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30.03 80. 004.01 . ed. 57 . Average number of shifts worked during year.4 Laborers.05 . 24 .1 26. em.57.00 8.5 30.17 ( c ) 8.7 22.6 Laborers. tions. dem. the average allowances on account of gratuities and school contributions to $0. ance.64 .75 6. 17 333. Average Night shifts. etc.. ees. day shifts. when compared with the preceding month.6 25. WAGE DEDUCTIONS.50 133. Number.03 8. Gross earnings.55 1. male 707 297. total em.26 175.1901. 88 1. SHIFTS WORKED BY COKE WORKERS IN THE OSTRAU-KARWIN COAL-MINE DIS- TRICT DURING THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30. 40 Skilled work- ers 164 196. ties. male 707 137.20 . PER EM- PLOYEE. 60 Laborers. the number steadily increased each month from August. Tools.26.42 . fees. In- Net tual fits Occupation. 50 ( b ) .5 Furnace men 984 318. tui.65 .03 196. riage sur.25 213.3 Skilled workers 164 298. re- in- Total. Mar.67 212. Foremen.5 per cent. and the total gross earnings to $175.31. 26 .50 8. Sunday and holi- Occupation.33 . 71 0. AVERAGE GROSS EARNINGS. 75 . 984 220.50 39. come. 02 ( ) oSO.26 0. 120 208. $ $ $ $ $ $ $ 8 Foremen. 95 Enginemen. 1901.06 7.00 9. nifi.09 .15 c 6.99 322. the total increase for the 10 months being equal to 11.19 5. 24 . ings.25 7. 75 1. ges. Aver- Sick age Ac- bene- num. Wage deductions. 48 14. 86 . The following two tables are similar in their presentation to the tables relating to coal-mine workers. 1901. Total. etc. 295 80. 1900. ca.287 308. 25 41.2 per cent. etc 17 322. fe- male . b $0.01 8.51 209.01 6.09 137. Total.97 189.

615 12. In the remaining 40 establishments reporting hours of labor. with 18. receiving no pay. lish- ments.82. grouped according to the classification shown in the following table: NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN 101 MANUFACTURING ESTABLISHMENTS IN THE OSTRAU- KARWIN COAL-MINE DISTRICT DURING THE SIX MONTHS ENDING JUNE 30. were not included in the table.6 per cent of the furnacemen. including 18 apprentices without pay. amounted to $6.435. workers.250 Total 101 8. were piece or con- tract workers. exclusive of periods of rest. 1901.398 10. 39 with 11.711 Of 82 establishments reporting hours of labor. or 61.27.159 1. workers. without special provision for hours of rest.177 employees the duration of the day shift. Piece or contract workers represented 46.) Number of employees. Acomparison of the foregoing figures with the earnings of coal mine workers shows that the wages. The hours for watchmen in a mining and smelting company having 28 estab- lishments were uniformly 12 hours per day and 12 hours per night.4 per cent of the day laborers. Of the 2. 1901.214 Other industries 91 1. and 31.755 Celluloids and roofing paper 244 588 832 Chemical industries 178 1. that of the night shift was in one case 6 hours. The foremen. the operations were confined .1 per cent.882 2.1 per cent of the skilled workers. or 38. makes the actual total income per employee for the year equal to $170. Number of estab- Industry.599 5. were paid by the shift and 913. The second table shows for each principal occupation the average number of shifts worked per employee and the number and percent- age of night shifts and Sunday and holiday shifts worked during the year. the total gross earnings. 1. 61.8 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. to June 30. 1901.729 employees. enginemen. leaving $168. and in the other case it was not reported.75 for net earnings. and the total actual income were greater in the case of the coke workers than the corresponding items relating to coal workers. The investigation— relating to the labor condi- from January tions in manufacturing industries covered the period 1. was 10 J? hours. and female laborers were paid exclusively by the shift.1901.02. Piece Time Total.9 per cent. Adding to the net earnings the sick benefits of $1. Manufactures. and embraced 101 establishments.313 18. Brick 296 304 600 Metals and machinery 990 765 1.060 Mining and smelting ). in 2 estab- lishments with 1. [Eighteen apprentices.348 persons employed on June 30.698 employees operated day and night shifts of equal length. the net earnings.

received extra allowances of one kind or another. of em- ployees.759 employees. Number Number of establishments. and the average weekly wages per employee. Of the total of 18. In the following table a classification of the employees is made according to wage groups. pre- sents in detail the foregoing facts in tabular form HOURS OF LABOR IN 82 MANUFACTURING ESTABLISHMENTS IN THE OSTRAU- KARWIN COAL-MINE DISTRICT DURING THE SIX MONTHS ENDING JUNE 30. c Watchmen onlv.375 10 10 /Over 10 / Over 10 23 7. b Exclusive of periods of rest.. fuel. 14 : 4. In the second series the presentation is arranged by wage groups based upon the average weekly wages per employee. lighting. or 39. Per day. compiled from data given in the report.438.3 per cent.759 10 y /Over 10 7 . either free of charge or at prices below the prevailing rates. their total weekly wages. Hours of labor.729 employees. etc. based upon their average weekly wages. These tables are supplemented by tabular statements showing the number of employees receiving extra allow- ances on account of rent. and female workers. 1901. Per night. 9 to the daytime. 7. The first series shows for each group of industries and for each class of employees separately the number of employees arranged by age groups.311 \ toll \ toll 2 12 11 11 879 a 10£ 6 298 a lOt ( b ) c76 12" 12 4 '2 4 8 4 9 25 2. . the 10-hour day predominating in 25 establishments with 2. : WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. the hours ranging from 7^ to 11 per day. received no such allowances. showing in the first part the actual figures and in the second part the relative figures. all employees being classified as superintend- ents. The wage statistics for manufacturing establishments are presented in two series of tables. The following table. or 60. and 11. 389 \ toll 5 209 11 a Not reported.291. foremen. In both series of tables the facts are shown separately for the piecework- ers and the time workers. male workers.7 per cent.

09 to $8. 2.5 per cent. and 55.15 to $14.785 9. work. o Including 4 apprentices.3 per cent. n Including 2 apprentices.work.62 1 1 69 129 /198 82 135 217 $1 63 to $1 83 97 203 9 300 130 66 196 $1. 9 Including 37 apprentices. p Including 441 apprentices.09 to $8.7 per cent.work. ers. or 51. tal.27 1 7 8 2 2 $18 27 to $20 30 8 8 5 5 $20 30 to $24 36 6 6 $24 36 to $28 42 4 4 $28 42 to $32 48 2 2 Over $32 48 1 2 3 Total 10 196 206 52 329 381 7. d Including 77 apprentices. earn from $6.285.work.05 to $3 25 1 6 7 235 581 «816 1 2 3 $3 25 to $3 45 9 9 251 630 o881 $3.251. work. earn less than $2.15 to $12. ers.09 to $8.12 3 41 44 16 65 81 1. / Including 46 apprentices.work- tal.24 to $18.591 $8. e Including 52 apprentices. h Including 33 apprentices.42 to $1.] S uper ntendents i Foremen. [Eighteen apprentices.003 19 29 48 $2. NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN 101 MANUFACTURING ESTABLISHMENTS IN THE OSTRAU-KARWIN COAL-MINE DISTRICT DURING THE SIX MONTHS ENDING JUNE 30.24 to $2.3 per cent. i Including 23 apprentices.42 per week.21 to $16.18 2 33 35 8 9 17 139 6 145 $12.12 to $10 15 1 35 36 16 34 50 426 23 449 $10.078 Pl6. work.45 to $3. earn from $10.22 to $1.09 to $10.44 4 4 167 836 / 1.2 per cent.87 per week. Average weekly wages. c Including 55 apprentices.21 1 21 22 6 5 11 43 1 44 $14. to Including 1 apprentice. $0 61 or under 1 6 17 53 °70 2 12 14 $0 81 to $1 02 36 35 c71 24 31 55 $1.83 to $2 03 4 4 85 301 h 386 90 79 169 $2 03 to $2 23 1 1 160 438 <598 75 20 95 $2. ers.15 per week. ers.84 to $3 05 2 2 224 648 to 872 2 2 $3. 9. An examination of the foregoing table shows that of the whole num- ber of employees 4.674. . 863 551 710 1.09 per week. 10 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. 274. Piece Time To- Piece Time To- Piece Time Piece Time To- work.42 1 1 56 103 el59 54 199 253 $1.18 to $14.64 5 5 158 693 * 851 6 15 21 $2.Total. i Including 9 apprentices.22 to $1.87 to $6.84 6 6 199 852 I 1. and the largest number of all employees by the group showing earnings from $6. receiving no pay. earn over $14. or 12 per cent. Male workers.172. Female workers.428 163 1. .02 to $1 22 58 81 dl39 65 118 183 $1. were not included in the table.44 per week.051 3 1 4 $2.21 per week. earn from $4. o Including 67 apprentices.65 8 8 278 613 891 1 1 $3 66 to $3 86 2 2 8 8 310 527 to 837 $3 86 to $4 06 2 2 1 16 17 345 490 835 $4 06 to $4 26 11 11 324 358 682 $4 27 to $4 47 6 6 382 319 701 $4 47 to $4 67 2 2 17 17 418 218 636 $4 67 to $4 87 2 2 23 23 284 179 463 $4 87 to $5 07 16 16 292 120 412 $5 08 to $5 28 1 1 22 22 299 120 419 $5 28 to $5 48 11 11 257 122 379 $5 48 to $5 68 6 6 16 16 259 93 352 $5 69 to $5 89 2 10 12 264 77 341 $5 89 to $6 09 10 10 2 14 16 212 60 272 $6. The largest number of male workers is represented by the group showing earnings from $6. or 0.44 to $4. the largest num- ber of female workers by the group showing earnings from $1.24 1 11 12 5 5 $16. j Including 16 apprentices. * Including 11 apprentices. ACCORDING TO WAGE GROUPS.44 to $2. ers.12 per week. tal.1901. earn from $2. 2.261 a Apprentices. ers.12 per week.21 per week. or 12. ers.64 to $2. or 1. ers. or 22.

03 3.95 2. est. while in the remaining 28 cases the variation between the minimum and maximum hours snowed a range of 2 to 3 hours. ties.25 1 2.33 1 $1.22 2.05 6 . Lo.62 1 . est. Lo. and the character of additional allowances in cases where these are granted.22 3. WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. cali- ties. cali.61 Paper hangers (a) 1 1.44 4. Lo.68 Bookbinders (a) 1 .81 1. est.61 4.25 3.81 Roofers 3 3. 215 cases showing either a fixed number of hours or a variation of 1 hour between the minimum and maximum hours.65 1 1. Wages. Lo- cali.71 $2.84 Tailors (<*) 14 .62 Tailors (6) 7 1. Wages.62 Cabinetmakers (&) 2 3.30 .06 6 $0. compiled from data given in the report.68 5.81 5.38 2 2.68 4.02 $1. 61 $4.44 Saddlers (a) 8 .81 2. Time workers.02 1. Wages. the class of wage workers.03 2.81 4.68 Hatmakers (a) 1 1.44 6. cali. while in the remaining 77 establishments the hours ranged from 6 to 15 per day.41 $1.25 Watchmakers 1 2.44 o Additional allowance of board and lodging.32 1.06 4 .02 Bookbinders 2 2.87 1 1. and in 46 estab- lishments 12 per day. Occupation. designated as male adult workers.87 3 1.03 2.03 2.05 Shoemakers 1 1.22 1. est.44 Tailors 2 1.08 4 .83 Blacksmiths 2 2.41 1.44 Shoemakers (a) 12 .84 1 1.81 1. in 54 establishments 1 1 per day. Low. and female workers.25 Cabinetmakers 5 2.22 Shoemakers (b) 8 1.68 Tinners (a) 3 .83 Blacksmiths (a) 21 .25 Tanners 1 5. Bakers (a) 22 SO. shows these items for male adults and young per- sons engaged in 15 selected occupations: WEEKLY WAGES PAID IN 15 SELECTED OCCUPATIONS IN THE OSTRAU-KARWIN COAL-MINE DISTRICT IN 1901. 11 Handicrafts.62 1 .20 1.61 2.62 4. The hours of labor were reported in 243 cases.09 2 2.22 1 2. b Additional allowance of lodging. Wages.44 4.62 1 .61 3. est.87 2 2. young persons. ties.65 3 1.25 4.High.High. the lowest and the highest wages per week paid in the localities reporting.22 3.84 6. Low.22 1.03 Millers (a) 2 . The following table.03 2. It treats of the hours of labor and the wages paid in 40 different handicraft trades in 42 localities of the district.61 3.44 Cabinetmakers (a) 13 . Piece workers.95 3. —This part based upon 250 returns.41 2. The statistics relating to wages show for each particular trade the number of localities for which data have been reported.06 3 1.06 1 $1. Low.03 3 1. of the report is collected partly through an agent of the Bureau and partly through the cooperation of the board of trade at Troppau.84 5.61 3.61 1. Low.03 1 .44 Carpenters 2 2.20 2.High- est.95 2. ties.42 2. . Piece workers.87 1 2.44 4.High.71 3. In 66 establishments the actual number of working hours was 10 per day.64 Tinners 3 2. est.62 2.81 . Male adults. est.84 3.09 5 . Young persons.68 1 2.65 6 .62 4 . Time workers.

The value of the additional allowances is variously estimated at 6 to 8 crowns ($1. with and without board. the second table shows the same facts for laborers and domestic servants on smaller landed properties. m.. — Agriculture.62 per week and board and lodging. shoemakers in one locality. with several intermissions for rest. without extra allowances. with 1 to 2 hours intermission for rest. m. During harvest time work begins at 6 a. The table following shows the lowest and the highest average daily wages paid to farm laborers employed by the day on large and small landed properties in the western and eastern sections of the district.12 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. .02 to $1. The part of the report relating to the conditions of farm labor is based upon returns received from 56 localities and treats of the hours of work and the wages paid to farm laborers within the district.. The hours of actual labor of domestic servants range from 10 to 11 per day. m. or later and continu- ing until darkness sets in. m. m. These were: Bookbinders in one locality. with 2 hours intermission. $1. $1.41) per week for lodging. The statistics on wages are presented in three separate tables.62 per week and board and lodging. the wages per year. and continuing until 7 p. m. and the third table shows by seasons the daily wages of day laborers. The first table shows the number of localities for which data have been reported. $1. m. all of whom were time workers. laborers. and con- tinues until 7 p. and continue until 6 p.22 to $1. tailoresses in two localities. were reported for but three occupations. beginning at 4 or 5 a. The lowest and highest wages of females employed in handicraft trades. the actual hours of labor for those seasons being from 9 J to 10 per day. In winter the hours range from a minimum of 7 J to a maximum of 9.22 to $1..22 to $1. usually beginning at 7 a. and domestic servants on large landed estates.62) per week for board and lodging and at 1 to 2 crowns ($0. making the actual hours 11 per day. the noon intermission varying from 1 to 1J hours. The hours of field work in the spring and autumn usually begin at 6 or 7 a.20 to $0. and the additional allowances for over- seers.62 per week. aggregating from 3 to 4 hours per day.

61 .12 «.28 .16 Winter .32 e.41 .18 .53 .36 .Low.14 .15 ..49 a 12 localities.28 «.08 .14 . iii.32 Winter .Low.11 . est.56 . 1903. Without With board.30 .08 . est. est. WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.20 . est.11 . {Wachter).26 .61 .16 . employed on the Austrian state railways.66 .46 .20 e.71 . size of family. With board.14 .10 . est.17 .61 . It constitutes the first part of a series of studies on the economic and social condition of employees in the service of the Government railways in Austria.51 . etc.High.17 . gate keepers.08 . The report is divided into three chapters. est.35 .71 . board.06 .45 «.10 . 1901.14 16. Arbeitsstatistischen Amte im Handelsministerium.07 .22 $0.22 .61 $0.18 .37 .32 e. 16 «$0.13 For the year (b) .283 watchmen.20 Small landed properties. 91 pp. With board.12 c.28 .37 .26 .14 .10 .11 $0.28 «. « 1locality only. Large landed properties.11 .09 . and social condition.09 .43 e$0.14 $0. The information contained in this report is based upon an investi- gation conducted by the Austrian railway department in 1898 with regard to the number of persons employed on the Austrian state railways in the class designated as Wachter (watchmen. the domicile. Winter .32 $0.26 .26 .10 .45 . The data are presented by districts.18 .High- est.10 .14 .j Die Lage der Wachter der K. expenditures.22 .12 .32 .16 .47 . est. their earnings.20 .12 .56 . est.High. Low. est.35 .41 . The data relate to conditions existing in 1898. eastern section: (/) Spring and fall .37 Small landed properties.Low.17 . western section: (a) Spring and fall $0. July.13 Summer .18 .18 . board.28 For the year (&) .26 .22 . of the United States Bureau of Labor. Young persons. d 25 localities.High.66 . b Actual wages.High. and after their return and examination were subsequently turned over to the bureau of labor statistics for com- pilation.19 . switchmen.10 .11 .47 .14 .13 .09 .19 .13 For the year (&) . est.35 Summer .22 For the year (*>) .16 $0. The first chapter treats of the yearly earnings. 16 «.11 . of 7.46 .10 $0.12 «. c21 localities. western section: (<*) Spring and fall $0. K.41 Summer . 13 AVERAGE DAILY WAGES OF FARM LABORERS IN THE OSTRAU-KARWIN COAL-MINE DISTRICT.18 . Herausgegeben vom K.32 . Women. and . etc.17 .26 . est. eastern section: (c) Spring and fall .19 $0. [From Bulletin 59.14 .28 .Low. conjugal condition. Men.13 Summer .High. AUSTRIA. K. Schedules of inquiry were distributed by the railway authorities among their respective employees. Without Without Season.37 .20 Large landed properties. f31 localities. Staatsbahnen. track walkers).12 . board.28 .45 Winter . 1905.Low.

the sources from which this income was derived. apportioned to the occupants. insur- ing. 63 54.2 Prague 40 191. 13 211.2. taken from the report. The following table.1 0.0 3. It appears from the foregoing table that in seven districts the average income per family was insufficient to cover the family . 57 213. 16 185.9 3.9 2. 56 59. The third chapter contains data in the form of budgets giving detailed descriptions relative to the domestic and economic condi- tion of 33 representative individuals located in different districts.8 7. Educa- fami- family.54) per year. of per tures per Heat.4 7.5 16. show both the actual and relative figures in percentages.1 1.2 17. ETC.1 10.9 8.21 58.44 180. ing.8 9. Under the subject of housing.3 13. each district being represented by 3 families selected with refer- ence to their general conditions.0. expressed in percentages: AVERAGE INCOME AND EXPENDITURES.6 10.5 Stanislau 40 166.4 . The salaries of these employees are graduated according to their terms of service.1 2.3 .3 6.4 3. their expenditures. and after 10 years' service to 720 kroner ($146.3 17.7 10.4 16.5 . 09 60. 191. Anappendix gives copies of schedules used in the investigation and a table showing in detail the yearly income of each of the 33 families considered in the third chapter.3 . and lies. light.6 7. ance. moderate.4 11. Rent.9 .3 8.87 61. 38 58. and surplus or deficit at the end of the year. 57 237. the average yearly income and expenditures of 447 families and their expenditures in detail.3 9.9 Trieste 40 186. ants.16) per year.Average Average ber income expendi- Taxes Districts.5 .9 Lemberg 39 165. Vienna (®) 42 $231.7 2.9 6. They are reproduced as found in the original report. chil. family. 72 59. 97 202. and the purposes for which it was expended.5 12.6 10.2 . by districts and by size of families.68 185.3 7. tion of Serv. and unfavorable.7 Total 447 192.9 17.3 4..2 Innsbruck 40 230. Per cent of expenditures for— Num. 84 62.96 $233. IN THE FAMILIES OF 447 WATCHMEN.8 6.6 . shows.14 WAGES AND PKICES OF COMMODITIES.4 9.7 6.3 1.80 185. during the next 5 years to 648 kroner ($131. 9.8 0. on the number of rooms occupied by them.9 1. the size of the rooms. in cubic meters.2 17.9 15.7 1. 26 63.4 11.5 Pilsen 46 192. and the amount of space. ing and Cloth.14 201. graded as good.5 3. Food. 12 64.3 .4 Villach 40 197. 98 59.3 19.0 3. by districts. AND PER CENT OF EXPENDITURES FOR VARIOUS PURPOSES. 81 197. These amounts are frequently augmented by supplementary allowances and premiums.1 10.6 Cracow 40 164. amounting during the first 5 years of definite appoint- ment to 576 kroner ($116.1 a The percentages for this district do not add 100. 85 183.6 Olmiitz (a) 40 . 77 63.1 3. The information presented in the second chapter relates to the housing of 442 families and to the annual income of 447 families.9 5.0 16.1 15. EMPLOYED ON THE AUSTRIAN STATE RAILWAYS IN 1898. detailed information is given.9 5.9 1.7 1.5 10.8 0.4 3.3 .9 2.4 Linz 40 201.4 16. dren.93) per year.

00 Ropes and special fabrics 105 66.28 47. printing. Establish.735 44.18 211 46. ments.60 3. Employees.38 Linen spinning and weaving 27 28. that as a result of this investigation the condition of this class of employees has since been materially improved in various ways. March. Hemp and jute spinning and weaving 6 20. Establish- Employees. especially in an increase of 50 per cent in their allowance for rent and further increases in their salaries after 15 years' service. (<*) from 50 to 199 em- ployees. The report covers 813 textile establishments employing 71. This volume presents the results of an inquiry made by the Belgian labor office into the question of wages and working time in the textile industries of that country. those of the second class from 50 to 199.82 245 53.400 15. except foremen of gangs who worked with their sub- ordinates.45 4.27 5. Industry. BY INDUSTRIES. 1907. of the United States Bureau of Labor. Establishments having 10 Establishments having or under 50 employees.28 Hair spinning and weaving 2 100.46 26. 1901. Per Num. ber.331 40.31 72. 15 expenditures. engineers.381 52. 1905. Superintendents. bleaching. those of the first class employing 10 or under 50 work people.70 11. etc. Per N um. bookkeepers.72 18. 427. ber. the deficit being especially striking in the districts of Pilsen and Lemberg. cent.40 Wool spinning and weaving 143 59. Ministere de l'lndustrie et du Travail. It is stated in the introduction of the report.60 Cotton spinning and weaving 35 31.94 272 33.82 31. who have been considered as workmen.57 50 31. WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. 386 74. 806 19. It does not include in its scope working people who are members of the families of the proprietors. cent.95 Silk spinning and weaving 9 81. Per ber. Office du Travail.] Salaires et Duree du Travail dans les Industries Textiles au Mois d'Octobre. and those of the third class 200 or more. 134 79. The table below shows the number of establishments and of employees in each class. cent. and other office employees were likewise excluded from the report.82 962 7.887 46. BELGIUM. ber.14 a Including 22 establishments having fewer than 10 employees. dyeing.25 7. by industries: NUMBER AND PER CENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS AND EMPLOYEES IN EACH CLASSI- FIED GROUP OF ESTABLISHMENTS.478 38.512 work people.04 2.69 138 4.72 758 3. 691 pp. however. overseers. 1901.00 37 100.16 Finishing.56 4. .64 32 19.77 2. based on the number of employees. ments. Num.19 Total 401 56.05 2. except in the case of 22 smaller establishments which were included for some special reasons. cent. The investigation was restricted to establishments having 10 or more employees.41 2. [From Bulletin 69. 562 37.64 42.040 19. Per Num. The establishments considered were divided into three classes or groups. xx.567 30.

38 7.69 Wool spinning and weaving 11. Hemp and jute spinning and weaving 6. Per ber.991 41.211 38.87 2.18 567 9.60 280 61.72 16. ber. The following tables show the distribution of employees in each industry by age and sex: NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES OF EACH SEX AND OF EACH AGE GROUP. and wool industries.205 Linen spinning and weaving 28. Females. On the other hand.170 44.15 7. cent.77 1. 828 Wool spinning and weaving 9. 1901.33 . employees. BY INDUSTRIES.72 702 21. Num. 41. Per Num. 1901—Concluded.72 per cent of the total number in this industry and employ 76. cent.69 11.550 46. 00 10 27. Such establishments form 28.9.705 8.40 37 8.68 Total 37. the largest number of small establishments is found in that of wool spinning and weaving.49 329 5.96 per cent of the work people engaged therein. bleaching.450 17.016 53. Industry. ments.232 20.12 Silk spinning and weaving 176 38.187 61.23 5.09 29 3.189 Total 80 9. BY INDUSTRIES. establish- ments.12 419 91.23 per cent of the employees. C7 60. etc 5. Total Establish.398 Finishing. etc.198 Cotton spinning and weaving 20. however. cent. age or over.51 1.8* 496 91.97 4.869 22.23 240 19. 407 52.13 6.90 674 21. Per ber.91 6. ber. NUMBER AND PER CENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS AND EMPLOYEES IN EACH CLASSI- FIED GROUP OF ESTABLISHMENTS.317 17. 03 27 72.95 496 78.84 33.201 15. Hemp and jute spinning and weaving 1.107 82.96 94 20.03 11.32 860 94. ber. dyeing.082 17. printing.17 41. ber. are found in those establishments having 200 or more employees.201 Silk spinning and weaving 11 456 Hair spinning and weaving 2 37 Ropes and special fabrics 2.46 Linen spinning and weaving 9. the greatest proportion of large establishments and of employees in large establishments are found in the linen industry. Employees Employees Males. bleaching. cent. The next most important group is that of " ropes and special fabrics.28 1.512 Practically 75 per cent of all textile employees are found in the cot- ton. cent.311 84.17 168 6.718 53. Per Num. 105 47. Employees.34 110 13.97 Ropes and special fabrics 3. Per Num.27 159 8.31 596 79.54 888 82.189 46. Num. Establishments having 200 or more employees. printing. Total. 59.60 per cent of the establishments shown having in this industry 10 or under 50 employees.20 529 77.480 46.030 76..16 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.31 34.210 58.74 Finishing.05 Cotton spinning and weaving 7.912 52." which includes knit goods and lace making as two of the more important industries composing it. dyeing. Industry. under 16 16 years of years of age.658 55. cent. Per Num.62 1.88 Hair spinning and weaving 37 100.92 813 71. Con- sidering the three more important industries. 1. linen.51 1.

WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. 17
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF MALE AND FEMALE EMPLOYEES IN EACH AGE GROUP,
BY INDUSTRIES, 1901.

Males. Females.

Under 16 16 years of Under 16 16 years of
Industry. years of age. age or over. years of age. age or over.

Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.

Hemp and jute spinning and weaving 272 8.50 1,208 37.78 430 1,288 40.27
Cotton spinning and weaving 1,037 7.85 5,979 45.28 1,280 4,909 37.18
Linen spinning and weaving 2,111 10.13 7,059 33.90 2,121 9,537 45.79
Wool spinning and weaving 848 4.42 10, 362 53.96 857 7,134 37.16
Silk spinning and weaving 5 1.10 171 37.50 32 248 54.38
Hair spinning and weaving 10 27.03 27 72.97
Ropes and special fabrics 602 7.17 2,609 31.06 1,267 3,920 46.68
Finishing, bleaching, printing, dyeing, etc.. 248 4.01 4,859 78.50 81 1,001 16.18

Total 5,133 7.18 32,274 45.13 6,068 8.49 28,037 39.20

Aside from the unimportant industry of hair spinning and weaving,
in which only males are employed, males are found in the greatest
proportion in the work of finishing, bleaching, printing, dyeing, etc.
They also predominate in the working of wool and cotton. It is
noticeable that in linen and in hemp and jute working, and in the
making of ropes and special fabrics, in all of which females predomi-
nate, are also to be found the largest proportion (except for the hair-
working industry) of employees under 16 years of age. In the silk
industry, on the other hand, while female employees are considerably
in the majority there is only a small proportion of children employed.
Other industries employing small percentages of children are the
finishing, bleaching, etc., works, and the manufacture of woolen
goods. Females constitute somewhat less than one-half and children
under 16 years of age a little less than one-sixth of the total number
of textile employees in Belgium. Females under 16 form a slightly
larger proportion of textile workers than do the males under 16,
while the proportion of females over 1 6 years of age falls considerably
below that of males of the same age group.
In the following table is given the number of employees, classified
by sex and age, who receive specified daily wages, taking all textile
industries together.
48310— S. Doc. 631, 61-2 2

3.'

..

18 WAGES AND PKICES OF COMMODITIES.
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES RECEIVING SPECIFIED WAGES, BY SEX
AND AGE GROUPS, 1901.

Males. Females.

Total.
Under 16 16 years Under 16 16 years
years of age or years of age or
Daily wages. of age. over. of age. over.

Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.

Less than 0.50 franc ($0.097) 104 2.03 290 4.78 2 0.01 396 0.55
0.50 to 0.74franc ($0,097 to $0,143) .. 791 15.41 0.02 1,031 16.99 56 .20 1,886 2.64
0.75 to 0.99franc ($0,145 to $0.191) . 1,286 25.06 61 .19 1,975 32.55 315 1.12 3,637 5.09
1.00 to 1.24francs ($0,193 to $0.239) 1,735 33.80 442 1.37 1,471 24.24 2,755 9.83 6,403 8.95
1.25 to 1.49francs (80.241 to $0,288). 730 14.22 820 2.54 776 12.79 4,574 16.31 6,900 9.65
1.50 to 1.74francs ($0,290 to $0,336). 240 4.68 1,487 4.60 395 6.51 4,734 16.88 6,856 9.59
1.75 to 1.99francs ($0,338 to $0,384). 170 3.31 1,733 5.37 95 1.57 3,817 13.61 5,815 8.13
2.00 to 2.24francs ($0,386 to $0.432) 54 1.05 3,269 10.13 20 .33 3,945 14.07 7,288 10.19
2.25 to 2.49francs ($0,434 to $0.481) 10 .19 3,761 11.65 14 .23 2,953 10.53 6,738 9.42
2.50 to 2.99francs ($0,483 to $0,577). 13 .25 7,242 22.45 1 .01 3,300 11.77 10, 556 14.76
3.00 to 3.49francs ($0,579 to $0.674) 5,434 16.84 1,129 4.03 6,563 9.18
3.50 to 3.99francs ($0,676 to $0.770) 3,420 10.60 261 .93 3,681 5.15
4.00 to 4.49francs ($0,772 to $0.867) 2,233 6.92 128 .46 2,361 .30
4.50 to 4.99francs ($0,869 to $0.963) 1,172 3.63 44 .16 1,216 .70
5.00 to 5.49francs ($0,965 to $1.060) 560 1.74 17 .06 577 .81
5.50 to 5.99francs ($1,062 to $1.156) 298 .92 5 .02 303 .42
6.00 to 6.49francs ($1,158 to $1,253). 162 .50 2 .01 164 .23
6.50 to 6.99francs ($1,255 to $1.349) 88 .27 88 .12
7.00 to 7.49francs ($1,351 to $1.446) 33 .10 33 .05
7.50 to 7.99francs ($1,448 to $1,542) . 22 .07 22 .03
8.00 francs ($1,544) or over 29 .09 29 .04

Total. 5,133 100. 00l32, 274 100. 00 6, 068 100. 00 28, 037 100. 00 71,512 100. 00

The largest wage minors under 16 years of age are those
classes for
which receive from 1.00 to 1.24 francs (19.3 to 23.9 cents) for males
and from 0.75 to 0.99 franc (14.5 to 19.1 cents) for females. No
employees of this age group receive more than 2.99 francs (57.7 cents)
per day. The largest wage class of adult female employees is that
which receives from 1.50 to 1.74 francs (29.0 to 33.6 cents) daily.
Less than 1 per cent of the adult females receive more than 3.99
francs (77 cents) per day. A strict comparison with adult males is
not feasible, owing to the adoption of a range of 50 centimes (9.7 cents)
after reaching the rate of 3 francs (57.9 cents) per day. It would
appear, however, that the most common rate of daily wages for
adult males was approximately 50 cents. Of adult females, 44.35 per
cent receive less than .1.75 francs (33.8 cents) per day, while the
number of adult males receiving less than this sum is but 8.72 per
cent of the total. The median rate for males, or the rate above and
below which an equal number of employees are found, lies between
2.50 and 2.99 francs (48.3 and 57.7 cents). The number of adult
males receiving in excess of 5.49 francs ($1.06) per day is only 1.95 per
cent of the total number, while the number of all employees receiving
more than this amount is but 0.89 per cent of the grand total. The
most common daily earnings, considering all classes of employees
together, lies between 2.50 and 2.99 francs (48.3 and 57.7 cents).

. . .

WAGES AND PEICES OF COMMODITIES. 19

Thefollowing table shows the distribution of the employees 16
years of age or over in the four principal textile industries, according
to sex and wage groups.

PER CENT OF MALE AND FEMALE EMPLOYEES 16 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER
RECEIVING SPECIFIED WAGES IN FOUR PRINCIPAL TEXTILE INDUSTRIES, 1901.
MALES.

Per cent of employees receiving
specified earnings in—
Daily wages.
Hemp Cotton. Linen. Wool.
and jute.

Less than 1 franc (§0.193). 1.57 0.13 0.28 0.06
1.00 to 1.24 francs (80.193 to .239). 5.55 1.20 1.98 .72
1.25 to 1.49 francs (§0.241 to .288). 9.60 2.58 3.54 1.33
1.50 to 1.74 francs ($0,290 to .336). 8.94 4.93 5.82 3.10
1.75 to 1.99 francs (S0.338 to .384). 8.86 6.67 7.81 3.35
2.00 to 2.24 francs (§0.386 to .432). 18.87 9.70 15.43 6.07
2.25 to 2.49 francs (80.434 to .481). 17.13 10.09 17.55 6.09
2.50 to 2.74 francs ($0,483 to .529). 15.40 12.16 14.00 10.11
2.75 to 2.99 francs (80.531 to .577). 5.63 10.84 9.87 8.92
3.00 to 3.49 francs (80.579 to .674). 4.55 17.56 12.20 19.51
3.50 to 3.99 francs (§0.676 to .770). 11.36 6.50 14.89
4.00 to 4.49 francs ($0,772 to .867). 6.81 3.41 11.37
4.50 to 4.99 francs ($0,869 to .963). 3.23 1.12 6.81
5.00 to 5.49 francs ($0,965 to .060) 1.47 .31 3.42
5.50 francs ($1,062) or over. 1.27 .18 4.25

Total. 100.00 100.00 100.00 100. 00

FEMALES.

Less than 0.75 franc ($0.145) 0.08 0.08 0.13 0.18
0.75 to 0.99 franc ($0,145 to $0.191) .78 .53 .65 .52
1.00 to 1.24 francs ($0,193 to $0,239) 22.13 < 56
. 7.18 7.28
1.25 to 1.49 francs ($0,241 to $0,288) 35.17 11.33 19.16 10.95
1.50 to 1.74 francs ($0,290 to $0,336) 10.69 16. 66 20.59 11.05
1.75 to 1.99 francs (§0.338 to $0,384) 4.89 lti. 40 17.75 8.44
2.00 to 2.24 francs ($0,386 to $0,432) •9.08 14.46 16.84 11.98
2.25 to 2.49 francs ($0,434 to $0,481) 5.74 12.18 10.94 13.18
2.50 to 2.99 francs (§0.483 to $0,577) 3.88 14.50 5.02 23.37
3.00 to 3.49 francs ($0,579 to $0,674) 1.40 5.19 1.47 8.30
3.50 to 3.99 francs (§0.676 to $0,770) .08 .86 .22 2.51
4.00 francs ($0,772) or over .08 .25 .05 2.24

Total 100. 00 100. 00 100. 00 100. 00

From apparent that the industries may be graded on
this table it is

the basis of rates of wages paid in the following ascending order, viz,
hemp and jute, linen, cotton, and wool.
This fact further appears in the following table, in which there is a
presentation of the same industries making a further subdivision of
occupations under the two general heads of spinning and weaving.
Employees not properly belonging to one or the other of these two
branches of manufacture are omitted, as are also employees under 16
years of age, as in the last preceding table. The industries are
arranged in the order of increasing rates of daily wages, and the
employees in each industry are distributed into median and quartile
groups. The median group includes the middle half of the employees,
grouped on the basis of wages. The low quartile includes that 25
per cent of the employees who receive less than the members of the

em. Spinning: Hemp and jute.54 Wool.59 Cotton 1.44 . 290 " .96 . and the remaining (median) half.446 The regularity of the series as arranged above is quite apparent. em- Daily wages. DAILY WAGES RECEIVED BY THE ONE-FOURTH OF EMPLOYEES 16 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER RECEIVING LOWEST WAGES.579 " " 22.695 " .25 franc (5 cents) apart.772 " " 22.] MALES.432 48. 483 or over.38 $0.432 52.12 .434" . 290 " .531 " " 26. AND THE MEDIAN HALF.66 . the one-fourth receiving the highest daily wages.529 49. 481 46.64 .04 . 483 or over...105 Weaving: Hemp and jute. Daily wages. 256 Under $0. 22.09 .641 " .483 " " 33.895 .72 .290 28.093 . The actual percentages embraced in the approximate groups are given in connection with the rates of wages indicated.66 Linen 1.70 Wool.77 Total 10. 1.83 . 12. carded 2.290 17.36 .33 .338 to $0. 290 " .481 43. [In this table the attempt has been made to divide the employees into groups containing the one-fourth receiving the lowest daily wages.. cent of cent of cent of em.483 23. IN SPINNING AND WEAVING IN PRIN- CIPAL TEXTILE INDUSTRIES. combed 1. 241 to $0.76 .. 707 Under $0.674 49.656 Weaving: Hemp and jute.579 " " 24.79 .60 . inasmuch as the daily wages were classified by rates 0. in. cluded.483 " .05 Linen 3.. 1901.83 Wool.10 . 336 58. and the high quartile that 25 per cent whose wages exceed those of the median group.474 " .867 47.697 " .99 Linen 6.483 26. Among males the low quartiles in linen and cotton do not show the . em- Daily wages.241 29.473 " .290" .79 Total 13.99 $0.434 " " 33.689 " .20 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.78 .61 $0.579" . lowest daily wages.434 " .434 27.354 " . median group.481 45. The median half of The one-fourth of em- ployees receiving ployees receiving- employees.94 Cotton 2.338 or over.50 .78 .25 $0.77 Cotton 1.57 Total 6.386" .434" .926 " .95 Wool.44 .869 " " 27. 194 Under $0. but the grouping is only approximate.33 .290 23.338 24.46 .01 Cotton 2.39 .45 . 241 to $0. 28.364 " .338 29. carded 851 " .338 30.90 Total 6. inasmuch as to do otherwise would necessi- tate the breaking up of the wage classifications heretofore followed.87 $0.483 " .41 .67 .338" . THE ONE-FOURTH RECEIVING THE HIGHEST WAGES.434 24.338 28..31 Wool 2.676" " 21.464 " .37 Linen 2. 338 to $0.434 " " 18.577 53.55 .674 50. 24.386 24.483 " " 27. 795 FEMALES. Spinning: Hemp and jute.676 " " 22. 338 or over. The exact percentage of the employees contained in each group is shown. 336 51.579 " " 20.76 Wool 3.386 " " 30. combed 1. highest daily wages.386 " . Total Industry.37 .290 20.577 54.208 . cluded.434 27.386 24. The one-fourth of em.481 46. ployees ployees ployees in.00 .338" ..577 51.021 Under $0.40 $0.770 54.772 " " 21.579 25.241 19.770 50. In the following table the median and quartile limits are only approximately observed. Per Per Per ployees.96 $0.47 $0..384 45. in- cluded.

In the table next presented are given the actual hours of labor per day (rest time excluded) of employees in textile industries.42 264 .87 8 or under 9 57 .01 4.39 346 1. The increase of rates is unbroken in weaving.683 6.17 per cent of all female cotton spinners. 00 28.51 127 .29 6. of age or over. but it is fully brought out by the showing of the median group.21 11| 595 5.94 1.05 225 0.829 5. Per Num. Under 8 384 3.395 8. cent. NUMBER AND PER CENT OF CHILDREN UNDER 16 AND OF MALES AND FEMALES 16 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER WORKING EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF HOURS PER DAY.00 11 1. cent.39 2.30 10 or lui 493 4.95 11| 5.675 11.475 100.880 21.201 100.50 francs (48 cents) or over is 20.27 376 1.056 7. Of those working 12 hours or more daily. however. adult males. Among females the proof of the better wage payments in the cotton industry is less apparent.68 3.46 31.334 8.5 per cent were females 16 years of age or over. 61. while only 6.287 6. The per cent of each of the groups 16 years of age or over working 1 1 hours per day corresponds closely to the per cent of the total working the same number of hours. while that for the children falls below.94 13.32 5.43 15 0. and 58. shows that the number of female cot- ton spinners who receive 2. 00 32.66 2.33 6. WAGES AND PKICES OF COMMODITIES. Num.23 352 .31 3.516 5. ber.34 6. Per ber.91 13 or over 22 .996 53.1 per cent were females 16 years of age or over.249 6.46 926 1. cent.12 189 .466 10. 004 100. 31. The totals are not identical with those previously shown. on the other hand. and adult females being shown separately.74 2. Children under Males 16 years Females 16 years Total 16 years of age.67 9£ or 9f 142 1.8 per cent were under 16 years of age.67 1. 1901.67 820 1.40 1.367 8. Another presen- tation in the report.60 10* or lOf 522 4.80 624 0.529 44.82 63 . 36. ber. The per cent of females 16 years of age or over and of children under 16 years of age working Hi hours per day . 00 71.00 Of the 624 employees working less than 8 hours per day.005 5. and only 2. Hours of labor per day. but 9. It is noticeable that combed wool and carded wool take reversed positions in the case of female spinners from that found among males.74 9 or 9 | 149 1. as 4 males and 33 females had variable working hours and are not here included.39 363 1.5 per cent were children under 16 years of age. Per Num. 446 20.937 17. employees. of age or over.97 1.15 12 or under 13 636 5.4 per cent were males 16 years of age or over.20 267 .11 14. 21 higher wage rank of the latter.24 530 .53 12. ber. children under 16.7 per cent were males 16 years of age or over.11 llf 268 2. 291 47. 242 37.33 781 2.194 1.17 408 1.17 per cent of the female linen spinners come within this wage group.41 4. cent.629 20. Per Num.49 Total 11. 270 100. from which it appears that the wage limit of the middle half of the employees engaged in spinning cotton is nearly 15 cents per day higher than for linen.

597 9.30 Females: Under 16 years of age 6.45 32.153 45.330 38. 986 47.65 7.16 5.11 per cent of all employees working 11J hours. while in the linen industry is found the greatest percentage of employees having a work- ing day of 12 hours or over. however.12 Total 35. and the smallest proportion working less than 11 hours.872 7. 927 48. Comparative Data. Hours oflabor per day.19 Total 32.07 79. BY AGE GROUPS.50 12 or over 10. Sex and age group. Per cent Number. Wool.70 6. considerably exceed the per cent of the total working that number of hours.. The number of females under 16 years of age decreased.28 13.51 16 years of age or over 26. 44.70 There has been a general increase in the number of employees within the period. while 73. Hemp Cotton.39 33. 1896 AND 1901.064 8.61 37.49 82. Per cent Males: Under 16 years of age 4. PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES WORKING SPECIFIED HOURS PER DAY IN FOUR PRIN- CIPAL TEXTILE INDUSTRIES. and jute. 922 39.31 74.117 7. Linen. . 22 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.27 per cent work from 11 to 11J hours daily.114 51.69 9. and the excess of male employees noticeable in 1896 is somewhat increased in 1901. In the following table are given comparative statements of wage classes in 1896 and 1901. showing the percentage of employees of each sex and age belonging to each class at the two periods: . 1901 and 1896. The next table gives a general idea of the differences in working time in the four principal branches of the textile industry. 1901.18 16 years of age or over 30.96 This table shows that the employees in the wool industry are most advantageously situated as regards hours of labor.54 11 or under 12 77.20 20.242 44. covering the various phases of the investigation.270 52. The last-named period is the most usual one in the indus- try. 1896.82 8. 1901. The following table shows the general results of a comparison of sex and age groups of the employees at the two periods: NUMBER AND PER CENT OF MALE AND FEMALE EMPLOYEES IN TEXTILE INDUSTRIES. Number.49 4.— Extensive comparisons are made between the returns for 1896 and those for 1901.69 27. Under 11 11.

38" 0.23 . Less than 1. 1901.99 francs ($0.50 to 0. though there has been a tendency to diminish the groups of adults receiving the smaller rates and to increase the numbers of the better-paid groups. 1896.869 to 4.49 francs ($0.288) 26.41 8.674) 3.68 9ior9f .43 1. 3.90 15.481) 20.61 22.22 -0.58 2.29 2.24 .18 .73 $0.74 +0.49 francs ($0.37 6. 1896 AND 1901.770) 10.867) 6.50 francs ($0.49 francs ($0. both the higher and lower groups are drawm upon to increase the proportion receiving the mean rates.191) 46.097 to $0.676 to $0.47 -1.54 lOior 10£ 7.83 .193).02 1.67 1.44 7.11 ni 13. WORKING EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF HOURS PER DAY.26 5.12 3.55 5.386 to $0.384) 30. Less than 8 : 0.79 +0.73 43.12 5.77 +1.77 9.50 franc ($0.60 11.062) or over.67 10. Per cent of In- employees crease employees crease (+) or in (+) or Daily wages. . — WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.99 -1.99 francs ($0.965 to $1.27 15.81 12.57 7.03 -1.00 to 2.51 .68 2.99 5.79 17.95 13 or over .00 to 4.68 +0.674) 16.99 francs ($0. OR OVER. 0. 23 PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES RECEIVING SPECIFIED WAGES IN EACH SEX AND AGE GROUP. Per cent of In.14 $0.60 35. 14.36 0.384) 11. of age or over..43 1.99 francs ($0.00 franc ($0.40 .13 2.41 + 1.00 100.46 1. intervals of rest having been deducted.50 to 3.95 .00 to 2.17 0.97 21.43 1.17 1.98 3.98 $0.50 to 0.04 +4. 1901.38 6.00 100.50 franc ($0.43 1. 1896.59 8.99 francs ($0.49 francs ($0. ployees.99 franc ($0.579 to 2. 1901.31 53.00 n§ 53.06 0.81 0.39 8.75 .097).00 to 3.15 $0.48 3.64 9.49 Total 100.00 to 3. The hours given are actual working time.27 . MALES 16 YEARS OF AGE OR FEMALES 16 YEARS OF AGE OVER.58 +3.84 30.45 1.35 ill 1.04 24.50 to 4.54 Less than 0.84 1.48 19.99 franc ($0.00 to 5.99 francs ($0.83 38.33 17.64 +1.43 0.88 8 or less than 9 .483 to 2. 1.11 0. 00 100.55 -0. 1901 1901.51 2.41 10.41 5. who were employed for specified hours of labor in 1896 and 1901. . 1.32 1.50 francs ($1.483 to $0.00 to 1.75 9or9£ .52 -5.37 .91 +0.50 to 2.39 14.17 .55 47.03 5.386 to 1.97 +0.50 to 1. 00 .99 francs ($0.93 6.579 to $0.34 4.49 francs ($0.95 -3.15 6.45 2.94 -0.16 45.01 4. In the case of chil- dren under 16.00 to 1.30 $0.14 .26 5.290).09 3.24 6.30 10orl01 5.481) 22.963) 2.63 1.39 5.99 Less than 1 franc ($0. 5. Females 16 Children under Males 16 years Total em- years of age or 16 years of age.33 -2.00 francs ($0.48 0.50 francs ($0.097 to MALES UNDER 16 YEARS OF $0.47 .32 17.50 to 2. 47.80 7. 1901. Daily wages.49 francs ($0. 1901.56 +0.772) or over.08 OF AGE.97 .07 16. 00 100.290) or over.61 AGE.97 50.82 $0.79 11 12. over.75 1. 1896 AND 1901.61 7. 1896.49 francs ($0.12 This table shows that the changes in wage rates within the five years covered have been but slight.62 44.61 3.577) 23.41 48. de- crease crease 1896.097).44 40.50 to 1.577) 10.191) 38.060) 1. .676 to 3. 5.193 to $0.193) or over. 52 10.52 +2.13 -0. AND OF MALES AND FEMALES 16 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER.37 21.290 to $0.34 .58 1.70 6.80 26.65 .290 to 1.33 .25 . The concluding table presents a comparison of the percentages of the employees.00 100.193 to $0.97 1.50 to 3. 4.77 42.20 1.84 20.00 100.47 +0.18 0.00 100. Hours of labor per day.40 2.49 francs FEMALES UNDER 16 YEARS ($0. . de.99 +0.18 . . 5.78 Less than 0. 1901 (-) in (-)in 1896.28 4.17 4.05 0.40 2.770) 1.80 +0.288) 43. distributed by age and sex.772 to 3.76 $0.12 4.16 12 or less than 13 5.68 11. 1896. .66 1.30 5. PER CENT OF CHILDREN UNDER 16.

1903. : 24 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. but the groups working 11 and 11J hours were propor- tionately larger in 1901 than in 1896. out of a total employed population of 671.274 persons employed in coal mines. there being 116. Detailed analyses of the results of the inquiry into the metal-working industries are presented in the second volume. 1103 pp. 1909. and the hours of labor reported are the hours of actual employment customarily observed in the estab- lishments. or during the week or fortnight prior thereto. which was enjoyed by the adults alone. arranged according to the number of employees . Actual wages paid were secured from the pay rolls. and 99. Office du Travail. respectively. are excluded from consideration.4 per cent of the number shown by the census of 1896. except in four instances in which smaller establishments are included for reasons not stated. also the number of establish- ments considered. setting forth the The data presented were secured by personal visits of agents of the labor office. and other office employees. overseers. book- keepers.] The report named above presents data as to wages and hours of labor in the metal-working industries of Belgium. 1907.768 in textile industries. omitting pay for over- time.641 in metal working. 82. Slight increases in the percentages for the shortest working hours are apparent. The present report deals with a total of 93. engineers. of the United States Bureau of Labor. July. The two following show the number of employees in different tables classes of industries by sex and age. Ministere de PIndustrie et du Travail. This table requires but little comment. xiii. Members of the proprietors' families and superintendents. and relate only to establishments employing ten or more persons on October 31. No marked changes in the daily work period have taken place in the interval covered. but including premiums and gratuities received by the employees. watchmen. the pre- ceding reports having reference to coal mining and textile industries. omitting parts of days and extra time worked. or 93. These three groups of industries include almost one- half the industrial population of Belgium as shown by the census of 1896. as well as home workers.050 persons. [From Bulletin 83.596 persons. while for the longer work periods there was only a slight total reduction. as the employees under 16 years of age were more numerous in these classes in 1901 than in 1896. the first methods and general results of the inquiry. 54. and is the third of a series covering the principal industries of that country. Salaires et Duree du Travail dans les Industries des Metaux au mois d'Octobre 1903.

554 Bolts. over. 185 89.473 9. The total number of employees under 16 years of age was 5.425 6 73 79 8.870 20.195 146 548 694 3.000 employees. OCTOBER. to to to to to to to to to ments.444 237 661 3. shipbuilding.999. the manufacture of steel. OCTOBER.499 14 41 55 3. Establishments having employees numbering Total estab- Kind of industry. years ol and Total.504 Iron manufactures 964 19.836 Cutlery 9 53 62 62 Household utensils 330 2. 49. and the manufacture of iron and steel plates) and machin- ery and metal products (including the construction of engines.466 10 360 370 2. screws.7 per cent. wire.050 Of the total number of employees. 499. 299.487 93. 19.487.). wire. no other industry having as many as 10. or 60. Females.913 3. 99. etc 598 2. etc. iron.311 8.270 97 378 475 4. or 3.4 per cent of the whole number. nails.942 4. chains.and locomotives.114 2. years and of age. — WAGES AND PEICES OF COMMODITIES.310 34.000 lish- Under 10. 999. 199.083 . stove making 266 3.889 Firearms 79 2. classed in the table as iron manu- factures (including blast furnaces. over. screws. 10 20 50 100 200 300 400 500 1. % Manufacture of common metals other than iron 2 2 1 11 1 1 1 9 28 Iron manufactures 2 5 18 9 10 5 12 1 62 Machinery and metal prod- ucts 110 148 66 39 12 11 8 10 1 405 Foundries 2 86 98 26 11 1 1 1 1 227 Iron founding. etc 11 13 12 9 4 1 50 Firearms 14 18 7 3 1 1 44 Cutlery 3 1 4 Household utensils 10 6 2 2 3 4 1 28 Metal working 8 11 2 3 24 Specialties 2 44 43 20 7 1 1 118 Total 4 333 370 155 106 33 30 16 34 2 1. or 6. boilers. puddling.034 persons.597 3.081 32. Under 1G 16 years Under 16 employ- 16 years ees. 1903.378 84.952. stove making 45 28 14 3 2 1 93 Bolts. 25 NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES OF EACH SEX AND AGE GROUP IN SPECIFIED METAL- WORKING INDUSTRIES. loeksmithing.391 18 339 357 34.342 Metal working 18 895 913 15 62 77 990 Specialties 328 3.387 2.094 Iron founding.745 Total 5.834 31 421 452 21. NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS HAVING EACH CLASSIFIED NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN SPECIFIED METAL-WORKING INDUSTRIES. 399.064 30 30 9.748 Foundries 591 8. Males.2 per cent of the total.286 Machinery and metal products 2. Females were employed in every industrial group but one. 1903. only 3. employ 56. Total. are females.563 574 2. 1. nails.233 3. Two industries. of whom 574 were under 16 years of age. Manufacture of common metals other than iron 114 8. Total Kind of industry. loeksmith- ing. chains.

Rate of wages. Rate of wages.351 4.625) 9.926 5. 00 $0.255 to 3. OCTOBER.65 per cent of the total.50 to 2.75 6.71 5. Employees.12 per cent of the total number received wages in excess of 5. Four boys who received no wages and 7 whose wages were not reported are omitted. 337.26 per cent) receive wages within the range from 3. have fewer than 20 employees.74 francs ($0. .99 "francs " ($6.483 to $1.24 francs ($1.41 6.93 $0.545 5.43 $0.818) 8.386 to $1.23 $0. 26 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES Of the establishments under consideration.706 2.432) 2.50 to 1.108) 2.724 to $1.531 " to " $1. More than one-half the employees (52.47 $0.94 $0.00 to 2.25 to 6.74 francs ($0.99 francs ($0. Only 36 establishments have 500 employees and over.74 francs ($0.349) 323 .75 to 1.384) 1.915) 5. .24 francs ($1. 1903.722) 8.49 francs ($1.50 francs (57.867) 4.434 to $1.50 francs ($0.9 cents) per day.657 10.49 francs ($1.917 to 1.481) 2.75 to 6*99 "francs" ($1.013 to 2.50 to 3.03 $0.079 8.25 to 2. 136 100.25 to 4.01) per day.49 francs ($0.060) 1.820 to Total. The wages of 49 workmen of this group were not obtainable. Number.24 francs ($0.407 5.153 4.69 5.156) 1.75 to 5.577) 4.99 francs ($0.253) 571 .74 francs ($1.290). 84.50 to 5.9 cents) was 21.048 10.78 4. The following tables show in the same form as the foregoing table the same facts as to wages of females over 16 years of age and of children of both sexes under 16 years of age.74 francs ($0.036 1.495 1.75 to 4. 978 1.50 to 4.965 to 2. or nearly one- third.676 to $1 301) 644 . 4.529).627 to $1.367 1.00 to 3.575 7.24 francs ($0.110 to 2.413 6.50 francs (86.00 francs and over ($1. NUMBER AND PER CENT OF MALES 16 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER IN METAL-WORKING INDUSTRIES RECEIVING EACH SPECIFIED RATE OF WAGES.336) 1.16 4.626 1. the next table showing the number of adult male employees receiving the various rates of wages indicated.158 to 3. while 26.674) 7.699 3. Only 11.38 $0.60 $0.00 to 5.24 francs ($0. Employees. Per cent Less than 1.062 to 2. Number.031 3.99 francs ($0.772 to and over) 1. while the number having from 20 to 49 employees includes rather more than another third.00 to 4.75 to 2.9 to 86. and they are therefore omitted from this presentation.86 6.00 to 4.963) 3.49 francs ($0.770) 6.50 to 6*74 francs ($1.29 6.442 1. the number receiving less than 3 francs (57.081 2.75 to 3.303 to" 3.071 9.40 a Not including 49.49 francs ($0. The table shows the wages of males 16 years of age and over for a normal day.99 francs ($1.9 cents).00 to 6. wages not reported.011) 4.338 to $0.77 $0. . Wagesare presented for different classes of employees.82 7.204) 1.290 to $0.869 to 1.25 to 5.21 5.59 4.63 $0.24 5.206 to 3.24 francs ($0. Per cent.25 to 3.68 $0.09 per cent received more than 4.579 to $1.263 2.

74 francs ($0.336).50 franc ($0. 1.027 to 1.577) 81 2. Employees.3 to 28.17 per cent) received to 2.70 3.91 2.25 to 1.676 to 1.00 $0.241 to $0.. and at piecework.676 23.143)..78 $0.44 0.99 francs ($0.24 francs ($0.99 francs ($0.14 per cent) of all cases.00 to 2.50 francs (29 cents).290 to $0. Per cent.00 to 1.99 francs ($0. 648 12.21 1.75 to 0. 367 100.21 3.191).481) 199 6. . The following table shows for each class of em- ployees the number and per cent employed by the hour.529) 169 5.. WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. whether working separately or collectively (in gangs or teams).00 to 3.336) 627 21.00 o Not including 4 who received no wages and 7 whose wages were not reported. 1903.24 francs (29 to 43. 48. and 19. Four boys who received no wages are omitted.44 4.9 cents) per day. etc. Employees. 193) 13 0.74 francs ($0. 1903. OCTOBER. Males.913 100.14 Total a 5.24 francs ($0. while 55.24 francs (19.338 to $0. wages are paid on a time basis.5 1.49 francs ($0.12 per cent receiving less than 1. Number. the percentage of males paid by piece rates being considerably smaller than that of the females so paid..384).193 to $0. Rate of wages.770) 10 .50 to 0.386 to $0.24 francs ($0.49 francs ($0.74 francs ($0.24 francs ($0.25 to 2.45 $0.57 1. Per cent Less than 1 franc ($0. 00 574 100.75 of the girls employed received from 1 to 1.097) 101 1.89 $0.21 320 55.99 francs ($0. Per cent..097 to $0.75 to 1.3 to 23.71 per cent more than 2.99 francs ($0. 511 9. Per cent Less than 0.432) 479 16.75 to 2. day.6 cents) and over per day..531 to 1.288) 407 13.45 2.. But 1.514 28.50 of adult females (61. OCTOBER.25 to 1. 19.21 per cent received 3.674) 35 1..50 to 1.75 1.80 NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES UNDER 16 YEARS OF AGE IN METAL-WORK- ING INDUSTRIES RECEIVING EACH SPECIFIED RATE OF WAGES.21 $0.70 0..52 37 6.50 to 1. The report shows that in by far the greater number (82.00 francs and over ($0..33 1.94 francs ($0.88 4 0.722) 6 .290 to $0.74 francs ($0.8 cents). Number. The majority from 1.080 20.08 1.33 per cent received wages ranging from 1 to 1. 705 13.12 15. Females.00 francs and over ($0.50 to 3.97 3.75 to 1.52 3.75 to 3.00 to 1.625) 0.579 to 1. Rate of wages.434 to and over) 13 .241 to $0..50 to 2.83 2.483 to Total 2.239).20 $0. Number.772 2.338 to $0.2 cents).193 to $0.14 116 20.2 cents).24francs (43.288).49 francs ($0. Number.145 to $0. Rate of wages.384) .386 and over) 437 8. 371 6.25 to 3.55 $0.. 27 NUMBER AND PER CENT OF FEMALES 16 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER IN METAL- WORKING INDUSTRIES RECEIVING EACH SPECIFIED RATE OF WAGES.49 francs (19. 1.724 to 2..50 francs (67.74 francs ($0. Of the boys.239) 137 4.

Males: Under 16 years of age 2.46 648 22.43 10| to 11 1.03 Total 44. Num. ber of establishments observing specified periods of labor.42 20.77 4.01 744 . Individu. Per Per Per Per Per No.92 1. cent.774 51. by industries.32 53 1.28 WAGES AND PEICES OF COMMODITIES. cent.64 35 0. Time workers. 430 82.097 2. NUMBER AND PER CENT OF TIME WORKERS AND PIECEWORKERS EMPLOYED IN THE METAL-WORKING INDUSTRIES.61 250 43.47 ll£toll£ 109 2.00 2.19 3. day. d Not including 4 males under 16 years of age. 643 34. 185 100. 374 100.57 Females: Under 16 years of age 147 25. night.20 1.93 28.00 574 100.71 679 12. Hours of labor per Under 16 years 16 years of age Under 16 years 16 years of age of age. 795 17. Pieceworkers. 011 20. BY SEX AND BY AGE GROUPS. Males. cent. The facts disclosed by the investigation under review appear in the fol- lowing tables.869 34. All employees.00 84.45 1. ber. fort- Total.020 2. the daily hours of labor of all employees and second. By the By the By the week. 616 17.74 3 .33 31. Per Num. ively.31 174 30.51 437 .01 625 . hour.69 69.78 321 55.89 17. Collect- ally.14 12. Sex and age group. except as noted.51 83 14.63 45.058 36. 265 20.97 933 32.466 33. Per Num.909 22. 1903. Per ber.062 48. Num. OCTOBER. cent.26 Over 12 4 . No. cent. The hours given are for actual working time.16 1.27 2. No. 104 13.80 76. hours of labor not reported. ber. Per Per No.03 1. 00 d93.913 100.691 4. 8and under 11 0.345 47.65 714 13. c Including 797 persons whose periods of rest were not deducted. cent.39 166 28.001 2.37 c2. of age. OCTOBER.81 579 .84 b 1.17 8|to8£ 8|to9 54 1. ber.69 174 30.73 9|to9£ 37 . No. showing first.10 682 . cent. No. .12 Total d 5.62 41. b Including 777 persons whose periods of rest were not deducted.38 4 0. 046 100.043 47.56 3 .957 2. day.07 106 .271 23. cent.65 18.504 51.01 16.86 The remaining subject presented is that of hours of labor. In the first table 4 males under 16 years of age are omitted because their hours of labor were not reported.31 16 years of age and over 909 31. and over.119 2.78 149 2. 661 49.92 624 21. Employed— Total. No.00 a Including 20 persons whose periods of rest were not deducted.726 4.890 13. 848 22.69 323 .38 14. Per ber. by sex and by age groups.03 933 32.29 16 years of age and over 40. the num- .52 400 69. Females.13 110 .28 llf tol2 o99 1.015 18.47 9f to 10 2. Per Num.07 10itol0| 1.20 2. NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN THE METAL WORKING INDUSTRIES WORKING EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF HOURS PER DAY.660 86. cent.980 67. or month.642 49.390 82.82 2.38 8 0.70 73 2. BY SEX AND AGE GROUPS AND BY METHOD OF PAYMENT.25 19.32 13 .85 3. cent.43 11. cent. 1903. 998 2. and over. cent.

060) 3. to which reference has already been made. Per Num. etc.17 to $1. and 46.16 to $0. and stove making 1 35 9 36 7 5 93 3.622 6.947 2. hrs.962 5.290 5.136 100. The figures for 1903 do not include 49 employees in the first table whose wages were not reported and 4 employees in the second table whose hours of labor were not reported. 90. These comparisons are made in the following tables.50 to 5. wire. Rates of wages. screws.50 to 2.504 Iron manufactures 27 25 9 1 62 21. 748 Foundries 97 32 588 5 227 9.938 2.96 2.117 3.579 6. Less than 1.550 12. OCTOBER.483 6.72 5. cent.93 4.047 1.50 to 4. chains.35 3.674) 16.00 to 3.35 4.907 4. 1 14 21 12 2 50 3. NUMBER AND PER CENT OF ADULT MALES IN METAL WORKING INDUSTRIES RECEIVING EACH SPECIFIED RATE OF WAGES IN 1896 AND 1903.90 to $1. while nearly one-half (49. ber.27 1. Per Num. 9 10 io§ 11 12 12 ments. cent.00 84.554 Bolts. 8hrs.255 to $0.481) 7.676 7. hrs.75 12.859 6.00 to 5.965 to $0.99 francs ($0.253) 1. contains data which make it possible to compare the wages and hours of labor of that date with those of the period considered by the present report. Number of establishments working Total Total Kind estab.99 francs ($1. cent.963) 5.00 Total 82.083 93. Num. hrs.15 3.232 18.577) 13. hrs. 29 NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS IN THE METAL WORKING INDUSTRIES OBSERVING DESIGNATED HOURS OF LABOR. all classes of employees are considered.736 100. ber.867) 10. ploy- and to to to to to to to to un. hrs.465 16.50 to 1.50 francs 4.04 1.869 ($0.333 11.062 to $0. The industrial census of 1896. ber.50 to 3.Per Num.862 16.616 15.80 8.97 per cent) work from 9f to 11 hours daily. locksmithing.770) 13.127 19.49 to $1. hrs. hrs.73 16.158 to $0.71 2.35 per cent a working day of 9| to 10 hours.937 3. Rates of wages.626 1. In compar- ing rates of wages only those of males over 16 years of age are used.42 1.07 per cent) work 9f to 10 hours. — WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.75 15.49 francs ($0.156) 1.772 to $0.00 to 4.27 978 1. 1896.28 9. Practically the same showing is apparent from an examination of the second table.286 Machinery and meal products 2 9 2 185 45 128 19 13 2 405 34.49 francs ($1.99 francs ($0.00 francs and over to $0. while in the table showing hours of labor. 1903.386 5.74 2.702 3.09 to $1.351 and over) 1.342 Metal working 1 14 4 4 1 24 990 Specialties 2 3 63 9 31 3 7 118 4.738 9.290) 2.50 to 6.49 francs ($0.745 Total 4 1 11 1 8 502 157 326 39 34 2 1. BY KIND OF INDUSTRY.49 francs ($0.094 Ironworking. hrs. Per ber.00 .49 francs ($0.175 1.99 francs ($0.836 1 2 1 4 62 Household utensils 10 4 12 1 1 28 3.322 19.00 to 2.050 These tables show that the great body of employees (91. ees. 1903.10 ($1. Manufacture of common metals other than iron 1 24 2 1 28 8.00 to 6.99 francs ($0. 1896. der.384) 3.924 4.444 10.57 967 1. cent. 8i 9J hrs.99 francs ($1. em- of industry. 8-1 8| 9| 10i lOf HI Hi Over lish.95 per cent of the establishments observing a working day of from 9f to 11 hours.889 Firearms 1 32 6 4 1 44 2. nails.349) 475 . 1903.30 3.

172 persons are on duty 24 hours in succession.31 Over 10. Per Num. 754 46.Per ber.70 8. Per Num. but without changing the hours of labor.93 3. while in 1903 it was but 10. 00 8. 00 68. Common metals other Iron manufactures.456 51.09 274 0.48 110 . 00 19. with a like period off duty.62 32.30 589 .73 400 4.. cent. though the workmen must be within call continuously. to 11*.00 Over 11.64 9.35 Over Hi.9 cents) and over in 1896 comprised but 17.38 1J233 1.68 31 . A third fact is that in the groups "Common metals other than iron" and "Iron manufactures" the work period is not actually 12 hours.. Another is that in a number of establishments reported at both periods large changes have been made. ber.06 33 . in 1903.803 36. but really only 10 to 11 hours.37 7. cent. dustries.504 100.Per Num. NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN METAL WORKING INDUSTRIES IN 1896 AND 1903. 976 15.800 17. Employees Employees Employees Employees Employees Employees Hours of labor per day.58 335 9. b Periods of rest not deducted for 382 employees. Num.846 21. either of increase or decrease.30 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. the very considerable apparent increase in the first-named group in the number of persons working 8 hours per day or less is said to be due not so much to the actual reduction of the hours of labor per week of the employees affected as to a rearrangement of the work schedule.030 100. but which are not embraced in the report for 1903.11 666 5. also.71 11 0.17 Total.73 697 18.096 42.36 1. in 1896. BY HOURS OF LABOR PER DAY. These changes have served to modify the percentages even though there has been no actual change in this respect in the working conditions of the industry represented. while in 1903 it formed 26.95 Over 12" 691 2. by which three 8-hour shifts in a day have been substituted for 24 con- secutive hours on duty followed by 24 hours of rest.39 60 .92 5. and the proportion of those receiving 4. the remainder have duty and rest periods of 12 hours' duration.93 Over 9. 315 5.55 per cent.119 100. ber.40 a 415 12 . 66 1.50 francs (48. to 10$.00 9. cent. cent. in the working force. The showing of the table of working time is more complex.50 francs (86.08 110 .06 18 0.94 260 35.286 100.40 156 0.515 15.04 Over 10J. to 10. These tables show a twofold improvement in respect of these important factors in the conditions of employment. in 1903." which comprises a large majority .824 46. 96 8.319 6.13 1. 4.. and embraces a number of factors not superficially in evidence. 00 21. 8and under 691 11.36 per cent of the total in 1896. ber.06 6 449 2. Other metal-working in- than iron. toll.. The proportion of employees receiving less than 2.88 17.30 2. 00 a Of this total. to 9.078 27.206 100..3 cents) was 17.09 per cent. in 1896. Per Num.779 67. ber. 6.091 65. In both cases there are intervals of rest during employ- ment aggregating from 1 to 2 hours per day. ber. toll 25 . 119 3.256 100.13 per cent of the total. in 1896.85 312 26. 00 63. cent. A comparison of the reports for the two years for the group "Other metal-working industries. One of these is that in 1896 several establishments were included which had fewer than 10 employees.28 884 1.25 Over 8. cent. 42 . in 1903.Per Num.

The following industries are granted some or all of these advantages and are therefore included in this enumeration: Textiles and other manufactures of fibers. cement. BULGARIA. e. bookbinding. The information obtained and presented includes the following subjects: (a) For establish- — ments capital invested. xxii. Only establish- ments which have invested at least 25. or preference within certain limits over foreign products. which enjoy certain privileges according to the law of 1894. as amended in 1897. several important branches of industry are omitted from this manu- facturing census. printing. . such as building and construction operations." i. glue. machinery. and lime.62 per cent of the employees worked from 9 to 10 hours. Principaute de Bulgarie. Nevertheless.000 francs ($4. persons employed.825) in land. in cases of purchases by the Government. September. 101 pp. The actual summary in this connection shows that 17. earthen and china ware. These are the exclusive privileges to manufacture within certain geographical limits for a definite number of years. 31 of all employees in the metal. while the number similarly employed in 1903 was 51. one for the establish- ment and another for the employee. it is stated that the census includes the greater part of the factory industry in Bulgaria.. mineral waters. Direction de la Statistique.working industries. carriages and other vehicles. candles. are entitled to such encouragement. paper and paper goods. WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. export premiums. and 7 with the employees. chemical products. and plant. Owing to these limitations. shows that in 1896 35. It includes only those manufacturing establishments which are " en- couraged by the State. 1908. buildings. whereas but 5. etc. States Bureau of Labor. matches. The census embraces both the establishments and the workingmen employed.31 per cent of the total. two schedules having been provided. of which 13 deal mainly with the establishments. of the United. tobacco. trans- portation. 1906. notwithstanding that higher prices are charged. the change being effected by a reduction of the number of em- ployees working more than 11 hours. products of mines and of metals extracted from Bulgarian soil. or which employ at least 20 persons.] Recensement des Industries Encouragees parV Etat (31 decembre. 190%).16 per cent of all empk^ees worked more than 11 hours daily in 1896.47 per cent were so em- ployed in 1903. [From Bulletin 78. free importation of machinery or raw materials. nature of ownership. sugar. The results of the census are presented in 20 general tables. reduced railway freight rates for raw materials or for the finished products. glass and glassware. This is the first census of manufactures taken in Bulgaria.

350 44 128 65 193 103 229.225 Wood manufactures 8 113. methods of wage payment.workers. ownership of real estate. 942 Earthen and china ware 6 371. Wage.576).149 wage-workers.342.981.891 37 170 170 218 9.738 6.8 382. 5 3.9 1.4 851.229.773 32. 1904.000 francs ($144. Altogether 166 establishments were included in the enumeration.743 1.858 127.648 2. The more important data obtained by the census for the separate industrial groups are shown in the fol- lowing table: STATISTICS OF ESTABLISHMENTS.757 Paper 1 35.077 Hides and leather 13 127.8 206.000 francs ($4. em- chan- new ma.010 Metals 71.0 5. 154 owned their buildings.149 8.2 $78. : . age.000 francs ($19.000) or over 3 2.7 per cent of the latter being males and 1.796 39 185 185 268 82. BY INDUSTRIES.924.030 17.000 francs ($193. ical ments.705 1. conjugal condition.0 1. 213 10.913. number of days operated.956). vested.3 593.6 637.411 1.697.250 90.040 5.4 250. .500) 13 8.122 Allother 4 737.4 500.250) or less than 500.347 1.650) 29 18.825) or less than 50.650) or less than 100. Less than 25. Amount of capital invested by each establishment. male.3 per cent females. 176 96.300) or less than 250. according to the amount of capital invested.0 . These were distributed. of whom 877 were salaried employees and 6.325. ACCORDING TO THE CENSUS OF DECEMBER 31. 31.000 francs ($144.000 francs ($96.248 Textiles 51 1. — 32 WAGES AND PKICES OF COMMODITIES.262. The capital invested amounted to 30.347 71 $264.8 1.072.000 francs ($19.565 2.545 3.3 25.530 319 877 106 983 2. (b) for employees nationality.285 francs ($5. The total number of persons employed was 7.250) 43 27. Horse- Num. 974 10. 240.057 30 31 31 4. estab- Dec.000. 4.738 or 28. 809 2. Total capital in- Establishments. Amount. terials.898 84. Number.793 14. Fe. and the value of products 32. Of the 166 establishments enumerated.975 francs ($6. mechanical power used. and hours of labor. 1904.000 francs ($9.825) 28 18. as follows ESTABLISHMENTS OWNING THEIR BUILDINGS.324).324 6. lish.924. 397 72 1.1 750.776. Total.000 francs ($193. value of raw materials. 956 Of the 166 establishments included. education.538 1.411 or 71.576 877 4. wages. The total value of raw materials was 21. 921 280.691 100.977 4.178 1. BY AMOUNT OF CAPITAL INVESTED.775. 57 manufactured food products. Per cent. motors. 4 2. and quantity and value of products. Value of Industry.000 francs ($48. and 51 textiles. 325. Male.504 Food products 57 2. Per cent.724 323. quantity and value of fuel con- sumed.750) .products.000 francs ($96.281.352 28 238 238 43 $29.000.639 34 237 237 93 274.750) or less than 1.500) or less than 750.000).103 21. Mines $149. 995 Chemical products 15 260. date of establishment.5 50. ees.026.0 Total 154 100.000 francs ($9.000 francs ($4.229.300) 29 18. Capital Sal- power ber of aried of me- Value of invested.892. ploy.420 2.594 francs ($4.000 francs ($48.788 4 20 22 26 2.076 Total 166 5.752 6.905.776 270 1.5 100.

491 11. Per cent Number.9 204 3 3 10 to 19 45 27.7 53 3. Per cent.4 1. 56..250) each. and 3 had a capital of over 1.0 Less than 5 17 10.9 per cent of all the workers.000 francs ($48.0 1.1 10 . Per cent.7 Total 4.250) to 1.0 Of the persons employed.1 634 10 3 20 to 29 23 13.. 61-2 3 . The next table shows the employees grouped according to age and sex NUMBER AND PER CENT OF WAGE-WORKERS EMPLOYED.5 919 52.7 31 to 40 years.0 6.271 20.2 51 8 5 to 9 28 16. or 1.4 per cent.. Doc. were below 13 all years of age. only 4. Number. 959 21.3 36 2. 235 5. Per cent 12 years or less 22 0.000). Total wage- workers..5 41 to 50 years.411 100. 22 establishments had a capital of from 250. Considerable differences are noticed between the sexes with regard to age distribution. but 100 establishments. BY AGE AND SEX. : : WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.4 61 years or over 92 2.000) each.2 per cent. only 280. very few adult women were employed.1 704 27.6 102 1.. Wage.149 100 It is shown that the average number workingmen per factory of was 37.6 1. Male.9 51 to 60 years. . Number. namely.0 per cent were below 16 years of age.5 13 to 15 years. or 16. Per cent..060 17 2 100 to 499 9 5. and 639.5 per cent. or 60.000 francs ($193. Establishments. 48310— S. . BY NUMBER OF WAGE-WORKERS EMPLOYED.9 639 10.3 549 8.000 francs ($193. Of the male employees..149 100.6 largest class per cent.000. The classification of the establishments by the number of workingmen employed is given in the following table ESTABLISHMENTS.1 per cent.9 468 26. Number.0 012 16. making a total of 732 children. or 10.4 per cent. None 10 6.9 21 to 30 years. or 11. employed less than 20 workers each. 631. 33 The greater number of the establishments.000 francs ($48. Number.4 16 to 20 years.000. Female. or 83.9 123 7..0 6. from 13 to 15 years of age.7 percent.1 93 1.1 58 3.738 100.000 or more 1 . 1. 129.workers employed.9 679 11 1 50 to 99 15 9. being over 20 years of age. On the other hand. The employment of persons over 50 years of age was excep- tional. namely..9 549 8 9 30 to 49 18 10.701 27 7 500 to 999 1.5 71 4.1 271 4. Total.9 779 28.0 1. 860 19.. had a capital of less than 250. Age. and of the female employees 31. 93. 171 3.7 Total 166 100..581 35. The was between 16 and 30 years of age.

Of the male workers. 2. or year 1.262 workers by sex and wage groups: NUMBER AND PER CENT OF WAGE-WORKERS FOR WHOM DAILY WAGES WERE ASCERTAINED. Num.3 per cent. ber.386) per day.129. Per Num.290) to 2 francs ($0. ( a ) of whom 3.058) or less 24 0. 471 12. such as by the week.375 1. .683 100.386) 987 26. Per ber. 153.50 franc ($0. BY SEX.50 francs ($0.80 franc ($0.7 Total 4.193) and 2 francs ($0.735 6.3 Total. 3.0 5.193) .8 per cent. cent. 796. The fol- lowing table shows the 5.7 845 16.4 per cent.386) per day.110 out of the 6. .30 franc ($0.154) to 1 franc ($0. The following data in regard to the methods of payment are given for 6. Per cent. Females. .30 franc ($0. received over 2 francs ($0. 2.9 1 franc ($0.262 182 1.6 per cent. Method of wage payment. Number of wage-workers reporting.8 28 1. or 89. received more than 2 francs ($0.5 732 13. cent. or 41.3 0..154) 203 5.0 0. received from 1 franc ($0. cent.5 642 40. or 9.0 125 7.262 persons.444 23 6 By piece 440 297 737 12 1 By contract 592 592 9.3 Over 2 francs ($0.193) or less.193) or less per day.058) to 0. Piece wages or contract wages were comparatively infrequent.9 per cent. Males.193) to 2 francs ($0. 1.193) to 2 francs ($0.579 female employees.290) . and contract wages to the mining industry. received 1 franc ($0. or 20.256 3.081 1.80 franc ($0.110 100 The daily wages have been ascertained for 5. .8 261 16. received from 1 franc ($0. and 758.6 417 26. Of the latter only 7. There is a considerable difference between the wages of male and female workers. By day 2.419.386).1 0. month. ber.8 1. month.. and 2.6 7 .386).262 100.579 100. or 43. received over 2 francs ($0. and 1.0 a In addition to 3.6 per cent. month. The remaining employees fall into two nearly equal classes.142 31.3 per cent. receiving between 1 franc ($0. 34 WAGES AND PKICES OF COMMODITIES. The usual method of payment was by the day. or 15. Piece wages were almost limited to the textile industry. or 21.7 99 6. over one-half of all the workers receiving daily wages. Per Num.50 franc ($0.0 1. Male.097) 60 1.4 per cent. Total. A than one-fourthlittle less worked for other time wages.9 1. received 1 franc ($0. or year.149 employees: NUMBER OF WAGE-WORKERS REPORTING METHOD OF WAGE PAYMENT.4 803 15.282. or year and 481 paid by piece or contract for whom daily wages were computed.444 paid by the week. Total.386) per day.193) to 1.3 123 2.097) to 0. Female.7 per cent. 0.193) or less.386) per day.267 24. receiving 1 franc ($0.4 477 9. or 0. Daily wages. BY SEX AND WAGE GROUPS.337 54 6 By week. or 57.50 francs ($0. Of this total only 803.177.015 19. Number.386) 796 21.337 paid by the day this total includes 1.683 were male and 1.1 1.

' 31 738 24 796 Total. or less.290) .386) 90 876 21 987 Over 2 francs ($0.097) to 0.50 franc ($0.417).193) Over 2 ers.322) per day.386) 22 6 28 Over 2 francs ($0.683 FEMALES.50 franc ($0.161 1.04 francs ($0. showing the wage distribution for five separate age groups for each sex.71 franc ($0.80 franc ($0. Interesting data are presented in the following table.097) 34 12 60 0. Males receiving daily wages Females receiving daily wages of— of— Total wage- Industry.50 franc ($0. or less.579 The wages were lowest in the textile industries. Textiles 2.419 153 7 1. 0. francs ($0. NUMBER OF MALE AND OF FEMALE WAGE-WORKERS FOR WHOM DAILY WAGES WERE ASCERTAINED.48 francs ($0.058) or less 27 65 6 1 99 0.058) or less 14 24 0.058) to 0.661 (58 3. years.386). sex.50 franc ($0. years.30 franc ($0. 1.386) . ($0.058) to 0.. .50 francs ($0. . .50 francs ($0.30 franc ($0.386). .30 franc ($0.137). ($0.50 francs ($0.154) to 1 franc ($0.50 francs ($0.386) 1 4 2 7 Total.193) .154) to 1 franc ($0. BY INDUSTRIES AND WAGE GROUPS.30 franc ($0. and highest in the manufacture of wood products.193) Over 2 1 franc ($0.193) .193) to 2 francs Total.80 franc ($0. for the female workers it was 0.. years.201).142 1.290) to 2 francs ($0. 82 240 137 3 471 1 franc ($0.290) to 2 francs ($0. In the wood industry the average wage was 2.683 1.310 151 7 1 468 Food products 935 57 612 177 846 88 1 89 Mines 775 195 482 98 775 Metals 214 68 75 71 214 j Hides and leather 210 48 95 67 210 i Wood manufactures 182 14 78 90 182 1 Earthen and china ware 158 18 127 13 158 I Chemical products 108 10 47 31 88 19 1 20 Paper 22 7 12 1 20 2 2 All other 29 3 8 18 29 Total 5. francs ($0. MAXES.097) 32 186 135 64 417 0. 66 428 809 268 1.262 758 2.16 francs ($0.154) 3G 126 38 2 203 0. 4 259 860 18 1. .193) to 1.193) to 1.67 francs ($0.629 338 593 230 1..266) per day. and in the textile industry.80 franc ($0. by industries. is shown in the following table: NUMBER OF MALE AND OF FEMALE WAGE-WORKERS FOR WHOM DAILY WAGES WERE ASCERTAINED. and for both sexes 1. 24 81 20 125 1.386).80 franc ($0.479). years years Total.38 francs ($0. 2 44 113 97 261 1 franc ($0. The average daily wage for all male workers was 1. BY WAGE AND AGE GROUPS. in metal manufacturing 2.097) to 0.193) to 2 francs Total. ($0. ($0. and wage groups. 35 The distribution of wage-workers. 12 61 13 to 15 16 to 20 21 to 60 Daily wages per worker. or less..579 .154) 5 108 448 78 642 0. WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.290) . 1 franc 1 franc work- 1 franc ($0.129 796 3. mainly because of the large number of women employed.386). 0. 18 142 794 2.

2 2.097) and 1 franc ($0. cent. Sex.8 992 55.1 93 13 to 15 years 13 2. Per Num.8 296 16. 86.7 6.193). Num.4 549 51 to 60 years 6 2.6 17 18.3 424 66. 3.6 26 1.4 104 38. Per Num.29). or 80 per cent.7 3 2. hours. Per Num. In the next two tables the wage-workers are grouped according to hours of labor and age and hours of labor and sex.3 169 2.779 21 to 30 years 42 2.80 franc ($0. Per Num. or 62.059 60.097) to 1 franc ($0. while for the male employees the proportion working over ten hours per . Per Num. Per Num.4 6 . again.097) or less per day. Fifteen per cent worked more than twelve hours per day.4 24 4.4 777 45. cent.193).012 41 to 50 years 9 1.30 franc ($0.0 66 10.50 francs ($0. : 36 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. cent. ber. 12 years or less 4 4.9 102 Total 134 2. Per Num.7 84 8. ber.9 51 3. ber. hours.0 2.738 Total 134 2. 63 per cent received from 0.4 29 10. more than one-half received from 0.6 717 42.2 756 12.2 123 45.80 franc ($0.8 307 7.30 franc ($0.3 169 2.193).3 9 9.4 1. Total. hours.9 639 16 to 20 years 41 2.411 Female 47 2. of the adult women 66 per cent received from 0. Num. Male 87 2.9 38 37.154).193) to 2 francs ($0. ber.005 45.7 9 3.704 31 to 40 years 16 1. hours.2 2.6 2. Per ber.1 117 6.4 130 20. of those from 13 to 15 years of age 69 per cent received from 0. BY HOURS OF LABOR AND SEX.7 6. hours.7 183 10.3 424 23.2 756 12.3 43 42.3 271 61 years or over 3 2.2 15 14. Age groups.827 persons. cent. cent. of this age group receiving such wages. cent.6 259 47. ber. Of the male persons between 16 and 20 years of age. Total.149 NUMBER AND PER CENT OF WAGE-WORKERS EMPLOYED. respectively NUMBER AND PER CENT OF WAGE-WORKERS EMPLOYED. hours.4 68 12. ber. 128 out of 160.902 47.5 1.8 4.3 1 1. and of the adults.0 169 3. 8 hours or 8 to 10 10 to 12 12 to 15 Over 15 less.154) to 1. Per Num. cent. For the female employees the hours are found to be longer.9 449 25.5 1.149 Of the wage-workers enumerated.188 35.0 1.80 franc ($0. ber. cent.7 62 66. franc ($0. 8 hours or 8 to 10 10 to 12 12 to 15 Over 15 less. Per ber.2 189 34.2 per cent. hours. BY HOURS OF LABOR AND AGE GROUPS.6 492 48.8 1.6 371 36.902 47.6 2. 65 per cent received from 1 In the case of female employees.50 franc ($0.188 35.058) to 1 franc ($0.50 franc ($0. cent. of the young women 16 to 20 years of age.50 franc ($0.097) to 0.154) and 86 per cent received from 0.9 1. 89 per cent of the girls 12 years of age or less received 0.386). For males below 16 years of age the usual range was between 0.8 per cent working over ten hours a day. hours. ber.843 41. cent. worked more than ten hours per day.50 franc ($0.058) to 0.3 49 4.

Pa uppdrag af Industristyrelsen och under dess ofverinseende varkstald af G. 48* pp. weekly earnings times of payment. and of bakery and confectionery products. overtime. 238. These volumes are the first three of a series prepared at the instance of the ministry of industry. health. 1907. the labor contract and its termination. — The points covered by the employers' schedules included for each establishment the number of employees. medical or hospital attendance. 116. for overtime and home work. social conditions. toilet rooms. old-age benefits. 123* pp. deductions for sick funds. II.] ArbetsstatistiJc. Data were procured as to the sanitation of workrooms. 1905. The method of presentation involves text statement and tables in separate sections.. and cost of same during 1901. wage advances. 1903. of textiles. III. . 106. The inquiries made of employees were equally detailed. The first volume also gives some account of the development of statistical inquiry into labor conditions in various countries and of the beginning of such work in Finland. and in Volume III by localities. This is explained by the long hours of labor in the textile industry. the hours of labor and rest. The distribution of employees by age and hours of work shows decidedly longer hours for the younger age groups. These are shown in Volumes I and II by establishments. . xiii. and Sunday work. Undersokning af Tobaksindustrin i Finland. xiii. etc. 214. or allowances on rentals allowance of tobacco free . 37 day isonly 52. FINLAND. . 125. respectively. WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. and related to employment. night.6 per cent. of the United States Bureau of Labor. January. accident insurance. provisions for lunch rooms. shop rules. Snellman. Undersokning af Bagareyrket i Finland. statistics of sickness and death were . and strikes and lockouts within the past ten years. The Tobacco Industry. 1904. Undersokning af Textilindustrin i Fin- land. compensation . etc. 183. the giving out of home work. the manufacture of tobacco. [From Bulletin 68. etc. requirements as to medical ex- aminations of applicants for employment and provisions for cost of same free homes. I. viii. The volumes discuss. also obtained. showing the number of days worked in one year and total annual and average weekly earnings. embodying the results of special inquiries into the conditions of labor in certain industries in Finland. 18* pp. R. The investigation involved the filling of schedules by both employers and employees. fines. There are also appendixes containing detailed lists of employees by occupations. premiums and gratuities.

the number of employees. Ten establishments were devoted entirely to the manu- facture of cigarettes.459 1895 30 1. 1. NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES.686 51.994.631 1899 37 2.994 2.5 horsepower.112.637. In each of the remaining establishments two or more classes of products were man- ufactured. The different classes of products for the year are reported as fol- lows: Cigarettes. Value of Year. however.392 kilograms (3.003. lish.38 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. and the value of products 133. and 5 employed 101 or more.000. 12 from 26 to 100. The number of establishments in which the manufacture of tobacco was carried on.550.636 pounds). employing but 1 or 2 persons each. and the value of products are shown in the following table for the ten-year period. ments. 481. products. snuff.061 pounds).084.734 1897 34 2.204 kilograms (185. at which time a number of work people were furloughed or. all data for a complete year cover nothing later than 1901. Engines and motors in use furnished 531. Seven of the establishments reported were operated entirely as home industries.475.701 1.975 1896 33 2.601. by sex and age groups: . smoking tobacco. ments. 1892 TO 1901.229. AND VALUE OF PRODUCTS.854.8 per cent. or a total of 11 employees. Year. As the investigation was carried on in the summer of 1902. products. Value of Employ. were absent for the summer. Estab.208 1.853 While the number of establishments was but one greater at the close of the period than at the beginning. chewing tobacco.578 1. 68. 1892 to 1901: NUMBER OF TOBACCO FACTORIES.878 2.706 {1.941 2. the number of employees had increased 74.728. cigars.4 per cent. while 4 factories. The largest factory employed 887 persons. gave employment to slightly more than two- thirds of the total number of employees. and 2 to that of chewing tobacco.417 1893 29 1. 252.093. each having more than 200 work people.750 1.362. Estab- Employ. 1 to the manufacture of smoking tobacco. 11 to that of cigars.212.100 1901 38 2.934 1. 84. relate only to those in employment at the date when the schedules were made up.199. lish- ees.529 pounds).958 1894 34 1. Detailed statistics of employees. 1892 37 1.161 1898 35 2. for other reasons.766 1900 34 2.681 kilograms (557. 14 factories employed from 3 to 25 persons each. ees. The following table shows for each class of products the number of employees engaged in the tobacco industry in the summer of 1902.

3 99 3.3 724 32. Females.2 Total.0 for the former as against 26. over.6 123 5.3 153 6.9 54 2.495 1.6 296 13. Per cent of— Total.0 Cigarette workers 10 93 103 114 1.2 1 (a) 52 11 2.9 184 6.2 per cent of the whole number of employees.2 Total 505 100. Per cent. Males.4 3 .2 Snuff workers 11 11 11 100. Nine home workers.5 17. Number.9 59 52 10. 18 or 18 or males.8 for the latter.0 2. . 65 90. 3 males and 84 females being reported as working 56 hours and 4 males and 83 females as working 60 hours per week. For 2.5 86 3.6 81.0 Cigar workers 30 146 176 75 500 575 751 23. 1902.0 Carpenters. BY SEX.8 32.235 100. .043 2. watchmen. NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY WORKING A SPECIFIED NUMBER OF HOURS PER WEEK. 39 8 1. 39 NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ENGAGED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF EACH CLASS OF PRODUCT.609 1.5 60 8 1.05 per cent.1 57£ 163 32. WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. messengers.8 139 5. Total.2 per cent the method .4 The proportion of females is much greater than that of males.6 Smoking tobacco workers 30 69 99 4 17 21 120 82. The number workers reported far exceeds the number of of piece employees paid by the day or hour.1 65 26 5. while scarcely 8.8 9. 3 3 3 100.740 100. Superintendents.7 379 17. 18 18 ploy- der years der years Fe- Total.6 176 7. years. ees.1 57 34 6.1 133 6. Number. 5 men and 4 women. .1 73 3. The hours of labor per week in the tobacco industry are shown in the next table.7 49i 1 .5 Chewing tobacco workers 37 22 59 3 25 28 87 67. as their hours were not reported. Per cent. Un.4 76. Number. Hours worked per week.0 413 15.0 56 53 10.8 205 7.2 375 13.7 6U . em- Class of employees. Almost 22.239 2. 79 15. 112 398 510 196 2. 1901. of age form 11.4 887 32. In one locality 7 males and 167 females worked 56 hours per week in summer and 60 hours in winter.0 2. These were distributed in the table. Males.2 43 1. the percentage being 71. cigarette factories.712 6. Males.0 a Less than 0. years.0 94. Un. are omitted from this table. Total. etc 54 59 I.0 194 7.0 per cent of the males are under 18 years of age.6 68 2 .4 58 7 1.8 per cent of the females are under 18 years of age.1 5 .7 62 61 12.5 131 4.749 18. Per cent. BY SEX AND AGE GROUPS.1 53 1. over. Females. being largest in the manufacture Children under 18 years of cigarettes.4 46 2.

or 67. .121) 2 6 2 10 127 11 to 11.99 marks ($1. Fe. were time workers and 1.893) 1 3 11 112 15 to 17.349) 1 3 41 7 to 7.316 females. Females.99 marks ($5.351 to $1.99 marks ($1.544 to $1 735).632 to $5..735) 3 1 10 76 9 to 9.. Fe- Males.507) 3 4 7 187 13 to 13. however.474 to $4.99 marks ($2.507).632 to $5.542) 4 1 9 69 8 to 8. varies or not reported. 4 1 Total. Cigarette workers.737 to $1.99 marks ($4. 11 2 2 4 6 to 6.351 to $1 542).158) 2 17 6 to 6.79) or over.211 to $5.99 marks ($3. 90 5 21 1 15 to 17. Females.472) per week. Rates of earnings were obtained for but 247 males and 1.99 marks ($2.053 to $4.702 to $2.99 marks ($3.99 marks ($1. or 27..928) 4 2 2 9 105 10 to 10.99 marks ($1.893).99 marks ($2.158 to $1. Males.99 marks ($1..563 employees.79) or over 4 13 2 Total 25 18 7 45 8 247 1. 146 5 31 1 3 13 to 13. workers. - Under 6 marks ($1. being so employed..99 marks ($2. Cigar workers..316 to $2..99 marks ($2.99 marks ($4.2 per cent) of the females reporting receive from 12 to 17. Males.99 marks ($1.93 to i . 115 3 31 1 12 to 12. Rates of weekly earnings. Chewing to- watchmen.121).9 per cent of the number consid- ered in the other tables. 2 1 6 27 to 29.70)..99 marks ($4. males. Males. bacco Snuff workers. Females.053 to $4. or but 56.509 to $2.99 marks ($4. 46 989 77 286 47 15 Carpenters.928).93 to $2. Among females 392. while of the . Fe. 71 3 28 2 10 to 10.99 marks ($1.810. 96 3 24 3 1 11 to 11.99 marks ($1.349).051) 3 4 12 50 35 21 to 23.99 marks ($2. 4 3 12 24 to 26. 1901.70) 1 8 195 14 to 14. 29 1 12 1 7 to 7.99 marks ($2. 51 6 24 1 9 to 9. males.63) 2 2 3 28 11 24 to 26.5 per cent.99 marks ($2. The following table shows by sex the num- ber of employees in the various branches of the tobacco industry whose weekly earnings are reported as equal to the amounts indicated NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY WITH SPECIFIED WEEKLY EARNINGS.9 per cent.7 per cent. Smoking tobacco workers.316 More than half (51.2. males.99 marks ($1. . 1 30 marks ($5.472). Males.99 marks ($2.. while but 141.158 to .99 marks ($2.702 to $2. or 17. 149 18 31 9 18 to 20. messengers. : 40 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.99 marks ($5. Time work predominates among male is employees.472) 4 1 15 55 180 18 to 20. Under 6 marks ($1.158) .209) 1 4 18 3 27 to 29.737 to $1 .788). were piece workers.895 to $3. .99 marks ($1. BY SEX AND CLASS OF PRODUCT. etc.123 to $2 314) 6 4 152 12 to 12. a total of 1.544 to $1. were piece workers. Males.99 marks ($2.788) 2 10 4 30 marks ($5. males.. Males.211 to $5.314). 18 11 17 11 21 to 23.123 to $2. Fe. or 80.316 to $3.63).509 to $2.6 per cent. 33 5 31 4 8 to 8.316 to $2.474 to $4. 345.051). 165 4 30 1 14 to 14. Total.209).895 to $3. Rates of weekly earnings..

206 for flax.319 1895 26 7.849. AND VALUE OF PRODUCTS. 41 employees reported as receiving 18 marks ($3. 283 6.263 Though the number of establishments was greater in 1901. ments.3. gave employment to 4.944 1897 29 8. and the detailed data as to employees relate to those employed at that time.259 4. of which 234. The total horsepower in use was 16. 2 from 500 to 999. and silk. 10 from 100 to 499. or 50. and 10. WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. wool. The weaving of cotton employed 4. The data indicated are repro- duced below for the ten-year period. lish- ees. are given. The following table shows. ments.272.685. 1899 41 10. The investi- gation was made in the summer of 1903. 119 are males and 55 are females.454. 29. The number of establishments and employees and the value of textile products in Finland from 1843 to 1902. the number of employees engaged in the manufacture of these four classes of textiles in 1903: . 1893 to 1902: NUMBER OF TEXTILE FACTORIES. The detailed statistics relate to but 37 establishments and 9.217. lish.590 1896.014. 863 looms.609 1900 41 11.034 1901 43 10. Estab- Employ. The most marked increase was from 979 marks ($189) for the five years 1860-1864 to 2. 050 1894 27 6.303. inclusive.9 per cent found in the number of establishments. 284 looms.4 per cent in the value of products. with 1. flax. Individual production has risen from a value of 625 marks ($121) per employee in 1843-44 to 3. and of 67.4 per cent of all those engaged in the textile industry. The schedules of inquiry as to the textile trades cover practically the same ground as in the case of tobacco. the maximum marks ($693) in for the period being 3.2 per cent of the two classes.306 1902 40 10. products. Estab. 8 had from 50 to 99. 11. 570 6. Eight hand looms were also found in use. — Textiles. Value of Year.495. 14 had fewer than 50 employees each.584 for wool. 339.932 5. 405. Comparing the data for 1902 with those for 1892. Value of Year. these numbers representing 48.482 were employed for the spinning of cotton.408 marks ($465) for the succeeding five-year period.242 1896 31 7. Employ.362 6. is of 61. 1893 TO 1902.341 looms. 770 6.884 persons.717 253 4. ees. 1893 28 6. by sex and age groups. Of these establishments.474) weekly or over. 1898 31 9.2 per cent and 4. The total number of spindles reported was 274. respectively.4 per cent in the number of employees.687 employees.423 S6.812. 714.754 6. an increase of 42. the number of employees and the value of products were at their maxi- mum in 1900. products. NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES.000 or more employees each. except for the years 1877 to 1883. while 3.373 915 S3.133 marks ($605) in 1902. the year 1902 being the last full year considered.

99 marks ($2. 1903.560 1.1 per cent of such employees in this industry as against 15. Fe. Males.893) 25 389 6 66 6 13 37 468 15 to17.507) 54 665 11 115 16 101 81 881 13 to13.9 70.0 of the total number of the two sexes.316 to $2. The number varied from 36 to 70 per week. 18 Total. Males.99 marks ($2. and flax industries.158) 39 130 9 91 48 221 6 to 6.4 Total 451 2. the percentage of males being 15.044 11 to11.351 to $1.051) 108 40 24 5 103 235 45 21 to23.3 Silk 1 2 3 3 16 19 22 13.790 32.932 2.79) or over 63 25 6 94 1 Total 897 4. 14. Wool in.6 86.702 to $2.509 to $2.544 to $1.928).474 to $4.93 to $2. Children under 18 years of age comprise 14. the majority of estab- lishments requiring more than 60 hours weekly. there being 23. NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ENGAGED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF EACH CLASS OF TEXTILES.63). dustry.632 to $5. 25 270 4 174 16 68 45 512 9 to 9.6 and of females. 20 332 9 248 29 176 58 756 10 to 10. 26 522 13 309 33 213 72 1.792 9.3 77. No attempt is made to present the hours of labor in tabular form. males. 45 168 5 170 6 64 56 402 7 to 7. years. Wool 43 512 555 244 1. Fe.99 marks ($4. 1902.349). dustry. however. NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES OF EACH SEX IN THE COTTON. Total.096 . 42 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. or over.409 7.99 marks ($1. Per cent of— Industry.737 to $1.542).314) 18 543 3 110 24 188 45 841 12 to12.053 to $4.99 marks ($5.99 marks ($1. Under 6 marks ($1. Fe. cotton.487 22. males are found in increasing proportions in the wool.895 to $3.444 2. Rates of weekly earnings. or over. Males.99 marks ($2.99 marks ($2. . BY SPECIFIED WEEKLY EARNINGS. 80 6 14 2 13 107 8 24 to26.211 to $5. WOOL. A general idea of wages may be gained from the next table.856 512 3. Flax in- Total. in which are shown the number of employees earning specified weekly amounts in the three principal branches of the textile industry.158 to $1. BY SEX AND AGE GROUPS. respectively.388 34.9 Flax 111 370 481 192 715 907 1.841 6.123 to $2. Fe- Males.616 186 1.99 marks ($1. 100 383 8 229 6 16 114 628 8 to 8. Cotton in. Males. 39 623 18 32 7 50 64 705 14 to14.99 marks ($2. Females. Earnings of weavers and spinners of cotton are also given separately.687 29.5 per cent of all textile employees. in the order named. males. a large percent- age of the males are under 18 years of age. years.688 1. males.735) .7 per cent of the males employed in the cotton and wool industries. males.121).209) 87 1 7 7 101 1 27 to29.99 marks ($3. Under 18 years Under 18 years Fe- 18 Total. AND FLAX INDUSTRIES. dustry.788) 20 4 8 32 1 30 marks ($5.577 326 903 1.7 Cotton 296 1.7 65. Males.99 marks ($1.895 951 5.99 marks ($4. In the last-named industry. males.934 5.70).472) 148 544 26 24 46 14 220 582 18 to20. respectively.422 3.1 Disregarding the unimportant silk industry.99 marks ($1.1 67.9 per cent and 7.

males.99 marks ($5.737 to $] . Females.928)..702 to $2. it cent of the males and by the 72.99 marks ($1.79) or over. 92 286 13 to 13.1 23.5 60. Fe. AND IN ALL TEXTILE INDUSTRIES.2. males.99 marks ($2.158) 4.121).7 18 marks ($3. AND FLAX INDUSTRIES. a fact that is noted in the report.99 marks ($1. 19 94 7 to 7.316 to $2. (a) Rates of weekly earnings. cotton. (a) Weavers.99 marks ($2.70).158 to $2.0 39.6 35. Wage data are given for a considerably greater number of employ- ees than are reported for in other connections. Under 6 marks ($1. 8 1 27 to 29. The following summary table shows by wage groups the percentage of employees of each sex in the three principal industries and in all textile industries.158) 13 20 6 to 6.544 to $1 .6 78. Males.7 per cent of the males and 26.351 to $1 542) . All textile in- try. 62 94 9 to 9.99 marks ($1.474) or over 39. 69 103 10 to 10.0 .316 to $3. 60 577 92 2.149 per- sons. Fe.9 From reports from the 7 principal localities. which gave employment to 2.2 per cent of the females were paid piece.2 32.93 to i .8 5. Females.7 48. 1902. Fe- Males. WOOL.788).1 48.8 3.99 marks ($1.. in which are found more than 90 per cent appears that 20 per of all textile employees. 57 87 8 to 8. 1 14 234 15 to 17. . 57 324 14 to 14.99 marks ($4..211 to $5.99 marks ($2. This volume presents — data for 696 establishments.314).0 41. 18 3 24 to 26. BY SPECIFIED WEEKLY EARNINGS. 2 Total.0 19.99 marks ($3.474 to $4. the largest having 39 employees in 1904. Flax industry.063).99 marks ($1.. Fe.735). 100 142 11 to 11.507). BY SEX.7 37. 7 15 427 18 to 20. only 68 employing more than 5 persons each.1 6 to 11.8 1. .3 12 to 17.026 a Including helpers.99 marks ($4.123 to $2.0 80.895 to $3. Males.99 marks ($2.158 to $1 349). 1902.893). Wool industry. Males. males.051).0 22. Males. . while 78. These establishments were mostly small. 11 27 21 to 23.99 marks ($2. 43 NUMBER OF COTTON SPINNERS AND TWISTERS AND OF COTTON WEAVERS OF EACH SEX. Spinners and twisters.632 to $5.3 19.99 marks ($1. who earn specified amounts weekly: PERCENTAGE OF EMPLOYEES IN SPECIFIED WAGE GROUPS IN COTTON.5 42. WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.209). cotton.8 15.472). Cotton indus. but for which no explanation is offered.053 to $4. Males.314) 26. dustries.472) 29. For the slight remainder the method either varied or was not reported. males. 7 30 marks ($5. Under 6 marks ($1.99 marks ($2. 79 184 12 to 12.8 .7 per cent of the females were reported as time workers... Rates of weekly earnings. Bakery and Confectionery Products.9 1.8 4..3 2.7 35.509 to $2. .

3 Over 108. 678. Females.. The methods of payment of wages and the very considerable insta- bility of employment among bakery employees made the returns for earnings less reliable than was the case for tobacco and textile work- ers.3 520 24. but not over 120 13 .9 per cent of the males and 56. though 129 persons worked more than 10 hours on Sundays. and of females. but not over 60. Males. in which there were no hired employees. BY SEX. 1904.0 57 7. Per cent Number.408 100. but not over 108. Per cent 48 orunder 45 3. : 44 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.5 per cent.5 391 18. as against 22. Six hundred and fifty-six males and 86 females worked from 2 to 16 hours on Sundays. Night work.9 4 ..0 2. but not over 84. m.8 637 29.9 68 9. Of these. .6 Over 84. or 13.. The number of adult males was 1..170. while only one person for whom length of service is reported has been with the present employer more than 20 years. work between 9 p. e.7 156 7.. but not over 72. m..2 Over 72. while for 3 males and 8 females the age was not reported. Hours per week.2 221 10.7 per cent of the males.5 159 21. while 26.8 143 19.0 The hours of labor in bakeries are excessively long. was reported for 733 males and 360 females. 60.149 100. Number. The greatest number of hours reported was 125 per week. but 39. Hours of labor in 1904 are shown in the table next given: NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN BAKERIES WORKING THE SPECIFIED NUMBER OF HOURS PER WEEK.0 741 100. but not over 96. ranging from 7 to 56 hours weekly.6 221 29.3 per cent of the employees having as short a work period as 72 hours per week.8 Over 48. Per cent Number.7 per cent of the females entered the industry at this age. The largest number of persons employed on Sundays worked from 4 to 6 hours of the day. while but 20. 99 7. and 5 a.6 per cent worked more than 84 hours weekly.0 104 4.0 97 4.7 30 4. were under 18 years of age.3 Over 60. The age at which the greater number of males (71. 377 26.3 Not reported 67 4. 65 per cent of the females began work between the ages of 18 and 29. 416 29. Total.4 6 .8 Over 120 6 . .2 59 8.2 Over 96. There were also 275 bakeries in which 339 persons worked.5 17 .9 per cent of the females having served their present employers not to exceed one year. Of the 2. 232 16. The following table is reproduced as approximately presenting by age groups the conditions as to earnings .149 employees for whom detailed data are given 290. Employment in this industry seems much less stable than in those considered above.5 Total 1. 235 were males and 55 were females. i.3 per cent) began work was from 12 to 17 years. 153 10.

1 4.6 63.0 58.7 59.0 66.6 50. de Flndustrie. males. Where this can be done.3 Not reported 3 6 9 33.6 60 or over 6 4 10 25. Salaires et Duree du Travail dans PIndustrie Francaise.0 17.90) or ($96.6 41.0 75. a mixed com- mission is called upon.0 66.3 33. males.9 9.763 . ($96.7 33.1 6 30 or under 45 177 58 235 6. engi- neers.000 marks 300 marks less than less than ($193) or Age. An abstract of the memoranda col- lected in this manner occupies the first 124 pages of the present work. Fe. males. Trade unions. 300 marks 500 marks Less than ($57.] Bordereaux de Salaires pour Diverses Categories d'Ouvriers en 1900 et 1901.178 .3 66.9 19.1 69.1 70. communes. Males. representing in equal numbers the employers and the employed. and is effected by referring.4 2. and other competent persons may also be consulted.0 36. Ministere du Commerce. The memoranda on which the major portion of this volume is based were collected in conformity with a law of August 10. xx. Fe.000 marks over. 1902. Males. ($193). A second group of tables presents the results of an inquiry addressed to the councils of prudhommes in the various cities or to the mayors of such chief places of the department as had no council of prudhommes.5 64. Similar provisions may be incorporated in contracts by the depart- ments. marks ($57. 500 1.8 5.50). Fe. des Postes. males. BY SEX AND AGE GROUPS.4 50.4 26. 1889. where possible. . of the United States Bureau of Labor.90). Percentage receiving annual earnings of— Employees. Fe. Total. Males. Males. departmental and communal architects. This inquiry is identical in form with that under which the data were collected in 1896 for the fourth volume of the publication. councils of prudhommes.0 40.5 18 or under 30 710 468 1.0 32. Office du Travail.5 25. to trade agreements between unions of employers and employees. May.50) or 1. 233 pp.7 66. et des Telegraphes.8 8 FRANCE. which provides that contracts by the National Government for public works or supplies must contain provisions by which the contractor agrees to conform to the standard of the locality in which the work is done in the matters of rates of wages paid and the hours of labor. The determination for this purpose of the facts as to rates and hours rests with the branch of service interested.3 4.7 32.9 3 4 45 or under 60 41 4 45 2. and by public charity institutions. males. 1904. 1905. WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.6 59.4 41. Fe- Males.170 593 1.7 Total 1. 45 PERCENTAGE OF EMPLOYEES IN THE BAKERY INDUSTRY RECEIVING SPECIFIED ANNUAL EARNINGS. [From Bulletin 58. Under 18 233 53 286 3.7 30.

45 $0.87 .76 .uarrymen .87 Seamstresses. Other cities.76 Rope makers 1.77 .86 . night work.82 .97 .93 1.81 .74 .82 goods . Short tables in the introductory chapter also show the cost of board and lodging for single workmen in various industries in 1896 and 1901.79 .97 .25 .30 1. also the rates of wages in the building trades in Paris in 1900.82 Dressmakers (f.82 makers 1.81 Glaziers 1.97 .18 Weavers 1. 1. 1901 1896. No summary is presented. They are taken to represent the current rates and hours for the greater number of workmen in the branch of industry under consideration.40 .78 Wood turners 1. 1.16 . the price of board and lodging of a single teacher in a hotel and in a private family.34 .73 Tannery employees 1.61 . as well as the normal rates.81 .69 .45 .06 . and the estimated cost of living of a family of 4 persons.48 .35 .80 .44 Joiners 1.56 Coopers 1.87 1.81 80. laundry (f.97 1.54 1.77 .63 Potters 1.79 house Painters.40 . lumber 1. and special services. The wages and hours given in the first tables are for the occupations concerning which need of inquiry has arisen. 1.) .63 Shoemakers 1. From a similar source was procured a report on the cost of board and lodging for single workmen.35 .61 Brickmakers .64 1. white Sawyers.75 Ornamental sculptors .74 $0.54 .72 Locksmiths $1.86 Day laborers .35 .08 .85 Dyers and cleaners .93 .85 Blacksmiths 1.) . The last table presented was com- piled from 3.78 Wheelwrights 1*.23 pounds) of bread.73 Stonecutters 1. The approximate monthly consumption of food by such a family was considered to be about 50 kilograms (110.91 1.97 .48 1.39 . 46 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. 1901 1896.500 returns made by school-teachers in over 3.37 Cabinetmakers 1.54 . and show the allowance for overtime.35 .88 .50 .72 .61 . Paris.45 L54 . of which the teacher is the head. They show for each locality the wages of a day laborer and of a joiner. and this number was chosen as constituting a typical family and the report based on that computation.90 Average.75 .94 Seamstresses .74 .87 Tailors 1.40 1.34 74 76 Stove makers 1.95 Bookbinders 1.77 . Occupation.78 .25 $1.50 .28 .53 .38 Tapestry workers 1.22 .14 1.35 .68 Slaters 1.25 . 1896.45 .38 .82 .72 . Other cities.91 Saddlers and harness Masons 1. 1901.25 1. 10 kilo- .80 Q.23 1.87 .44 Tinsmiths 1. .54 1.41 Plumbers 1. 1901 1896.82 .54 .65 .85 .74 Excavators . .35 1.64 .06 .000 com- munes. Brewers $1.16 1. : .16 . Paris.50 .77 .74 .21 .) .16 . . on dresses.) .25 $1.42 .84 . Occupation. The identity of the schedules of inquiry in 1896 and 1901 enables the presentation of comparative wages in a number of occupations as follows COMPARATIVE DAILY WAGES PAID IN VARIOUS OCCUPATIONS IN 1896 AND 1901 IN PARIS AND IN OTHER CITIES OF FRANCE.) .87 Metal turners 1.80 Ironers. by localities.81 Lace makers (f.16 .63 .82 Compositors 1.69 .85 .85 The inquiries addressed to the school-teachers adduced the fact that the greater number of families under consideration consisted of 4 per- sons.30 .70 .77 .34 Carpenters 1.82 .71 .79 .90 .68 .97 1.54 1.42 Coppersmiths 1. The tables are arranged by departments or communes under the various occupa- tions.77 .25 .91 Embroiderers (f.00 Waistcoat makers (f.84 . and are more of the nature of estimates than of arithmetical averages.

and a summary of the opinions of officers of trade unions.61 Over 50. 80 liters (84. 6 dozen eggs. The report shows the present condition of apprentices engaged in the printing establishments visited.89 312. In the printing trades. 41 From 5. the actual status of trade instruction in workshops. the proportion of apprentices to the total number of workmen employed in the various printing trades. For Total. an analysis of the tables. 1905. at 44 liters (46. It was found impracticable. 4 kilograms (8. This amount being fixed.000 to 50. de V Industrie.54 quarts) of beer. The present volume is the result of this investigation.860 S10. however. of the United States Bureau of Labor. and the length of service. 317 10.81 2. showing their functions and the present occupations of their graduates. CLASSI FIED ACCORDING TO POPULATION. age.000 inhabitants 46 11. 1902. The drink consumed was reckoned.500 to 5. For food. classified according to the character of their training or apprenticeship. 1899-1901.000 inhabitants 126 10. the varying cost in different localities was reported. and proprietors of printing establishments.93 quarts) of milk. employers' associations.5 pounds) of potatoes.67 quarts) of cider. communes reporting. drink.49 quarts) of wine.42 [From Bulletin 60.] Rapport sur V Apprentissage dans VImprimerie.45 15. with detailed statistical tables. The report consists of a history of apprenticeship regulation in France. 04 82.000 inhabitants. and the results of the various methods employed in the training of workmen. much many attention is being given to a revival of the apprenticeship contract . 320 pp. and wages of employees. and 22 kilograms (48.80 13. and an account of the method of work adopted in this investigation. xcvi. Expenses. WAGES AND PKICES OF COMMODITIES. September.05 pounds) of beef. or 100 liters (105. des Postes et des Telegraphes. Number of Class of population groups. 47 grams (22. Ministere du Commerce. according to locality.500 inhabitants 2. During the year 1898 the French minister of commerce decided that an investigation should be made by the bureau of labor concerning the industrial apprenticeship conditions in France. Office du Travail. It also contains a cdmpilation of information furnished by trade schools for the printing trades. and the bureau of labor therefore confined itself to apprenticeship in the printing and lithographing trades.70 lb.82 pounds) of lard. from which a classified summary was prepared as follows: ESTIMATED COST PER MONTH OF FOOD AND DRINK IN VARIOUS COMMUNES.93 From 1. as in other trades in France.97 3. 34 liters (35. to undertake such an investigation to cover all industries. Under 1.71 2.

of whom 36. 2. and in 117 the character of the contract was not reported. and in the case of 635 this inquiry was not answered. how- .847 persons who had entered upon apprenticeship in the estab- lishments enumerated during the past 10 years. ever. 407 remained from 1 to 2 years. system.394 were still in the same establishment where they were apprenticed. in 19. were in the Department of the Seine. in 381. The statistics con- tained in the present report are based upon data obtained from 762 printing establishments. According to the census of March 26. Twenty-five apprentices had graduated from trade schools. from 4 to 6 years. from 3 to 5 years. in 17. photographing. This inquiry was not answered by 141 establishments. in 46. in 7. Of about 2. . With regard to the first and last points much has been accomplished by agreements between the employers' federation ( Union syndicate patronale) and the federation of workingmen in the printing and publishing trades (Federation ouvriere des travailleurs du livre). was only about one-half. it was found that of 5.000 apprentices. Less than one-tenth of the apprentices were over 18 years of age. and other allied industries are included. With regard to stability of employment. 164 had done manual work before being indentured. In 7 establishments the terms of apprenticeship were for 1 year or under. quitted the establishment before they acquired the rudiments of the trade. and on the part of the working people to a limitation of the number of apprentices.500 printing and lithograph- ing establishments. 12 per cent were sons of other employees in establishments where the apprentices were indentured. from 1 to 2 years. in 63. 680 had left and returned to the establishment.049 over 3 years. from 4 to 5 years. from 5 to 10 years.000 were employed in the Department of the Seine (Paris and vicinity). About three-fourths of the apprentices completed their terms of apprenticeship the proportion in the Department of the Seine. in 3. employing 6. In 409 establishments the contracts were verbal. 246 did not remain — in service more than 1 year that is.000. 3 years. in 41 written. and 215 attended trade courses during their apprenticeship.500 persons. Of the 762 establishments 567 reported the existence of apprentice- ship contracts. from 3 to 4 years. Of these estab- lishments 194. 436 from 2 to 3 years. from 2 to 3 years. from 1 to 3 years. there were in France on that date 56. in 2. besides a considerable number of persons in these trades who employed no help. the establishment of an efficacious supervision over the instruction given apprentices. 7 had attended trade courses.48 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.700. 8 per cent were the sons of persons engaged in printing trades. and the encouragement of trade courses. 1896. the number of persons amounts to about 84. employing 15. and 80 per cent were sons of persons in other employments. 1. in 76.000 persons employed in 3. If the bookbinding.

Per ber. Among lithographers and transferrers there were 138 apprentices and 670 workmen. Seine. cent. 631.084 workmen.0 25 to 44 2. Age (years). ber.0 18 2. ber. ing. With regard to sex.0 389 100.182 apprentices and 5.6 95 15.7 45 to 64 532 12. Per Num.2 131 17. Seine. Per Num.167 100.7 65 or over 41 1. etc.5 6 1. Per Num.068 25. ber. 61-2- . Compositors.8 66 17.3 6 1. OTHER THAN APPRENTICES. cent.3 197 50. cent.5 11 1. Depart. 49 The relative number of apprentices and workmen employed varied with the different trades and with the size of the establishment. Among other employees in printing establishments there were 797 apprentices and 7. Depart- Other Other ment of Depart. Doc. cent. ber.2 Total 4. In the compositors' and pressmen's trades there were 1.8 12 2.4 21 5.0 48310— S. gravers. such as folding. 8 11 Over 100 15 10 a Over 20 per establishment.5 291 46. Female.0 99 25. Lithogra- Feeders.392 57. 1 67 78 5 25 2 42 49 22 38 3 40 39 14 28 4 30 36 33 27 5 20 34 13 20 6-10 18 27 12 24 11-20 15 18 21 21-50 6 18 a 18 51-100 . ments. 100 lithographers. or about 1 to 5.333 persons enumerated. IN 5 PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS. The following tables show.7 419 68.4 91 14. . Pressmen. were females.451 compositors. Of the 15.973. The variation of this proportion with the size of the establishment is observed in the following table NUMBER OF APPRENTICES PER 100 COMPOSITORS AND PER 100 LITHOGRAPHERS IN FRANCE.0 617 100. 476. Per Num.4 206 44.454 workmen. Per Num. 2. binding. Foremen of phers. or about 1 to 9.0 462 100. ment of Depart- the the ments. signers. it was found that where women were employed itwas mostly as feeders or in accessory work.6 173 37. en- printing and pressmen.3 147 20.0 736 100. Of 5.4 18 to 24 1.2 71 15.0 633 100. ber cent. Number per establishment. thenumber of employees reported (not including apprentices). by age groups and by length of service EMPLOYEES OF PRINTING AND LITHOGRAPHING ESTABLISHMENTS. transferrers.0 9 1.0 429 58. stitch- ing. were females. : : WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.5 220 34. for each of the five principal occupa- tions. 12 to 17 134 3. or about 1 to 5.6 1 0.4 88 14. lithograph- printing.0 30 4. cent. Num. Apprentices per Apprentices per 100 compositors. or 19 per cent. or about 9 per cent. BY AGE GROUPS. GROUPED ACCORDING TO SIZE OF ESTABLISHMENT. and Male. de.

at the time of the investi- gation. the average wages of employees who. work. were employed in the establishments where they had served their apprenticeship.775 41 252 54. gravers.2 23 4 28 4 17 5 5 1 Total 4. Seine. Per Num. The table which follows shows. Less than 1 346 8 30 6. cent. and Male.679 1. print- ing 289 2 285 3 574 5 Pressmen 100 66 302 8 4 402 74 4 Feeders: Male 354 59 172 10 526 69 Female 8 443 11 451 11 Lithographers. Pressmen. work.291 100 463 100. cent.4 237 39 325 45 138 37 319 52 6 to 10 893 21 93 20. the wages were mostly paid for time work. Total. etc 187 69 531 26 1 718 95 1 Foremen of pressmen. This is usually for a 10-hour day.4 55 9 82 11 38 10 83 13 1 to 5 1. (years). litho- graphing 65 13 47 11 112 24 It will be observed that with the exception of those of the female compositors and the male compositors in the Department of the Seine. Per Num. piece work. Female. de. ber. Occupation. Per Num. ber. cent.832 698 109 2. cent. ber. en- printing and pressmen. ber. Time Time Time Time Piece. by age groups and principal occupa- tions.169 27 87 19. Compositors: Male 847 1. Per ber. piece work. and work. OTHER THAN APPRENTICES. Per Num. Foremen of phers. cent. Num. BY LENGTH OF SERVICE. work. BY OCCUPATIONS. ber. IN 5 PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS. piece work. cent. . Compositors. Employees under each method of wage payment in Department of the Other Departments. and Time Piece.0 604 100 725 100 372 100 618 100 The next table shows the methods of wage payments employed in the establishments answering this inquiry: EMPLOYEES UNDER EACH METHOD OF WAGE PAYMENT IN PRINTING AND LITHOGRAPHING ESTABLISHMENTS. and the wages of those who had received their training elsewhere. ing. Per Num. and Time Piece.0 107 18 126 17 70 19 132 21 11 to 30 1.704 189 Female 11 120 64 210 46 75 330 46 Foremen of pressmen. work. EMPLOYEES OF PRINTING ESTABLISHMENTS.0 182 30 164 23 109 29 79 13 Over 30 108 3 1 .006 80 1. work. signers. lithograph- Length of printing. service transferers. Lithogra- Feeders. — 50 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.

48 119 .91 160 .64 102 . Aver.49 Female 6 .60 Pressmen 65 1.40 13 1.47 . 757 1. 12 to 17 years of age. daily ber.09 12 .56 65 years of age or over. age Num. age Num.68 31 1. Aver- Num. daily wages. establish.31 Foremen of pressmen. printing 618 1. Occupation. Total wage- Apprenticed Apprenticed workers. daily wages. 18 to 24 years of age.04 117 1. wages. age Num. daily ber. age Num.61 66 . Apprenticed Apprenticed in same Trained in same Trained establish. 51 AVERAGE DAILY WAGES OF EMPLOYEES IN PRINTING AND LITHOGRAPHING ESTABLISHMENTS.31 18 1. age ber. ment.84 466 $0.77 2 . elsewhere. Aver.95 5 . daily ber. daily ber. Compositors: Male 621 $1. Age unknown. elsewhere. 45 to 64 years of age. establish.77 Foremen of pressmen.89 77 1. printing 126 1. daily ber.07 Feeders 1 . wages.77 5 1.48 52 .20 12 . Aver.54 49 .68 3 .33 Pressmen 1 . Apprenticed Apprenticed in same Trained in same Trained establish. lithographing 146 1.77 69 .30 Female 101 .29 16 .92 Lithographers and transferers 93 1. daily ber.34 2 .58 19 1. Compositors: Male 4 $1. age Num.48 4 1.21 9 1.86 38 . Aver. printing 1 1. daily ber. wages.74 Lithographers and transferers 1 1.79 103 81 Lithographers and trans- ferers *. Aver.03 17 1.58 1 . ment.715 $1.16 8 1.44 6 . Aver.89 23 .20 2 1.43 19 1. establish.82 8 .81 36 90 Pressmen 391 1. daily wages. 51 31 $0. WAGES AND PEICES OF COMMODITIES. Aver. elsewhere.97 49 1. age ber. wages.50 28 .25 106 1. wages. lithographing 1 . daily ber.15 Foremen of pressmen.50 Foremen of pressmen.22 448 $1. daily ber. Aver- Num. wages.06 38 $1. Occupation. Aver. ment.76 Foremen of pressmen.47 1 . Aver.22 73 $1.55 19 1.00 16 1. elsewhere.58 3 1.60 588 $0.30 2 . Aver- Num. elsewhere. Aver.45 2 . BY AGE GROUPS AND OCCUPATIONS. Compositors: Male 4.66 Foremen of pressmen. Occupation. age Num. age ber. ment. daily ber. lithographing 27 1.24 57 1. age Num.56 57 .24 Feeders 57 .63 135 .79 4 . wages.538 $1.15 419 $1..14 100 SO. wages. ment. ment.26 327 1.08 1.56 3 . in same Trained in same Trained establish.03 25 to 44 years of age. wages.49 82 1.91 Female 459 .03 35 $1. age Num.39 4 .86 35 92 Feeders 555 . elsewhere.24 292 1. age Num. age Num. wages.

Grenoble. An- other complaint is that the trade schools turn their best pupils toward more Owing to the decline in the standard of intellectual careers. workmen in the printing industry who have grad- uated from trade schools or have attended trade courses are better paid than other workmen. In the lithographing trade employers complain that the lack of good workmen is due to the lim- itation placed by employees upon the number of apprentices. D61e. As a result the young persons learn the rudiments of the work. with the con- sequent overstocking of the labor market and insufficient wages. 1 in Lisle. but do not become finished workmen. He St. of which there were 2 by employers in Paris. Another reason given is that parents do not care to pay the cost ofan appren- ticeship. but many of them teach other trades also. employers' associations. and indi- vidual employers to inquiries agree that there is a decline in trade instruction. Lyon. of which 1 is in Paris. of which there was 1 each reported in Paris. The schools for the printing trades at present in existence in France are of four kinds. of which there were 5 in Paris and 1 each in Asnieres. namely. Marseille. Nice. and Havre. (3) trade courses organized in print- ing establishments. apprenticeship and the excessive number of apprentices. Auteuil.. . Among the reasons given the most frequent are the influ- ence of machinery and the specialization of work. but. The responses of trade unions. the wages of persons in the age group 45 to 64 years were in most cases higher than those in any other age group. 1 in Montevrain. Toulouse. and 1 in Nimes. Lisle. namely: (1) Those organized and conducted as pub- lic institutions. A school at Paris and one at Autun prepare females for printing trades.52 WAGES AND PRICES OE COMMODITIES. and 8 by trade unions. 1 each in Paris. (2) schools and courses organized by trade associa- tions. at least in the Depart- ment of the Seine. Bordeaux. The report further shows that in general. Mar- seille. Poitiers. and St. have resulted in an excessive num- ber of apprentices. and the desire for cheap labor on the part of larger establishments. The existence of many small establishments where the work is of an inferior grade and is largely done by apprentices. Bordeaux. It will be observed that in almost every case the average daily wages of persons trained elsewhere were higher than the wages of persons who remained in the establishments where they had served their apprenticeship. (4) trade schools and courses organized by charitable and religious societies. on the contrary. Nantes. and as a consequence the latter do not obtain the training necessary for good workmen. Honorat. and Havre. want their children to earn wages as soon as possible. Etienne. The schools above enumerated are not all exclusively devoted to the printing and litho- graphing trades. While the number of persons over 44 years of age was relatively small. Montpellier.

because. At any rate. this being doubtless due to the fact that the . the graduates are too preten- tious. There were 40 employers of printing establishments who responded in favor of and 22 against trade schools. Only a few em- ployers expressed their opinions concerning the mixed system. The trade unions generally refrained from expressing their opinions upon the trade schools. and as a result the children do not have the benefit of the experience and direction of their parents. the apprentice is better guided and is treated more paternally. The work- men seem to be desirous of extending this arrangement to the other printing trades. the lithographers. In small shops. Some employers say that they do not want written contracts because apprentices do not carry out their part of the agreement and there are no practicable means on the part of the for enforcing compliance apprentice. and of these 12 were in favor of and 17 against it. On the other hand. The workmen seemed mostly to favor the mixed system. Among partisans of the shop apprentice- ship some prefer the small shops and others the large ones. Taken all in the employers and employees do not seem to have all. however. some employers consider the trade school as preferable to the workshop. 4 declared exclusive shop apprenticeship defective. but he has less opportunity to familiarize himself with a large variety of work. they claim. In accordance with an agreement made between the federations of the employers and of the employees in the printing trades concerning compositors. In the printing trade proper some employers and most employees responding to the inquiry appear to favor the mixed system of placing apprentices in establishments and requiring them to attend complementary trade courses in school. it is claimed. it is claimed that even if the trade schools are useful only in the large centers that apprentices can it is derive profit from them. but his trade instruction is more varied and extensive. and because the teachers are inclined to confine the instruction to the special work with which they are most familiar. beginners in this trade are consid- all ered as apprentices. In the large establishment he has less super- vision. Inquiries concerning the most satisfactory apprenticeship condi- tions elicited a considerable variety of opinions. having declared against them. 53 workmen in the printing trade rarely have their children adopt their own vocation. WAGES AND PEICES OF COMMODITIES. The custom of signing written contracts is rapidly disappearing. with the exception of young persons whose occu- pations consist exclusively of unskilled manual labor. while 91 preferred it. even though their training is deficient. Special trade schools are regarded unfavorably by many employers. because the owner of the shop does not have the time properly to look after the instruction of the apprentice. any settled opinions.

300. The census of March 24.200 schedules being sent out and about 1. The report is in three parts. 3.] Rapport sur V Apprentissage dans les Industries de V Ameublement. the others received having been rejected as reporting neither apprentices nor hired employees. including the introduction of the system of technical instruction which has so largely succeeded the old system of apprenticeship. efficacy of any system of apprenticeship depends largely upon the manner in which it is applied.000 persons. etc. veneerers. forms of rules and contracts gov- erning apprenticeship at different periods. a larger proportion than this having been included in the returns for the department of the Seine. 1901. Ministere du Commerce. Of these.. [From Bulletin 68. brief accounts of schools and courses giving technical training in the branches of industry considered. investigation of 1903-4 nearly 6. The final compilation of data was made up from 689 schedules. employing 18. the larger establishments were found to be located at some distance from Paris. 1905. The report relates to about one-fifth of the entire number of persons employed in the industries investigated. Contrary to the rule prevailing in the printing trades.000 and the number of establishments to 10. on account of the lower cost of labor.337 establishments. etc. are in the department of the Seine. 655 pp. In the third part are given a number of tables. Office du Travail.000 responses received. January. 1907. reported 37. inlayers. the first having contained a report on apprenticeship in the printing and lithographing trades.54 WAGES AND PKICES OF COMMODITIES. in which Paris is situated.426 persons. wood carvers. The was carried on through the mail. the which records the development of the furniture trades and first of of the methods of apprenticeship in use therein from time to time.000 establishments. of apprenticeship in the furniture industry. Including specialists. xxiii. of both . des Postes. sum- maries of opinions of employers' and employees' associations. The second part discusses the scope and methods of the investigation on which the present report was based. This volume presents the results of an investigation made in 1903-4. while for the more remote districts the returns covered a smaller proportion. The 689 establishments accounted for in the schedules employed 9. such as makers of chairs and armchairs. the total number of persons employed in the furniture and related industries amounts to approximately 52.956 persons engaged in the furniture industry proper in 7. and is the second of a series of reports on the subject of apprenticeship in certain industries in France. and presents a summary of the results. of the United States Bureau of Labor. de Flndustrie. et des Telegraphies.

the period ranging from 1 to 6 years in the other instances. The number of females employed was 841. Only 294 establishments reported the use of any form of contract. The fathers of 555 apprentices were of other trades. Before entering apprenticeship 21 apprentices had been in attendance at trade schools. In Paris. The practice of taking the apprentice into the home of his master or of making the latter responsible for his board and lodging is almost entirely discontinued. At the present time no payment is made for instruction. Summing up all the reports received. the fathers of 129 being employees in the same shops in which their children were serving apprenticeships. Neither party wishes to be bound to the other for a longer term than their apparent immediate interests shall require. but in 1903-4 the proportion was hardly 5 per cent of the total. about one-fourth the apprentices were under such contracts. The length of the term of apprenticeship was reported for 375 establishments. and this proportion seems to have been practically the same for 40 or 50 years past. as compared with 4 to 6 years under the old regime. of whom926 were apprentices and 8. this period is in many cases reduced almost one-half. ship. . and 9 failed to indicate the form in use. taken on at low rates in order to save payment of wages.though the term of apprenticeship is in general but 3 years. WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. 20 that it was in writing. and for 91 the trade of the fathers was not reported. and. 55 sexes. The proportion of female employees (somewhat less than 9 per cent) does not seem to be increasing in this industry. was not found to be warranted by the facts. it appears that approximately three-fourths of all apprentices serve out their terms. Under the old system an apprentice paid for instruction. and the written contract was necessary to secure the performance of the stipulated obligations. in 1847. During the first half of the last century written contracts contin- ued to retain a considerable degree of favor.500 ranked as journey- men. Of those using contracts 265 stated that the contract was merely verbal. of whom 22 were apprentices. The common complaint of an excessive number of apprentices. in 280 of which the term was 3 years. and 110 had received training in some form of manual work 466 pursued technical courses during their terms of apprentice- . and the apprentice receives pay for whatever work of value he performs. either in money or by services rendered after such skill had been acquired as would render them of value. 23 had pursued trade courses. Not more than 10 per cent of the employees were of the apprentice grade. The fathers of 280 apprentices were themselves engaged in the furniture industry.

76 6 .26 9 .91 86 1. ment. Of these 992 have remained continu- ously in the employment of the establishment where they received their training and 601 returned to service after having quitted it for a time.500 journeymen working men and women employed at the time of this investigation.06 102 .47 3 . establish.29 6 .78 153 1.608 were reported as having served their appren- ticeship with their present employer. For 389 the length of service is not reported. 421 remained not more than 1 year.21 Females 12 .75 70 . establish.66 25 1.77 1 .02 61 1. Aver.84 23 . c Including 1 female.35 Other employees: Males 1 . . an account is given of 3.41 518 1. classified by place of training. Occupation.63 13 . 395 1.00 Forewomen 1 . No. and 237 more than 5 years. earning $0.72 Molding workers dlO . Aver.41 2 .63 Females 10 . 6. wages. d Including 1 female. earning $0.67 Cane and straw workers: Females 11 .02 a 174 . establish- ment. Appren- ticed in ticed in ticed in Trained Trained Trained same same elsewhere.08 Upholsterers: Males 8 .31 16 . bl. Appren.67 17 .57 47 .80 29 1.05 el31 .88 4 .23 2 $0. In the following table are shown by age groups and principal occu- pations the wages of employees in the furniture industry. wages. same elsewhere.97 94 1.55 10 .52 225 .48 per day.68 per day. 458 more than 1 year but not more than 2 years. wages. Appren.92 5 . earning $0.39 22 . of age. Aver.56 35 . AND PLACE OF TRAINING.95 73 1.45 3 .40 38 .15 25 $1.48 67 . Aver.9?.56 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.13 84 .05 14 1. Aver.29 per day. No.87 15 $1.41 3 .39 31 .89 47 1. 12 or under 18 years 18 or under 25 years 25 or under 45 years of age.68 9 1.44 86 1.92 151 . b Including 1 female.64 a Including 4 females.03 107 1.37 Joiners 11 .10 Cabinetmakers 29 $0.39 per day.77 per day. earning $0.48 3 .72 287 1. whether with their present employers or else- where : AVERAGE DAILY WAGES OF EMPLOYEES IN THE FURNITURE INDUSTRY.48 56 .95 43 1.86 417 1. * Including 1 female. while for 315 the place of training was not reported. elsewhere.554 persons who served apprenticeships within that time with the estab- lishments making returns. earning $0. OCCUPATIONS. No.20 Gilders: Males 16 .24 c550 1. No. Aver- age age age age age age No. Of the 8.46 14 . Foremen and draftsmen 3 $0. No. wages. 1903.35 Wood carvers 23 .33 Females 15 .56 19 .68 2 .93 276 1. of age. 1894 to 1903.577 as having been trained elsewhere. BY AGE GROUPS. For the ten-year period.45 1 .49 148 $2. daily daily daily daily daily daily wages. wages.47 3 . ment. 456 from 2 to 5 years. 1.06 231 1.

33 5 $0. wages wages.29 960 1. 45 or under 65 years 65 years of age or of age.83 1 1.97 15 $0. wages. No.79 42 1.18 3 . establish. given mainly in the evening.25 10 1. Appren.08 2.98 4 $1.77 16 . 57 AVERAGE DAILY WAGES OF EMPLOYEES IN THE FURNITURE INDUSTRY. some as a result of private initiative. No.13 1 .23 4 . No. over.42 2 . wages. .883 1. Aver.13 89 1. daily daily daily daily daily daily wages.19 116 68 Upholsterers: Males 9 1.58 521 63 Cane and straw workers: 6 .72 2 .73 879 1.78 14 1. ticed in ticed in ticed in Trained Trained Trained same elsewhere.97 5 1.74 4 . given at such times of the day or week as to be available to young people employed in the shops. Total.52 50 .48 160 1. but more because such instruction.69 4 1.19 726 1. . Aver. ment. and who are in need of this theo- retical complement to their shop training.84 12 .66 462 1 09 Females 5 . No.76 102 1.29 21 1. 53 . BY AGE GROUPS.17 Wood carvers 11 .23 Joiners 15 .74 137 1.85 47 . Appren. Foremen and draftsmen 6 $1.64 2 .69 17 .77 10 1. Aver.07 Gilders: Males 9 . wages. and designed to supplement the practical training received therein. Occupation.52 Females 4 . The public schools offer training belonging properly to the first class. In these theory and practice may be given together with a measure of elementary instruction. Aver. WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. and others by the action of the State or of a commune. ment.32 3 . is open to apprentices who are at work for wages during the day. A number of schools or courses have been organized with a view to the training of young people for efficiency in the trades of the furni- ture industry.61 116 . especially in view of the tendency toward specialization. 1903-Concluded.84 101 1.69 24 1. The latter form is favored for a variety of reasons. Aver. Appren. industrial and general elementary education each receiving a . wages.52 45 47 In the greater number of cases the wages of employees who have served apprenticeships with their present employers do not equal those of employees of like age who were trained elsewhere.10 17 1 05 Cabinetmakers 23 . same same elsewhere. or the instruction may be mainly theoretical.80 598 1. partly because of the smaller cost of maintenance and the ease with which a consider- able variety of courses can be provided for.42 14 . daily No.24 19 1. Aver- age age age age age age age No.02 2 .91 143 1.10 991 1 54 Molding workers.85 Forewomen 1 . Aver.91 35 1. establish.10 Females 4 . No.29 83 $1. AND PLACE OF TRAINING. elsewhere. OCCUPATIONS.48 9 .09 381 1.87 8 1.93 288 $1.39 11 . From this fact it may be inferred that a more varied training than is likely to be secured in a single establishment is desirable and profitable.29 79 44 Other employees: Males 6 1.72 2 $1.20 2 . establish- ment. Age not reported.99 10 .

where there has been a scarcity of employment for the existing num- ber of workmen. This reason is particularly operative in cabinetmaking. there are incompetent masters who can not give the necessary training. employers and workmen were agreed. while schools and courses organized by employers' and workmen's associations generally fall within the second class. The effect of the introduction of machinery and the consequent disappearance of certain classes of workmen can not be overlooked. such decadence having been made a matter of investigation more than 30 years ago. On the other hand. inasmuch as it affects apprenticeship both by making unnecessary in certain processes the employment of labor trained by long experience and by leading to the use of classes of appliances which persons under 16 years of age are forbidden by law to operate. and sometimes even by unscrupulous employers who seek the services at a moderate compen- sation of partly trained apprentices. thus depriving the first master of his rightfully anticipated benefits from the services of his apprentice during the more profitable portion of his term. except in the schools of designated as primary superior trade schools. the lack of control over apprentices who leave prematurely and go elsewhere to offer their services as workmen. Where the amounts vary through the different years of the courses theoretical work predominates during the first years and practical work toward the close of the course. as well as those who try to keep their apprentices on a single class of work as a matter of profit rather than pay reasonable wages for a trained workman. The enactment of other statutes for the protection of labor has operated in a similar manner. degree of attention. The most general cause of the decline is agreed to be the growth of the custom of the parents of apprentices demanding compensation for their services before the expiration of the usual term of apprenticeship. is also mentioned as affecting apprenticeship unfavorably. in which little time is given to manual training. Thus the law that limits the employ- . The decline has probably been accentuated of late years on account of depression in the furniture industry. Other causes of the decline are the breaking off of the contract of apprenticeship. etc.58 WAGES AND PEICES OF COMMODITIES. As to the question of the decline of apprenticeship. This demand leads to the practice of employing the apprentice as a workman or making him a specialist in some single operation in order that he may render services of greater market value to his master to offset the wage payment that is required. those above the latter age being very few. the apprentice being encouraged thereto by his parents. especially in Paris and in certain frontier cities. The employ- ment of alien labor. In schools offering both theory and practice the amount time devoted to each is nearly equal. Pupils are mostly from 13 to 18 years of age.

first. The restriction of the number of apprentices was recommended by some employers and by certain workmen's associations. They also ask for protection against the competition of shops whose output is disposed of by peddling and of the department store. Others recommended that manual training courses be extended in . however. attendance on which should be obligatory at times. due regard being had to the rights of both parties. It is the general consensus of opinion that skilled workmanship is not declining. not only among the apprentices but also among the pupils in the professional or trade schools. Of 415 replies from employers more than two-thirds spoke of the standard of workmanship as improving. secondly. the preference of the majority of those con- sulted for a mixed system of training that gives the young work- is man an opportunity to receive such theoretical training in evening schools or courses as will supplement the manual training of the shop. which has led to the discharge of the young workmen. Employers generally desire a modification of the law regulating the hours of labor of children. where such insufficiency is found to be an obstacle to progress in technical educa- tion. in spite of the decadence of apprenticeship. Another law requires accident insurance to be carried by employers using mechanically propelled machinery. and the opinions of persons of other classes in the industry are in agreement. so that adult workmen may be employed beyond the 10-hour limit prescribed for persons under 18 years of age. As already indicated. so as to relieve the shop from the application of the law. and as the premium is reckoned by the number of employees the services of the less profitable apprentice are dis- pensed with for the sake of a saving in premiums. with special pro- visions for the supervision of the apprentice and a testing of his actual attainments at the completion of his term. and conse- quently the training lacked in applicability to current conditions. about one-fifth stating that it was stationary. the more complete establishment of supplementary professional courses. General remedial measures favored by employers and workmen alike were. Another point made in favor of the technical supplementary courses was that in the professional or trade schools the instructors were too far removed from actual trade conditions and progress.such competition tending to increase the periods of unemploy- ment among their workmen and to hinder the training of apprentices. the return to the use of a contract of apprenticeship. The chief criticism on present conditions appears to be the insuffi- ciency of elementary education. 59 ment of children under 18 years of age to 10 hours per day fixes the same period for the day's work of adults employed in the same shops. WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. and.

There were besides the above 241 establishments or courses in which instruction was given in technical and industrial lines. held in 1901. and 19 schools under the care of the Brothers of the Christian Schools. 18 schools classed as primary superior trade schools. Conseil Superieur du Travail. etc. of the school. so that he or she may not be compelled to remain always an unskilled worker. V Enseignement Professionnel. in so far as they relate to the subject of industrial training. if any. with special reference to the question of apprenticeship. but should be given in appropriate trade schools and courses if it can not be provided for in . At a meeting of the superior council of labor. 35 unclassified establishments. 1905. both theoretical and practical. form of support. 29 schools of commerce and industry (industrial sections). tion should be provided for on the same basis as is that of apprentices. together with an account of the proceedings and conclusions of various official and unofficial bodies which had had the same subject under consideration. cost to the pupil. should be given to each young person under 18 }^ears of age. the elementary schools in order to test and develop the abilities of the child and to enable the parent to learn his aptitudes and to guide him more wisely in the choice of a trade. time devoted to the work of the school. Ministere du Commerce. 1902. are to the effect that a form of trade instruction. de Plndus- trie. This information is given in detail for each of 5 national schools of arts and trades. The information relative to the latter group is for the year 1904. adapted to individual preferences and circum- stances. In prosecuting its investigation the permanent commission sent out schedules of inquiry to the different trade and industrial schools of France. The present volume contains ex- tracts from the minutes of the various sessions and a report of the rec- ommendations of this commission. 15 practical schools of industry. number of pupils in attendance. should be free that the supervision of young persons receiving such instruc- .60 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. These resolutions. 4 national trade schools. making a total of 140 schools in which training was given in 1903 in one or more branches of industry. 2 national schools of watchmaking. 13 trade schools of the city of Paris. Instruction might be given in the workshops. 159 pp. by which means information was obtained as to the courses of training. The permanent commission are indicated in a lines of action of the series of resolutions adopted by the superior council of labor at its session of November. that the instruction. No summaries are given for either class of establishments. des Postes et des Telegraphies. a perma- nent commission was appointed for the purpose of investigating the subject of industrial education and training.

1907. WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. ITALY. work- men. or if the employer not willing to accept the responsi- is bility. According to data published in the anuual mineral statistics for 1905. Minister© di Agricoltura. and employees in commercial and industrial undertakings. under- taken in 1906. November. or 2 hours in a single day. after at least 1 year's attendance. but the above are the principal features.996 and in quarrying 59. whether with or without contracts of apprenticeship. by the bureau of labor of the ministry of agriculture. a bill was drafted. Tuition would be free. Pupils should be excused from com- pulsory attendance. on proof of 3 years' attendance on the course. direction. it has not as yet been made a subject of legislative consideration. This bill would provide for trade or finishing courses for apprentices. and by it presented to the superior council of labor. The superior council of labor in the same year expressed its approval of such a study. not to exceed 8 hours per week.] / Lavoratori delle Miniere. conjugal condition. such courses to be certified to in the office of the mayor of the locality within which they are offered. daily wages. [From Bulletin 79. Finally. The topics discussed are the age. that they are unable to profit by further attendance on the course. and supervision of trade instruction. 287 pp. should work out in detail a project for the organization. the total number of persons in the Kingdom in 1905 employed in mining was 63. taking into consideration both the necessary measures relative to apprenticeship proper and the requirements of the trade schools and courses. based mainly on a measure offered by the superior council of trade instruc- tion. Further details of the proposed law are shown in full in the report. of the United States Bureau of Labor. Parte Prima. and occupa- tions of the workers. . The age grouping of employees in mines and quarries is shown in the table following. or on a showing. industry. 1908. Attendance would be obligatory on persons under 18 years of age who are employed in commerce or indus- try. either on passing an examination. the permanent commission. So far as appears. Ufficio del Lavoro. and employers should allow time for attendance on the courses during the regular working day. and commerce at the request of the Mine Labor Congress of 1904. 61 the shops. Industria e Commercio.342. In accordance with these resolutions. This report presents the results of an investigation into the con- dition of the employees in the mines and quarries of Italy. days lost on account of sickness.

Mining 53.3 The table indicates that there an apparent tendency for mar- is riage to occur earlier in life among the quarry workers than among the mine workers.6 51. owed. .4 2.2 22. The number of working days lost on account of sickness during the year 1905 by the mine and quarry workers is as follows: AVERAGE NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN MINES AND IN QUARRIES AND AVERAGE NUMBER OF WORKING DAYS LOST PER EMPLOYEE ON ACCOUNT OF SICKNESS.2 Total 49.8 81.144 95. with a rapid decrease in the number of workers in the higher ages.1 7. is more uniform. 15years or under 3. .5 437 13.3 206 10. 800 9. AT THE BEGINNING OF 1906.5 2.114 6. ber. of age 16 to 21 22 to 30 31 to 40 41 to 50 51 to 60 Over 60 ployees. PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN MINES AND IN QUARRIES.1 0. Married.581 4. BY AGE GROUPS. Per cent of employees- Num- ber Industry.1 88. Average Number. Per cent of.0 87.7 0.646 4. In quarrying the distribution. BY AGE GROUPS. days Number. IN EACH AGE GROUP. Age group. 582 60.363 6.4 The largest percentage of workers in mining is shown to be between the ages of 22 and 30. AT THE BEGINNING OF 1906.4 87. 15 years of em.1 2.1 25. 11.2 10. of age. Num- ber.8 83. 695 49.008 8.9 765 9.5 86.3 79.765 7. Employees in Employees in mines.9 Over 60 years.094 9.4 1. among the groups.2 Total 34.6 41to 50 years 5. . Wid. Employees in mines. of age.2 5.2 4.161 100.0 . . owed. 15years or under 1. 1. of age.8 51 to60 years 3. years years years years years years or of age.705 47.8 21.1 17.3 2.3 2. of age.7 515 5.1 22.1 15. days lost.182 5.0 1.5 11.0 906 7.479 6.9 12.0 Over 60 years .0 51to 60 years 2.6 705 7.2 4.7 185 7.5 2. 1905.1 59. Employees in quarries. Single.514 10. of age. 898 6. Married. Num. : 62 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.1 4.707 38. under.116 96.8 31to 40 years 7. Average lost.5 18. quarries.6 39.9 16to 21 years 7. 375 19.4 1.5 23.8 86.9 22to 30 years 9.5 49.795 6.184 6.6 41 to50 years 7.3 Quarrying.0 16 21 years to 11. Wid- Single.0 572 100. Per cent of— Age group.5 10.6 3.7 890 8.6 31 to40 years 10.9 2. but also shows the same general features. The following table shows the results of the investigation in regard to the conjugal condition of the workers in the two industries CONJUGAL CONDITION OF EMPLOYEES IN MINES AND IN QUARRIES.579 11.1 22 to30 years 12.984 3.577 9.

011 re (SO.0 100.9 15.6 1.75 lira ($0.5 13.9 . 11.4 3. of age.3 1.195) to 1.6 10.50 lire (80. 13.3 .5 8. .2 16. . .00 lire ($0. be regarded as representative.3 2.193).9 4.0 100.25 lire (80. .6 10. 291) to 1. 11.0 2.0 3.1 . 100.7 7. 2. For both the mine and the quarry workers there is a general tendency to a higher sickness rate with increasing age.8 1.76 lire ($0.774) to 5.6 18.0 100.5 3. 484) to 3. 2.8 .25 lire (80.511 re (80. BY AGE GROUPS.4 9. BY AGE GROUPS.6 1.241) .6 1. however.51 lira (80. 5.2 2.8 0.5 .147) to 1.9 1.5 12.097) or under 0.5 1.011 re (SO.7 9. .241).1 0.261 re (80.9 6.0 7.5 5.4 . 581) to 4. 4.9 18.1 5.1 1.5 12. 097) or under.26 lire ($0.1 11.01 lire ($0.3 0.3 .0 100 PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN QUARRIES RECEIVING EACH CLASSIFIED DAILY RATE OF WAGES AT BEGINNING OF 1906. . .5 8.6 . of age.193).5 7.483) .434). .8 7.00 lire ($1.1 0. the rate of sickness is uniformly higher for quarry workers for each of the age groups.1 17.098) to 0.7 41 1.511 re (SO.5 .011 re (80.6 5. Both classes of workers show a lower rate for the ages over 60.1 1. The two following tables show by age groups the per cent of workers in mines and in quarries receiving each classified daily rate of wages at the beginning of the year 1906. 0.9 4.1 3. .0 100.4 3.646 employees in quarries. 12.1 0.3 0.3 10.5 4. 1.8 13.3 0.50 lire ($1.7 7.436) to 2.26 lire ($0.2 2.00 lire ($0. 2.0 11.8 6.340) to 2.5 2. .1 12.9 1. .01 lire (81.0 1.772).1 0.0 21.0 .2 0. 0. .0 100.4 15.772).3 5.7 12.00 lira (80.353) or over . According to the preceding table.9 20.1 1.1 0.01 lire ($0.1 7.4 22.0 .2 .483). j of age.386).1 5.25 lire (80.5 Total 100.5 19. 3. 2.291) to 1.062).6 16.290).1 32. . 098) to 0.7 0.761 ra (SO.0 100.9 2.7 25.01 lire (80.9 7.1 17.0 23. 15 years 16 to 22 to 31 to 41 to 51 to I Over All of age or 21 years 30 years 40 years 50 years 60 years 60 years ages.6 1.2 1.0 . Per cent of employees in each wage class- Daily wage rate. ages.4 9. 2.1 22.0 11.8 1.7 4.8 . 27.8 14.1 2.4 3.3 7.145) .3 27. .7 7. .2 5. of age.4 6. 4. 4.51 lire ($1.3 1.386) . the data may. 28.00 lire (80.290) .6 35.8 12.00 lire ($0.2 3.761 re (80.338) 5.00 lire ($1.75 lira ($0.5 . under.261 re (80.7 1.2 1 0.484) to 3..6 5.9 4.4 13.2 1.9 1.2 4.01 lire ($0.511 ra (SO. .0 100.1 13.3 12.145).3 .8 15.2 26.1 0.0 100.062) .25 lire (80.1 19. 31.2 28.9 7.579) .3 20. .1 5.1 15.50 lire (81.6 2.0 100. 12.51 lire (80. 353) or over .7 15.2 .388) to 2.351) .2 .0 100.581) to 4.1 .5 3. 063) to 7.5 1.8 2. 436) to 2.1 17.6 4. 388) to 2. of age.0 10.1 .511 re ($1.3 5. under.5 . 7.50 lire (80.0 100. 7. .7 5.8 1.6 2.338) . of age. .3 1. .2 10. .8 14. PER CENT OF MINE EMPLOYEES RECEIVING EACH CLASSIFIED DAILY RATE OF WAGES AT BEGINNING OF 1906.7 19. 340) to 2. but this is probably due to special influences.1 .50 lira ($0.4 .579).2 6. 774) to 5.011 re ($1.1 2. of age.795 employees in mines and 11.9 21. .0 5.1 .1 5.063) to 7.1 15.0 100. 1.50 lire (80.434). 0.011 re (SO. 5.9 21.00 lire (80.0 12. 195) to 1.3 6.76 lira (80.4 2.6 0.3 Total. 27. Per cent of employees in each wage class— Daily wage rate. The tables are based on data for 53.8 7.5 2.6 32.3 6. 8.3 1.75 lire (80. .9 3.50 lire (80.4 2.4 4.0 100.8 7.0 2. of age of age.7 3.243) to 1.00 lira (80.7 13. 15 years 16 to 22 to 31 to 41 to 51 to Over 21 years 30 years 40 years 50 years 60 years 60 years All of age or of age.00 lire (80.51 lire ($0.6 11.2 3.501 ra (SO. WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.351). of age. 63 While the total number of quarry workers investigated is much smaller than the number of mine workers. 75 lire (S0. 147) to 1.1 0.7 .0 .2 7.9 21.7 17.4 5.9 1.9 11. 243) to 1. of age.7 4.

etc 26 26 287 . trammers 2. brakemen. 573 265 44 Workers above ground: Overseers. 709 36.36 . watchmen. The following table shows the distribution of the mine workers among the various occupations.2 cents) per day. etc 1.410 239 .37 Miners. for persons 16 years to 21 years of age the most frequent rates are from 1.52 Masons and helpers 37 1. etc 94 94 283 .9 cents) per day.2 cents) per day. etc 862 862 313 .39 Pick men. For persons 15 years of age or under the rates from 0. pump men 652 660 296 .43 Sifters Miscellaneous •--. 607 13. apprentices 56 651 707 285 .52 Laborers. Average number of persons employed. etc 671 682 342 .776 10. age age Occupation.494 268 . drill men 15. 2. maintenance men. 1905.856 33.76 to 4. Females. The same rates also predominate for all the quarry workers.32 Engine tenders. 885 266 .527 1.66 Pump men 492 492 306 .5 to 38.1 to 57.33 Engineers.359 261 .48 Carpenters and apprentices 3 289 292 284 .473 13 133 6.54 Engineers. 15 years of age 15 years of age of age or over. fitters. etc 628 628 297 . Workers below ground: Overseers.3 to 57.494 1.7 cents) or under to 1. for persons 22 to 30 years of age the most frequent rates are from 1. trammers. worked wages. for persons 22 years to 60 years or over there is a tendency for uniformity in rates. foremen.9 cents) per day.0 to 77.55 Road men. The table for quarry workers shows that the higher wage rates occur more frequently than in the case of the mine workers.00 lire (29. for persons 31 to 40 years of age the most frequent rates are from 1. for persons 16 to 21 years of age the most fre- quent rates are from 1.01 to 2.50 lire (29.00 lire (34. lathe men.2 cents) per day being the predominating rates. and the same rates occur most frequently for persons over 40 years of age. as well as the number of days worked and the average wages NUMBER OF PERSONS EMPLOYED IN MINING IN EACH OCCUPATION.710 1.7 to 29.00 lire (19. AVERAGE DAYS WORKED.00 lire (24. The mine workers shows that the most frequent rates for table for persons 15 years of age or under are from 0.0 cents) per day.6 cents) per day.00 lire (24. 2. firemen. carrier boys. furnace men 740 5. AND AVERAGE DAILY WAGES RECEIVED IN EACH OCCUPATION.52 Machinists. drill men 19 1.76 to 1. etc 95 95 323 .49 Masons and helpers 28 381 409 277 .26 to 4.564 314 . : . For all mine workers the most frequent rates are from 1.6 to 77.26 to 4. 885 15.50 lire (14. though there is a tendency to a decrease in the ages over 60.43 Miners. 64 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. foremen.0 cents) occur for over 80 per cent of the work- ers.3 to 77.69 Blacksmiths. — 25 25 250 .55 Timbermen.729 302 .00 lire (43.50 lira (9.26 to 3. carrying boys. etc 1.71 Laborers.51 to 3. Aver- Aver- Males.391 253 . firemen.410 1.37 42 684 727 281 Total. pick men. of age or over. number daily of days Under 15 years Under 15 years Total.

worked.49 Total 444 12.857 160 1. Aver- Males. age number daily of days Under 15 years Under 15 years Total. age Occupation.62 Blacksmiths.25 Clearers. Engine tenders. : . Under 15 years Under 15 years 15 years of age 15 years of age of age.769 48 1.901 239 . AND AVERAGE DAILY WAGES RECEIVED IN EACH OCCUPATION— Concluded. loaders. 23 1. pick men. AND AVERAGE DAILY WAGES RECEIVED IN EACH OCCUPA- TION. quarrymen.483 4 11 2.81 Foremen.597 242 .52 Machinists . Females. or over. .237 14.. Aver- age Occupation. 566 160 1. of age.076 278 43 Weigh men 31 31 327 . etc 37 37 266 . The average number of days worked by both below ground and above ground workers was 269. Superintendents.49 Stone breakers. bosses. of age. The average number of days worked was 238. contractors 659 659 249 $0.075 1. or over. worked. 1905.44 Apprentices 208 287 495 243 . 631.093 48. etc 6 466 15 487 243 . laborers. Workers above ground— Continued.035 269 43 The largest number of workers was employed as miners. and as laborers.195 233 56 Laborers 99 2. 462 277 43 Workers below ground and workers above ground 4. etc 7 117 124 246 .58 Carpenters 21 21 275 .47 Chiselers. 269 43 Sifters 267 843 146 890 2. 15 years of age 15 years of age of age.56 Masons 28 28 244 . AVERAGE DAYS WORKED.341 1. wages.341 243 . with a slightly higher number for the above ground workers. WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. Average number of persons employed. and chiselers. etc.146 280 24 Screeners 6 102 39 147 304 33 Washery workers 3 202 1 89 295 278 34 Kiln men. 40 40 245 .878 1. age number daily days of Total. etc. etc. 61-2 5 .905 238 . Females. The same data are given in the following table for the quarry workers NUMBER OF PERSONS EMPLOYED IN QUARRIES IN EACH OCCUPATION. 65 N UMBER OF PERSONS EMPLOYED IN MINING IN EACH OCCU PATION. 48310— S.58 Firemen 33 33 263 . AVERAGE DAYS WORKED.921 283 .53 The occupations which the largest number of workers was in engaged were miners. Aver- Aver- Males. squarers .44 Miners 1. etc 1 1. etc 4 58 62 240 . or over.53 Kiln men.208 17.. 64 64 253 . Average number of persons employed.216 54. wages. etc 58 58 266 .169 4. 1.61 Carters. diggers. or over.36 Miscellaneous 71 650 16 26 763 209 . 389 20 52 12.43 Total. brakemen.55 Quarrymen 26 4. Doc.52 Miscellaneous 104 1.

An appendix shows. followed by a detailed tabular presentation of the data gathered. Idraulici e di Bonified. the bureau of labor of the Italian department of agriculture. Minis- tero di Agricoltura. the latter being arranged by occupations and localities. consists of two parts. [From Bulletin 80. The material used in the preparation of this report was trans- mitted to the department by the prefects of the various provinces to whom employers of women and children are required to make annual returns in conformity with the law of June 19. The present report. the first of which con- tains a text analysis and statistical summaries of the information presented. The present report shows the wages and hours of labor of the different classes of employees for the year 1906. The third chapter is devoted to a consideration of the wages paid and working time most generally observed upon public works in each of the 16 principal subdivisions of the Kingdom. the aggregate days of work during each month of the year 1906. 1909. Ill pp. 1906. 1905. and the second part consists of detailed statistical tables.66 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. and commerce has conducted monthly in- quiries into the amount. Ministero di Agricoltura. relates to the employ- ment of women in industry. Industria e Commercio. Salari ed Orari nei Lavori Edilizi. This report. and Commerce. Industry. the usual length of the workday in a number of specified occupations. for the same territorial groups. Industria e Commercio. issued by the Bureau of Labor of the Italian Depart- ment of Agriculture. The second chapter relates to wages and hours of labor in general and contains a table showing. and conditions of labor performed upon the various kinds of construction and repair work carried on by or on behalf of the State. 1905. of the United States Bureau of Labor. January. industry. Ufficio del Lavoro. which bears a close relationship to a preceding one on maternity funds. Ufficio del Lavoro. regulating the employment of women and children. . character. 59. classified by char- acter of the enterprise and occupation of the persons employed. The volume com- prises three chapters of descriptive matter. Since October. This information is collected through the offices of the government engineers charged with the direction of the work. Stradali. by months and by localities.] La Donna nelV Industria Italiana. The chapter contains a general first account of the plan and scope of the inquiry and of the method employed in the collection of the information. 1902. 1907. 157 pp.

Per cent Per cent Per cent of total of total of total Number. 761 57. 4.7 473.1 males to 29.4 males to 21. the percentage of such persons among all females employed being shown for each industry. 926 8. by industry and earning capacity. In the textile industry. Among the employees 15 and under 21 }7 ears of age the ratio was 9.0 829. 14.7 females. of 38.5 69. For employees 21 years of age and over the ratio was 35. returns were made by 14. 12 to 15 years. Under 12 years 4.2 males to 78. Of these one-third were males and two-thirds were females. 975 9.6 151.0 From the foregoing table be seen that in the establishments it will reporting 15 per cent of the employees were below the age of 15 years. For the different age groups represented in the textile industry the pro- portion of males and females was as follows: Below 12 years.5 16. 21. 2.915 50. Number. Number. 345 13. ployees.0 12 and under 15 years 37. .150 establishments.273 females below the age of 15 years em- ployed in 1.1 Total 414.379 0. Total. In the table which follows a classification is made. 142 35.481 27. 67 During the year ending June 30.7 females.419 4.9 males to 32.506 18.0 414.5 12. ' em- ployees. WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.3 231.2 males to 17. 15 to 21 years. ployees. 619 21.5 per cent of the total number of employees.0 males to 14.4 180. with the percentage of total employees found in each group. The ratio between the two sexes was 2.150 ESTAB- LISHMENTS MAKING RETURNS DURING THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30.9 21 years and over 293. was as follows: NUMBER AND PER CENT OF MALES AND FEMALES EMPLOYED IN 14. 236 50. em.0 15 and under 21 years 79.3 females. 21 years and over.1 females.6 males to 18. 1903.6 females.5 107. em. 1904.4 females. The number of males of all ages employed in these establishments was slightly in excess of the total number of females.8 females. 1904. the number of persons of both sexes below the age of 15 years equaled 19. BY AGE GROUPS: Males.2 males to 2. The number of males and females of various ages employed in these establishments. 151 100. 185 1.3 females. 0. all ages. 564 2. Age.906 establishments on November 30. which furnished 49 per cent of the em- ployees reported. Females.

0 7.8 1.4 Paper. BY INDUSTRY AND EARNING CAPACITY. tesimi of age tesimi simi simi simi simi simi ments.691 4.809 197. hides. $0. cente.7 19. OF 38.6 1.9 . $0.273 20.2 Other industries 20 233 18.0965) ($0.0 49.7 19.273 female employees below the age of 15 years shown in the table it will be observed that nearly 35 per cent earned 50 centesimi ($0.1949 ($0.5 9.953 2.2895).122 6.9 1. cen- ments.7 per cent of the total number.6 44. etc.2 59.188 4.4 Metal working and machine con- struction 100 1. to to and more. $0.5 14. straw.9 2.9 48. male tesimi tesimi tesimi ($0.8 20.0 25.8 36.1 Tobacco 16 283 2.14.9 33.8 2.273 FEMALES UNDER CLASSIFICATION. cen.8 Total 1.0 1.4 13.8 2.6 2.0 2.5 2. The number earning from day constituted 51 centesimi ($0.6 . OF 197.1 14.0984 ($0.577 .1 .0984 ($0.1949) ber.8 32. and publishing 195 568 11.8 27.0 11.6 .5 5.7 52. $0. and simi- lar materials 64 2.2 Tobacco 16 12. 1903. printing.5 16.5 1. $0.0 29.0 38.3 10.1 34.4 Total 2. BY INDUSTRY AND EARNING CAPACITY. straw. 39 231 12.0984) to 100 centesimi ($0.9 8.0 48.1467 ($0.3 . Agriculture 12 37 5.8 Other industries 22 1.8 .906 38. .4 5. .482 females 15 years of age and over: CLASSIFICATION.1930). while the number of those whose earnings amounted to 101 centesimi ($0. etc 160 780 12. with slight modifications.6 Chemical products 66 279 5.4844) and ($0. tesimi Num.. Female em- Per cent of females under 15 ployees under years of age earning daily— 15 years of age.4 40.7 28.9 13.0 Work in wood.4 9.1 11.8 Clothing.0965) ($0. cente.3 3.0 10.7 10. The following shows. table similar statistics for 197.7 48.3860).7 13.3 53.7 27.6 25. em.4 per cent of the total. 264 8. cente. Per Estab- cent of 51 to 75 76 to 100 Industry.2 31.3 37.7 Work in wood.2 6.0 37.7 39.0 2.3 Chemical products. and publishing.6 0. 101 cen- total fe. 88 5. printing.3 1. Per cent of females 15 years of age and over earning daily— Fe- males 51 to 75 76 to 100 101 to 150 151 to 200 201 to 250 Estab.9 29.9 3.8 7..0 60. .860 2. ($0.4 4.1949) and more was 2. cente- Industry.4 .758 155.5 52.5 Paper.1 30.0 34.9 43. 251 cen- 15 years 50 cen.239 23.662 2. 61 245 14.5 8.1 17.8 68.5 Clothing. 68 WAGES AND PRICES OP COMMODITIES.0 40.3879 and over.5 44.1 1.835 5.8 .5 9.1930) ing.1448). ($0. $0.0 48. cente. report.1 40. Agriculture 25 859 0.5 22.9 12. hides.3 13.585 5.8 16.9 42.2 81. lish.9 29. $0.223 35.6 10.7 Food products 91 1. 50 cen.1 35. FIFTEEN YEARS OF AGE EMPLOYED AT GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS AND PER CENT OF TOTAL FEMALE EMPLOYEES REPORTING. to to to to to over.4 Textiles 1.1 2.8 28.482 1.4 49.7 7.4825).1448).482 FEMALES 15 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER EMPLOYED AT GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS ON NO- VEMBER 30.5 2.0 .4 21.4 Of the 38.0 20.1 33. 150 1.1930) per 62.8 6.1 34.2914 ($0. and less.3 2. and similar materials.1467 ployees and less. lish.1 . 305 5.9 .7 Textiles 1.2 17.8 14.0965) and less per day.0 Food products 58 168 12.4 34.6 Extraction of min- erals and manu- facture of mineral products 76 1.3 2.8 36.7 Extraction of minerals and manufacture ol mineral products 56 210 11.4 Metal working and machine construction.2 7.

7 12.5 L' Industria dei Fiammiferi Fosforici in Italia e la Lotta contro il Fosforismo.6 Food products 91 1. ber of years of years of years of Of all ber of full.8 Paper. exportation.8 Clothing. Industria e Commercio.1 4. 1903. alent in com- Industry. lish. straw. May 8 to 18.9 3. time time work- work.729 33.5 8. ages. ered.6 9.6 5.3 1. This is followed by tables showing the total production.947 women employees of those establishments during the year ending November 30.1 10. 15 to 20 20 to 35 35 to 55 num.162 1.1 7.9 .947 172.0 1.9 5. and similar materials 64 2.8 0.7 4. to the present time. Ministero di Agricoltura. ber. 1905. Working Childbirths per 100 full-time women consid. num.5 Textiles 1.565 5.4 1. which is repro- duced in part herewith. Per workers. importation.017 42.6 . the actual number of women 15 and under 55 years of age employed during the year has been replaced by the computed number of full-time workers required to do the same amount of work in the time specified. Switzerland.632 10. ers. age.481 6. the percentage of births occur- ring among 191. forms the basis of the computations. The latter. 466 59.3 17.4 Other industries 22 1.9 .8 9.4 3.2 4.658 1.3 . about 1830. 149 27.540 21.289 34. and consumption of the several kinds of matches for the years 1896-97 to 1903-4. In this table. printing.0 8.1 Metal working and machine con- struction 100 1. age.2 2. etc 264 8.3 2. Actual puted) num. ers.1 7. 416 24. held in Berne.3 Total 2.531 21.5 2. (com.2 8.792 28.4 Work in wood. 44 pp. Figures are also presented showing.2 7. The volume comprises two parts.1 4.4 4.4 3. 1903.6 .4 6.5 . full. Agriculture 25 836 555 34.4 3. the quantity of wood splints and of phosphorus imported into the Kingdom during the period from 1888 to 1904 .568 4. 1905.6 5. puted ments.0 . 225 137. by years.3 Tobacco 16 10.809 establishments a table was prepared which shows. 69 From the returns submitted by 2. PERCENTAGE OF CHILDBIRTHS AMONG WORKING WOMEN IN VARIOUS INDUS- TRIES FOR THE YEAR ENDING NOVEMBER 30.806 1. In the first part is given a his- tory of the match industry in Italy from the introduction of the lucifer match.076 909 59.4 Extraction of minerals and manu- facture of mineral products 76 1. Ufficio del Lavoro.4 4. cent of mar- ried Equiv.3 8.3 1. This report relates to the match industry of Italy and was com- piled primarily for the use of the Italian delegates to the international conference for the legal protection of working people.925 29.938 1.809 191.1 3.758 152. and not the actual number of employees. by industries.0 5.6 . women Estab. hides. and publishing 305 5.8 5.7 Chemical products 88 5. WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.6 11.

with 34 employees. with 3. with 10 employees. A chapter on employees and conditions of labor shows. and the average wages paid. The prescribing of a maximum limit of 38° C. . In 49 of these. dipping the heads. by Prov- inces. The second part of the report is devoted to a discussion of the harmful effects upon the health of the working people which result from the inhalation of phosphorus fumes during the various processes employed in the manufacture of matches. The complete isolation of the rooms in which the more unhealthy operations are carried on. or nearly 94 per cent of all persons employed in the industry. This is followed by a brief description of the materials which enter into the composition used in the manufac- ture of matches in the different countries and of the legislative meas- ures taken for the protection of the working people in this industry. The num- ber of establishments in which the daily working hours were 9^ and less was 19. and 17 factories. 5. 18 factories. the hours were 11 J per day. (100° F. with 282 employees. the daily working time ranged from 10 to 11 hours. working in the exsiccators. 6. worked 300 days and more. Of 60 establishments for which the number of days of operation in 1904 was reported. 2. the hours of labor per day. In one factory. The provision of larger workrooms. employing 909 persons. Among the provisions suggested for lessening the evils of phos- phorus poisoning are the following: 1 The forbidding of children and minor females to be employed at preparing the paste. the days of operation.058 persons. The number of hours of labor per day was reported for 73 estab- lishments. as are also certain statistics concerning the match indus- try of various countries. 25 factories.410 employ- ees. having 429 employees. or filling boxes and making up first packages. were in operation 275 days and less. A limitation of the hours of labor. in which were employed 5. .) of temperature in the exsiccators. A detailed tabular statement shows for the different Provinces the average daily wages paid male and female employees belonging to various age groups. A bibliography of works relating to the subject of phosphorus poisoning and other trade dis- eases is given. worked from 280 to 298 days. 4. 70 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. while in 4 factories. in order to obtain a greater supply of respirable air with a minimum percentage of vapor or irrespirable gas. in order that the toxic gases may not invade the other parts of the building. 3. the number of match factories in operation during the year 1903-4. in order to prevent an excessive evap- oration of phosphorus. a maximum of 12 hours per day was reported. The procuring of a thorough artificial ventilation of workrooms.

Switzerland. the new features. beef. and rice from 1801 to 1908. with the obli- The furnishing of gation that they change their garments in dressing rooms amply pro- vided with facilities for washing the hands and face. A requirement that physicians report cases of necrosis and of phosphorus poisoning. with the obligation upon empk^ers not to put at work persons predisposed to phosphorus poisoning or dental caries. in Milano. furnished at the expense of the proprietor of the establishment. The vapors of turpentine through atmosphere diffusion of charged with considerable quantities of phosphorus gas. An appendix contains a brief summary of the proceedings of the international con- ference for the protection of workingmen. 1909. WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. 13. Periodic medical visits to employees. May 8 to 18. del vino. 10. The daily cleaning of the floors. The provision of security against fire. 8. working clothes to employees. there has recently been published a special sta- tistical report on prices. 9. Milan. 1905. 14. is also The report concludes with a statement of what has been accom- plished in the way of curtailing the use of yellow phosphorus in other countries and of the probable effects which would follow the prohibition of its employment in Italian industries. 1910 of the United States Bureau of Labor. with renewal of the paint on walls every six months. . The prescribing of a maximum limit for the percentage of yel- low phosphorus employed in the preparation of the paste for match heads. 1 1 A requirement that empk^ees rinse the mouth with dentifrice or a solution of permanganate of potash. machines. A requirement that upon the opening of all new plants or modifications of existing establishments. 16. held in Berne. pork. The cost is also given of making a Statistica dei Prezzi del frumento del pane. and crucibles in which the chemical operations are performed. 12. to whom is conceded the right to make suggestions and impose regulations with regard to hygienic conditions.] Supplemental to the Statistical Data for the Community of Milan for the year 1908. 15. and to remove sick persons. . March. delle carni del burro e del riso. ( a ) This report gives the prices in the Milan market for wheat from 1700 to 1908. or such as are departures from the practices hitherto existing. 71 7. be subjected to the examination of the inspector of industry. [From Bulletin 87. butter. wine. The provision of security against accidents. and for bread. The amorphous phosphorus for the variety substitution of red or in common use recommended.

46 pounds) and those for wine are given by the hectoliter (26. using the standards in common use. beef. but also interfered with the formation of reserves.25. pork. cost 58 cents. that the population could easily find itself in great need during the eighteenth century. For example.417 gallons). nor that life was easier in 1801 because beef cost 7 i cents and pork 10 \ cents. and the difficulty of transportation. when the price of wheat would increase 30 or 40 per cent from one year to the next. epidemic. For the present pur- pose the quotations have been converted into American money at the rate of 19. The prices of bread. for bread. independently of all considerations concerning the different value of money. In discussing the first section the reader is reminded that all the elements are not present for a complete comparison of present day conditions with those of earlier times. pork. It may be assumed. for rice. the pound. The report does not state whether the prices are wholesale or retail. The insufficient understanding of economic laws not only reduced production. it is stated. that is. and but- ter are quoted by the kilogram (2. other index figures have been computed in a similar manner.72 WAGES AND PKICES OF COMMODITIES. again in 1791 the price was 90 cents. The causes which influenced the variations were not only the deficiency of the crop. and in 1795 it reached $1. The first section of the report contains the average annual prices obtained from the market records. From these prices index figures have been computed. viz. Wheat. These prices were obtained from compilations of market prices from the records of the city accounting office. so that the country .54 per bushel at the latter date. and butter. but since the quotations for wheat and rice are given by the quintal (220. and for wine. 100 pounds. beef. wholly because the price of wheat was only 48 cents per bushel at the earlier date and $1. bread. the difference is shown between the cost of a kilogram of wheat and of a kilogram of bread.49.3 cents per lira. in 1734 it had increased to $1. and sometimes doubled in two or three years. but war. the bushel. using the period 1861 to 1865 as a base or 100.2 pounds). using the average of the five-year period 1801 to 1805 as the base or 100. showing their course through the various periods. while in 1908 the price of beef was 14 \ and of pork 20 J cents per pound. in 1732. The second section contains the average prices for five-year periods from 1801 to 1905 and for each of the years 1906 to 1908. they may be considered as wholesale. for wheat. the gallon. no one would be willing to believe that life was easier for the consumer in 1723 than in 1908. Since figures of so remote a period as 1801 to 1805 might be con- sidered as of little value when used as a base.

72. $2. declining a little under 100. Thus we find the price of wheat to be 133. $2. Most interesting are the comparisons for wheat and bread.1. and to 86. and then descends to below 100. and subsequently rises to 145. the highest average price for the five-year period 1896 to 1900. then in 1816 and 1817 there was dearth and pestilence (1816. while the corresponding price of bread is respec- . so that two or three years of short crops must occur before the prices rise excessively through an exhaustion of surpluses formed in the preceding years. The relative prices for the five-year periods make it easier to review the general tendency of prices throughout the different periods. and the price dur- ing that period for all the given articles of consumption was taken as 100.7. has had a constant tendency to increase. The price of butter in 1876 to 1880 reaches 142. on the other hand. which would suddenly press very heavily upon the population. $2. After oscil- lating between 90 and 100 (1866 to 1870) it rises to 136 (1886 to 1890). rises again to 108 in 1906.2 and that of bread 130. price $2. and then rising to 114. $2. ?3 passed precipitately from a low price to a very high one. then to 90. and falls to 80 in 1907 and 1908 because of the abundance of the harvest. The period 1861 to 1865 was taken as a starting point. 110. declines to 114. according to whether they increase 5 or 10 per cent or decrease 10 or 5 per cent in comparison with the price of 1861 to 1865. in 1815. prices vary more gradually. and after having declined to 131 has continually risen to 169 in 1908. The most stormy period was that from 1799 to the end of the Napoleonic empire. in 1800.3. In 1799 wheat was $1. 95. price $2. almost in the same degree. 1817. Never until then or since then were prices as high as in these years. because vineyards were devastated by the phylloxera.42. which in two five-year periods rose to 146. It may be noticed that the price of butter and of meats. In recent times. but occasionally we observe deviations. It fluctuates about 100. But later the first declines rapidly to 98.4 per cent the lower. For beef we have the price of 137. WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. with that of bread being 2. This is especially true in the price of pork. The changes in the price of rice are not so noticeable. In the five-year period 1871 to 1875 the prices rise rapidly and proportionately. The price of wine presents very strong fluctuations. in 1802. with the exception of a few slight changes. The variations in their prices present on the whole a nearly parallel course. only to rise to 150 in 1908. in 1801.28).59. a little later it comes down to 126. sometimes rising to 110.56. The average prices for the successive periods are signified as 105.06.23. or 90.8.

(pound). in years of excessive rise in the price of grain. the price of wheat in 1801 rose to $2.200 . 106.But in the quinquennial period 1901 to 1905 the difference declines very much (wheat stand- ing at 97. Average.85 $0. and we have a difference of 10. pounds). 1871-1875 $1. but they do not occur simultaneously. more than in any successive period. (pound). may be found in the fact that since 1898 the determination of the selling price of bread devolves upon the municipal authorities. a most exceptional price. 135 $0.9. 241 $3. using the average of the prices for the five-year period 1801 to 1805 as 100. and the consumption tax upon cereal products (abolished in Milan in 1898). but it is necessary to state that the quin- quennial period taken for a basis is not normal for bread and wheat.046 $0. Since 1874 wheat and bread have never exceeded the price of that year.11 .72 Maximum. which also accounts for the difference in the prices of wheat as compared with those of bread.5. .4. and again in 1908 we find that the price of bread is only 109. we have prices as follows: AVERAGE AND MAXIMUM YEARLY PRICES. 16. (pound). tively 108. As has already been stated. 410 $0. Among the periods nearer the present may be observed the one of 1871 to 1875 in which. we may find a contemporaneous increase in prices. The variations of the lines show an increasing divergence.72. Wheat Bread Wine Beef Pork Butter Rice (100 (bushel).575 .94 Later we see higher prices for various articles.5.269 3. (gallon). which has never been reached since. A cause not to be neglected. represents also the differences in the transformation of wheat into flour depending upon the tech- nical standard of that industry. (pound). so that and 17 in favor of the higher cost of bread. enter into agreement with the bakers not to increase the price of bread. The proportional variations in the successive five-year periods are given in a diagram. In fact. This difference in prices is not surprising when we consider that the price of bread. besides reflecting the variations due to the higher cost of labor and to the higher or lower cost of various materials used in transforming flour into bread. the application (in 1868) and the abolition (in 1884) of the grinding tax.051 .74 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. 178 $0. 103. while that of wheat rises to 111. because it includes the period of the wars of the consulate and of the Italian Kingdom.5. proportionately com- pensating them for it.153 . bread at 102). 1871-1875 2. which not seldom. either in money or by conceding the right not to reduce the price of bread later. 1871 TO 1875.

at least for a few of the main wage-working classes. layers. 83 cents. RELATIVE WAGES OF BRICKLAYERS. in 1901. 22 229. 1805 100.000 ems. For example. layers' Bakers. to include the price of cattle in order to show its relation to the price of meat. and in 1907. In the printing trade. WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. 18. Time work. when the Sunday rest was granted and night work abolished. the daily wage of a bricklayer in 1887 was 50 cents. In 1908.5 cents. $1. and in 1901 to 1908. in 1901. 34 cents.38 170. including the cost of subsistence. for instance.00 1901 138. 94 134. AND BAKERS. 88 155. but only incomplete data of little significance could have been obtained. 00 1892 100. 63 128. in 1901. 83 cents. in consequence of which the number of workmen was increased the daily wage was returned to 65 cents. in 1884. was: In 1865. 45 128. 69 cents. 95 229. in 1901. Printers. 10 1887 100. Brick- Brick- Year. PRINTERS. comparing the piece wages of compositors working on the most ordinary sized type for 1. BRICKLAYERS' HELPERS. In the same trade. 75 It was the wish of the office compiling the data to obtain other factors which would serve to make the statistics more complete.00 1884 193. A baker's average wage. It would have been still better to have been able to give the data concerning wages. and in 1907. as. helpers. 39 cents. later in the same year. 00 100. 20 111. the daily wage was in the beginning of 1880. that this was only nominally the rate at the end of 1889. 88 1907 1G5. the rate in 1892 was 16.77 cents per day.00 1880 100. 65 cents. 22. 65 cents. in the building trades.6 cents. and in 1907. But such data were available only for relatively recent times. 69 cents.4 cents. however. it is necessary to add. 29 cents. 88 . The daily wage of a bricklayer's helper in 1887 was 23 cents. and in 1907. Piecework.

074 .067 .192 .55 1839.025 .91 1769 .159 2..77 1737 .007 .011 .. 1.001 .011 ..00 1786 1.072 . 1.131 3.082 .51 1745 .21 1702 ...078 . .84 1763 . .032 ...034 . those presenting the averages for the single years first and those presenting the figures for five-year periods later AVERAGE YEARLY PRICES OF WHEAT. . 1.181 3.007 ..081 .251 .032 . 1.009 .64 . price Year. 1.075 .116 .384 .58 a Difference between price of 1 pound of wheat and 1 pound of bread.33 .138 3. .38 1818.42 1720 .010 .61 1758 .16 1708 1.081 . 1801 TO 1908.78 1724 .209 . .214 .176 3.183 . .133 2.61 1741 $0.068 .08 .234 . . 1700 $0.96 1825.147 5.025 .104 .003 .19 . BUTTER. .30 1703 .13 1792 1.97 1827. 1. bushel.86 1735 1.074 .51 1830.109 .010 .067 . .92 .094 .032 ..080 .. 1.141 .104 .240 .078 .. Aver- age age age age age Year.032 .214 .073 .86 1773 1.35 1832.36 .027 .315 .35 1794 1. pound).341 .70 1749 .100 ..79 .94 1800 2.137 3..010 ..65 1750 .022 . The tables follow.79 1765 .025 . .067 .068 .132 .97 1804.028 .032 .31 1795 1.30 .005 .134 4.56 .02 1728 . .095 .40 1716 .91 1796 1.54 1742 . 1.170 .05 1729 .009 .135 .036 .48 1743 . price per per per per per bushel. AND RICE.66 1748 1.98 1766 1.130 3.082 ..009 . .025 .061 .032 . price Year.050 .07 1709 1..136 2.63 1746 .100 ....162 3. Aver.125 2.16 1824.124 4.070 .38 1809.116 .. . 1. .008 .40 1713 .36 1810.004 .06 .45 ..232 .116 . 2.166 3.122 3.84 1816.034 .37 .010 .48 1707 1. (per (per 100 * pound).82 1779 1..075 .011 ...032 .075 .028 . bushel). 1.12 .135 3.47 1814.^ gallon).77 .55 1828..072 .81 1753 . ..07 .005 .91 1790 1. . .032 .151 3.010 .053 .266 .072 . 1.59 1751 •.031 .21 .84 1762 .067 .. 2.132 2.00 .63 1782 1.130 2..45 . price Year.88 1723 .092 . . pounds).78 1722 .59 1719 .02 .095 .13 1710 1. 1.25 1704 .008 . pound).. 1. 1700 TO 1800. BREAD.088 .119 ..37 1808.11 .032 . BEEF.17 1811. .07 1797 1.004 .94 1826.147 2.. . 145 $4. . .77 1738 . . .011 . 1.03 1772 1.. 1.067 .075 .58 1752 1.272 .074 .100 .130 3.. .17 1755 .81 1823.78 1736 .208 .029 . 1.194 .382 .43 .73 1725 .080 . bushel. 1. Aver.068 . 104 $0.42 1714 .13 1705 .081 .78 1726 .022 .079 .67 1757 . bushel. .73 1820..151 .80 1778 1.118 .81 1732 ..079 .83 1822.121 .027 . 1.025 .56 1838.85 .81 1761 $0. 1.91 1785 1..31 . .097 . 1..095 .36 . .068 . .082 .024 .002 .91 1756 ..011 .130 3. 2..14 1768 1.42 1744 .. .97 1771 1.125 2.009 .158 3.256 . 1.117 .192 .90 1711 .130 3.25 1754 .41 1831.64 1747 1. .59 1821.11 1836..330 .039 .49 1715 . 1.80 1780 .116 .45 1835..035 .90 1777 1.095 . .48 1803.67 1759 ..95 . bushel.032 .91 1776 .088 .157 3..298 .216 .116 .02 .144 2.078 ..13 1807.19 .109 .072 . ...54 1837.03 .30 ..005 ..11 1819.09 1787 1.074 .168 3..42 .65 1721 $0.. Aver..09 1806..56 1834.03 1805.89 1789 1.56 1833.067 .28 . .81 1775 1. 1.80 1760 .72 $0.69 1740 .92 1727 .36 1793 1.065 ..024 .004 ..64 1783 1.42 .04 1791 . 006 $0.005 .270 .37 ...012 . 418 $0.38 .96 1701 .17 1799 1. 1801. pound).38 1718 ..100 ..095 .009 .009 . making. price Year..010 .084 ..36 1817.68 1815.70 . .137 2.05 1712 .032 .046 .89 1813.23 1730 ..160 3.81 1764 .162 3.. $2.007 .08 1706 ..168 .179 3.38 1717 . Aver.075 $0..032 .81 1784 1.010 . 1.146 2.138 3.145 2.143 .04 1767 1.065 .64 1829.242 .81 1734 1.33 1798 1.114 .068 .005 .011 .109 . WINE.006 .052 $0.. . 2. Wheat Bread (per Bread Wine (per Beef (per Pork (per Butter Rice (per Year.90 1770 .032 .320 .348 .60 AVERAGE YEARLY PRICES OF WHEAT.82 .155 3. 1.68 1802..004 .030 . 1. PORK. 2.119 .068 .41 .75 1733 . .095 .. .119 5.228 .252 ... 76 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.00 1788 1. .07 1731 . 1.46 1812.032 . . 1. 1.99 .185 .095 .73 1781 $0.77 1739 .192 .154 .072 .77 1774 1.

088 .07 1847.156 .185 ....101 .200 3.11 .30 .42 ..044 .169 3...73 .083 . making.357 .214 $0.086 ..55 1867...080 ...135 .015 ..214 3.37 .63 1893.63 1858.39 ..166 .178 ..032 .160 3.136 .125 . 2.037 .119 ..182 4.009 .035 .196 3.. $1..402 . 1.22 . BEEF.158 .130 .010 .015 .67 .30 . 1. 1..166 .036 .32 1902.116 ...086 .221 3.34 ..012 .48 1881.039 .01 .018 .166 .135 .339 . .037 .212 3.. .56 1853.158 .035 .039 .. 1.460 .328 .122 .271 3.166 .253 3.350 ..158 ..131 .096 .049 .010 ..093 .176 3.37 .57 1849.10 1884...100 . 1.043 .35 1901.. 1.178 .227 .22 .140 .26 1842.153 ... .038 .214 3.. 1.011 .042 . 1.121 ..177 2.37 .99 1883.24 .53 1879. 1..018 ..039 .618 ..267 .338 .137 .045 .54 .245 3.118 ..122 . 1.155 3.175 3. 1..012 .018 . 1...39 I860.258 3. 1801 TO 1908— Concluded.349 . 1. 1.131 .16 .40 .210 3.008 ..013 ..013 ..011 ..149 .37 1894..39 1885.. 1.94 1875.30 .30 ..72 1868.131 . 1. 1. 1.015 .015 .178 3.86 1843.123 .121 .209 3. ... 1....016 . .93 .649 .132 .26 1861.82 1871.131 .462 . .220 3.190 3.418 .008 .172 .46 1908.55 ..034 .206 .22 . 1. pounds).49 .175 .452 . pound).343 ..111 . ..039 .135 . 1.206 .... ..214 ..109 ..030 ..56 .016 .402 .035 . 1.36 .123 .034 . . 1. . 1.575 .087 ..189 ..112 .123 .79 .043 ..89 1856.214 .009 .437 .140 .010 . ..479 .20 .016 . 121 $0.040 .039 .242 3.149 .86 1873.347 .92 1892.218 3.042 .169 .179 . 2.039 ..33 .125 . 1. pound).444 .128 .183 3. 1. 1..014 .32 .86 . 1.35 1895.101 . 1.158 .155 ..21 1888. 1.37 1896..340 . 1.69 .40 .046 . 1.032 .015 .034 ..38 .010 .109 .....200 .626 .034 .166 .185 3..214 ..038 .56 1891 ..241 3.458 ..036 .088 .121 .037 . 1....166 . 1. 1. gallon).439 .172 3.010 .131 .68 1845.081 .029 . .123 . 1..413 ...037 .64 1897.085 .153 .179 3..46 .235 2..207 3.032 ..036 ...166 .420 .104 ..012 ..132 . ..65 1878.57 1904.115 .25 .318 .044 ..130 .. 082 $0.011 .217 3. 1..032 ...20 .462 .04 1887.013 .030 .166 .340 .43 1905.214 .. 1.29 .016 .241 3..470 .132 .339 .083 .016 ..476 ..66 .085 ..79 1846.038 .025 ..51 1850.125 ..119 .. 77 AVERAGE YEARLY PRICES OF WHEAT. 1. pound).54 .61 .477 ..082 .121 .368 .087 .016 .27 1859.125 .49 .140 .140 .50 1900...69 1854...166 .. 1..040 .173 4. 1.253 3.017 .088 .129 .206 3.179 .568 .190 3... 1.116 .199 .037 ....453 .212 3.26 1866.016 .144 .013 .196 3.011 ..34 1862.273 3.. 1.44 1889.673 ..188 3.131 .49 1903.74 1890. 1.05 1882. 1.41 1848.36 .239 3.035 ..413 . (per 100 bushel).206 3.539 .013 ...017 .036 . 1. 1.217 .081 .. 1. 1.269 3.017 .172 3.20 .030 .140 .165 .214 2...131 .131 ..214 . 1.205 3..012 .188 3.015 .289 .081 .337 .51 1880. 1.018 .177 4.104 .73 1899. BUTTER AND RICE..168 3. (per (per Beef (per Pork (per pound).402 .17 .178 ..396 .. 1.015 .010 .402 ....58 1876. 1.125 .87 1874.34 1872.214 .03 1886.121 .046 . 1..24 .018 .... . ...49 .184 3.44 $0. 1..372 .115 * .340 ..15 1852. WINE.017 .011 .214 .07 1864.051 . 1.29 1898.046 .039 ..039 .039 .236 .42 .166 .036 .015 .039 ...124 .69 .202 3.228 3..011 .210 3.173 3. 1...34 . 1.590 .211 3.320 .041 .15 .66 1877.216 3.67 .61 . . .166 ..66 1869. 1.158 .508 .38 .079 .475 .83 .175 3.57 .151 . . WAGES AND PEICES OF COMMODITIES.28 .013 . 1840..123 .179 .179 .131 .29 1865.151 . PORK..015 .081 .166 3.134 .249 3. .507 . .039 ..415 .78 .034 $0.189 3..13 .012 .032 .009 .02 . . ..013 . 1.123 .43 1906. ... 1.80 1841.034 . 2.199 3.81 1857.166 .124 .39 .032 .047 ..36 .. .48 1907.45 1855.158 . Wheat Bread (per Bread Wine Butter Rice (per Year.011 $0..116 ..76 ..214 3.375 .013 .038 ..035 .191 4.37 .010 .61 .036 . 1..22 1863.011 ..175 3.183 $3..466 .196 3..26 1851.185 .031 .31 .225 . 1.166 .015 . .035 .037 . 1.086 ..018 .617 .018 .250 3.011 .99 .168 .041 .016 .48 . .173 3..118 .088 .010 .51 1844.015' ..012 .131 .039 .431 .. .37 . BREAD.016 ..119 .30 1870.013 .

06 1831-1835 63.170 3.111 . 60 1856-1860 74.179 . PORK.35 . 40 107. 94 200. 39 119. 17 116.131 3.72 98.39 .026 .219 082 .038 . 51 192.72 1876-1880 1.46 73.037 .173 3.181 3.19 ]00.137 2. BUTTER.271 3.072 . 40 102.25 81.24 171. Wheat.037 .16 117.121 .76 1851-1855 1.046 .115 .214 1907 1. Beef.231 3.033 .037 . 82 185.228 3.95 100. 56 . 00 93.36 188. Rice.) Quinquennial period.036 . 59 191. 89 121.02 98.459 .036 .94 1826-1830 1.22 97. 70 147. pounds). 00 100.025 . 75 103. AVERAGE PRICES OF WHEAT.36 200.425 124 . 58 98. BREAD.417 133 . 08 1851-1855 76. 00 100.035 .52 94. Wine. 32 135. 68 97.67 100. 63 108. BUTTER.193 3. 35 161. 00 182. 47 253. (per (per (per (per (per (per (per 100 bushel).23 1866-1870 1. 81 169. 42 108.171 3. BEEF.340 081 088 .51 109.23 94. 1801-1805 100.75 1856-1860 1. 50 95. 51 100. 73 1876-1880 84. 98 164. BREAD. 23 174.40 1841-1845 1. 29 148.030 .49 96. 1801 TO 1905.177 . 82 159. 90 1816-1820 82.088 .125 . 15 180.410 135 . 03 150.81 94.85 .11 105. 94 148.214 081 .25 .56 1881-1885 1.103 .164 .37 . 47 99. pound). 26 1896-1900 67. AND RICE FOR EACH QUINQUENNIAL PERIOD. 05 162.030 . 25 168.435 134 .139 3.54 039 340 144 .32 .46 1908 1. 23 90. 29 125.108 .75 94.76 102. 34 209.07 1816-1820 1.41 1836-1840 1. 96 90. 79 188.50 1891-1895 59.65 169.036 . 92 94.080 .123 .099 . 00 100.0.388 139 .76 .59 97. 11 127.072 .42 1846-1850 1.93 77.207 1891-1895 1:20 .212 068 . 31 100.040 . 17 178. pound). 70 85.16 1846-1850 74. 71 107.215 1906 1. 62 168. 36 114.110 . 24 1881-1885 68.140 4.81 91.47 1861-1865 1. AND FOR 1906 TO 1908. 78 98. 22 166.035 .54 99.426 .71 1811-1815 87.11 102.035 . 58 125.045 . AND RICE FOR EACH QUINQUENNIAL PERIOD.69 69. 14 179.27 . 07 107.219 . 96 150.171 .122 .580 .160 .11 112. 64 145. 1801-1805 $2. 64 128. 41 123.01 .393 140 .166 . 56 167. Butter.65 1841-1845 65.038 . 00 1806-1810 62. Pork.88 1871-1875 91.101 .36 148. 70 183. 05 180.63 103.26 70.385 .32 89.29 1826-1830 63.75 1836-1840 69. WINE.070 . 05 113.206 .126 . 00 100.179 . 93 124. 18 104. PORK.36 95. Bread.35 . 00 100.247 070 .22 121. pound).035 .173 3.035 . WINE.16 1886-1890 62.031 . 47 178.36 185. 96 92.69 92. 60 117.02 111. 21 121.67 .36 .20 68.256 3.76 1866-1870 76.18 98.31 96.42 1831-1835 1.37 . 94 132.13 1821-1825 50.50 .68 1811-1815 1.075 . 63 1861-1865 69.144 .460 123 . 94 1907 67. 68 101. 34 144. 47 109.92 1906 67.83 1821-1825 1.01 .143 $3.69 . 00 100. 82 190.159 207 1901-1905 1.098 .89 95. (Average prices 1801 to 1805=100.178 . 02 115.21 96. AVERAGE RELATIVE PRICES OF WHEAT.61 ~_ 0. 00 119.16 .138 2. Wheat Bread Wine Beef Pork Butter Rice Quinquennial period. 28 1901-1905 67.123 .39 . 98 181. gallon). 92 99. pound).43 87.65 182.95 106.205 .285 . 16 181.41 1871-1875 1.84 83.45 1806-1810 1. 90 100. 00 124. 17 1908 76.038 340 136 206 . 50 145. 93 209. 10 168. 46 187.207 1896-1900 1. AND FOR 1906 TO 1908.91 94.85 110.55 .229 074 . BEEF.02 94.78 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. 51 182. 1801 TO 1905.65 107. 57 131.164 3.241 3.188 3.11 1886-1890 1.42 81.98 100.96 123.55 .49 .10 93.430 086 .27 . 11 144.

.

ages. Maxi.338 1881-1885 1.50 92. 1861 TO 1905.368 1901-1905 1.39 $1. 24 152.35 1.460 1907 1.479 . [Average of yearly prices 1861 to 1865=100.91 101. Aver.036 . AND MINIMUM YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF WHEAT. AND MINIMUM YEARLY PRICES OF WHEAT.402 .466 . 94 101.046 .69 1876-1880 122. 47 88.339 1871-1875 1. Mini. 95 116. 84 144.11 1.039 . Bread (per pound).99 . 1861-1865 $1. WINE. ages. 91 97.07 93.38 .56 $1.98 79. 57 130. yearly. aver. 96 79.039 .29 .051 .77 103.036 .039 . 99 104.035 . 13 102.73 1871-1875 133.40 1. aver.24 . AVERAGE. MAXIMUM. 1861-1865 100. 46 79.05 1896-1900 97.44 108. 39 152.08 123.340 AVERAGE.37 1. aver.25 135.575 .477 . BREAD. 350 1866-1870 1.267 1876-1880 1.02 109.340 1908 1.50 101. ages. 85 133.20 . aver.67 111.96 108. Maxi.18 96. 45 99. aver. 99 90. ages.79 109.36 . Mini. 29 111.78 1.55 1.16 $0. PERIOD.425 . aver- ages. Mini- Quinquennial period. Mini. ages. aver.032 $0. 99 136. 00 109.38 . Maxi. 60 89.94.36 128. 00 128. Maxi.26 101.97 111.038 .95 106.77 112.01 97.046 . 44 124. AND FOR Wheat (per bushel).54 .13 . 00 119.49 . ages. yearly.038 . aver.38 112. 46 86.393 . aver- ages.92 86.580 .328 1896-1900 1. 00 112.79 1906 97.388 .435 . MAXIMUM.385 .87 1 . mum of mum of Aver.45 89.37 101. 64 83.79 1.54 108.035 . ages.417 .47 129.37 .69 1. 17 62.20 .20 1866-1870 111.041 .037 . Aver- mum mum Aver- mum mum Aver- mum mum of of of of of of age age age yearly yearly yearly yearly yearly yearly yearly.340 1906 1. 508 $0. Wine (per gallon).041 . 45 79.046 . 65 79.037 . 13 113.57 .55 1. 47 99. yearly. aver.0.65 100. 039 $0.35 1. Bread.09 1907 98. 48 116. ages.039 . 46 111.25 1.02 1886-1890 90.507 1891-1895 1.43 1881-1885 98. 52 107. Maxi.375 1886-1890 1.50 91.410 .83 86.649 .27 113.038 . ages.39 105.37 82.33 99. 426 $0.44 106.034 . 29 93.036 .036 . 56 119. Maxi. mum of mum of age yearly yearly age yearly yearly age yearly yearly yearly.37 106. mum of mum of Aver.476 . 035 $0.42 1901-1905 97. aver.80 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. 48 109.039 .87 1908 111. 95 77.037 .46 1. Mini- Quinquennial period.15 103.20 1.039 . 15 99. ages. Wine.462 .69 71.044 . aver.043 .] Wheat.30 1.07 1891-1895 86.79 100. 99 99. Mini.85 2. yearly.

WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. 81
BEEF, PORK, BUTTER, AND RICE FOR EACH QUINQUENNIAL PERIOD, 1861 TO 1905,
1906 TO 1908.

Beef (per pound). Pork (per pound). Butter (per pound). Rice (per 100 pounds).

Maxi- Mini- Maxi- Mini- Maxi- Mini- Maxi- Mini-
Aver-
mum mum Aver-
mum mum Aver-
mum mum Aver-
mum mum
of of of of of of of of
age age age age
yearly yearly yearly yearly yearly yearly yearly yearly
yearly. yearly. yearly. yearly.
aver- aver- aver- aver- "aver- aver- aver- aver-
ages. ages. ages. ages. ages. ages. ages. ages.

$0. 099 $0. 104 $0. 093 $0. 122 $0. 125 $0. 116 $0. 181 $0. 190 80. 175 $3.23 $3.34 $3.07
.108 .115 .101 .144 .166 .119 .193 .214 .168 3.41 3.72 2.82
.135 .153 .116 .178 .200 .156 .241 .269 .212 3.74 3.94 3.34
.134 .135 .132 .179 .185 .166 .256 .273 .249 3.56 3.66 3.48
.124 .131 .118 .177 .189 .166 .231 .253 .212 3.11 3.39 2.99

.125 .130 .123 .171 .179 .166 .207 .214 .196 3.40 3.74 3.04
.133 .140 .131 .166 .166 .166 .207 .221 .196 3.53 3.92 3.35
.139 .149 .131 .159 .166 .158 .207 .218 .191 3.70 4.29 3.35
.140 .158 .119 .164 .175 .153 J .215 .242 .199 3.45 3.57 3.32

.123 .179 .214 3.48
.136 .206 .228 3.46
.144 .206 .271 3.61

BREAD, WINE, BEEF, PORK, BUTTER, AND RICE FOR EACH QUINQUENNIAL
AND FOR 1906 TO 1908.

[Average of yearly prices 1861 to 1865=100.0.]

Beef. Pork. Butter. Rice.

Maxi- Mini- Maxi- Mini- Maxi- Mini- Maxi- Mini-
Aver- mum of mum of Aver- mum of mum of Aver- mum of mum of Aver- mum of mum of
age yearly yearly age yearly yearly age yearly yearly age yearly yearly
yearly. aver- aver- yearly. aver- aver- yearly. aver- aver- yearly. aver- aver-
ages. ages. ages. ages. ages. ages. ages. ages.

100. 00 105. 51 93.97 100.00 102. 88 95.68 100. 00 104. 93 96.71 100.00 103. 16 94.83
109. 22 116.13 101. 95 118. 70 136. 69 97.84 106. 86 118. 47 92.84 105. 45 115.06 87.23
136. 88 155. 14 117.91 146. 19 164. 75 128. 06 133. 17 148. 45 117.02 114. 92 121.87 103. 18
135. 28 136. 52 133. 86 146. 47 151. 80 136. 69 141.78 150. 87 137. 33 110. 11 113.00 107. 48
126. 06 132. 98 119. 68 145. 61 155. 39 136. 69 127. 85 139. 74 117.02 96.17 104. 72 92.28

126. 77 132. 09 124. 11 140.57 146. 76 136. 69 113.92 117.99 108. 31 105. 04 115. 62 94.04
134. 75 141. 84 132. 98 136. 69 136. 69 136. 69 114. 89 121. 85 108. 31 109.05 121.30 103. 48
140. 78 150. 71 132. 98 130. 93 136. 69 129. 50 114.41 120. 40 105. 41 114. 42 132. 64 103. 53
141. 84 159.57 120. 57 134. 53 143. 88 125. 90 118. 95 133. 94 109. 76 106. 56 110. 27 102. 62

124.11 147. 48 118. 47 107. 65
137. 41 169. 00 125. 72 106. 84
145. 39 169. 06 149. 90 111.51

48310— S. Doc. 631, 61-2 6

— .

82 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.

NORWAY.
[From Bulletin 84, September, 1909, of the United States Bureau of Labor.]

Arbeids- og L0nningsforliold for Syersker i Kristiania, tilligemed Op-
lysninger angaaende L0nninger i andre hvindelige Erhverv i Norge.
Udgivet af det statistiske Centralbureau. 1906. 165 pp.

This volume the fourth of a series of reports classed as social
is

statistics produced by the Bureau of Statistics of Norway, and pre-
sents data relative to the employment of women as seamstresses and
in similar occupations in Christiania. There is first presented a brief
account of the methods of the inquiry and of the development of
female labor, especially as seamstresses. The extent and character
of the investigation are next discussed, after which follow tables and
text relative to the place of birth, occupations of parents, former
employment, and apprenticeship of seamstresses; earnings of seam-
stresses, under the three heads of factory employees, seamstresses
working in families, and those working in their own homes; conjugal
condition, state of health, hours of labor, cost of living, and changes
in rates of earnings within the past twenty or thirty years. A com-
parison is also made between the earnings of seamstresses in Norway
and those in other countries, data concerning conditions in Copen-
hagen, Stockholm, and Berlin being shown.
The second part of the volume presents the rates of earnings of
working women in various industries in Norway, while in an appendix
other subjects of especial interest in connection with female labor are
discussed.
The census of 1900 showed that there were 31,435 working women
in Norway employed in sewing and similar occupations, of whom
approximately 14,500 were classed as urban. Of these 5,251 were in
Christiana. The following table shows the number of working women
employed in sewing, etc., in Christiania and in the entire Kingdom,
by principal industries:
NUMBER OF WOMEN ENGAGED IN SEWING AND IN SIMILAR EMPLOYMENTS IN
CHRISTIANIA AND IN NORWAY, BY INDUSTRIES, 1900.

Norway.

Tailoresses (independent tradeswomen) 2,015
Seamstresses (independent, in petty industries) 20,566
Employees in factories making
Shoes, slippers, etc 249
Hats and caps, including storm hats, etc. . 222
Clothing and cloaks 494
Hand workers with—
Tailors 1,369
Hat makers, etc 216
Glove makers 203
Shoemakers 436
Sewing women in petty industries working at—
Sewing „

Millinery

Total 31,435

: :

"WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. 83
The conjugal condition two largest groups ("seamstresses,
of the
independent, in petty industries" and " sewing women in petty indus-
tries working at sewing") shown in the above table for Christiania
is given in the following table
CONJUGAL CONDITION OF SEAMSTRESSES IN PETTY INDUSTRIES IN CHRISTIANIA,
CLASSIFIED BY AGE GROUPS, 1900.

Number-
Age group. Total.
Unmar- Married.
Wid- Not re-
ried. owed. ported.

15 and under years
20 361 1 362
20 and under years
25 921 17 7 945
25 and under years
30 699 41 20 760
30 and under 35
years 439 54 29 524
35 and under years
40 292 40 50 382
40 and under years
45 205 46 61 314
45 and under years
50 114 27 75 216
50 and under years
55 95 12 73 180
55 and under years
65 108 10 5S 178
65 and under 75
years 42 6 31 80
75 and under years
85 3 3
Age not reported 12 14

Total 3,291 a 254 M06 3,958

a Including 19 women separated from their husbands. b Including 19 divorced women.

The age group 20 and under 25 years is the largest, containing 23.9
per cent of the total number of seamstresses in the groups pre-
sented. Within these age limits also are found 28 per cent of all
unmarried seamstresses, the numbers decreasing rapidly in the suc-
ceeding five-year periods. The largest number of married women is
found in the group 30 and under 35, while for widows the maximum
is not reached until at the ages 45 and under 50.

The present report presents data relative to but 525 of the seam-
stresses of Christiania, of whom 419 were unmarried, 66 married, and
40 widowed. A comparison of the percentages found within the vari-
ous age groups reported by the census of 1900 with those considered
in this report is shown in the following table

SEAMSTRESSES IN CHRISTIANIA IN VARIOUS AGE GROUPS, BY PER CENT IN EACH
AGE GROUP, CENSUS OF 1900 AND REPORT OF 1906.

Per cent.

Age group.

Under 25 years 32.0
25 and under 40 years 43.4
40 and under 55 years 21.9
55 years and over 2.7

From working women
this table it appears that the proportions of
as shown by the two reports are practically the same in the two larger
groups, the proportion of middle-aged women being larger in the
number investigated by the present inquiry, while the proportion of

00 kroner ($1. or 37.608) 13 1 4 2 1 21 6. Hat Mili- en's Men's Cloak Plain Boys' and Shoe Glove tary cloth- cloth.00 kroner ($0.01 kroner ($1. mak. 3. as the standard shown by the census.2 per cent were farmers.01 kroner ($2. ing.01 kroner ($0.611) to 7. plies. EMPLOYED IN CER- TAIN INDUSTRIES.34) 6 1 2 3 12 5.00 kroner ($2. Weekly earnings. ing. cap stitch. ing. 25 per cent were born in Christiania.01 kroner ($1. Of this last group 7 were employed on men's clothing.216) 8 11 5 8 1 3 1 1 38 12. ing.879) to 8.01 kroner ($2. ing.00 kroner ($4. As to the place of birth of the 525 seamstresses considered in this volume.00 kroner ($1. 58. The question as to apprenticeship was answered by 376 persons.683) to 12.415) to 10. 20.00 kroner ($2.147) to 9. as were also 12 of the 36 whose terms of apprentice- ship ranged from six months to one year.075) to 5.00 kroner ($1. a period of three months being reported by 141 seamstresses.01 kroner ($2. does not come up to women. and 88 reported no apprenticeship. 97 45 26 35 7 16 14 12 4 256 . The following table shows for 256 seamstresses in factories and workshops the number earning the designated classified weekly rates of wages NUMBER OF SEAMSTRESSES IN FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS. mak.02) 2 2 Total employees.6 per cent were servants and employed persons not classed as laborers.68) 11 8 4 3 3 3 3 4 1 40 10. CLASSIFIED BY GROUPS OF WEEKLY EARNINGS. sew. ing. while 15 served more than one year.02) 2 5 1 2 2 12 Over 15 kroner ($4. 36 from six months to one year. and 10 per cent were of foreign birth. Number of seamstresses employed. 12=6 per cent trades- people.01 kroner ($3. 47 per cent in rural districts.6 per cent were reported as laborers.00 kroner ($2.412) 20 6 4 5 3 5 1 2 46 9.01 kroner ($1. As to the occupation of parents.219) to 15.807) to 4.144) 26 11 2 7 5 3 4 58 8. 44 served less than three months. ing.01 kroner ($1. older shown by the report of 1906. mak. 52 served from three to six months' apprenticeship.343) to 6. cloth. ing. sup- Total.876) 10 2 3 4 3 2 24 7.00 kroner ($3. and 8. Wom.5 per cent of the total number reporting.804) and under 1 1 3.00 kroner ($1. 18 per cent in other towns or cities.072) 1 1 2 4. : 84 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.

5 18.00 to 12. The largest number of employees considered in the above table are employed in the manufacture of women's clothing.3 per cent of the total number of employees considered.57).412) per week.01 to 8 kroner ($1.611) ($2.8 55.128 Total 255 2. 8.144) per week. boys' clothing. 37. weekly kroner kroner kroner Over stresses. men's clothing. Total average weekly earnings. 9.2 per cent for those from 30 to 39 years of age.12 kroner ($2.01 9.0 12. 8.8 33.80 kroner ($2. The ages of 255 of the 256 working women whose earnings are shown in the above table are known. and shoe stitching.216).3 4. BY AGE GROUPS.35 kroner ($2. in which also the average weekly earnings are lowest. 10 kroner ($2.9 43.7 5. 8. cloaks.24).01 to 10 kroner ($1.6 per cent) of the total number employees considered of earn from 6.75 kroner ($2.4 per cent for those from 20 to 29 years of age. 51.01 kroner ($2.3 37.412). from the data given that nearly one-half the seam- stresses of the youngest age group earn 6 kroner ($1. with an average weekly wage rate considerably above the general average.18).72 kroner ($2. 8. ($2.00 kroner ($1. ($1. or the range from 7.667 4.0 40. 8. under.7 50 to 59 years 3 3. Practically one- half (49.396 6. The proportion of employees receiving 9. and the next table shows for this number their distribution by age groups and the per cent in each age group receiving each classified rate of wages: NUMBER AND AVERAGE WEEKLY EARNINGS OF SEAMSTRESSES.60 kroner ($2.34).35).2 per cent for those 40 to 59 years of age. 881 46. containing 56.00 6. 85 The average weekly earnings of seamstresses employed in the various industries were reported as In the making of follows: women's clothing.01 to 9. WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. this and the two next higher groups. hats and caps.01 Age group.358 14. The largest wage group is that earning from 7.36).2 49.415) and over weekly is 14 per cent for those under 20 years of age.6 30.78 kroner ($2. .611 to $2.00 kroner and kroner kroner ($3. 8.68).608) to 9.415) 12. 14 kroner ($3.00 ($1.34 kroner ($2. ($3.24). The manufacture of men's clothing ranks next in the number of employees. It appears.2 40 to 49 years 13 2.879 to $2. and 56.1 30 to 39 years 41 2.62). and military supplies.0 20 to 29 years 148 2. of seam.216).879 to $2. gloves. earnings. 8.9 39. while the maximum number for each following age group is to be found in the higher wage groups.5 The number of persons represented is too small to warrant very much weight being given to the showings of the above table.680).0 14. 19 years and under 50 $1. however. AND PER CENT EARNING EACH CLASSIFIED WAGE.608) and under per week. .613 6. Per cent of seamstresses earning— Number Average 6.75) and in plain sewing.5 37.

40). etc. These numbers all include intervals for meals.20). m. 48 3. : 86 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. the largest number (101) earned from 301 kroner ($80. working alone 178 2. m.254). amounting to one and one-half hours for 147 employees. per year.589 261 156 78 At home. earnings. only 6 working a longer time.879) to 12. the average yearly earnings being 384 kroner ($102.87) to 300 kroner ($80. seamstresses working at home with assistants having the largest income. ranging from 10 to 17J per day. or 61. The hours per day in factories and workshops were twelve for 116 of the 236 employees reported.254 245 93 26 At home.47) to 500 kroner ($134. the next largest groups being 68 persons earning from 401 kroner ($107.01 kroner ($1.538 257 109 08 There variation in the working time per year of the various is little classes here shown. 17 worked from thirteen to fourteen hours.216) per week. with assistants '. longer periods for 35 and shorter for 54 employees.08) for the year. weekly worked yearly stresses. • of seam. to 8 p. Shown by classified annual earnings. As to seamstresses working at home. Seamstresses in private families usually work from 8 a. etc.913 269 170 18 Total 512 2. These periods include intervals for meals.00). The following table summarizes the data as to working time and average earnings for the different classes of seamstresses AVERAGE EARNINGS AND NUMBER OF DAYS WORKED BY SEAMSTRESSES. etc.00 kroner ($3. 52 worked twelve hours and only 18 had a report is shorter day.. thirteen hours being the longest day.00). though the average earnings vary considerably.91). Number Average Days Average Classification. But 28 seamstresses earned more than 500 kroner ($134. etc 256 $2. 109. 358 262 $102 91 In families 30 3. with from one to two hours for rest and meals. including intervals for meals. the report shows that the average weekly earnings of 178 working alone were 8. while 14 earned 200 kroner ($53. while but 16 had a working day shorter than eleven hours.. and 45 persons earning from 201 kroner ($53.60) or less. The average number working days per annum of the 256 seam- of stresses in factories and workshops is given at 262. . while for 15 the working day exceeded fourteen hours. earning from 7. those working in families ranking next. Acomparison of the earnings of 456 seamstresses in 1894 with those of 407 in 1904 shows an average increase of approximately 60 kroner ($16. Of the 102 seamstresses of this class for whom made.41 kroner ($2.67) to 400 kroner ($107. The hours of those working at home are much more irregular. In factories. earnings.2 per cent of this class.

Detailed statistics as to employees relate to but 11. 1901.copper men. smiths. 472 pp. m. but includes also smaller machine shops or factories. 1899.Forge. 1901. Electrical machinery and apparatus 7 50 73 40 32 Dairy machinery 4 28 34 37 2 86 Bicycles. products. 637. men. m. Fore.910 3. firearms. AND VALUE OF PRODUCTS IN 1901. 1900.347 1.827 3. Mindre.394.973 3.420 Over 500 persons 4 2. Estab- Class of manufactures. .595 3. etc Agricultural implements and unclassified products — 17 72 65 202 107 1. 290. and does not include the establishments reported on in the earlier volume. [From Bulletin 68. egentliga mekaniska verkstader samt vissa special verk- stader. Pa uppdrag af kungl. the number of employees for each year from 1899 to 1901. The investigation on which this report is based was made in the years 1901 and 1902.168 1. Occupation. 904 13. Tin and ments. smiths. lish. 1907.487 1. ments. lish. II. 28 4. 87 SWEDEN. 1901. together with reports on beneficial and relief societies for employees. and the value of products in 1901: NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN 106 ESTABLISHMENTS FOR THE YEARS 1899 TO 1901. a digest of which appeared in Bulletin 44 of the United States Bureau of Labor. and appendixes giving wages and a discussion of industrial conditions for a number of years. of the United States Bureau of Labor.Black.147 persons. 969 100 to 300 persons. January.482 84 651 10 505 3 20 Total 106 358 1 . 334 301 to 500 persons 4 1. a WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.309 3. Value of Employees per establishment. Under 100 persons 70 4. The present volume presents data for estab- lishments of similar nature. rymen. sewing and knitting machines 6 13 2 18 1 Motors.. Their distribution by classes of industries and by occupations is shown in the following table: NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH OCCUPATION IN MACHINE AND IMPLEMENT FACTORIES. kommerskollegium verkstalld af Henning Elmquist.] Under sokning af den mekaniska verlcstadsindustrien i Sverige.988 3.311 Total 106 12. Found. 034 o Based on the returns for the year 1900. The following table gives the number of establishments reported on.052 2.600 4.509.044 11. special machinery. 1904.606 $2. Employees in— Estab. In 1901 the royal board of trade of Sweden issued a report on the conditions of labor in the larger establishments of that country which were engaged in the manufacture of machinery and implements of various kinds. BY CLASS OF MANUFACTURES. 442. COS 830 549 110 .914 10. BY NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES PER ESTABLISHMENT.

2 per cent of the employees as working less than 57 hours per week.835 were 25 years of age or over. etc 1. Other Class of manufactures. pen- ers.349 12.442 22.752 persons.6 60 orunder 63 hours 2. Per cent.8 66 hours or over 178 1. and ees. 3. 1901. Hours per week.147 employees included in the foregoing table. 752 100. 61.332 were 18 but under 25.777 25.018 79 12 22 85 1. by the former for 10.042 Total 5. Number. Per cent.9 54 orunder 57 hours 2. Ma. 4.5 Total 10.244 475 71 69 323 6. The weekly hours of labor were reported by both employers and employees. The actual differences are not great.7 378 3. 735 100.795 were 12 but under 18. Thus the employers report 28.3 3. Engi.794 35.735 persons.7 1.9 517 4.500 32. Car.304 30.060 Dairy machinery 796 48 44 11 116 1.202 Bicycles.485 Agricultural implements and unclassified products 2.5 1.110. Electrical machinery and apparatus 1. Employees' report.6 per cent as working 63 hours or more.0 10. em. as follows: One hundred and forty-eight were under 12 years of age. Occupation. BY HOURS OF LABOR PER WEEK. Number. sewing and knitting machines 270 5 13 6 30 358 Motors. : 88 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. Total. ists. 1901— Concluded. special machinery.5 57 orunder 60 hours 3. neers ploy- Paint- chin.2 per cent as working 57 or less than 63 hours weekly. The results of all returns are shown in the table below NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN MACHINE AND IMPLEMENT FACTORIES.7 63 orunder 66 hours 956 8. NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH OCCUPATION IN MACHINE AND IMPLEMENT FACTORIES. and by the latter for 10. BY CLASS OF MANUFACTURES.147 Of the 11. and 10. firearms. fire- men.482 213 48 17 105 2.9 3.704 15. as appears from combining the six groups into three. so that the returns are not in all instances for identical employees.810 820 188 125 659 11. Under 54 hours 588 5. however. ters. the ages were reported for 11. and 2. while . Employers' report. and in part by the fact that the reports of employers generally gave the standard working time of the establishment without regard to variations in exceptional cases or groups of workmen.0 The differences between the data furnished by the employers and by the employees are accounted for in part by the fact that not all the employers reported on this subject.

5 22 18. ($214) 1. ($134). respectively.0 Setters-up 15 12. and 8.577 42.6 Founders 14 2. cent.. ber.9 41 13.2 Carpenters 9 29. 63.7 38 32. Per ber. Though industrial statistics have been collected in Sweden since 1831. ($402).6 1 1.9 19 7. other. xxxi. Employees whose annual earnings were— 800 kr. and by localities.6 137 55.4 93 32.8 81 57.2 19 20. cent. other 4 6. 25 6.5 Bidrag till Sveriges Officiella Statistik.4 5 14.200 kr.9 Filers 28 2.6 Blacksmiths 4 1.0 63 43.7 40 14. classified in five groups on the basis of annual earnings: NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN MACHINE AND IMPLEMENT FACTORIES. Num.7 Boiler makers 3 3.4 55 14.8 14 14.8 474 46.4 90 41.1 9 5.6 52 16.7 51 63.3 9 13.3.5 30 48. The following table shows the number of establish- .8 13 9.5 1 1. Kommerskollegii underdaniga berattelse for Ar 1903.1 Core makers 56 57. 89 according to the employees' returns the corresponding percentages are 28. Per Num..0 3 1.7 26 26.4 Cabinetmakers 6 5. turners.0 9 13.0 2 5.0 12 38.7 1 2.5 Pattern makers 7 3. The tables present the statistics of both subjects by kinds of establishments or trades. other 20 13. ($214).3 103 10. or under 800 or under or under 1.2 37 14. ($134) Under 500 kr.9 17 15.310 21.1 130 41.4 2.4 28 80.0 17 12.7 6 19. Wage were obtained for 6. 1.067 17.8 Polishers and grinders 2 3. it is only since 1896 that they have been sufficiently complete to furnish an accurate statement of the conditions of manufactures in that country.200 kr.2 147 16.7 1.2 167 43.7 Engine fitters 28 82.4 34 49.0 36 20.6 57 50.0 10 12. Much the larger part of the work is devoted to the subject of manufactures.3 12 17.7 83 26. Occupation.2 128 60.6 12 21. by occupation.3 41 19.3 32 28.3 353 68. Fabriker och Handtverk.0 Boiler makers' helpers 20 24.2 Foundry workers.2 54 29. 6 1.9 Tin and copper smiths 5 6. ber. ($332). Foremen 4 2.7 Blacksmiths' helpers 38 26.4 26 41. WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.0 Other employees 36 11.1 23 18.8 19 15.6 33 10.6 14 15. Per Num.0 Founders' helpers 37 20.0 47 62.7 27 29.4 Machinists' helpers 129 45.9 16 28.7 37 31. BY CLASSIFIED ANNUAL EARNINGS AND BY OCCUPATIONS.($332) 500 kr.7 90 17.8 29 20.1 9 9.4 4 12.3 Engineers and firemen 5 7.0 55 45.4 28 23.5 19 33.1 34 16.7 Metal workers 3 2.7 93 52.6 52 53.8 Total 474 7. and borers.7 1 2.1 13 4.8 29 13. 1901. 116 pp. ($402) or over.0 5 3. that of trades or manual professions occupying but a few pages.1 179 20.5 1 .7 56 30.7 146 16.3 Boiler shop workers.0 46 8.2 219 21. by groups.4. ber.500 kr. Per Num.8 46 21. kr.7 11 14.6 38 9.4 392 44.3.4 20 13. Per Num.6 Planers.0 4 2.2 Machine shop workers.3 113 36.0 1.0 103 26.500 kr. cent.7 24 7. cent.0 Painters 7 7.6 9 3.9 1 1.7 12 16.6 7 12. ber.9 Wood workers.4 706 11.134 workmen employed in 84 statistics establishments. The following table shows the number of employees.6 Electrical workers 6 2.5 44 20.7 203 19.1 33 33.. cent.5 69 37. 1. This volume is one of a series of reports issued by the commercial section of the Royal Board of Trade on the industry and commerce of Sweden.9 16 3.2 Lathe hands 24 2.2 1 1.2 25 27. other 4 11.6 51 20.6 103 33.

because the original figures for this table are given in francs and in round numbers.812 202.003 9.595 381 5.416 22. Fe. while according to the conversion tables used in the Bureau of Labor 1 kr. years of age.412.456 1903 11.615. 426. products. 1896 TO 1903. NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES BY SEX AND AGE GROUPS. Estab.= 1.135 Machinery and implements 685 2. In the original report the conversions from kroner to francs were made on the basis of 1 kr.376 1897 8.149 8.418 Lumber and wood products 1. publishing.557 1.978 263. ments.475 9. leather.682 6.959 191.293 $185. products. inclusive: NUMBER OF ESTABLISMENTS AND OF EMPLOYEES AND VALUE OF PRODUCTS IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES.876 Paper and paper goods 182 871 893 5.904 262.097 38.582 32.323 1. and hair 585 669 487 4.843 1898 10. and stone products.025 1. This table indicates a constant growth from year to year in the number of establishments.081 545 2.39 fr. Food products.360 2.765 Oils.758. lish.702 7.940 Hides.190.960 39. including tobacco and bev- erages 3. Total. 229 275.526 254.157 a 299. exports and imports are classified under 12 heads.244 282.633 Textiles and clothing 803 2. Employees.126. lish- ees.519 a This does not agree with the total for 1903 given in the table following. ments.39 fr. the number of employees was not so large in 1902.614 111.784 20.572 5.068. products. . males. because the original figures given in kroner. and this report groups the manufactures on the same basis. 1896 8.614 1.=1.672 2. 154.341 654 39. Employ.681 364 17. In the original report the conversions from kroner to francs were made on the basis of 1 kr=1. ments.341 1900 10.989 6. 479 $280.034.455.703 1901 10. 27.843 1..633..986 468 31.789 1902 10.316. as it was in 1900.469. Males. Fe- Males.156. etc 209 267 344 1. : 90 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. Under 18 18 years of Value of Class of manufactures.127 9.974 220.253 1. the number of employees by sex and age.3886 fr.089 23.162.010 38.557 $95.571.617 1. while those for the table following are given in kroner. however. The table next given shows the number of estab- lishments. gums.318 Metals and metal products 902 3. In the commercial statistics of the country.029 245. and the value of products for each industrial group for the year 1903: NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS.391 987 2. white according to the conversion tables used in the Bureau of Labor 1 kr.531 Chemical products 287 148 96 2.179 22. in number of employees and value of products.313 66.364 257.322 10.537 45.633 6. ments and of employees and the value of products for each year from 1896 to 1903.347 Clay.588 271. and.459 Total 11.948 10. males.019 20.128.720 238. 202 210. 549 265. Estab- Employ. AND VALUE OF PRODUCTS IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. glass. =1.3886 fr.870 5. 673 10. or over. Value of Year. including gas and charcoal 1.173 54. 066 a This does not agree with the amount given for 1903 in the preceding table.806. and miscellaneous 497 1. Value of Year.446 1899 10.672.854 69. lish.565 271.750.612 4. ees. 651 Printing.557 18.157 a 299. while those for the preceding table are given in francs and in round num- for this table are bers. with the single exception of the year 1901.993 Cork and straw goods and baskets 35 48 45 296 225 614 502. 1903. Estab.588 28.

371 were males and 2. The data as to trades or manual professions do not include domi- ciliary employments. The same classification is used as in the case of manu- factures. as well as for lodgings of different sorts.077. presenting in detail data for various articles of food and classes of food animals.och Bostadspriser i Sverige under dren 1 904-1 907 . the average number of employees per establishment being but 8.62 per cent of all employees.. Utgif- ven af K.161) per establishment for the year 1903.706 females. and the effect of locality and seasons on prices. of the United States Bureau of Labor. 1909. where 50 is the average. Kommerskollegii Afdelning for Arbetsstatistik. The largest number per establishment is found in the manu- facture of paper and paper goods. September. the number being nearly double that of the next largest class. a total of 47. These two groups together produced 54 per cent of all manufactures reported for the year 1903.741. but 7. etc.63 per cent.163 females. 91 The class containing the greatest number of establishments is that representing the manufacture of food products. WAGES AND PEICES OF COMMODITIES.04 per cent.146 kroner ($52.835) per establishment. Thus. shows for the years 1904 to 1907 the prices of the necessaries of life and of food animals and the rates of rent in the principal localities of the Kingdom. issued by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the Royal Board of Trade of Sweden. but are restricted to shop as opposed to factory industries. and shows that rent and board have also increased. [From Bulletin 84. by year and locality. the whole number of persons under 18 years of age being 14.578 males and 5. 104 pp. the next highest being that of textiles and clothing.] Lifsmedels.81 per cent of the 100. In the last-named group is also to be found the highest average value of products. it also takes up the subjects of rents and of board in private families.37 per cent of the total number of employees and females 18. showing the general increase in prices during the period covered. The first group contains many small establish- ments. Males comprised 81. The report discusses generally and then more in detail the prices of food and of food animals.818 persons in this industrial class were females. 197.58 per cent of all employees and the females under 18 years 4.704 kroner ($48. The number of independent work people reported is 53. These per- sons employed as assistants or shop workers 42. in which the man- ufacture of lumber and wood products is carried on. of whom 50. This report. Tables occupy practically one-half the report. The value of products was not given. The males under 18 years of age com- prised 10. with an average of 179. 1909. .

072 6.004 6.3 Fish.058 6. fresh.126 .137 Peas.4 Turf (fuel) Bushel . fresh.051 .038 .049 Wheat flour Pound 033 .009 8.031 6 10..241 .016 6. sour Pound .141 .049 . for boiling Pound .018 . salt.066 .030 .134 .041 .6 Fish.8 Rye bread.081 .5 Beef. roasts Pound . ordinary.039 .2 Barley meal Pound 032 . . plaice Pound .191 .029 .018 16.005 69.133 . fresh. for the Kingdom is given below: AVERAGE PRICES OF PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF FOOD AND OF FUEL.041 . 92 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.335 6.502 4.013 6.034 ..124 . .030 . .046 .1 Pork.039 .1 Veal. most marked The increase is in the case of eggs and meats.032 Rice flour. roasts. .130 .049 . dry Pound.160 . roasts Pound .137 .119 .068 .075 .129 .023 .3 Rye flour.041 c.002 4.300 . though considerable advances are shown in the case of several other articles.131 . as cheese. brown Pound 049 ..001 5.3 Coal.075 . cheapest grade .097 . 5 a The per cents of increase^hown in this column are based on the exact amounts shown in the original report and expressed in Swedish ore. cod Pound .141 . sweetened Pound 043 .041 .090 .032 .3 Wheat bread..078 .266 .048 .071 .038 .030 .7 Fish. 1907. 268 cent.053 .119 6.033 $0. 4. second class Pound ..098 .034 16.134 .062 .181 .152 .81 cents per pound) in 1907.125 . fresh.140 .5 Beef.250 . Most of the articles enumerated above table show an advance in the in cost over the initial year for which reports are made. first quality Quart.032 .043 .074 .0 Eggs Dozen.. Amount.036 $0.225 .2 Fish.066 .100 .137 .033 $0. by years.140 .014 20.159 . salt.003 6 4. Good steers sold in the same market at 51 ore per kilogram . 207 . Pound .044 . fresh.078 .033 .041 .017 7.. lump Pound . small herrings Pound .151 .036 $0.492 8.045 001 " '2. the only decrease being in the case of petroleum.001 3.016 12. American Pound .8 Mutton. .019 15.046 . bolted Pound 028 . unskimmed Quart.004 13.143 .3 Potatoes Peck. 5.039 Rye bread..056 6.143 .091 .079 .001 3.193 .4 Oleomargarine.269 .6 Petroleum. 1905.3 Firewood.032 .6 Oleomargarine.128 .007 5. Article.003 9. herrings Pound .7 Coffee.948 5. best Pound . which are reported for three principal localities and for various years.064 . as against 56 ore per kilogram (6.002 48 Fish. The same tendency is shown in the prices of food animals.022 17.084 .086 .029 . Brazilian Pound . best Pound . small herrings.228 .4 Pork.l Firewood.030 .131 .038 . yellow Pound 033 .033 Beans.. Pound .142 .111 .010 15.030 .142 .069 6.106 .7 Veal (suckling calves) Pound .005 cll. herrings Pound . not crushed Bushel . and fuel.152 . fresh Pound .2 Coke. 12. .214 . salt.043 .016 17. Swedish Pound .150 .125 .003 63.258 . pine Cord. Increase from 1904 Average price in- to 1907.7 Rye flour Pound 023 . 044 .092 . cheapest Pound .141 .040 .001 1.665 5.023 .440 . Unit Per 1904.043 Rye bread..069 .. (a) Milk.015 10.041 .019 13.137 .071 .0 Wheat bread. birch Cord.064 .0 Oatmeal Pound 038 . ordinary Pound .006 13.066 .047 .072 .027 21.050 . 003 Milk.032 .033 .029 .051 .242 . 1904 TO 1907.043 .047 . fresh Pound .9 Fish. c Decrease.108 .024 .304 . cent.038 . salt.122 .126 . fat heifers selling in Stockholm at 44 ore per kilogram (5.244 .012 14.118 . skimmed Quart. fresh. salt. 1906. anthracite Bushel . Pound 039 .018 . .128 .9 Pork. A summary table showing the average prices of the principal articles of food and of fuel.053 .3 Butter. bolted rye flour. 6 Increase from 1905 to 1907. best Pound .35 cents per pound) in 1905.032 .010 5.050 . dry Pound 077 .108 . fresh.154 .018 Butter.518 11.232 .191 .018 .921 6.6 Cheese.030 .085 .5 Sugar.001 4.5 Rice flour. An ore is equivalent to 0.033 .530 4.

79). These gains amount to a rate of increase of 7.27). 242 kroner ($64.4 per cent for single rooms with kitchen. 89 kroner ($23.75 kroner ($2. The figures published for 1902. while fat hogs weighing from 80 to 100 kilo- grams (176 to 220 pounds) brought 62 ore per kilogram (7.] Report on IVages.20). while for two rooms with kitchen the prices were 235 kroner ($62. in the form of detailed statements furnished by employers.15 cents per pound) in 1907. and 150 kroner ($40. Board and lodging for working people show practically the same rate of increase. the report showing in each case the wages and earnings of the various .05 kroner ($2. The facts concerning agricultural labor are presented in detail for each of the countries of England. Wales. apply in the main to the years 1903 and 1904. and information concerning their hours of work and general conditions of labor.16) in 1907. UNITED KINGDOM. [From Bulletin 71. however. the year 1904 not being considered in this connection in the report.66). 263 pp. and 67 ore per kilogram (8. the average cost of an apartment con- sisting of a singleroom was 85 kroner ($22. Earnings. Rentals also showed an increase during the period 1905 to 1907. and Conditions of Employment of Agri- cultural Laborers in the United Kingdom.86). for the years named. or 7 per cent in the period. Scotland.1 per cent in the case of single rooms. July. and Ireland.8 per cent for two rooms with kitchen.85) in 1906. Although considerable data relating to wages and earnings in 1903 are found in the report.20 cents perpound) in 1906 and for 55 ore per kilogram (6. WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.98). there having been comparatively little fluctuation in the wages of the agricultural classes during those two years.39) in 1907.02) per week in 1905. 7. 93 (6. the average earnings for the country are given for 1902. and 91 kroner ($24. the average cost being 7. and 8. xii.54 cents per pound) in 1905. of the United States Bureau of Labor. In addition to the subjects treated in that report. and 251 kroner ($67. 1905. 1907. 148 kroner ($39. 70 ore per kilogram (8.69 cents per pound) in 1907. the work under consideration contains particulars as to the cost of living of farm laborers in the United Kingdom. and 6. For a single room with kitchen the prices were 141 kroner ($37. respectively. 6.08) in 1906. Thus in 48 principal localities. (Published by the Labor Department of the British Board of Trade.78) per annum in 1905.51 cents per pound) in 1906.) The present volume was prepared in continuation of the report on wages and earnings of agricultural laborers which was issued by the Labor Department of the Board of Trade in 1900.52 kroner ($2.

the married men being generally engaged by the week. and Ireland for a series of years. are few.94 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. etc. terms of engagement. more piecework is done and extra payments in cash at hay and grain harvest and for overtime are the rule. potatoes. although time payments in cash form the main part of the earnings of agri- cultural laborers. where the engagements are shorter and the time wages lower. to take account of all actual earnings. their duties. while men in charge of animals often receive free cottages. The usual term of engagement of farm servants is by the year or half year in Scotland. as a rule. Tables are also appended which show. the rates of weekly cash wages paid in different parts of England in 1903. but it is declining to some extent. and the north of Ireland. the quantity and value of food consumed per week by representative farm laborers' families during certain years. comparative wage data for certain farms in England. An examination of the report shows that the method of remunera- tion greatly varies in different parts of the United Kingdom. the north of England. In comparing the rates of wages of agricultural laborers in different parts of the United Kingdom it is necessary. In other parts of England and Ireland the agricultural laborers are. and other allowances. In addition. although the men in charge of animals are frequently engaged for longer periods. classes of laborers. In other parts of the United Kingdom this custom has almost ceased. the north of England. Wales. In the northern counties of England and in Wales the yearly and half-yearly engagements are mainly confined to unmarried men. for each country. and methods of remuneration. are frequent. An introduction to the detailed report contains a summary of the information presented and an explanation of the methods by which the data were obtained. The system of hiring farm laborers at fairs still exists in Scotland.. while extra cash payments for piecework. Wales. harvest work. A considerable part of the volume consists of appendixes containing statistical tables which show the average earnings of ordinary laborers in the various coun- ties of the United Kingdom in 1902. engaged by the week. In districts where the system of engagements for long terms prevails. therefore. including the extra amounts received in cash . allowances in kind. and in a few districts of Wales. fuel. in the eastern and south- ern counties of England. and charts depicting fluctu- ations in wages between 1850 and 1903.. and the number and classification of agricultural laborers in each country as shown by the census of 1901. Scotland. the report contains a map of theUnited Kingdom showing the average weekly earnings of agricultural laborers in 1902 by counties. the north of Ireland. journey money. for married men. overtime. etc. On the other hand. and free cottages. such as board and lodging for single men.

bailiffs. 1902. in all four countries of the United King- dom. The longest period covered is from 1850 to 1903.3041 6. The particulars given were compiled after careful inquiry among a large number of farm .88 per cent in the weekly earnings of ordinary farm laborers. 8d.26) per week in 1850 to 14s. 6158 . 1S98. clergymen. 4. or 57 per cent during fifty-four years. exclusive of extra payments for piecework. farmers.1973 Scotland 4. INCLUDING THE VALUE OF ALL ALLOWANCES IN KIND. 95 from various sources. Scotland. and other persons who made investiga- tions in the districts in which they reside. 1902. local government officials.4407 Wales. . T ($1. and Ireland.] Ordinary agricultural laborers. The greatest increase was in Scotland. All computations are based on the census returns for 1901. 2784 . 10Jd. The following table shows the average earnings per week. Per cent England S4. Information as to the weekly quantity and value of food consumed by farm laborers and their families is presented for each of the countries of England. where there was a rise of 6. Increase in 1902. 4205 4. when they resumed an upward ten- dency. including or- Country. 7d. etc. of agricultural laborers in each divi- sion of the United Kingdom in 1898 and 1902: AVERAGE EARNINGS PER WEEK. as compared dinary labor- with 1898. They do not include the earnings of stewards. or casual laborers. after almost stationary until 1896. 7246 .98 S4. This information is based on returns furnished by landowners. The wages as thus reported increased from 9s. 4739 2.6563 The above table shows that there was an increase in earnings in 1902. foremen. [The averages here shown relate to able-bodied male adults. 3^d. which continued for the rest of the period.1622 3. 0757 S4. as well as the value of all allowances in kind. as compared with 1898. Comparative w age statistics for a series of years are also given 7 in the report. All classes of agricultural laborers.55) per week in 1903.1419 5.. WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.6 per cent.56 4. including the value of allowances in kind.88 4. ($2.60) per week in 1903. OF AGRICULTURAL LABORERS IN 1898 AND 1902. ($3.6840 Ireland 2. ers and men in charge of animals. the report showing for each year the average weekly cash wages paid ordinary laborers on 69 farms in England and Wales. or 81. The earnings in 1902 in each of the four countries were highest near the large manufacturing and mining centers. overtime. 2379 SO. 0149 4. The increase occurred chiefly which wage rates remained from 1850 to 1874. ($2. harvest work..43) per week in 1850 to 10s. Amount.2635 6. In Ireland the average cash w ages reported for 10 farms increased from 5s.74 2. and also of the value of allowances in kind.

In the neighborhood of towns or collieries. however. including articles produced at home or given as allowances in addition to money payments. 15s.33) a year. the rents are higher.96 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. 2|d. the average value of the food consumed weekly by a farm laborer. fuel.24) per week. ($0. . and four children is 13s.most usual rent for laborers' cottages in rural districts is Is. In purely rural districts in England and Wales the rents usually paid vary from Is. ($0. 6d. 5fd. Is.24) to 2s. ($0. the values in all cases being based on prevailing retail prices.70) in Scotland. laborers and and they represent the ordinary expendi- their wives. ($3. ($3.30) in England.60) and £5 ($24. In Scotland married farm servants ordinarily receive their cottages free of rent as part payment of their wages. his wife. tobacco. These figures represent the actual value of all food consumed. 6Jd. and alcohol. ture for food by farm laborers in the districts to which the returns relate. Some information is also given as to the expenditure for rent.55) in Ireland.37) a week being the rate most fre- quently paid. clothing.49) a week. Employers there usually value the rentals of such cottages at between £3 ($14. In Ireland the . and 10s. ($0. ($2. According to the figures shown in the report.

of the United States Bureau of Labor. has recently been published under the title —Report of an Inquiry by the Board of Trade into the Earnings and Hours of Labor of Work People of the United Kingdom: I. Of the different groups of trades.2 Lace 26.3 Hosiery 41. and to obtain means of estimating their annual earnings. dyeing.041 49. and 7 per cent in Ireland. In the following table is shown the number of persons employed in each of the textile trades as shown by the factory and workshop returns for 1904. 13 per cent in Scotland.3 Bleaching.216.598 43.258 17. industry by industry. the number of work people covered by the returns received in the present inquiry.807 40. owing to the fact that in these trades both men and women are employed in large numbers and in some cases on work of a similar character. and finishing 110.446 42. in which the results of a general first inquiry into earnings and hours of labor in all trades in the United Kingdom will be dealt with. GENERAL SUMMARY. and the percentage of the total num- ber employed in 1904 represented by the returns NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN TEXTILE INDUSTRIES IN 1904 AND PER CENT OF TOTAL IN EACH INDUSTRY FOR WHOM RETURNS WERE RECEIVED IN 1906. employees in 1904. Cotton 523. 770 122. July. [From Bulletin 83. printing. Number of Industry.] The of a series of reports.740 32.493 46.4 Linen 95.950 44. 1909. the textile trades are of special interest. Doc. 631. EARNINGS AND HOURS OF LABOR IN BRITISH TEXTILE INDUSTRIES. Per cent »»-"»• IX'S 1 in1904.171. 61-2 7 97 .360 31.171. 184 9.946 55.744 8. Employees covered by returns received in present inquiry (1906). : — UNITED KINGDOM.6 Total (including textile industries not specified) 1.390 46. The total number of work people employed in the textile trades in factories and workshops in 1904 was 1. Textile Trades in 1906.030 212. of which number 80 per cent were employed in England and Wales. The object of this inquiry was to ascer- tain the amount actually earned by all classes of work people in a selected week.4 Jute 41.3 Silk 30.212 20. occupation by occupation. and district by district.216 512.672 50.7 Woolen and worsted 263.8 48310— S.

9 21.2 10.9 1. $4.7 21.43 44.4 36.8 Jute 5. persons.2 Linen 5.0 13.073 514. and the percentage whose earnings fell within each specified wage group are shown in the following table: AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF MEN IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER.569 —28.4 16.871 + 3.5 1.4 Hosiery 7. 619 253.6 .8 1. 1906.2 33.651 31.9 3. 189 23.6 Hosiery 19.8 Lace 9. $7.5 Woolen and worsted 6.5 Jute 37.6 6.0 3.0 1.4 Hemp 6.398 29.0 29.4 .78 15.47 19.6 34.7 55.925 3.0 11. 086 8.273 324 63 19.9 13. Of the total number of employees for whom information was obtained.86 23. Per cent of increase 1885.506 + 2.4 2. The numbers employed in textile factories are given in the following table for the years 1885 and 1904 NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN TEXTILE INDUSTRIES. 1904.2 4.204 + 7.25 19.6 Flock and shoddy 5.321 773 39.4 22.744 988.5 22.0 2.4 1. 1885.30 $9. 353 40.73. 485 4.800 29. BY CLASSES.374 36.437 257.793 107.7 23.4 49.6 .7 1.4 3.1 1.3 .077 505.4 Total 6. $12.2 Silk 6.4 Silk 39.610 18.9 47. 1904.305 +87.2 52.374 93982 -12.3 9.25 49.651 479. An inquiry of similar character was made in 1885.4 54.3 Elastic web 7.6 .30. 1885. and may also include persons 13 years of age who have obtained from the board of education a certificate of proficiency or attendance at school.5 .9 4.0 23.5 2.8 Total (including textile industries not speci- fied) 942.3 14.2 a Young persons' include persons 14 and under 18 years of age.379 49.7 per cent were males 20 years of age and over. 1904.16 22.0 9.8 5.195 685 41. 992 17.3 14.0 43.3 .612 270. 1885 AND 1904.1 36. $9.73 $12.60 Under and and and and ings. Cotton 454.5 1.8 Linen 102.2 26. IN EACH TEXTILE INDUSTRY.212 36.87 $7.5 1.1 1. 610 994.4 2.6 .226 3.3 Woolen and worsted 258. printing.4 4.4 19.6 1." The average earnings of men who worked time in the various textile industries in the last week of full September.45 16.4 Bleaching.5 33.4 Lace 15.514 40.1 .3 2.6 3. especially since the number of half timers (those children under 14 years of age who are permitted to work but part of a day) has decreased materially.53 15.61 6.512 552 76 15. classi- fied in the report as " men. Per cent of men working full time whose earn- ings were Aver- age Industry.6 Small wares 6. 1906.17 earn.3 50. 634 91.1 4.3 24. $4.2 Carpet 6.7 13. 4. Industry.2 25.8 53.73 16.0 12.25 22.436 1.912 92. (+) or de- crease ( — ). Cotton $7.83 18. Adults and young Total (counting 2 half timers Half timers. 636 8. $14.3 19.17.1 4.495 . (o) as 1 full timer).3 21.0 .17 51.87. The changes in the numbers employed in the various industries since that time are of interest.8 54.18 16.1 0.6 3.6 . — : 98 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.334 18. $14.8 71. AND PER CENT OF MEN WHOSE EARN- INGS WERE IN EACH SPECIFIED WAGE GROUP.60.0 .2 5.4 46.010.7 .36 7.4 5. under under under under and over.64 11. 31.7 48.7 Other textile 6.550 +18. etc 6.

4 Elastic web 2.89 .72 .3 Hosiery 3.47 .25 .65 Lace 3.89 Linen 2. .31 .84 21.78 32.72 Carpet 2.6 .76 .8 Other textile 3.85 $2.0 .9 15.1 41.7 7.6 5.89 .9 9.76 1.2 Linen 2. classified as " girls. under under under under and over.7 55." in the last week of September.1 5. Cotton $4.08 $7.93 1. Per cent of women working full time whose earnings were Aver- age Industry. Average earnings of— Lads and boys.1 .2 Total 3. Under and and and and $2.2 .08.58 Hair 1.73 1.65 Hosiery 2.43.79 Fustian and cord cutting 2.43 $3. 2.3 49. 1906. 07 .47 14.1 Flock and shoddy 2.87 1.8 65.6 .3 .3 25.6 .73 Woolen and worsted 2.5 30.64 .30.66 47.5 .89 .65. $7.3 6. Industry. 1906.6 10. .70 Other textile 2.5 ." The average earnings of women who worked full time in the various textile industries in the last week of September.9 1.68 $0.01 .7 6. timers.29 1. etc 3. $2.54 3.80 1.39 1. $4. timers.5 Carpet 3.7 49.79 2. classified in the report as " lads and boys.2 53.54 .7 .33 15. .65 $4.6 1.17 . 1906.4 Hair 2.60 1.9 47.5 12.27 51. 44 per cent were females 18 years of age and over..99 Bleaching. .4 .75 Small wares 1.33 .2 Woolen and worsted 3.1 1.9 35. timers.3 .00 27.05 2.8 11.84 2.1 Jute 3. Full Half Full Half timers.81 .1 Fustian and cord cutting 2.0 20.8 28. IN EACH TEXTILE INDUSTRY.81 1.7 Bleaching.3 .77 Total 2.3 38.05 .89 2.59 Flock and shoddy.26 18.08 1.0 13.5 2.98 10.4 1.37 10.72 .4 29.08 $0.4 .1 49.6 15. $6.31 .8 26.13 Elastic web 2.1 Small wares 2.63 1.78 . printing. printing.87.1 Silk 2.8 3.7 .1 39. classified as " women. are shown in the following table AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF LADS AND BOYS AND OF GIRLS IN EACH TEXTILE INDUSTRY IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER.9 75.1 .43 .5 44.87 $6.99 Silk 2.87 2.6 The average earnings of males under the age of 20 years. : : — WAGES AND PKICES OF COMMODITIES.3 44.64 47. Girls. 1906. 99 Of the total number of employees whom information was ob- for tained. and the percentage whose earnings fell within each specified wage group are shown in the following table AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF WOMEN IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEM- BER.75 13.3 Lace 3.6 .7 1.2 Hemp 2.0 51.2 6.8 4. etc 2.6 24.72 38.4 30.79 Hemp x 2. AND PER CENT OF WOMEN WHOSE EARNINGS WERE IN EACH SPECIFIED WAGE GROUP.2 66.1 8.9 45.9 12.64 . $3.62 41.3 .3 9.4 25. earn.83 Jute 2.3 2.26 6.30 ings.31 18.67 1.7 1. Cotton $3.8 .fi 1." and of females under 18 years of age.

and the diminution in the number of half-timers employed. compared.53 15 3. and the per cent of increase in the 20 years: AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF MEN AND WOMEN IN THE PRINCIPAL TEXTILE INDUSTRIES IN ONE WEEK. 19 Total 211. 1906. have been compared with those furnished in the present inquiry. 1906. earnings per head per head in 1906.17 2.3 per cent of the total number of employees for whom information was received.80 11 All textile industries 5.10 3.26 40 Silk 5. 1906.71 20 3. cent of 1886.69 Eeturns furnished by employers in 1886. Women. 265. 66 Flock and shoddy 226. Cotton $5. . Per Per 1886. showing the average earnings per head in the textile industries for the year 1906 AVERAGE ANNUAL EARNINGS PER HEAD IN EACH TEXTILE INDUSTRY.58 6.43 13 2. 1886 AND 1906.18 11 2.62 21 Jute 4. The number of lads and boys formed 11 per cent and the number of girls 13. 22 Bleaching.81 5. Average Average annual annual Industry.37 10 Linen 4. etc . 09 Hemp 175.33 3. From these data the following table was computed. 36 Fustian and cord cutting 148.65 $4.74 $7. In making such comparison several important factors should be taken into consideration the — state of depression and unemployment in 1886. Industry. increase. printing.51 2. Particulars were obtained for each industry as to the total amount paid in wages in 1906 by the firms making returns. 29 Linen 143. in 1906. earnings Industry.79 22 The number work people reported in each industry whose hours of of labor for a full week were in each specified group and the average .60 6. 89 Hair 148. 100 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. : .66 6. giving the rates of wages of their work people for a full week. 43 Lace 265.06 Jute 167.54 24 Woolen and worsted 5.70 5. 56 Woolen and worsted 194. cent of increase. 79 Hosiery 187. the improvements of machinery and processes by which operatives are enabled to increase their output and earnings. 89 Other textile 189.25 12 2. The following table shows the average earnings of men and women in a full week in 1886 and 1906. and the total amount paid in wages and the total number of persons receiving wages in one week in each month.02 22 $3. 43 Silk 167. 59 Small wares $143. 22 Carpet 197.06 3. Cotton $233. 56 Elastic web 180. Average earnings of— Men.

In the following table is given an analysis of the returns for each district inLancashire and Cheshire showing the percentage numbers and earnings of men engaged as spinners.1 Bleaching. over.85 Manchester 7.55 6 4.00 8 4. printing.08 44 7.75 10 10..58 51 7.684 9. 455 628 2. of men. age age age age total total total total earn.29 4 4.81 5 $6. number ings.84 42 7. time District. 54*. The cotton industry is the most important of the textile industries of the United Kingdom.58 53 6. earn.504 104 342 5 1 54.088 126 10 61 15 382 131 55. 922 18.7 Elastic web 473 40 780 3 .89 29 5.62 Bacup 6.62 13 5..039 312 2.285 134 3 3 1 16 36 55.429 3. of men.333 354 412 4.91 47 5.78 52 7.18 24 4.253 332 3 1 8 2 55.010 465 3. 60*.2 Carpet 175 50 234 5.5 Woolen and worsted 899 380 248 96.2 Fustian and cord cutting. Spinners. . of men. earn- ings Per Per Per Per of all Aver. Cotton 309 125 798 194.388 1. Weavers. earn- number ings. 59*. or weavers in the last week of September.44 8 3. number ings.10 2 4.79 42 $7.18 20 4.088 1.247 39 4 2 7 1 55.499 146 10. week. 101 number of hours constituting a full week in each industry are shown in the following table NUMBER OF WORK PEOPLE REPORTED AS WORKING EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF HOURS PER WEEK. 1906. 2 53. 53*.1 Jute 13.404 561 713 57 55.32 Accrington 6.0 Silk 1.063 100 5 6 7 55.9 Other textile 1. big piecers. 27 2 277 107 45 372 78 53 57.58 Bolton 7.56 20 $3.34 29 5.561 522 101 24 "74 26 11 54. 1906. hours 52* 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 In a and to to to to to to to to and full under.6 Flock and shoddy 181 38 1.93 13 9.65 9 7.13 19 3. Average ea rnings of— Aver- age full.604 3.9 Lace 1.02 36 7.1 Small wares 750 1. Number of work people whose hours of labor for a full week were— Aver- age Industry.157 687 495 6.4 Hair 66 40 756 28 9 3 54.10 65 6.60 30 10. OF ALL MEN IN THE COTTON INDUSTRY AND OF MEN IN CERTAIN OCCUPA- TIONS IN THE INDUSTRY IN THE VARIOUS DISTRICTS OF LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE.. Other men.858 994 1. etc 1. Big piecers.047 20 221 2.69 Rochdale 6.83 19 8.48 38 $11. Aver- cent of cent of cent of cent of men.89 77 7.68 53 7.85 15 11.48 Stockport 7.3 Hemp 1.610 130 55. Aver.33 7 7. since it furnishes employment to nearly 45 per cent of the total number of operatives employed in these in- dustries.48 4 4.79 32 11.. : : WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.748 114 61 7 1 11 6 54. Aver.77 43 7.802 666 97 44 11 42 137 53.616 3.33 46 7.113 1. of men.44 4 5.71 34 8.6 Linen 588 787 61 41. BY INDUS- TRIES.04 13 4.06 Blackburn 6.42 Ashton-under-Lyne 7. 55*.71 33 10.19 Preston 6.08 Burnley 7.45 41 7. 57*.58 36 5. 072 12.28 23 10.08 Oldham 7.20 1 7. 1906 AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER. 58*.7 THE COTTON INDUSTRY.5 Hosiery 4. earn. Leigh $8. number ings. AND AVERAGE HOURS IN A FULL WEEK.692 557 7 10 15 53. 56*.00 .131 574 1 106 114 47 6 55.

Spin.13 Leigh 317 11.67 248 10.44 Stockport 421 9.79 70 4. 18 Oldham 1. 1906. The average earnings of all women and of weavers and of other women in the principal districts of Lancashire and Cheshire in the last week of September.40 51 4.48 197 7.29 67 5. Burnley $5.34 Bacup 4.09 23 4.04 Preston 195 9.30 634 7. are shown in the table following AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER. Per cent Per cent of total Average of total Average number of earnings. women. Counts below Counts 40s.44 3.979 10.24 60 10.017 10. however.58 55 4.173 10.56 72 3. 80s.56 1. BY DISTRICTS. ings.37 4. ners. ners. to Counts above All counts.68 143 11.00 647 10. and has no responsibility.08 69 7. earnings of all women.06 28 4. ings. NUMBER AND AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEP- TEMBER. The number of counts is determined by the number of hanks.00 All Lancashire and Cheshire.97 30 4. : 102 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.058 9. 20 1.68 Blackburn 5. Earn.134 10.36 Accrington 4.357 10.87 54 7. OF SPINNERS IN THE COTTON INDUSTRY.77 83 7.72 33 4. The work of the latter is almost identical with that of the spinner.95 553 11.36 88 4.28 Bolton 4.56 Manchester 44 10.42 704 10.45 140 10.269 $10. Earn.10 Bacup 197 7.814 11.54 41 5. Spin.06 22 $4.11 59 4.963 10.43 More than one-fourth of the men and nearly one-half of the boys engaged in the cotton industry are included in the group known as mule-spinners and piecers. women. He is usually less expert.19 10.45 3. necessary to weigh 1 pound.66 54 12. Lancashire and Cheshire: Ashton-under-Lyne .18 528 9.14 1.79 45 4.40 Preston 4.02 .31 265 8. 840 yards in length. Number of spinners and their average earnings.34 49 4.864 9.282 11.28 55 3.42 1.50 12 4. 766 352 $11.51 Manchester 3. Average earnings of- Average Weavers. 1906.10 Accrington 28 8.75 1.73 160 11.89 65 3.48 Rochdale 439 9.18 Bolton 136 10.278 11. Other women.52 Ashton-under-Lyne 4.97 Rochdale 4. 25 151 $10. 40s.85 Leigh 3. Spin. after deducting the wages of their piecers.06 Yorkshire 145 7.93 77 5.10 172 11. 1906. District. OF ALL WOMEN IN THE COTTON INDUSTRY AND OF WEAVERS AND OF OTHER WOMEN IN THE INDUSTRY IN THE VARIOUS DISTRICTS OF LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE.95 38 3. 105 10. Earn.46 1.08 Oldham 4. are given in the following table. . ners.87 45 4.21 193 9.60 62 4. full-time District. 4. The average net earnings of spinners working full time.05 237 8. 80s.56 226 11.55 v Blackburn 565 7.30 Stockport 4.97 203 7.125 10. ings.59 35 3.19 10.91 United Kingdom 5. Bpin.31 477 11. ings.80 78 $6. number of earnings. Earn- ners.29 Burnley 72 6.

The lower earnings of women are due to the greater proportion engaged on narrow looms at a lower rate. Number.66 6.50 7. BY DISTRICTS.81 6.08 4.39 5.52 5. On the average. weavers.52 26.87 3.99 6. Men.10 8.44 Four looms 12.84 4. women tend fewer looms than men.58 16. Lancashire and Cheshire: Ashton-under-Lyne $4. weavers.02 5.01 . Women. PER HEAD AND PER LOOM.73 4.44 5.34 168 7.89 Stockport 6.68 5.10 6.05 5. Three looms 1.78 4.87 4.02 4. weavers.74 6.253 6.68 4. men and women are paid at exactly the same piece rates.14 5.17 4.04 5.85 6.24 Practically all weavers are paid on a piece basis. the greater dependence for assistance upon the mechanic.71 4.07 Yorkshire 5. Per loom. Per loom. and to the more general employment of helpers.97 Blackburn 4.44 5.14 6-06 Bacup 4.53 5.36 Bolton 4.58 4.92 7.44 1.96 5. as shown by the above table.74 $1.56 4. their earnings per loom are slightly lower than those of men.68 7.60 5. 1906.09 Burnley 4.72 Accrington 4. OF MEN AND WOMEN WEAVERS IN THE COTTON INDUSTRY.50 5. weavers. When engaged on similar work.28 Manchester 3. In the following table the number and full-time earnings per head and per loom of men and women weavers are shown accord- ing to the number of looms tended NUMBER OF MEN AND WOMEN WEAVERS IN THE COTTON INDUSTRY.50 4.46 $5.30 $1.42 Six looms 1. : — — — WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. Women.18 $7.30 5.47 4.54 6.06 1. 103 More than one-third of the employees in the cotton industry are weavers.91 United Kingdom 4.891 7.01 6.40 Oldham 4.48 5.58 5. Per head. Average earnings Average earnings Number of looms tended. however.45 4.60 4. The full-time earnings of men and women weavers in the different districts are given in the following table: AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER. Men. and. 1906.91 6.22 5.62 4.04 6.06 7.475 $4. 3-Ioom 4-1 oom 6-loom All 3-loom 4-loom All weavers.33 $4.80 $5.56 Leigh 3.62 6. weavers. Number.057 5.04 5.23 $4.95 Rochdale 5. AND AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS IN ONE WEEK.36 $5.74 6. Average earnings of District.81 5. weavers.34 5.11 Preston 4. Per bead.16 4.64 4.15 6.121 $4.70 5.70 1.83 4.72 5.32 5.66 5.99 1.14 4.79 All Lancashire and Cheshire 4.31 8.22 5.

39 Roxburgh.85 3. Men: Women: Grinders $4.35 $0.32 25 Beam warpers 4.65 2.00 2.is.64 11.33 .77 3.14 1.77 3. 1886.85 2.83 3. — : — 104 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.37 2. The woolen and worsted industry next to the cotton industry.19 .49 .02 3.89 Leeds 7.63 United Kingdom 6.42 5.85 32 Reelers.77 $4.47 7.73 23 Big piecers 3. All Men.06 2. Selkirk.41 Rest of West Riding of Yorkshire 6.41 Rest of United Kingdom 6. timers.49 .30 11 Weavers 4 looms 4. Huddersfield $6. Average earnings of— Lads and boys.35 2.74 2.25 . 1886 AND 1906.12 45 Frame tenters $3.35 .44 17 4 looms 5. of in- Sex and occupation.91 $7.29 .07 4. 3.89 3.04 2.89 .65 $2.28 2.89 3.52 23 Weavers Twisters in 5.29 2.56 4.82 2.89 3.06 20 6 looms 6. and Peebles 6.79 3.65 25 Below 80 counts 7.83 West of England 5.19 30 Winders 3.73 2. Full Full Half people.71 $4. work Half men.89 .23 23 3 looms 3.07 3.57 2.89 3. timers.39 7. 1906. BY DISTRICTS.77 3.53 2. In the following table a comparison is made of the average wages of men and women working full time in certain important occupa- tions in 1886 and 1906 AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF MEN AND WOMEN IN THE PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS OF THE COTTON INDUSTRY IN ONE WEEK. the most important of those considered in this report.70 .73 4.89 3.47 .83 .46 9.89 3.81 3.23 18 Drawers in 6.39 Keighley 6.07 6.79 Rest of Scotland 5.77 3.99 3.74 28 Spinners— Ring or throstle spinners.31 .72 $0.63 2. of operatives are shown in the following table: AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF OPERATIVES OF EACH CLASS IN THE WOOLEN AND WORSTED INDUSTRY IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER.16 Bradford 6. District. Girls.85 5.01 4.74 18 6 looms 6. Wo.93 3.84 1.79 $4.17 .37 2.87 4.87 Dewsbury and Batley 6.05 6. 1886.70 18 3 looms 4.61 2.99 24 THE WOOLEN AND WOESTED INDUSTRY.41 .35 11 Above 80 counts 8.10 7.47 .10 2.16 $2. The average full-time earnings in the last week of September.61 2. 2. 1906.33 2.83 All Yorkshire 6.78 .87 3.45 4.27 .19 . of in- crease.50 2.92 3. 1906.14 1.35 .37 2.71 2. Average Average earnings in earnings in one week Per one week Per in— cent in— cent Sex and occupation. timers.53 . 1906.91 3. crease. timers.02 3.36 Halifax 6.37 .

2 looms. $4. Selkirk.9 All men 15. weavers.6 1. 105 In the following table shown the percentage of the number of is men in several occupations whose earnings fell within the specified limits in the last week of September.74 $4. WERE WITHIN CERTAIN SPECIFIED WAGE GROUPS.1 57.89 4.73 Under and and $4.73 4. and Peebles.04 3. $7. 1906.2 6.41 4.41 3. W omen woolen Women worsted All weavers. 4. Average weekly earnings of- District.63 $3.51 Bradford 3.71 .79 Roxburgh.2 52.30.73 3. lloom.4 The average weekly earnings of women weavers working full time are shown in the following table: AVERAGE WEEKLY EARNINGS OF WOMEN WEAVERS IN THE WOOLEN AND WORSTED INDUSTRY WORKING FULL TIME IN FOUR WEEKS IN SEPTEMBER- OCTOBER.87 under under and over.4 23.37 Keighley 3. Per cent of men working full time whose earnings were Occupation. Teazers and williers 18.3 Scribblers or f ettlers 12.73.61 3.26 3.73 Halifax 3. : — WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.53 3. 2 looms Huddersfield $4.89 All districts (including those not specified) 3.39 3.79 Leeds 3.85 $4.53 Dewsbury and Batley 3.4 0. $9.30 $9.3 .87 $7.4 Woolen weavers 17.85 3. .20 3. lloom. BY DISTRICTS.3 81.2 26. 1906 PER CENT OF MEN IN SEVERAL OCCUPATIONS OF THE WOOLEN AND WORSTED INDUSTRY WHOSE EARNINGS IN THE LAST WEEK IN SEPTEMBER.43 $3.37 3. 1906.47 3.3 87. women weav- ers.

: . ...77 7.31 3.. Time..5 53.01 2.47 4 30 24 and condenser minders.do 2. 1906. 2.7 66. /. 5.65.58 $3.2 29.. $4.0 17..39 5.31 2.0 .35 16 /Time. 2. Woolen weavers Piece 6.0 27.7 .35 2. .. Time..8 35.80 $2..do 4..51 22 Women: Menders and fine /Time..do . Kind of work.8 Drawers ... 3.49 3. \Piece..96 7...6 Burlers and knotters \ Piece 12. 6. 5.25 22 ters.81 5.4 Winders \Piece 13.. 1906. Sex and occupation. .8 Menders and fine drawers .93 18 Winders \Piece.96 11 Worsted . WERE WITHIN CERTAIN SPECIFIED WAGE GROUPS. . $6.29 14 tlers. 2. 3.. — — .8 31. of work...6 23.81 4 26 12 \Piece.65 Under and and $4. 2.... 4 81 5.. 5..33 $7.66 13 Wool spinners \Piece. 3.08 13 drawers. 1886.33 11 /. 2..2 31.9 86..80 8 Weavers Warpers \Piece.do 3.. 2.7 9. Men: Women—concluded Wool sorters (Time.98 10 /Time.do. Scribblers or fet.6 93.43 $3.do..41 17 ers. 2.59 9 Beamers \Piece.do 46.1 43. —— 106 WAGES A2TD PRICES OF COMMODITIES..66 15 Teazers and willi. of work..1 Doublers \ Piece 5.71 14 Finishers .do.6 24...4 39. 5. . 6..00 17 \Piece...71 7.2 . 17.11 6.3 3. fell in each specified class is shown for all women in the woolen and worsted industry and for those in each of the principal occupations: PER CENT OF WOMEN IN SEVERAL OCCUPATIONS OF THE WOOLEN AND WORSTED INDUSTRY WHOSE EARNINGS IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER. 3....74 3. under under and over. Average Average earnings in earnings in one week Per one week Per Kind in cent Kind in cent Sex and occupation. 5...5 Worsted weavers loom) ( 1 .do. 1906.. 4. 2.88 3.63 12 Scribbler's feeders Time..83 10 /Time. $2..6 4.2 34. 2. Per cent of women working full time whose earnings were Occupation.9 34. $2...do 6...20 18 Woolen weavers./Time. 3..43 2. .do.35 5.do.4 21. 2. ..1 /..53 18 /.20 6.6 46. showing the per cent of increase in the average full-time earnings of men and women in the leading occupations AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF MEN AND WOMEN IN THE PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS OF THE WOOLEN AND WORSTED INDUSTRY IN ONE WEEK.9 ... 10. 1886 AND 1906.68 10 Drawers \Piece.3 70.do 8.do.90 3.8 All women 10.35 2.9 53.7 40.00 17 Woolen .7 16..do .45 14 Worsted spinners.7 55.98 3. $3.1 Combers . 1906..43 5.5 /Time.do.43.4 9.22 14 Combers Time ... In the following table the percentage of women whose earnings in the last week of September.24 3. 6..0 78.0 .2 Worsted spinners . 5..9 89.7 Scribblers' feeders and condenser minders Time.80. 2.3 Worsted weavers (2 looms) .66 13 Doublers Combers .88 3. 1886..8 /Time.. \Piece.9 54.4 21.9 9.0 For the purpose of comparing the earnings in 1906 with those in 1886 the following table is given.5 7..8 56.59 6 Burlers and knot.3 9. 12. of in. of in- crease..72 3.

District. timers..03 .22 2.05 .96 United Kingdom 5. winders. Preparers. girls.37 $2.64 1.6 4. Belfast $6.64 $1. the latest year for which the numbers are available.37 1. The respective average earnings for men. spinners.35 England 5.43 $3.05 2.3 52.71 2.1 Winders .11 .87 .17 $0. $4.950 factory and workshop operatives engaged in the linen industry in the United Kingdom in 1904.27 2. 1906.86 Rest of Ireland 4.1 0. and weavers constitute nearly 88 per cent of the total number of women returned.68 .523 in Scotland. $3.43.5 .7 .60 2.do.80 1. lads and boys. Average earnings of Lads and boys. BY DISTRICTS. : : — WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. Spinners Time.78 .86 2.62 1.83 .80 $2.7 60.43 2.2 Reelers Piece. 39. Kind of work.62 . and the remaining 6.9 57. The per cent of the number engaged at each occupation whose full-time earnings fell within certain specified limits are shown in the following table PER CENT OF WOMEN IN SEVERAL OCCUPATIONS OF THE LINEN INDUSTRY WHOSE EARNINGS IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER.81 2..65.68 Fifeshire C.8 .83 2.4 0. . timers.65 Under and under and under $4.26 Forfarshire 5.1 8. $2. timers. Full Half Full Half people. Wom.17 1. 37.7 49.233 in England and Wales. and over.97 2.2 11.do.71 2. . 02 2.. Girls.91 3.8 Weavers (2-loom). and all work people returned as working full time in the different districts are shown in the following table AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF OPERATIVES OF EACH CLASS IN THE LINEN INDUSTRY IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER. 36. reelers.54 1.54 2. Per cent of women working full time whose earnings were— Occupation. 1906.85 2.00 Rest of Scotland 5.0 13.87 $2. timers. women.90 1. WERE WITHIN CERTAIN SPECIFIED WAGE GROUPS.96 2.80.6 1..17 .85 3.89 $2.85 3.92 The various women's occupations account for over 58 per cent of the total number returned. 107 THE LINEN INDUSTRY.194 were employed in Ireland. 27. 62. work en. All Men.93 $0.1 All women 41. Of the 95. 33.2 51.

4. 1886.27 37 Spinners 2. — : .85 17 Feeders 1.89 $2. Average earnings in one week in Per cent Sex and occupation. of in- crease. The is localized in the neighborhood of Dundee. Men: Roughers 84.65 18 . 1886 AND 1906.49 18 Drawers 1. 1886 AND 1906. 2.60 38 men (time work) $5.53 38 Warpers 2.41 3. Sex and occupation.05 2. 1886.93 34 Weavers: 1 loom 2.66 2.76 48 Batchers 3. The changes which have taken place in the earnings in the prin- cipal occupations in the city of Belfast during the period from 1886 to 1906 are shown in the following table : AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF MEN AND WOMEN IN THE PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS OF THE LINEN INDUSTRY IN ONE WEEK.62 6. Carders $1.25 2.17 2.27 17 Sorters 5.39 14 Women: Drawers and back minders 1. 1906.89 2.74 22 Weavers 2.50 $4.63 50 Winders 2.74 26 Winders 2. of in- crease. 1906.94 3.52 $6.50 $5.52 25 Ppinnfirs . The average full-time earnings of men and women in the principal trades and the changes since 1886 are indicated in the following table AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF MEN AND WOMEN IN THE PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS OF THE JUTE INDUSTRY IN ONE WEEK.258 persons.29 2. Men: Women: Foremen and assistant fore. crease.39 46 2 looms 3. of in.99 18 Rovers 2. .56 3.39 3. and jute industry in 1904 gave employment to 41.88 39 Calendrers. 2.87 2.08 3. 1906.31 3.00 7.16 4. .01 2.53 24 Reelers 2.86 52 Mechanics 6. Average Average earnings in earnings in one week Per one week Per in cent in cent Sex and occupation. 1886.07 2.98 48 Reelers '.80 22 THE JUTE INDUSTRY. —— 108 WAGES AND PEICES OF COMMODITIES.

9 47.30 and less than $9.54 2.64 .83 Eastern counties of England 6. 1906. 109 THE SILK INDUSTRY.17 . All Men.97 .4 per cent earned less than $4. District.73 3. In the following table is shown the percentage of the number of women in the two leading occupations whose earnings fell within the specified groups: PER CENT OF WOMEN SILK WINDERS AND WEAVERS WHOSE EARNINGS IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER.05 $0.56 1. of whom 205 were boys and 480 were girls. while 3. According to the factory and workshop returns the number of per- sons employed in the silk industry in 1904 was 30.20 Lancashire and Yorkshire 6. Girls.441 were females. Winders (thrown silk) 86.4 1.9 . Wo. WERE WITHIN CERTAIN SPECIFIED WAGE GROUPS. and over.6 per cent earned $9. are shown in the following table AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF OPERATIVES OF EACH CLASS IN THE SILK INDUSTRY.62 . $4. timers.65 Under and under and under $4.94 $2.87 and less than $7. Average earnings of— Lads and boys.68 $1.98 Rest of United Kingdom 6.65. — : WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.63 $3. 19. BY DISTRICTS.51 United Kingdom 6.7 Weavers (power loom) 26.87.80 $2.3 13. Full Full Half people.64 $0.71 3.80. timers. Of this num- ber 8. $2.73 and over. The average earnings of the employees who worked full time in the last week of September. work- Half men.61 2.43.73 $2.20 Of the men engaged in this industry who worked time in the full last week of September.54 .59 2.4 51.51 2. timers. $3. Leek. IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER.59 1. 1906.30.73 2.2 18. Congleton.20 1. including 685 half- timers.72 1. 23 per cent earned $7.184.72 1.93 2.0 All women 38. 1906. Per cent of women working full time whose earnings were Occupation. and Macclesfield $5.4 4. 54 per cent earned $4.25 2.8 11.43 $3.10 1.73.743 were males and 21. timers.65 3. 1906.60 .

IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER.21 3.28 $4. The number of half timers was onlv 78. Full Full Half people.855 operatives who worked full time in the last week of September. The average full-time earnings in each of the principal occupa- tions of both sexes in the Congleton.72 United Kingdom 7.13 3.27 2.53 12 THE HOSIEEY INDUSTKY. Of the total number employed in 1904.17 11 Cleaners (thrown silk) 1. BY DISTRICTS. .11 16 Doublers (thrown silk) 2. and Lancashire and Yorkshire districts and the changes since 1886 are given in the following table: AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF MEN AND WOMEN IN THE PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS OF THE SILK INDUSTRY IN ONE WEEK.82 1.39 1. All Men.47 13 Preparers and carders.70 18 Women: Winders (thrown silk).93 1.19 2.65 Rest of United Kingdom 6.24 Notts and Derbyshire (excluding Nottingham) 8.01 Nottingham 8. Nottinghamshire. timers.65 2.47 1. 2.18 2.78 1.43 2. Leicester $7.51 Scotland 6.58 3.89 35 Weavers 4.47 3. Men: Throwsters $4. of increase.. About 30.87 . Average earnings in one week in Per cent Sex and occupation.51 2.69 $2.64 $0. timers.62 4.212 reported by the factory and workshop returns were employed in Leicestershire. — 110 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.74 9 Weavers (piecework) .85 5. 1906. This industry is strongly localized.64 2.29 3. 1886.05 $4.93 $2.89 . 1. The average earnings of the 18. work- Half men. 1906.60 8 Pickers 3.83 2. timers.99 2. Leek. and the adjacent parts of Derbyshire. Average earnings of— Lads and boys.65 3.000 work people out of the 41.57 1. Girls. 10.78 3. and Macclesfield.14 Rest of Leicestershire 7.35 $3. 1886 AND 1906.45 2.42 2.336 were males and 30.63 4.876 were females. 1906.96 2. timers.09 4. 3.16 3. Wo. District. of which number 62 were girls.95 2. are shown in the follow- ing table: AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF OPERATIVES OF EACH CLASS IN THE HOSIERY INDUSTRY.

Ayrshire.9 18. The percentage numbers of men. in 1904. Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire.957 were females. were as follows: AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF WORK PEOPLE IN THE HOSIERY INDUSTRY. all females. or de- crease 1886.76 $6. and of all work people. Ill Since the previous inquiry in 1886 the number of employees in this industry has greatly increased. Average earnings Per cent in one week in of in- crease^) Sex. 3.744 employees reported in that year. and girls in greater proportion than women. 12.55 + 14 Females 3. 1886. 1906.9 19. BY SEX. and girls employed in 1886 and in 1906 were as follows: PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES OF EACH CLASS IN THE HOSIERY INDUSTRY IN 1886 AND IN 1906.3 57.5 Women 55. (-)• Males $5.0 Girls . Men 32. IN ONE WEEK. Of the 26.0 100. viz.9 Lads and boys 4.625 work people were employed and in Ayrshire. viz. 6. Sex. In Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire. counting two half timers as one full timer. 1886 AND 1906. Lace making as a factory industry is confined mainly to one dis- trict in England. lads and boys. 1906.787 were males and 13.87 — 6 THE LACE INDUSTRY.220.06 .16 3.14 3.6 Total 100. women. of which number 46 were boys and 54 were girls.0 The respective average full-time earnings of all males. — WAGES AND PEICES OF COMMODITIES. as shown by the factory and workshop returns. and to one in Scotland. . 20. women having increased in numbers in greater proportion than men.3 Total 4.9 4. The number of half timers was 100.

89 3.08 3. 1906.86 Rest of England 6.02 3. lads and boys. boys. Nottingham $9.20 $3.61 3.92 1.48 3.72 2.83 4.66 $5.63 $1.58 Rest of Nottinghamshire.(o) Women. The average full-time earnings of the men.43 ° Full timers . Derby.49 1. . . Girls. BY DISTRICTS. 1906.45 Scotland 6. Average earnings of District. and girls who worked time in the last week of September.26 1. full are shown in the following table: AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF OPERATIVES OF EACH CLASS IN THE LACE INDUSTRY IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER.(o) people.53 $3.22 1. Lads and All work Men.22 3.00 1.87 3.72 5. the number of half timers was insignificant.83 5. and North Stafford- shire 10.44 United Kingdom 9. women. — 112 WAGES AND PEICES OF COMMODITIES.

UNITED KINGDOM.
EARNINGS AND HOURS OF LABOR IN BRITISH CLOTHING
INDUSTRIES.
[From Bulletin 86, January, 1910, of the United States Bureau of Labor.]

The second of the series of reports in which the results of a general
inquiry into earnings and hours of labor in all trades in the United
Kingdom are to be dealt with, has recently been published under the
, title,"Report of an inquiry by the Board of Trade into the Earnings
and Hours of Labor of Work People of the United Kingdom: II.
Clothing Trades in 1906." The object of this inquiry is to ascertain
the amount actually earned by all classes of workpeople in a selected
week, industry by industry, occupation by occupation, and district
by district, and to obtain means of estimating their annual earnings.

GENERAL SUMMARY.
The term "clothing trades" is used in a broad sense, including, in
addition to the making of clothing, the manufacture of boots and
shoes, hats, gloves, corsets, and furs, and dyeing, cleaning, and
laundering. As shown by the census of 1901 these industries provide
employment for over 1,500,000 work people. Of this number 81 per
cent are employed in England and Wales, 9 per cent in Scotland, and
10 per cent in Ireland. A larger number of women and girls is
included in these industries than in any other group except domestic
service.
It estimated that in the tailoring and boot and shoe industries
is

about 200,000 males and 50,000 females, and in the dressmaking and
other clothing trades, about 300,000 women and girls are employed
outside of factories and workshops. The statements of earnings in
the present report, however, relate only to the earnings of work-
people employed on the employer's premises.
In the following table is shown the number of persons employed in
each of the clothing industries, as shown by the factory and workshop
returns for 1904, the number of workpeople covered by the returns
received in the present inquiry, and the percentage of the number
employed in 1904 represented by the returns:

113
48310— S. Doc. 631, 61-2 8

114 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN CLOTHING INDUSTRIES IN 1904 AND PER CENT OF TOTAL
IN EACH INDUSTRY FOR WHOM RETURNS WERE RECEIVED IN 1906.

Employees covered
by returns received
in present inquiry
(1906).
Number of
Industry. employees
in 1904. Per cent
of num-
Number. ber em-
ployed
in 1904.

Clothing:
Dress, millinery, mantle, and corset making 245, 389 57,845 23.6
Tailoring 149, 821 42,810 28.6
Boot and shoe making 124, 192 41, 508 33.4
Other 155,093 49, 384 31.8

Total, clothing industries 674, 495 191, 547 28.4
Dyeing and cleaning 9,609 6,200 64.5
Laundering 104, 477 33, 626 32.2

Grand total 788, 581 231, 373 29.3

Of the total number of employees for whom information wa^
secured, 4,703 were unpaid apprentices and 2,503 were workpeople
receiving board and lodging or partial board in addition to wages.
Excluding these, 21.8 per cent were males 20 years of age and over,
classified in the report as "men." The average earnings of men who
worked time in the various clothing industries in the last week of
full
September, 1906, and the per cent of men whose earnings fell within
each specified wage group, are shown in the following table:
AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF MEN IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER, 1906,
IN EACH CLOTHING INDUSTRY, AND PER CENT OF MEN WHOSE EARNINGS WERE
WITHIN EACH SPECIFIED WAGE GROUP.

Per cent of men working full time whose earn-
ings were
Aver-
age
Industry.
earn- $4.87 $7.30 $9.73 $12.17
$14.60
ings. Under and and and and and
$4.87. under under under under
over.
$7.30. $9.73. $12.17. $14.60.

Clothing:
Dress, millinery, etc. (workshop) $12. 39 5.1 16.3 9.2 15.3 27.6 26.5
Dress, millinery, etc. (factory) 7.71 9.2 33.5 39.2 11.5 4.8 1.8
Shirts, blouses, underclothing, etc 7.26 14.1 38.2 30.8 11.1 3.3 2.5
Tailoring (custom clothing) 8.15 5.1 41.0 31.8 11.6 4.1 6.4
Tailoring (ready-made clothing) 7.77 6.5 37.8 36.6 13.1 2.8 3.2
Boots and shoes (ready-made) 6.98 6.5 52.4 34.4 5.2 1.2 .3
Boot, shoe, and clog making (custom
work) and repairing 6.63 10.0 54.7 30.8 4.1 .3 .1
Silk and felt hats 8.33 5.7 22.8 44.6 21.0 4.3 1.6
Leather gloves 7.20 7.6 45.3 35.3 9.6 1.7 .5
Corsets (factory made) 7.04 13.3 40.4 35.5 8.8 1.0 1.0
Furs 8.66 5.7 36.8 29.5 8.2 7.9 11.9
Straw hats and bonnets 8.90 8.3 25.9 28.9 17.5 12.2 7.2
Other clothing 7.36 10.9 46.7 23.2 11.2 4.4 3.6
Dyeing and cleaning 7.18 3.9 57.4 28.1 6.4 2.3 1.9
Laundry (power) 6.37 9.8 63.5 22.7 3.6 .3 .1
Laundry (hand) 5.47 25.0 65.2 9.3 .5

Total 7.34 7.2 47.2 32.7 8.3 2.3 2.3

Of the total number information was
of wage-earners for whom
obtained, 54.9 per cent were females 18 years of age and over, classi-

WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. 115

fied as "women." The average earnings of women who worked full
time in the various clothing industries in the last week of September,
1906, and the per cent of women whose earnings fell within each
specified wage group are shown in the following table:
AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF WOMEN IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER,
1906, IN EACH CLOTHING INDUSTRY, AND PER CENT OF WOMEN WHOSE EARNINGS
WERE WITHIN EACH SPECIFIED WAGE GROUP.

Per cent of women working full time whose
earnings were
Aver-
age
industry.
earn- $2.43 $3.65 $4.87 $6.08
$7.30
ings. Under and and and and
$2.43. under under under under and
over.
$3.65. $4.87. $6.08. $7.30.

Clothing:
Dress, millinery, etc. (workshop) 83.37 28.0 36.2 21.1 8.4 2.6 3.7
Dress, millinery, etc. (factory) 3.75 12.6 39.5 30.5 11.4 3.5 2.5
Shirt, blouse, underclothing, etc 3.24 22.2 46.0 23.5 6.1 1.4 .8
Tailoring (custom clothing) 3.45 15.4 42.4 29.3 10.3 1.6 1.0
Tailoring (ready-made clothing) 3.14 24.0 46.6 22.5 5.5 1.1 .3
Boots and shoes (ready-made) 3.18 12.4 58.9 25.2 2.8 .6 .1
Boot, shoe, and clog making (custom
work), and repairing 3.04 21.4 51.8 17.9 5.3 1.8 1.8
Silk and felt hats 3.97 8.1 35.0 32.3 20.5 2.4 1.7
Leather gloves 2.94 25.5 51.1 21.5 1.7 .1 .1
Corsets (factory made) 2.96 28.8 48.3 19.9 2.7 .3
Furs 4.04 9.4 29.0 34.4 20.1 4.2 2.9
Straw hats and bonnets 4.83 10.4 17.5 21.6 27.5 12.4 10.6
Other clothing 3.14 26.3 41.4 24.5 6.0 1.0 .8
Dyeing and cleanmg 3.37 9.3 55.3 27.7 5.5 1.1 1.1
Laundry (power) 3.12 20.5 52.0 21.1 4.7 1.0 .7
Laundry (hand) 3.10 12.2 63.8 20.5 2.9 .3 .3

Total 3.28 21.6 45.1 23.2 6.8 1.7 1.6

The average earnings males under the age of 20 years, classified
of
in the report as "lads and boys," and of females under 18 years of
age, classified as "girls," in the last week of September, 1906, are
shown in the following table:
AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF LADS AND BOYS AND OF GIRLS IN EACH CLOTH-
ING INDUSTRY IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER, 1906.

Average earnings of—

Industry.
Lads and boys. Girls.

Full Half Full Half
timers. timers. timers. timers.

Clothing:
Dress, millinery, etc. (workshop) $1.97 $0.91 $0.67
Dress, millinery, etc. (factory) 2.41 1.54
Shirt, blouse, underclothing, etc 2.17 1.64 "*6i
Tailoring (custom clothing) 1.68 1.32
Tailoring (ready-made clothing) 2.37 1.58
Boots and shoes (ready-made) 2.56 .87 1.66 .81
Boot, shoe, and clog making (custom work), and repairing 2.01 1.68
Silk and felt hats 3.06 1.91 .61
Leather gloves 1.85 1.44
Corsets (factory made) 2.51 1.52
Furs 2.56 1.74
Straw hats and bonnets 2.45 2.72
Other clothing 2.76 1.50
Dyeing and cleanmg 2.58 1.74
Laundry (power) 2.13 1.58
Laundry (hand) 2.31 .77 1.62 .71

2.35 .69 1.40 ,67

8 Shirt. From these data the following table was computed. and the total amount paid in wages and the total number of persons receiving wages in one week in each month. — 116 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.231 1. earnings Industry.2 Boots and shoes (ready-made) 15 153 454 2. millinery. Dress. 06 206.849 51. blouse. 56. The number of lads and boys formed 6 per cent and the number of girls 17. Average Average annual annual Industry.558 1. Clothing: Clothing —Concluded.496 4. and and and and and and and 60 full der un. millinery.959 21.633 17 292 50.411 2. 83 Boots and shoes (ready made) 221. millinery. 79 Other clothing 155.592 2.199 62 21 53.7 . (workshop) 309 1.649 1. AND AVERAGE HOURS IN A FULL WEEK. in 1906. 52. (factory) 789 712 1. 69 Tailoring (custom clothing) 262.132 776 11 390 94 52. 92 Total 180. 50. underclothing. and clog making (custom work).451 5. and clog making (custom Laundry (hand) 141.301 1.682 2. etc. 48. 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 in a Un. 60.755 7. 76 Dyeing and cleaning 206.080 1. 56 Dress.924 1. blouse. 73 Boot. (workshop) $146. Particulars were obtained for each industry as to the total amount paid in wages in 1906 by the firms making returns. un. earnings per head per head in 1906. Number of workpeople whose hours of labor for a full week were Aver- age hours Industry. showing the average annual earnings per head in the clothing industries for the year 1906: AVERAGE ANNUAL EARNINGS PER HEAD IN EACH CLOTHING INDUSTRY. 1906. and week.43 Straw hats and bonnets 211. 89 Furs 284.2 Tailoring (custom clothing) 426 408 740 1. Clothing: Dress. BY INDUSTRIES.077 56.536 5.2 Laundry (power) 1. 43 Laundry (power) 155. 73 Tailoring (ready-made clothing) 172. der der der der der der der over.551 9. 83 The number workpeople reported in each industry whose hours of of labor for a full week were in each specified group and the average number of hours constituting a full week in each industry are shown in the following table: NUMBER OF WORKPEOPLE REPORTED AS WORKING EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF HOURS PER WEEK.2 Other clothing 93 57 210 428 1.467 728 1.075 2. un.815 354 740 241 44 21 51.978 7.8 Tailoring (ready-made clothing) 575 1.795 2. felt hats 126 21 100 240 210 2.980 6.672 3.5 Boot. un. shoe. shoe.469 2.881 5. 58. 82 Silk and felt hats 257.3 per cent of the total number of wage-earners for whom information was received.440 746 298 51. etc 2.0 Silk and. etc. un. millinery.845 1. and repairing 48 23 179 293 356 1. 00 Corsets (factory made) $143. etc. 69 Shirt.8 Leather gloves 209 18 1. underclothing.978 963 217 144 50.556 5.9 Dyeing and cleaning 131 2 636 3.696 1.161 530 115 191 51. 54.4 Dress.4 Straw hats and bonnets 7 183 53 314 194 37 255 55.278 54.539 503 53. 46.411 6.063 460 105 182 54.643 1.064 650 897 53.121 6.7 Laundry (hand) 415 230 127 712 353 397 351 98 612 52. etc 148. 1906.295 1.2 Corsets (factory made) 340 829 489 12 1.389 3. un.223 8.6 Furs 233 71 191 248 224 569 53 17 53.338 3. 13 279.354 6. (factory) 167. un. etc.

8 Belfast 2. — : WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.978 workpeople. Excluding those who received board and lodging in addition to wages and the apprentices and learners who received no wages.8 South Midland and Eastern counties 2. Of this number.41 53. and the per cent of women whose earnings fell in each specified class .10 1.772 for whom statistics were given.2 per cent were women.75 2. In the returns furnished by the first group are included 44.91 2. ployees.29 54.99 51.4 The highest paid women in the workshops where dresses and man- tles are made are the fitters and cutters. Girls. 117 DRESSMAKING.97 2.3 per cent were girls.31 . AND AVERAGE HOURS IN A FULL WEEK.10 2.76 54..7 per cent of the women employed. These constitute 8. BY DISTRICTS.18 3.79 51.9 London 4.0 Chelsea and Kensington 4. 93 52.76 55.3 Dublin 3.38 1.92 . The following table shows the average full-time earnings of women fitters and cutters in each district in the last week of September.25 53.53 .04 .37 .62 .62 52. girls.8 Edinburgh and Glasgow .6 Southwestern counties 45 .93 53.0 United Kingdom 3.49 52.81 52.35 1.05 51. .5 Ireland 2.78 55.91 52. Average full-time earnings of Average District.5 per cent were men and boys. 73. In the following table is given an analysis of the returns for each district and important city showing the hours constituting a full week and the average earnings for women.74 54. there remained 37. MILLINERY. week.59 1. 1906.31 $0. 1906.18 3.37 .95 2. MILLINERY.1 Southeastern counties 00 .10 3.5 Wales and Monmouth .83 2.14 1.6 Manchester and Liverpool 3.. The establishments included in these industries are divided into — two groups those in which the work is carried on in workshops and those in which the work is carried on in factories with the aid of mechanical power. and all employees working full time in the last week of September.05 54.69 1.69 52.5 Marylebone and Paddington 4.0 Rest of London 63 .8 Yorkshire (excluding Cleveland) 3.86 53. AND MANTLE-MAKING INDUSTRIES.30 3.77 2.41 .2 Lancashire and Cheshire 3. AND MANTLE-MAKING INDUSTRIES IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER. hours in a full All em- Women..1 Scotland .87 $2. Northern counties and Cleveland $3. 26.82 .72 53. and 0.65 1. 2.8 Westminster 4.08 1. 1906: AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF EMPLOYEES IN WORKSHOPS IN THE DRESS- MAKING.5 North and West Midland counties.95 2.72 .

62 41.0 29.7 United Kingdom 2. . BY DISTRICTS. and the per cent of those in each dis- trict whose earnings were within certain specified groups are shown in the following table: AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF DRESSMAKERS (NOT INCLUDING FITTERS AND CUTTERS) IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER. $9.7 29.6 M North and West idland counties.1 Rest of England and Wales 2.71 11. Lancashire. 7.4 22. Under and and and and ings.3 Scotland 2.2 3. Lancashire.4 3.3 12.6 5. 1906.2 .3 1.2 per cent are classified as dressmakers. AND PER CENT OF WOMEN FITTERS AND CUTTERS WHOSE EARNINGS WERE WITHIN CERTAIN SPECIFIED WAGE GROUPS. . $4.1 Ireland 2.3 1.3 26.5 23.08 earn.4 42. 2.4 23. AND PER CENT OF DRESS- MAKERS WHOSE EARNINGS WERE WITHIN CERTAIN SPECIFIED WAGE GROUPS.3 13.0 43.4 Scotland 7. and Cheshire 2.9 6.02 17.7 40.73.9 38.4 19.4 6.8 40.92 29.4 14.8 45.3 25.87 under under under and $7.30. 1906. AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF WOMEN FITTERS AND CUTTERS IN DRESS- MAKING AND MANTLE-MAKING WORKSHOPS.1 22.2 13.0 39. $12.8 8. IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER.1 19. .5 United Kingdom 8.62 10.0 40.73 $12. ing full time whose earnings were age full- District. Under and and and ings.4 17.4 .0 15. Per cent of dressmakers working full time Aver. Northern counties and Cleveland . 6.7 Yorkshire.0 14.53 45. .17 earn. In the following table is shown the average full-time earnings of milliners in each district in the last week of Sep- tember. millinery.0 1.0 13.3 49.1 8. $2.9 9.0 North and West Midland counties.3 24. $2.7 11.40 6. and mantle-making workshops.7 26.65.87.87 $7..9 3.8 1.6 3. Northern counties and Cleveland .50 2. 1906. $4.65 $4.3 20.7 2.7 33.1 29.7 30. and Cheshire 7.19 1.21 12.25 20. whose earnings were age full- District.17.7 9.43 $3. time $4. under under under over.90 29.87 $6.8 27. : — — 118 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.3 26. 1906.9 1. $3.2 Yorkshire.13 8.30 $9.43.1 The returns head milliners as well for milliners include statistics for as for those less skilled.0 . The average full-time earnings of dressmakers in the last w eek r of September.3 Ireland 9.7 London 3.0 London 10.4 26. $9.66 42.25 52.8 Rest of England and Wales 7.9 Of the women for whom statistics are given in the dressmaking.96 30. and the per cent of milliners whose earnings were within each specified wage group . Per cent of women fitters and cutters work- Aver. BY DISTRICTS. 71. time $2.

624 workpeople for whom information was furnished in this industry. time $2.9 30.5 11. and of the women 41.87 $6.65 24. Per cent of women working full time whose earnings were Average Occupation.4 12.0 SHIRT.77 11.2 9.0 11.9 29. 9 per cent.8 10.3 15.6 39. and Cheshire 3.1 56.5 13.2 per cent were operators of power-sewing machines. Of the 35.4 43. Northern counties and Cleveland 83.8 Yorkshire.6 .9 27. — — WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.43.2 19.3 4. 1906.0 8. the North and West Midlands. whose earnings were age full- District.3 26.1 9.08.8 7. $3. was $2.6 19.5 1.1 All women 3.8 19.20 34.4 Mantle makers 3.82 47.4 6.8 28.2 Mantle makers 3.2 12. Scotland. Per cent of milliners working full time Aver. AND PER CENT OF MILLINERS WHOSE EARNINGS WERE WITHIN CERTAIN SPECIFIED WAGE GROUPS. under under under over.8 26. 12 per cent.7 36. The following table shows the average full-time earnings of women in dressmaking and mantle-making factories in the last week of September. BY DISTRICTS.5 5.87. $6..65.1 North and West Midland counties.5 40.9 Hand workers: Costume makers 3. The average earnings of these employees in the last week of September.4 6. 31 per cent were employed in Ireland and 23 per cent in London. $2. Under $2.87 and $6.2 15.5 30.43and $3.3 United Kingdom 3.75 12. Under and and and and ings.0 21.08.921 who worked full time the average was $3.43 $3.43.08 and under under under $2. Power-machine operators: Costume makers $3. and the rest of England and Wales.4 2.0 33. $3. Lancashire.08 earn.81 18.59 33.6 per cent were hand sewers.6 10. and the per cent whose earnings were within each specified wage group: AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF WOMEN IN DRESS AND MANTLE-MAKING FAC- TORIES IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER. $6. INDUSTRY. 1906.1 13.7 Nearly three-fourths of the workpeople employed in factories in these industries were women.4 Ireland 3.4 11.47 28.7 Rest of England and Wales 2. BLOUSE.6 17.8 25.47 29. Lancashire and Yorkshire employed 19 per cent.3 16. ETC.65.7 Scotland 3.75 11.2 3.98.8 10.6 7. 3. full-time earnings.08. BY OCCUPATIONS.5 23. over.9 London 3. . AND THE PER CENT OF WOMEN IN SUCH FACTORIES WHOSE EARNINGS WERE WITHIN CERTAIN SPECIFIED WAGE GROUPS. 1906. 1906. $4. 3 23. $4.4 39. UNDERCLOTHING. 119 AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF MILLINERS IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER.2 8.9 26.65and $4.87. .37 19.22 37. while for the 31. 6 per cent. and 31.16 17.9 13.65 $4.1 29.

8 per cent were men.24 22.00 2.37 1.2 46.50 2. 1906. piecework: Ireland 2.98 Belfast 6.66 2.2 TAILORING INDUSTRIES.85 1. Information was secured for 18.14 2.2 Starchers and ironers.1 per cent were lads and boys. and Girls.1 24.26 2.86 Londonderry (city) 5. full-time earnings. BLOUSE. Lads Wom.27 2.88 Scotland 7.6 All workers.0 28.3 2. ETC. BY OCCUPATIONS.74 $3.62 3.8 All districts 2.9 42. BLOUSE.08.92 1.18 22.2 19. and girls.08 and $2.37 1.17 3. In the following table is shown the average earnings of the women in the more important branches of the industry and the per cent of women in each occupation whose earnings in the last week of Sep- tember. UNDER- CLOTHING.64 2.8 22.5 6.96 32.43.95 2. and 14. AND THE PER CENT OF WOMEN IN THAT INDUSTRY WHOSE EARNINGS WERE WITHIN CERTAIN SPECI- FIED WAGE GROUPS. Average full-time earnings of— District.86 35. ETC. Under $2.4 3.6 1. UNDERCLOTH- ING. 1906.36 2. employ- en.26 1.15 3. piecework: Power $3.2 per cent were women. INDUSTRY IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER. $4. $6.0 23.04 North and West Midland counties 7.41 20.74 3.29 3. All Men.65. Machine operators.18 1.2 3. boys.77 Rest of England and Wales 7. fell within each specified class: AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF WOMEN IN THE SHIRT.446 workpeople who were engaged in workshops in the making of clothing to the individual order of the customer.60 2. 15.2 Hand sewers.1 47. and Cheshire $7. Per cent of women working full time whose earn- ings were Average Occupation. 36.1 20.692 time workers. piecework: London 3.4 1.1 2.87. INDUSTRY IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER.11 3.9 .. BY DISTRICTS.08 Of those who worked full time. Lancashire. women.8 44.56 2.0 Hand or foot 3.9 .31 1.24 1.7 42.0 .47 Rest of Ireland 5. 33.64 3..29 $3.43 and $3. over. lads and boys.29 1.65and $4.4 5.62 2. The following table shows the average earnings of the men.3 All districts 3.88 London 8. Yorkshire (excluding Cleveland). and of all employees who worked full time in each district AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF EMPLOYEES IN THE SHIRT.5 39.02 28.2 43.49 1. Of the 9.24 1. ees.9 2.55 14.50 2.48 2. 2 per cent were lads and boys.6 30.31 $1. 5 per cent were men. $3.43 United Kingdom 7. 1906. : — 120 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. time and piece 3.87 and under under under $6.7 11. 71 per cent were women.66 $2.0 7. and 22 per cent were girls.1 2.

14 $1. The respective average earnings in the various districts of the 20. and Cheshire 8.32 5.2 45.20 5.34 4. 76.754 pieceworkers.30 $5.93 1.8 22.59 Rest of England and Wales 7. of journeymen tailors on both time and piecework and of all men.43 3.44 5.63 1.68 3.45 1.4 10.62 Yorkshire. Journeymen tailors: Time work $7.364 workpeople engaged in facto- ries in the manufacture of ready-made clothing.74 6.99 London 10.36 2. $7.87 and $7.73.88 .29 1.52 United Kingdom 8.4 ll.52 North and West Midland counties 8.8 All men 8.5 per cent were girls.85 3.62 1.0 31. 34.15 5. 1906. Per cent of men working full time whose earnings were Average Occupation. and of the men nearly two-thirds were journeymen tailors engaged on piece- work and nearly 12 per cent were journeymen tailors engaged on time work.4 per cent were lads or boys.73 and $4.15 1.7 per cent were time workers and 65.87 $1. 121 per cent were girls.24 2. Girls. $4. boys.1 41.9 53.37 Of the total number of workpeople.92 1. over. AND THE PER CENT OF MEN IN THAT INDUS- TRY WHOSE EARNINGS WERE WITHIN CERTAIN SPECIFIED WAGE GROUPS. Of the 8.1 Information was secured for 24.26 3.95 3.9 29. 1906. In the following table is shown the average earnings in the last week of September.fi Piecework 7. Lancashire. Average full-time earnings of— District.72 $3. full-time earnings.77 Scotland 7.87.60 3.42 1. are shown in the following table: . and 1.3 per cent were women. 21.121 workpeople who worked full time in the last week of Sep- tember.8 per cent were men. Women. 1906.47 1. $9.14 5.44 1. and the distribution of these workers in wage groups in accordance with their earnings AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF MEN IN THE CUSTOM CLOTHING INDUSTRY IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER. : — WAGES AND PEICES OF COMMODITIES. BY OCCUPATIONS. ployees. 54 per cent were men. Northern counties and Cleveland $7.32 5.97 4.15 Ireland 7. of those employees who worked full time: AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF EMPLOYEES IN THE CUSTOM CLOTHING INDUS- TRY IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER. 1906.30 and Under under under $9. 1906.45 1.9 39. BY DISTRICTS. 0.3 per cent were pieceworkers. The following table shows the average earnings in the last week of September.40 2.93 1.30. Lads and All em- Men. Of these.

4 In the following table is shown the average earnings of hand sewers who worked full time at piecework in the last week of September.65 $4.7 51.22 25.8 Norwich 2.4 3.31 North and West Midland counties (excluding Bristol) 7.43.87 $6.4 22.39 1.4 1.49 10.39 58.46 2.1 16.3 .1 5.08 ings.06 27.8 1..5 22.41 3.31 24.5 48.29 1. $4.18 2.1 51.6 3.4 13.9 4.7 London 3.43 1.9 .6 . and Cheshire (excluding Leeds and Manchester) 7.14 23. Leeds $7.5 South Midland and Eastern counties (excluding Nor- wich) 3. The average earnings of the women operators of power sewing machines who worked full time at piecework in the last week of September.08. 3.6 46.87.51 Bristol 8.85 $3. AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF EMPLOYEES IN THE READY-MADE CLOTHING INDUSTRY IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER. while nearly one-fourth were hand sewers.77 2.7 North and West Midland counties (excluding Bristol).57 Women constituted nearly three-fifths of the of persons number included in the returns from ready-made clothing factories. 4.2 2.4 20.3 18.93 2.34 2.77 $2.7 7.69 Manchester 8.80 2. boys. $2.47 1.48 London 8.96 South Midland and eastern counties (excluding Norwich) 6.31 19.4 8.89 2.79 Yorkshire.5 46. are shown in the following table AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF WOMEN OPERATORS OF POWER SEWING MACHINES IN THE READY-MADE CLOTHING INDUSTRY IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER.9 47.81 2. All em- Girls.48 Ireland 7.16 2.30 3.8 41. $6.88 3. Under and and and and $2.85 2.1 Bristol .2 14.9 37. $3.6 Yorkshire Lancashire.46 Rest of England and Wales 7. Average full-time earnings of District. : — — 122 WAGES AND PEICES OF COMMODITIES.7 31. time earn.28 3.76 2. .28 21.7 54.4 48. ployees. Per cent of women operators of power sewing machines working full time Aver.9 7.0 9.7 1. BY DISTRICTS.06 2.27 do PO.31 1. whose earnings were age full District. under under under over. Men.3 45.7 30.7 1. 2.6 United Kingdom 3.43 $3.48 3. 1906.4 24.96 24.3 8.31 1. Lads and Women.14 1.26 United Kingdom 7.09 1.25 2.1 Manchester 3. $1.90 1. BY DIS- TRICTS. AND THE PER CENT OF SUCH SEWING MACHINE OPERATORS WHOSE EARNINGS WERE WITHIN CERTAIN SPECIFIED WAGE GROUPS.3 6.0 24.70 35. and Cheshire (excluding Leeds and Manchester) 3.17 2.37 3.6 Scotland . and the per cent of such operators whose earnings fell within each specified wage group. Lancashire. 1906.21 3.1 2. Leeds $3.65. of whom more than one-half were operators of power sewing machines.43 Norwich 6. 1906.1 32.26 21.2 24.6 7.7 7.58 3.32 Scotland 8.5 Rest of England and Wales 3.

5 Ireland 2.07 74. Leicester $7.62 1.2 1. 1906.77 2.7 50.87.56 4.23 Leicestershire (excluding Leicester) 6.2 per cent worked full time in the last week of September.582 were employed in the wholesale manufacture of boots and shoes and the remainder in the custom work and repair branches of the industry and in clog making.07 Northamptonshire (excluding Northampton and Kettering).05 Rest of United Kingdom 6.64 4.3 22. boys.22 1. $2.68 5.3 36.26 2.5 BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY. 6.40 Kingswood 6. 19.79 Kettering 7.28 27. Lads All em- Men. Average full-time earnings of District.16 Bristol 6.31 2.6 10. Of the 124.04 1.87 earn. $6.16 4.25 2.43 $3.7 43. 123 1906. 7 — WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. BY DISTRICTS.48 4.74 Scotland 7.08 Under and and and ings.64 2. 1906.10 22.18 1.9 13.3 Rest of England and Wales 2.0 7.5 London 2.6 2. and clog making factories in the United Kingdom in 1904.60 Northampton 7.60 Stafford 7.62 $3.63 $1.4 1. about 86. ployees.16 2.58 $2. : .72 .66 Norwich 6.73 3.6 Scotland 3.8 22.98 3.65 $4.41 2.1 .85 Leeds 6. 73.31 3.53 4.0 5.2 Yorkshire.42 2.4 2.1 51.5 48.62 Manchester 6. and the per cent of women hand sewers whose wages were within certain specified wage groups AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF WOMEN HAND SEWERS IN THE READY-MADE CLOTHING INDUSTRY IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER. shoe. Leeds $2. Their average earn- ings are shown which follows: in the table AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF EMPLOYEES IN BOOT AND SHOE FACTORIES IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER.34 4.45 2.78 36.7 2.53 50.60 48.8 United Kingdom 2.04 4.1 2 Manchester 2.65.64 5.82 1.00 1.37 1.9 45.4 3. Girls.600 were males and 37. Of those employed in boot and shoe factories.200 operatives employed in boot.76 3.75 2.56 1.29 53.1 3.26 United Kingdom 6.26 2.51 3.3 South Midland and Eastern counties (excluding Nor- wich) 2.76 37.66 3. and Cheshire (excluding Leeds and Manchester) 3.43.00 1.31 3.2 16.4 North and West Midland counties (excluding Bristol) 2.45 2.66 4. BY DISTRICTS.93 $5.5 13.52 4. Per cent of women hand sewers working full time whose earnings were Aver- age full District.5 43.5 3 8 Bristol 2.01 4.08 1. of which number 38.59 2.08.98 2.51 45.56 4.80 3. $3.7 48.508.56 3.600 were females.13 3.18 2. time $2. The number covered by the returns in the present investigation was 41.7 41.84 31.58 4.4 Norwich 2. AND THE PER CENT OF SUCH HAND SEWERS WHOSE EARNINGS WERE WITHIN CERTAIN SPECIFIED GROUPS. under under under and over. and Women.37 2.02 1.8 5. $6.0 52.31 60.39 2.72 1. 1906.86 25. $4.4 38.4 1.89 2. Lancashire.36 London 7.10 4. .4 24.27 2.9 2.

98 6.08 and under under under $2.73 and $4..5 Finishers \Piece 7.. Men were nearly one-half and women nearly one-third of the total number.30 and $4. Under and $7.5 Pressmen or rough stock cutters Time 6. 1906.1 /Time.8 6.112 whom returns were received were employed in works in Lancashire and Cheshire..7 Lasters or riveters \Piece 6. The average earnings of men in these occupations and of all men in the last week of September. 1906.0 40.0 40.3 61.40 .2 2.5 0.1 23. BY OCCUPATIONS. $7.87 under under $9. AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF WOMEN IN BOOT AND SHOE FACTORIES IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER. $3.8 .0 59.5 52.42 5.4 6.4 58.43.08 12.1 53.6 All men 6.10 . Per cent of men working full time whose earnings were Average Occupation. a little more than one-fourth were lasters or riveters and nearly one-fourth were finishers. 3. earnings. Men form 52 per cent of all the workpeople included in the returns.7 37.87 $6.5 .08. 7.. $6. BY OCCUPATIONS. and and earnings.65. full-time work.73.7 Women form 22 per cent of the employees included in the returns.2 /Time. Nearly three-fourths of the women were trim- . Over 80 per cent workpeople in this industry regarding of the 5.0 11.1 AH women 3.47 2. In the following table is shown the range of the earnings of women who worked full time in the last week of Septem- ber.2 42.61 11.9 2.2 0.06 11.5 /Time. Kind of full-time work. over.30. 1906. 7.87.3 23.1 11. and the per cent of men whose earnings were within certain specified wage groups are shown in the following table: AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF MEN IN BOOT AND SHOE FACTORIES IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER.1 47. More than one-half were machine operators or closers and nearly one- third were fitters.4 51.4 34.79 6.98 0.2 . — — 124 WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. AND THE PER CENT OF MEN WHOSE EARNINGS WERE WITHIN CERTAIN SPECIFIED WAGE GROUPS.. and pressmen or rough-stuff cutters nearly one-twelfth.7 SILK AND FELT HAT INDUSTRY.9 25.4 Machine operators or closers \Piece 3. AND THE PER CENT OF WOMEN WHOSE EARN- INGS WERE WITHIN CERTAIN SPECIFIED WAGE GROUPS.3 23.0 76.6 . Clickers Time $6.18 12. Fitters Time $3. Of the total number of men.65 $4. $4..0 64.2 36. $9. Under $2.. Clickers or upper cutters made up nearly one-sixth of the number.8 45. 1906..43and $3. and their average earnings..87.6 21.7 5. Per cent of women working full time whose earn- ings were Average Kind of Occupation. over.8 64.

52 3.72 5.918 workpeople included in the returns received for these industries. The average earnings of those employees in these industries who worked full time in the last week of September.73 earn. 7.705 were men.06 Corset (factory) 7. 2.6 44.5 46.6 Girls 1. under under under under under and over. .7 15.979 were girls.52 Other clothing 7.9 .6 . artificial flowers. 1906.1 38.76 3. Women.5 MISCELLANEOUS CLOTHING INDUSTRIES. Of the 12.2 10.6 26 9 Women: Trimmers. piecework. Average full-time earnings of— Industry.56 4. Men: Plankers and twisters.66 2.04 1.6 49. $7.04 2. In the following table given the average earnings of the employees is in this industry who worked full time in the last week of September. boys.6 21. Leather glove $7.200 workpeople.3 .2 12. The returns received from establishments in this industry include 6.44 $4.0 32. and and and and ings. $8.5 2.0 4.51 2. are shown in the following table: AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH OF THE MISCELLANEOUS CLOTHING INDUSTRIES IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER.08 $7.85 52.011 girls. piecework 9. : — WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. and from hatters' furriers.3 22.14 1.50 3.06 33.45 4. of whom 1.93 6.762 were men. time $2. 653 were lads and boys. employ- ees. $3. 1906. All em- Lads and Men.96 1. 487 lads and boys.30 Under and $9.1 47 Allmen 8.3 33. and the per cent of employees whose earnings fell within the specified wage groups AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF EMPLOYEES IN THE SILK AND FELT HAT INDUSTRY IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER.94 S1. Girls. $4.4 1.07 Straw hat and bonnet 8.28 Under the classification " other clothing" trades are included re- turns from manufacturers of caps and tweed hats.74 5.02 Fur 8. AND THE PER CENT OF EM- PLOYEES WHOSE EARNINGS WERE WITHIN CERTAIN SPECIFIED WAGE GROUPS.6 22.3 8.581 were women.91 80.46 6.1 35. BY INDUSTRIES.65 $4.1 All women 3. DYEING AND CLEANING. $9. and finishers.92 2. Per cent working full time whose earnings were Aver- age full Occupation. $6.7 Lads and boys 3.36 2. 125 mers. and 1. $2. 1906.43 $3.5 Finishers.43.97 8.87 2.940 women.4 6.87 $6.5 5. 1906.08.73.20 $1.5 36.4 18. 2.33 0.3 20.79 . and 1.30.1 1.87. piecework 3. while of the men the largest groups were plankers and twisters.65. BY OCCUPATIONS.

9 .6 53.1 .9 28.4 .5 31.8 1.1 53.626 employees.8 17...53 5.8 Calenderers Time 2. AND THE PER CENT OF SUCH WOMEN WHOSE EARN- INGS WERE WITHIN EACH SPECIFIED WAGE GROUP..3 1.6 2.94 22.9 15.1 0. The average earnings of those employees in the dyeing and clean- ing industry who worked full time in the last week of September.0 0.. 1906.6 6.0 .2 30.1 4. AND THE PER CENT OF EM- PLOYEES IN THAT INDUSTRY WHOSE EARNINGS WERE WITHIN EACH SPECIFIED WAGE GROUP.8 1. BY OCCUPATIONS.1 LAUNDRIES.4 15.1 31.6 51.2 3. $7.1 Hand ironers: fTime.37 13.3 2.5 1. 1906. and of these nearly one half were hand ironers. Washers Time. $3.9 2.3 6.2 19. 2. 1906.5 34. $2. $9.5 Other \Piece 3.4 55. Per cent of employees working full time whose earnings were— Aver- age full time Sex.10 21.58 45.2 27.80 27. under under under under and over.5 56.5 3.47 42. of whom 28.1 52.1 0.43.92 25. — 126 WAGES AND PEICES OF COMMODITIES. $7. $2.12 20. 3. Of those employed in power laundries 69 per cent were women.87 $6..6 Women 3.7 22.80 26.4 22.35 5. and the percentage distribution of such employees in the various wage groups is shown in the following table: AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF EMPLOYEES IN THE DYEING AND CLEANING INDUSTRY IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER..3 48.18 0..5 52.1 2. $3.65 $4.74 91.0 Girls 1.37 9.73 Under and and and and and ings.. $9.3 55..1 Machine ironers \Piece 20.2 .6 . $6.20 17.7 5.0 21.7 1.4 .3 27. $7.. All women 3.6 .8 3.0 Shirt \Piece 3.7 5.8 14..08 earn. and Time 3.1 4. $2. $6.43 $3.1 41.3 69.65.189 in hand laundries.. $4.43. Per cent of women working full time whose earn- ings were Aver- age full Occupation.37 9.1 1.1 Lads and boys 2.9 .28 9.1 .65.30 earn. 1906.30 Under and and and and ings. 2.4 Body linen \Piece 2. under under under under under and over.1 packers. $4.8 8..3 .30.92 14. markers.. 3.7 50.30. sorters. $2.43 $3.08. 2..437 were employed in power laundries and 5.08. Kind of time work. Men 57.1 /Time.5 Receivers.87 $7.65 $4. The average earnings of those women who worked full time in the last week of September.1 fTime.2 34.4 /Time.1 14.7 .73. and the percentage distribution of such women workers in wage groups is shown in the following table: AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF WOMEN IN POWER LAUNDRIES IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER.9 56.6 58.2 /Time.87. $2.9 Finery \Piece 3.7 57.87.9 7. Returns were received from laundries which covered 33...9 27.0 .9 34.1 10. BY SEX..

and Time 3. : WAGES AND PEICES OF COMMODITIES. markers.8 20.08 $2.31 12.9 27. full and the per cent of such operatives whose earnings were within each wage group AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF WOMEN IN HAND LAUNDRIES IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER.33 5.0 Receivers. 3. earnings. and un. 1906.5 2. sorters. der $6.10 12. one-half were ironers and nearly one-third were washerwomen. $6.3 Ironers \Piece 3.87.43 $3.8 (Time...9 65.6 .08.0 12.2 63. $2. All women 3.65 $4.65.2 9.2 78. $2. Kind of full-time work.9 62. Per cent of women working full time whose earn- ings were— Average Occupation. Washers Time. 85 per cent were women over 18 years of age..9 0.7 packers.. BY OCCUPATIONS.2 4.. 1906. der $4. 127 Of those employed in hand laundries. der $3. and over.43.87 Under and un.92 9. The following table shows the average earnings of women in hand laundries who worked time in the last week of September.06 10.3 26.. AND THE PER CENT OF SUCH WOMEN WORKERS WHOSE EARNINGS WERE WITHIN EACH SPECIFIED WAGE GROUP.8 51.9 0.9 22. and of these.and un.

or about 14 per cent of the estimated number employed. occupation by occupation." This report is identical in plan with the two reports previously published on earnings and hours of labor in the textile and the clothing industries. March. and to obtain means of estimating their annual earnings. : — UNITED KINGDOM. As shown by the census of 1901. are shown in the fol- lowing table 128 risk . industry by industry. However. and include a large proportion of skilled workmen.000 workpeople. These employees are almost exclusively males. This proportion is less than was obtained in the textile and clothing trades. GENERAL SUMMARY. since in nearly every town of importance rates of wages and hours of labor have either been fixed by agreement or are well recognized. these industries provide employ- ment for approximately 1. and the per cent of men whose earnings fell within each specified wage group. has recently been published under the title.250. and district by district. [From Bulletin 87. EARNINGS AND HOURS OF LABOR IN BRITISH BUILDING AND WOODWORKING INDUSTRIES. many of whom have served an apprenticeship of from three to seven years. (a) The object of this inquiry is to ascertain the amount actually earned by all classes of workpeople in a selected week."Report of an Inquiry by the Board of Trade into the Earnings and Hours of Labor of Work People of the United Kingdom: III Building and Woodworking Trades in 1906.000 workpeo- ple. Returns were received from employees covering 180. a small number of returns from a given town is considered fairly representative of local conditions. of the United States Bureau of Labor.] The third of the series of reports in which the results of a general inquiry into earnings and hours of labor in all trades in the United Kingdom are to be dealt with. The average earnings of men who worked full time in the several industries in a selected we^k of 1906. 1910.

4 1. docks.73 812. etc 7.9 7. Doc. Number of workpeop e whose hours of labor for a full week were Aver- age 58 hours Industry.057 3. Building S8. under under under under and over. der week.851 2. especially in the building trades and the construction of harbors.6 1. 09 Cabinetmaking. and the total amount paid in wages and the total number of persons receiving wages in one week in each month.3 21. INGS WERE IN EACH SPECIFIED WAGE GROUP. machine joinery. 1906.0 33. etc 301.5 3. 60. docks.9 Construction of harbors. The number of workpeople reported in each industry whose hours of labor for a full week were in each specified group and the average number of hours constituting a full w eek in each industry are shown r in the following table: NUMBER OF WORKPEOPLE REPORTED AS WORKING EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF HOURS PER WEEK.745 322 15 53.0 60. 54.75 1. 52.050 4.412 7. I 5 14.2 8. 56.8 13.79 37.3 5. 60.7 31.1 Total 685 14.4 2. 714 2.17. and and and and §4.671 44. S7.1 15.4 Cabinetmaking.2 14.8 Saw milling.213 7.446 771 53.289 1. 89 Saw milling. $12. etc 313. showing the average annual earnings per head in the building and woodworking industries for the year 1906: Building.6 Total 7.3 1.9 1. owing to great variation in the number of employees at different seasons of the year and the constant shifting of workpeople from one employer to another. etc.30 S9. etc 97 1.03 4. 631.741 34.2 45. 48 and 50and 52 and 54and 56and and in a under under under under Over der under un. S4. etc 187 1.049 32. etc 3 209 659 391 1.055 17.2 1.1 40.510 32.533 5.4 48310— S. IN EACH BUILD- ING AND WOODWORKING INDUSTRY.786 510 602 52. 50. 72 These figures can only be regarded as approximate. earn. etc ti. 48. 92 Construction of harbors. full 60. BY INDUSTRIES. $14. 61-2 9 .1 45. AND PER CENT OF MEN WHOSE EARN. $330.676 9.134 IS. From these data the following table was computed. Per cent of men working full time whose earn- ings were Aver- age Industry.796 156 130 107 55. — — WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.387 17. AND AVERAGE HOURS IN A FULL WEEK.336 5.7 Saw milling.051 1. etc 8.03 4.2 ..87 $7. 60 ings.859 2. etc \ 270.17 Under SI 4.87. 58.7 25.806 8.2 Particulars were obtained for each industry as to the total amount paid in wages in 1906 by the firms making returns. 129 AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF MEN IN ONE WEEK OF 1906. S9.364 484 47 54. Building 398 12.30. Un.60.73.8 1.6 Cabinetmaking.650 7.200 3.0 Construction of harbors.3 50.

3 54.7 Yorkshire (excluding Cleveland.82 7.9 16.4 51.6 28.G8 7.6 43. .2 50.42 12. towns.2 14.4 53.0 Rest of England and Wales 7.2 54. and Cheshire) 7.77 8.1 59. tion and tion.000 All All 100. The number males engaged in house building and allied occupa- of tions in the United Kingdom in 1901 was 1.21 51. Of this number 101. or nearly 86 per cent were men 20 years of age and over.6 . In the following table is given an analysis of the returns for each district showing for all towns.0 53. 9. Returns were received in the present investigation from employers covering 118.9 From seen that the average hourly earnings were the above it is about and $0.52 S9.9 19.786.8 39.75 55.7 Plasterers .0 9.03 8.941 were in Scotland and 54 293 in Ireland.7 50.0 8. popula. BUILDING TRADES. — — 130 WAGES AND PEICES OF COMMODITIES.5 17. full-time and earnings. Average full-time earnings of Average number of hours in a men in full week in District.5 21.94 6. and for towns of 100. These numbers include not .6 38.3 26.14 in the smaller towns.3 12.7 2. tion. Lanca- shire.41 50. BY DIS- TRICTS.7 3.73.54 8.4 Masons 8.0 Scotland 7.95 under under under and $7.04 7.39 8.40 8.5 4.6 7.3 2.1 North and West Midland counties 7..1 1.418. Bricklayers $9.5 Plumbers 8.0 Total 8. 100.3 47.7 48. $8.000 less than 100.30 $8.6 56. BY OCCUPATIONS.5 52.15.552 workpeople.3 Slaters 8. only employees but also employers and those working on their own account. $0.36 50. 75 55. AND PER CENT WHOSE EARNINGS WERE WITHIN CERTAIN SPECIFIED WAGE GROUPS. Towns of Towns of Towns of Towns of less than 100.7 51.15 51.82 12.5 21.72 8.44 8.0 United Kingdom 7.88 8. Under and $7.3 Painters and decorators 8.9 Northern counties and Cleveland $8.91 8. over.000 popula.0 3.17 in the large The following table shows the average full-time earnings of skilled men in one week of the summer of 1906. $9.5 21.1 55.6 Ireland 6.95.8 15.5 64.54 8. These latter classes formed nearly 11 per cent of the total. tion and popula. being $0. and the per cent whose earn- ings fall in each specified class: AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF SKILLED MEN IN THE BUILDING TRADES IN ONE WEEK OF THE SUMMER OF 1906.03 53.9 51.6 30. AND HOURS CONSTITUTING A FULL WEEK.30. over.9 50.73 and $10.26 8. London $9. of whom 123.33 5.41 $9. $10.1 50.000 and over.3 11. for towns with a population of less than 100.84 10.9 7.1 Carpenters and joiners 8. the hours constituting a full week.52.01 7.05 51.30 6. over.123.25 9. and the average earnings of men working full time in one week of the summer of 1906: AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF MEN IN THE BUILDING TRADES IN ONE WEEK OF THE SUMMER OF 1906.000. Per cent of men working full time whose earnings were— Average Occupation.3 51.5 55.8 25.000 popula- towns.

04 55.5 49 9 North and West Midland counties 8.4 55.95 9.0 51.65 10.92 9.1 51.76 55.6 50.9 51.97 9. Lan- cashire. 15.19 9.52 50.5 per cent were painters and decorators.65 50.25 9.7 50 7 Northern counties and Cleveland $9.77 51.5 per cent were plasterers.2 52.4 Rest of England and Wales 7.000 popula- towns. 1 Scotland 8.50 9.82 53.58 7. 10.80 52.86 51.7 50 7 Northern counties and Cleveland 8.0 50.23 8.37 8.14 8.73 8.56 9.2 50. 5.7 53.47 8.17 8.70 51.17 55.4 50. of the workmen in each occupation.77 10.10 8.82 53. Lancashire.86 52.1 54.92 51.39 54.63 8.54 8.23 9. popula.3 Yorkshire (excluding Cleveland). 55. 81 50.000 All All 100.3 48.43 8.77 52.25 9.0 54 6 United Kingdom 8.68 51.17 9.4 54.8 54.0 51. and Cheshire 8.9 Rest of England and Wales 7.0 51.10 8.85 9.37 8. 81 810. 8.6 Ireland 8.25 50. over. and Cheshire 8.86 53.8 51.2 Ireland 7.73 7.78 54.31 8. tion and tion.1 55.9 52.08 8.5 Ireland 7.3 54.0 51.09 9.33 8.1 50.65 9.9 51 8 Carpenters and joiners: London 10. — 1 — WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.2 50.61 9.72 8.37 8.72 9.5 United Kingdom 8.88 52. 2.73 55.52 8.86 51.80 9.2 per cent were masons.7 53 6 Masons: London .9 51. tion and popula.8 49.70 9.33 50.39 56.54 9.3 51.2 United Kingdom 8.1 54.0 Northern counties'and Cleveland 8. 100.7 51.8 53.1 52. 3 55 4 Scotland 8.10 8.6 49. Lancashire.74 10. BY OCCUPATIONS AND DISTRICTS.8 56 1 Scotland 8. 12.35 56.73 51.0 49.66 55.7 Yorkshire (excluding Cleveland).2 per cent were plumbers.9 Yorkshire (excluding Cleveland). Bricklayers: London $10.46 9.73 8.6 Northern counties and Cleveland 8.81 55.6 Yorkshire (excluding Cleveland).31 8.8 Plumbers: London 10.8 per cent were bricklayers. 131 Of the workmen included in the above table.9 54.67 8.8 51.1 55.96 55.5 per cent were slaters.02 9. towns.5 North and West Midland counties 8.76 9.5 52.7 Northern counties and Cleveland 9.8 50.4 55. Average full-time earnings of Average number of hours in a men in full week in Occupation and district.7 52.7 50.3 51.94 52.8 54.6 50.3 per cent were carpenters.29 8. and the average number of hours employed in one week of the summer of 1906.46 54.0 Ireland 7.1 Rest of England and Wales 8.80 9.9 Rest of England and Wales 8.4 49.39 9.7 North and West Midland counties 8.8 51 9 North and West Midland counties 8.25 8.73 10.60 9. by districts: AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS AND HOURS OF SKILLED MEN IN THE BUILDING TRADES IN ONE WEEK OF THE SUMMER OF 1906.5 54.94 8.06 9.98 51.67 9.67 52.2 50.58 51.55 9.4 54. Towns of Towns of Towns of Towns of less than 100.1 55. and Cheshire 9.21 9. and Cheshire 8.51 8.0 51 4 Ireland 7.3 50.8 50.0 Scotland 8. 5 56 3 Scotland 9.33 9.1 52.74 9.37 55.8 Slaters: London 10. Lan- cashire.37 8. 6 55.25 54. 20 9.8 55 5 United Kingdom 8.09 56. over.66 10.39 9. and 24. In the following tables are shown the average full-time earnings.66 9.2 51. 31. tion.6 Rest of England and Wales 8.9 52.21 8.000 popula.2 .000 less than 100.52 10.5 49.17 50.7 50 8 North and West Midland counties 8.0 54 6 United Kingdom 8.48 9.7 Yorkshire (excluding Cleveland).88 50. Lancashire.0 51. and Cheshire 9.

96 8.11 55.8 51.42 54.18 9.14 52. over.62 56.9 13.35 8. 100.6 United Kingdom 8.69 8.3 13. the earnings would be correspondingly less.8 14. — — —— : 132 WAGES AND PRICES OE COMMODITIES. Plasterers: London •11.2 14.7 16.000 popula.0 51.4 55.1 14. tion and popula. Bricklayers 47.6 Northern counties and Cleveland 8.3 44.90 8.8 Yorkshire (excluding Cleveland).9 53.9 44.9 51.0 14.1 15. and Cheshire 8.17 10.7 14. tion.3 14.0 51.57 9. popula.0 Slaters 44.23 9. AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS AND HOURS OF SKILLED MEN IN THE BUILDING TRADES IN ONE WEEK OF THE SUMMER OF 1906. over.6 46.8 14. .23 51.3 Rest of England and Wales 8. Average number of hours in a Average number of weeks in full week in winter in winter period in Occupation.5 14. 100.7 44. popula.31 8.1 45.0 46.1 13.8 Carpenters and joiners 47.9 14.12 8. Towns of Towns of Towns of Towns of less than 100.68 55. The average number of hours constituting a full week's work in winter and the average duration of the winter period in each occupation is shown in the table following AVERAGE HOURS CONSTITUTING A FULL WEEK'S WORK IN WINTER AND DURATION OF WINTER PERIOD.0 53. in the case of masons and plasterers.1 13.3 Ireland 7. .1 46.3 50.64 8.97 7.58 52.1 51.7 45.2 Painters and decorators 45.9 The proportion of laborers reported was approximately six laborers and two laborers to every three skilled men to every five bricklayers.44 52. towns.84 8.25 9. tion.6 51.73 9.0 51.7 14.5 North and West Midland counties . tion and tion.6 Yorkshire (excluding Cleveland). 03 $11. respectively.04 9.6 56.74 8.8 Rest of England and Wales 7.5 Plasterers 46.90 9. Lan- cashire.2 55. of Towns of less than 100.94 55.63 9.000 popula- towns.01 8.2 45.3 Scotland 9.000 All All 100.6 14.7 United Kingdom 8.8 13.9 44.33 53.7 45.82 9.66 9.4 50.4 Northern counties and Cleveland $8.4 14. and Cheshire 9.1 Masons 45. BY OCCUPATIONS. tion and popula. 03 50.000 popula- towns.35 55.6 51.6 55. The average full- time earnings and hours during one week of the summer of 1906 for .4 15. over.1 51.3 The earnings and hours shown in the above table are for one full week in summer.96 51.9 54.21 8.7 North and West Midland counties 9.0 50.87 9.2 50.0 50.9 54.37 8.1 55.tion and tion. over.1 Plumbers 47.3 52.000 less than 100. BY OCCUPATIONS AND DIS- TRICTS—Concluded Average full-time earnings of Average number of hours in a men in full week in Occupation and district.56 7.0 51.4 45.7 Scotland 8. towns.000 All All 100.000 less than 100.1 43.90 8.0 51. .31 51.02 51.00 9.4 Painters and decorators: London 8.15 53.00 9.4 Ireland 8. Lan- cashire. The hours of labor in winter being shorter.4 50.000 popula.8 55.7 52. Towns of Towns of Town.7 56.0 46.9 14. 7.

and the average hours worked by them per week during the summer and the winter seasons.3 Other mechanics 8. Under $4.2 7.0 51.6 15.87.5 14. AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF MEN IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF HARBORS.02 52.3 28. $7.0 .9 8.29 55. CONSTRUCTION OF HARBORS.96 57.0 20.1 51.9 Builders' laborers 5.58 57. in the rates of wages paid in the building trades isindicated by the annual index number published by the Board of Trade to have been an increase of approximately 18 per cent.92 55.8 Masons 9.3 53. Average number of Average hours in one week.8 Masons' laborers 6.94 52. over.3 44. AND PER CENT WHOSE EARN- INGS WERE WITHIN CERTAIN SPECIFIED WAGE GROUPS.4 38.9 Total 5.7 40. Winter. AND AVERAGE HOURS WORKED IN ONE WEEK OF THE SUMMER AND THE WINTER SEASONS.10 53.3 Bricklayers' laborers 6.5 41.92 53.8 46.5 8.8 40.30. as a rule.4 Plasterers' laborers 6. Per cent of men working full time whose earnings were Average Occupation.1 Excavators 6.34 51.378 were excavators and laborers. Bricklayers' laborers $5.6 49.1 Excavators and laborers 6. 6. full-time Average hours.8 Locomotive engineers 9.78 51.6 57. full-time earnings. DOCKS.5 Stationary engineers 8.6 41.9 3.2 39.90 52.1 5.7 Painters' laborers 6.3 4.7 46.3 48.6 50.0 Bricklayers 10.9 11. 133 each class of laborers and the per cent whose earnings were in each specified group are shown in the following table: AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS AND HOURS OF LABORERS IN THE BUILDING TRADES IN ONE WEEK OF THE SUMMER OF 1906. 1886 to 1906. $6.000 population and over and 8.35 57.6 6 6 The change during the twenty years.2 52.5 52. BY OCCUPATIONS.98 56.8 Firemen and stokers 5.0 41. railways. DOCKS.7 49. IN ONE WEEK OF THE SUMMER OF 1906.08 and $7.. earnings. Occupation.15 56. docks.3 2. Summer.6 in the smaller towns. roads.51 51.02 55. sewers. 25 56. In the following table is shown the average full-time earnings of men in the principal occupations engaged in this work in an ordinary week of the summer of 1906.1 6.4 42. suspended for holidays was 9.1 Carpenters 8.8 54.9 Other mechanics' laborers 5.87 and $6. ETC. Of the 10. etc.9 53. waterworks.27 55..7 13.914 workpeople for whom returns were received in the construction of harbors.0 40.2 25.9 4.1 Masons' laborers 5.7 37.2 Plumbers' mates 5.9 9. Foremen and gangers $11.82 52.08. The average number days per year on which building operations of were.7 46.41 52.30 and under under $4.5 in the towns of 100. ETC. — WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES.

95 5.3 Box and packing case makers 6.65 2.30. BY DISTRICTS.85 3.9 9.74 i. machine joinery and wood box and packing case making. London $8.15 $2.65 14.3 79.1 . formed 22 per cent.27 5. 43. 30.790 empk^ees for whom returns were received.6 Carters (one horse) 5. boys.35 3. lads and boys. ETC.8 67. and Women. 83 5.6 57. ployees.0 Carpenters and joiners 8. 1906. Mill sawyers $6.4 3.98 2. 61.3 43.3 17. Girls. lads and boys.09 31.35 North and West Midland counties 6.04 $1.02 2. and their percentage distribution in wage groups in accordance with their earnings AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF MEN IN THE SAW MILLING AND MACHINE JOIN- ERY INDUSTRY IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER.03 5.13 5. SAW MILLING. 1906. MACHINE JOINERY. and 4.4 General laborers 5.89 United Kingdom 6. Lads All em- Men.43 2.60 $3.3 50.02 2.62 3. and Cheshire 6. .8 20. 41.43 In the following table is shown the average full-time earnings in one week of the summer of 1906 of the men in these industries.45 2. The establishments included in this group are those engaged in saw milling.30 and Under under under J. BY OCCU- PATIONS.7 38. women and girls.23 Rest of England and Wales 6.74 Yorkshire (excluding Cleveland).73 $4.50 . and women and girls only 4 per cent.43 2. apprentices. AND THE PER CENT WHOSE EARNINGS WERE WITHIN CERTAIN SPECIFIED WAGE GROUPS.7 25.9 14.57 2. Per cent of men working full time whose earnings were— Average Occupation.31 Northern counties and Cleveland 7. full-time earnings.37 Ireland 4. : 134 WAGES.73.AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. and of all employees who worked full time in each district: AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF EMPLOYEES IN THE SAW MILLING AND MACHIN E JOINERY INDUSTRY IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER.60 Scotland 6. $9.55 8.5 3.87 and $7. In the following table is shown the average earnings of the men.20 1. $7.4 Wood cutting machinists 7. Lancashire.0 Total 6. Average full-time earnings of— District.35 2.75 11.56 1.19 5.27 3.70 $6. 1. Men formed 74 per cent of the 26.87.31 20. over.87 2.

46 5 33 Ireland 6.37 0. 1906.07 4. 1906..06 1. etc.18 1. WAGES AND PRICES OF COMMODITIES. over. nearly one-half of the number of men employed. 19.30 Northern counties and Cleveland 8.. 8.82 $3.. 8.7 20.7 (Time.05 5 86 Yorkshire (excluding Cleveland).2 19. ployees.65 $1.11 .2 23. Of this number 69. London $8.9G 1.. The following table shows the average earnings in the last week of September. 8. Women. The average earnings of men in these occupations in the last week of September.03 2. Kind of full-time work.82 1.46 5 70 Rest of England and Wales 7. French and upholsterers. \Piece. chair making..16 ' 1.09 3.74 2.7 26.. 1906. 7.8 22. comprising together polishers...8 per cent were apprentices.1 59. boys.30 $9. and the per cent whose earnings were within certain specified wage groups are shown in the following table: AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF MEN IN THE CABINETMAKING INDUSTRY IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER.8 per cent were women. 135 CABINETMAKING INDUSTRY.19 ..16 5 35 Scotland 7.94 The principal classes of skilled men in this industry are cabinet- makers.30. 8. 74 United Kingdom 8. .3 Cabinetmakers.1 22. and Cheshire 7. lads and boys.9 Upholsterers 1 Piece.18 1.94 $2. of those employees who worked full time: AVERAGE FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF EMPLOYEES IN THE CABINETMAKING INDUS- TRY IN THE LAST WEEK OF SEPTEMBER.73.21 3.2 52. $8. /Time.07 2.. AND THE PER CENT WHOSE EARNINGS WERE WITHIN CERTAIN SPECIFIED WAGE GROUPS.215.3 33. 1906.97 $7. Average full-time earnings of— District.22 5 82 North and West Midland counties 7. 8.2 O ..87 2. The number from establishments of people included in the returns engaged in cabinetmaking. earnings.50 5. BY DISTRICTS.64 .87.09 3. $9.46 .87 and $7.4 10.1 20. Lancashire.85 3.22 1. $7.4 52.7 per cent were girls. and 2.86 1.9 43.73 1.4 /Time.2 28. was 24.7 per cent were men.5 18.82 2.78 2.. Per cent of men working full time whose earnings were— Average Occupation.78 1.73 and under under $4. BY OCCUPATION. Lads and All em- Men.4 57.93 2.3 66.5 French polishers \Piece.. Girls. Under and $4.63 1.5 18.

i\r .