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This article is about the Indian religious concept. For 1 Denition and meanings
other uses, see Karma (disambiguation).
Karma is the executed deed, work, action, or act,
and it is also the object, the intent. Halbfass[3] ex-
plains karma (karman) by contrasting it with another San-
skrit word kriya. The word kriya is the activity along with
the steps and eort in action, while karma is (1) the exe-
cuted action as a consequence of that activity, as well as
(2) the intention of the actor behind an executed action or
a planned action (described by some scholars[9] as meta-
physical residue left in the actor). A good action creates
good karma, as does good intent. A bad action creates
bad karma, as does bad intent.[3]
Endless knot
Karma, also refers to a conceptual principle that orig-
inated in India, often descriptively called the principle
of karma, sometimes as the karma theory or the law of
karma.[10] In the context of theory, karma is complex
and dicult to dene.[11] Dierent schools of Indologists
derive dierent denitions for the karma concept from
ancient Indian texts; their denition is some combina-
tion of (1) causality that may be ethical or non-ethical;
(2) ethicization, that is good or bad actions have conse-
quences; and (3) rebirth.[11][12] Other Indologists include
Endless knot on in the denition of karma theory that which explains the
Nepalese temple prayer wheel present circumstances of an individual with reference to
Karma symbols such as endless knot (above) are com- his or her actions in past. These actions may be those in a
mon cultural motifs in Asia. Endless knots symbolize persons current life, or, in some schools of Indian tradi-
interlinking of cause and eect, a Karmic cycle that tions, possibly actions in their past lives; furthermore, the
continues eternally. The endless knot is visible in the consequences may result in current life, or a persons fu-
center of the prayer wheel. ture lives.[11][13] The law of karma operates independent
of any deity or any process of divine judgment.[14]
Karma (Sanskrit: ; IPA: [krm]; Pali: kamma; Diculty in arriving at a denition of karma arises be-
cause of the diversity of views among the schools of
Nepali language:) means action, work or deed;[1] it
Hinduism; some, for example, consider karma and re-
also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and eect
birth linked and simultaneously essential, some consider
where intent and actions of an individual (cause) inu-
karma but not rebirth essential, and a few discuss and
ence the future of that individual (eect).[2] Good intent
conclude karma and rebirth to be awed ction.[15] Bud-
and good deed contribute to good karma and future hap-
dhism and Jainism have their own karma precepts. Thus
piness, while bad intent and bad deed contribute to bad
karma has not one, but multiple denitions and dier-
karma and future suering.[3][4] Karma is closely associ-
ent meanings.[16] It is a concept whose meaning, impor-
ated with the idea of rebirth in many schools of Asian
tance and scope varies between Hinduism, Buddhism,
religions.[5] In these schools, karma in the present aects
Jainism and other traditions that originated in India, and
ones future in the current life, as well as the nature and
quality of future lives - ones sasra.[6] various schools in each of these traditions. O'Flaherty
claims that, furthermore, there is an ongoing debate re-
With origins in ancient India, karma is a key con- garding whether karma is a theory, a model, a paradigm,
cept in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism,[7] and a metaphor, or a metaphysical stance.[11]
Karma theory as a concept, across dierent Indian reli-
gious traditions, shares certain common themes: causal-
ity, ethicization and rebirth.


1.1 Causality Another causality characteristic, shared by Karmic the-

ories, is that like deeds lead to like eects. Thus good
karma produces good eect on the actor, while bad
karma produces bad eect. This eect may be mate-
rial, moral or emotional that is, ones karma aects
ones happiness and unhappiness.[20] The eect of karma
need not be immediate; the eect of karma can be later in
ones current life, and in some schools it extends to future
The consequence or eects of ones karma can be de-
scribed in two forms: phalas and samskaras. A phala
(literally, fruit or result) is the visible or invisible eect
that is typically immediate or within the current life. In
contrast, samskaras are invisible eects, produced inside
the actor because of the karma, transforming the agent
and aecting his or her ability to be happy or unhappy in
this life and future ones. The theory of karma is often
Lotus symbolically represents karma in many Asian traditions. A
blooming lotus ower is one of the few owers that simultane- presented in the context of samskaras.[20][23]
ously carries seeds inside itself while it blooms. Seed is symbol-
Karmic principle can be understood, suggests Karl
ically seen as cause, the ower eect. Lotus is also considered
Potter,[10][24] as a principle of psychology and habit.
as a reminder that one can grow, share good karma and remainKarma seeds habits (vsan), and habits create the na-
unstained even in muddy circumstances.[17]
ture of man. Karma also seeds self perception, and per-
ception inuences how one experiences life events. Both
A common theme to theories of karma is its principle habits and self perception aect the course of ones life.
of causality.[10] One of the earliest association of karma Breaking bad habits is not easy: it requires conscious
to causality occurs in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad of karmic eort.[10][25] Thus psyche and habit, according to
Hinduism. For example, at 4.4.5-6, it states: Potter[10] and others,[26] link karma to causality in ancient
Indian literature. The idea of karma may be compared to
Now as a man is like this or like that, the notion of a persons character, as both are an as-
according as he acts and according as he be- sessment of the person and determined by that persons
haves, so will he be; habitual thinking and acting.[5]
a man of good acts will become good, a man of
bad acts, bad;
he becomes pure by pure deeds, bad by bad 1.2 Karma and ethicization
And here they say that a person consists of de- The second theme common to karma theories is ethiciza-
sires, tion. This begins with the premise that every action has a
and as is his desire, so is his will; consequence,[6] which will come to fruition in either this
and as is his will, so is his deed; or a future life; thus, morally good acts will have posi-
and whatever deed he does, that he will reap. tive consequences, whereas bad acts will produce nega-
Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, 7th Cen- tive results. An individuals present situation is thereby
tury BCE[18][19] explained by reference to actions in his present or in pre-
vious lifetimes. Karma is not itself reward and punish-
ment, but the law that produces consequence.[27] Halb-
The relationship of karma to causality is a central mo- fass notes, good karma is considered as dharma and leads
tif in all schools of Hindu, Jain and Buddhist thought.[20] to punya (merit), while bad karma [28]
is considered adharma
The theory of karma as causality holds that (1) executed and leads to pp (demerit, sin).
actions of an individual aects the individual and the life Reichenbach suggests that the theories of karma are an
he or she lives, and (2) the intentions of an individual ethical theory.[20] This is so because the ancient schol-
aects the individual and the life he or she lives. Dis- ars of India linked intent and actual action to the merit,
interested actions, or unintentional actions do not have reward, demerit and punishment. A theory without ethi-
the same positive or negative karmic eect, as interested cal premise would be a pure causal relation; the merit or
and intentional actions. In Buddhism, for example, ac- reward or demerit or punishment would be same regard-
tions that are performed, or arise, or originate without less of the actors intent. In ethics, ones intentions, atti-
any bad intent such as covetousness, are considered non- tudes and desires matter in the evaluation of ones action.
existent in karmic impact or neutral in inuence to the Where the outcome is unintended, the moral responsibil-
individual.[21] ity for it is less on the actor, even though causal respon-

sibility may be the same regardless.[20] A karma theory declared as the greatest of works; Satapatha Brahmana
considers not only the action, but also actors intentions, associates the potential of becoming immortal
attitude, and desires before and during the action. The (amara) with the karma of the agnicayana sacrice.[41]
karma concept thus encourages each person to seek and The earliest clear discussion of the karma doctrine is
live a moral life, as well as avoid an immoral life. The in the Upanishads.[6][41] For example, the causality and
meaning and signicance of karma is thus as a building ethicization is stated in Bhadrayaka Upaniad 3.2.13
block of an ethical theory.[29] (Truly, one becomes good through good deeds, and evil
through evil deeds.)[6][41][43]
1.3 Rebirth Some authors[44] state that the Samsara (transmigration)
and Karma doctrine may be non-Vedic, and the ideas
The third common theme of karma theories is the may have developed in the "shramana" traditions that pre-
concept of reincarnation or the cycle of rebirths ceded Buddhism and Jainism. Others[11][45] state that
(sasra).[6][30][31] Rebirth is a fundamental concept of some of the complex ideas of the ancient emerging theory
Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism.[5] The con- of karma owed from Vedic thinkers to Buddhist and Jain
cept has been intensely debated in ancient literature of In- thinkers. The mutual inuences between the traditions is
dia; with dierent schools of Indian religions considering unclear, and likely co-developed.[46]
the relevance of rebirth as either essential, or secondary, Many philosophical debates surrounding the concept are
or unnecessary ction.[15] Karma is a basic concept, re- shared by the Hindu, Jain and Buddhist traditions, and
birth is a derivative concept, so suggests Creel;[32] Karma the early developments in each tradition incorporated dif-
is a fact, asserts Yamunacharya,[33] while reincarnation is ferent novel ideas.[47] For example, Buddhists allowed
a hypothesis; in contrast, Hiriyanna suggests[34] rebirth is karma transfer from one person to another and sraddha
a necessary corollary of karma. rites, but had diculty defending the rationale.[47][48] In
Rebirth, or sasra, is the concept that all life forms go contrast, Hindu schools and Jainism would not allow the
through a cycle of reincarnation, that is a series of births possibility of karma transfer.
and rebirths. The rebirths and consequent life may be in
dierent realm, condition or form. The karma theories
suggest that the realm, condition and form depends on the
quality and quantity of karma.[35] In schools that believe 3 In Hinduism
in rebirth, every living beings soul transmigrates (recy-
cles) after death, carrying the seeds of Karmic impulses Main article: Karma in Hinduism
from life just completed, into another life and lifetime
of karmas.[6][36] This cycle continues indenitely, except The concept of karma in Hinduism developed and
for those who consciously break this cycle by reaching evolved over centuries. The earliest Upanishads began
moksa. Those who break the cycle reach the realm of with the questions about how and why man is born, and
gods, those who don't continue in the cycle. what happens after death. As answers to the latter, the
The theory of karma and rebirth raises numerous early theories in these ancient Sanskrit documents include
questionssuch as how, when, and why did the cycle pancagni vidya (the ve re doctrine), pitryana (the cyclic
start in the rst place, what is the relative Karmic merit path of fathers) and devayana (the cycle-transcending,
of one karma versus another and why, and what evi- path of the gods).[51] Those who do supercial rituals
dence is there that rebirth actually happens, among oth- and seek material gain, claimed these ancient scholars,
ers. Various schools of Hinduism realized these dicul- travel the way of their fathers and recycle back into an-
ties, debated their own formulations, some reaching what other life; those who renounce these, go into the forest
they considered as internally consistent theories, while and pursue spiritual knowledge, were claimed to climb
other schools modied and de-emphasized it, while a few into the higher path of the gods. It is these who break
schools in Hinduism such as Carvakas, Lokayatana aban- the cycle and are not reborn.[52] With the composition of
doned karma and rebirth theory altogether.[3][37][38] the Epics - the common mans introduction to Dharma in
Schools of Buddhism consider karma-rebirth cycle as in- Hinduism - the ideas of causality and essential elements
tegral to their theories of soteriology.[39][40] of the theory of karma were being recited in folk stories.
For example:

2 Early development As a man himself sows, so he himself

reaps; no man inherits the good or evil act of
The Vedic Sanskrit word krman- (nominative krma) another man. The fruit is of the same quality
means work or deed,[41] often used in the context of as the action.
Srauta rituals.[42] In the Rigveda, the word occurs some Mahabharata, xii.291.22[53]
40 times.[41] In Satapatha Brahmana, sacrice is

In the thirteenth book of the Mahabharata, also called the / other observable facts about society, treats it as
Teaching Book (Anushasana Parva), sixth chapter opens a convenient ction to solve practical problems in
with Yudhishthira asking Bhishma: Is the course of a Upanishadic times, and declares it irrelevant; in the
persons life already destined, or can human eort shape Advaita Vedanta school, actions in current life have
ones life?"[54] The future, replies Bhishma, is both a moral consequences and liberation is possible within
function of current human eort derived from free will ones life as jivanmukti (self-realized person).[3]
and past human actions that set the circumstances.[55]
Over and over again, the chapters of Mahabharata recite The above six schools illustrate the diversity of views, but
the key postulates of karma theory. That is: intent and ac- are not exhaustive. Each school has sub-schools in Hin-
tion (karma) has consequences; karma lingers and doesn't duism, such as Vedanta schools nondualism and dualism
disappear; and, all positive or negative experiences in life sub-schools. Furthermore, there are other schools of Hin-
require eort and intent.[56] For example: duism such as Carvaka, Lokayata (the materialists) who
denied the theory of karma-rebirth as well as the exis-
Happiness comes due to good actions, suf- tence of God; to this school of Hindus, the properties of
fering results from evil actions, things come from the nature of things. Causality emerges
by actions, all things are obtained, by inaction, from the interaction, actions and nature of things and peo-
nothing whatsoever is enjoyed. ple, determinative principles such as karma or God are
If ones action bore no fruit, then everything unnecessary.[61][62]
would be of no avail,
if the world worked from fate alone, it would
be neutralized. 4 In Buddhism
Mahabharata, xiii.6.10 & 19[57]
Main article: Karma in Buddhism

Over time, various schools of Hinduism developed many

Karma and karmaphala are fundamental concepts
dierent denitions of karma, some making karma ap-
in Buddhism.[63][64] The concepts of karma and
pear quite deterministic, while others make room for free
karmaphala explain how our intentional actions keep
will and moral agency.[58] Among the six most studied
us tied to rebirth in samsara, whereas the Buddhist
schools of Hinduism, the theory of karma evolved in dif-
path, as exemplied in the Noble Eightfold Path, shows
ferent ways, as their respective scholars reasoned and at-
us the way out of samsara.[65][66] Karmaphala is the
tempted to address the internal inconsistencies, impli-
fruit,[67][68][69] eect[70] or result[71] of karma. A
cations and issues of the karma doctrine. According to
similar term is karmavipaka, the maturation[72] or
cooking[73] of karma.[68][note 1] The cycle of rebirth is
determined by karma,[74] literally action.[note 2] In the
The Nyaya school of Hinduism considers karma and Buddhist tradition, karma refers to actions driven by in-
rebirth as central, with some Nyaya scholars such as tention (cetan),[80][81][69][note 3] a deed done deliberately
Udayana suggesting that the Karma doctrine implies through body, speech or mind, which leads to future
that God exists.[59] consequences.[84] The Nibbedhika Sutta, Anguttara
Nikaya 6.63:
The Vaisesika school does not consider the karma
from past lives doctrine very important.
Intention (cetana) I tell you, is kamma. In-
The Samkhya school considers karma to be of sec- tending, one does kamma by way of body,
ondary importance (prakrti is primary). speech, & intellect.[85][note 4]

The Mimamsa school gives a negligible role to

How these intentional actions lead to rebirth, and how the
karma from past lives, disregards Samsara and
idea of rebirth is to be reconciled with the doctrines of
impermanence and no-self,[87][note 5] is a matter of philo-
The Yoga school considers karma from past lives to sophical inquiry in the Buddhist traditions, for which
be secondary, ones behavior and psychology in the several solutions have been proposed. In early Bud-
current life is what has consequences and leads to dhism no explicit theory of rebirth and karma is worked
entanglements. [52] out, and the karma doctrine may have been inciden-
tal to early Buddhist soteriology.[78][79] In early Bud-
According to Professor Wilhelm Halbfass, the dhism, rebirth is ascribed to craving or ignorance.[75][76]
Vedanta school acknowledges the karma-rebirth The Buddhas teaching of karma is not strictly determin-
doctrine, but concludes it is a theory that is not de- istic, but incorporated circumstantial factors, unlike that
rived from reality and cannot be proven, considers of the Jains.[88][89][note 6] It is not a rigid and mechani-
it invalid for its failure to explain evil / inequality cal process, but a exible, uid and dynamic process.[90]

There is no set linear relationship between a particular vibrations created by activities of mind, speech, and body
action and its results.[89] The karmic eect of a deed as well as various mental dispositions. Hence the kar-
is not determined solely by the deed itself, but also by mas are the subtle matter surrounding the consciousness
the nature of the person who commits the deed, and of a soul. When these two components (consciousness
by the circumstances in which it is committed.[91][89] and karma) interact, we experience the life we know at
Karmaphala is not a judgement enforced by a God, De- present. Jain texts expound that seven tattvas (truths or
ity or other supernatural being that controls the aairs fundamentals) constitute reality. These are:[104]
of the Cosmos. Rather, karmaphala is the outcome of
a natural process of cause and eect.[note 7] Within Bud- 1. Jva- the soul which is characterized by conscious-
dhism, the real importance of the doctrine of karma and ness
its fruits lies in the recognition of the urgency to put a
stop to the whole process.[93][94] The Acintita Sutta warns 2. Ajva- the non-soul
that the results of kamma is one of the four incom-
3. srava- inow of auspicious and evil karmic matter
prehensible subjects,[95][96] subjects that are beyond all
into the soul.
conceptualization[95] and cannot be understood with log-
ical thought or reason.[note 8] 4. Bandha (bondage)- mutual intermingling of the soul
and karmas.

5 In Jainism 5. Samvara (stoppage)- obstruction of the inow of

karmic matter into the soul.

Main article: Karma in Jainism 6. Nirjara (gradual dissociation)- separation or falling

See also: Causes of Karma (Jainism) and God in Jainism o of part of karmic matter from the soul.
7. Mokha (liberation)- complete annihilation of all
karmic matter (bound with any particular soul).

According to Padmanabh Jaini,

This emphasis on reaping the fruits only

of ones own karma was not restricted to
the Jainas; both Hindus and Buddhist writers
have produced doctrinal materials stressing the
same point. Each of the latter traditions, how-
ever, developed practices in basic contradiction
to such belief. In addition to shrardha (the rit-
ual Hindu oerings by the son of deceased),
we nd among Hindus widespread adherence
to the notion of divine intervention in ones fate,
while Buddhists eventually came to propound
such theories like boon-granting bodhisattvas,
transfer of merit and like. Only Jainas have
been absolutely unwilling to allow such ideas
to penetrate their community, despite the fact
that there must have been tremendous amount
of social pressure on them to do so.[105]

The key points where the theory of karma in Jainism can

Types of Karmas as per Jain philosophy
be stated as follows:

1. Karma operates as a self-sustaining mechanism as

In Jainism, karma conveys a totally dierent meaning natural universal law, without any need of an exter-
from that commonly understood in Hindu philosophy and nal entity to manage them. (absence of the exoge-
western civilization.[101] Jain philosophy is the oldest In- nous Divine Entity in Jainism)
dian philosophy that completely separates body (matter)
from the soul (pure consciousness).[102] In Jainism, karma 2. Jainism advocates that a soul attracts karmic mat-
is referred to as karmic dirt, as it consists of very subtle ter even with the thoughts, and not just the actions.
particles of matter that pervade the entire universe.[103] Thus, to even think evil of someone would endure
Karmas are attracted to the karmic eld of a soul due to a karma-bandha or an increment in bad karma.

For this reason, Jainism emphasise on developing arming is observed.[109]

Ratnatraya (The Three Jewels): samyak darana
(Right Faith), samyak jnna (Right Knowledge) and
samyak charitra (Right Conduct). 6.3 Taoism
3. In Jain theology, a soul is released of worldly aairs
Karma is an important concept in Taoism. Every deed
as soon as it is able to emancipate from the karma-
is tracked by deities and spirits. Appropriate rewards
bandha.[106] In Jainism, nirvana and moksha are
or retribution follow karma, just like a shadow follows
used interchangeably. Nirvana represents annihila-
a person.[8]
tion of all karmas by an individual soul and mok-
sha represents the perfect blissful state (free from The karma doctrine of Taoism developed in three
all bondage). In the presence of a Tirthankara, a stages.[110] In rst stage, causality between actions and
soul can attain Kevala Jnana (omniscience) and sub- consequences was adopted, with supernatural beings
sequently nirvana, without any need of intervention keeping track of everyones karma and assigning fate
by the Tirthankara.[106] (ming). In second phase, transferability of karma ideas
from Chinese Buddhism were expanded, and a transfer
4. The karmic theory in Jainism operates endoge- or inheritance of Karmic fate from ancestors to ones
nously. Even the Tirthankaras themselves have to current life was introduced. In the third stage of karma
go through the stages of emancipation, for attaining doctrine development, ideas of rebirth based on karma
that state. were added. One could be reborn either as another
5. Jainism treats all souls equally, inasmuch as it ad- human being or another animal, according to this be-
vocates that all souls have the same potential of at- lief. In the third stage, additional ideas were introduced;
taining nirvana. Only those who make eort, really for example, rituals, repentance and oerings at Taoist
attain it, but nonetheless, each soul is capable on its temples were encouraged as it could alleviate Karmic
own to do so by gradually reducing its karma.[107] burden.[110][111]

6 Reception in other traditions 6.4 Falun Gong

Ownby (2008) claims that Falun Gong diers from

6.1 Sikhism Buddhism in its denition of the term karma in that
it is taken not as a process of award and punishment,
In Sikhism, all living beings are described as being under but as an exclusively negative term. The Chinese term
the inuence of maya's three qualities. Always present "de" or virtue is reserved for what might otherwise be
together in varying mix and degrees, these three qualities termed good karma in Buddhism. Karma is understood
of maya bind the soul to the body and to the earth plane. as the source of all suering - what Buddhism might re-
Above these three qualities is the eternal time. Due to fer to as bad karma. Li says, A person has done bad
the inuence of three modes of Mayas nature, jivas (in- things over his many lifetimes, and for people this results
dividual beings) perform activities under the control and in misfortune, or for cultivators its karmic obstacles, so
purview of the eternal time. These activities are called theres birth, aging, sickness, and death. This is ordinary
karma. The underlying principle is that karma is the karma.[112]
law that brings back the results of actions to the person
performing them. Falun Gong teaches that the spirit is locked in the cycle of
rebirth, also known as samsara[113] due to the accumula-
This life is likened to a eld in which our karma is the tion of karma.[114] This is a negative, black substance that
seed. We harvest exactly what we sow; no less, no more. accumulates in other dimensions lifetime after lifetime,
This infallible law of karma holds everyone responsible by doing bad deeds and thinking bad thoughts. Falun
for what the person is or is going to be. Based on the total Gong states that karma is the reason for suering, and
sum of past karma, some feel close to the Pure Being in what ultimately blocks people from the truth of the uni-
this life and others feel separated. This is the Gurbanis verse and attaining enlightenment. At the same time, is
(Sri Guru Granth Sahib) law of karma. Like other Indian also the cause of ones continued rebirth and suering.[114]
and oriental schools of thought, the Gurbani also accepts Li says that due to accumulation of karma the human
the doctrines of karma and reincarnation as the facts of spirit upon death will reincarnate over and over again, un-
nature.[108] til the karma is paid o or eliminated through cultivation,
or the person is destroyed due to the bad deeds he has
6.2 Shintoism
Ownby regards the concept of karma as a cornerstone to
Interpreted as Musubi, is recognized in Shintoism, view individual moral behaviour in Falun Gong, and also read-
of karma as a means of enriching, empowering and life ily traceable to the Christian doctrine of one reaps what
7.2 Psychological indeterminacy 7

one sows. Others say Matthew 5:44 means no unbeliever The free will controversy can be outlined in three
will not fully reap what they sow until they are Judged by parts:[119] (1) A person who kills, rapes or commits any
God after death in Hell. Ownby says Falun Gong is dif- other unjust act, can claim all his bad actions were a prod-
ferentiated by a system of transmigration though, in uct of his karma, he is devoid of free will, he can not make
which each organism is the reincarnation of a previous a choice, he is an agent of karma, and that he merely de-
life form, its current form having been determined by livering necessary punishments his wicked victims de-
karmic calculation of the moral qualities of the previous served for their own karma in past lives. Are crimes and
lives lived. Ownby says the seeming unfairness of mani- unjust actions due to free will, or because of forces of
fest inequities can then be explained, at the same time al- karma? (2) Does a person who suers from the unnatu-
lowing a space for moral behaviour in spite of them.[112] ral death of a loved one, or rape or any other unjust act,
In the same vein of Lis monism, matter and spirit are assume a moral agent, gratuitous harm and seek justice?
one, karma is identied as a black substance which must Or, should one blame oneself for bad karma over past
be purged in the process of cultivation.[112] lives, assume that the unjust suering is fate? (3) Does
Li says that Human beings all fell here from the many the karma doctrine undermine the incentive for moral-
education because all suering is deserved and conse-
dimensions of the universe. They no longer met the re-
quirements of the Fa at their given levels in the universe, quence of past lives, why learn anything when the balance
and thus had to drop down. Just as we have said before, sheet of karma from past lives will determine ones action
the heavier ones mortal attachments, the further down and suerings?[121]
one drops, with the descent continuing until one arrives The explanations and replies to the above free will prob-
at the state of ordinary human beings. He says that in lem vary by the specic school of Hinduism, Buddhism
the eyes of higher beings, the purpose of human life is and Jainism. The schools of Hinduism, such as Yoga
not merely to be human, but to awaken quickly on Earth, and Advaita Vedanta, that have emphasized current life
a setting of delusion, and return. That is what they re- over the dynamics of karma residue moving across past
ally have in mind; they are opening a door for you. Those lives, allow free will.[122] Their argument, as well of other
who fail to return will have no choice but to reincarnate, schools, are threefold: (1) The theory of karma includes
with this continuing until they amass a huge amount of both the action and the intent behind that action. Not
karma and are destroyed.[115] only is one aected by past karma, one creates new karma
Ownby regards this as the basis for Falun Gongs appar- whenever one acts with intent - good or bad. If intent and
ent opposition to practitioners taking medicine when act can be proven beyond reasonable doubt, new karma
can be proven, and the process of justice can proceed
ill; they are missing an opportunity to work o karma
by allowing an illness to run its course (suering de- against this new karma. The actor who kills, rapes or
commits any other unjust act, must be considered as the
pletes karma) or to ght the illness through cultivation.
Benjamin Penny shares this interpretation. Since Li be- moral agent for this new karma, and tried. (2) Life forms
not only receive and reap the consequence of their past
lieves that karma is the primary factor that causes sick-
ness in people, Penny asks: if disease comes from karma, together they are the means to initiate, evaluate,
judge, give and deliver consequence of karma to others.
karma and karma can be eradicated through cultivation of
xinxing, then what good will medicine do?"[116] Li him- (3) Karma is a theory that explains some evils, not all (see
self states that he is not forbidding practitioners from tak- moral evil versus natural evil).[123][124]
ing medicine, maintaining that What I'm doing is telling Other schools of Hinduism, as well as Buddhism and Jain-
people the relationship between practicing cultivation and ism that do consider cycle of rebirths central to their be-
medicine-taking. Li also states that An everyday person liefs, and that karma from past lives aects ones present,
needs to take medicine when he gets sick.[117] Schechter believe that both free will (Cetan) and karma can co-
quotes a Falun Gong student who says It is always an exist; however, their answers have not persuaded all
individual choice whether one should take medicine or scholars.[119][124]

7.2 Psychological indeterminacy

7 Discussion Another issue with the theory of karma is that it is psycho-
logically indeterminate, suggests Obeyesekere.[125] That
7.1 Free will and destiny is, (1) if no one can know what their karma was in previ-
ous lives, and (2) if the karma from past lives can deter-
One of the signicant controversies with the karma doc- mine ones future, then the individual is psychologically
trine is whether it always implies destiny, and its impli- unclear what if anything he or she can do now to shape
cations on free will. This controversy is also referred to the future, be more happy, reduce suering. If something
as the moral agency problem;[119] the controversy is not goes wrong - such as sickness or failure at work - the indi-
unique to karma doctrine, but also found in some form in vidual is unclear if karma from past lives was the cause,
monotheistic religions.[120] or the sickness was caused by curable infection and the

failure was caused by something correctable.[125] theodicy discussion by Ramanuja in Sribhasya.[136] Epics
This psychological indeterminacy problem is also not such as the Mahabharata, for example, suggests three
unique to the theory of karma; it is found in every re- prevailing theories in ancient India as to why good and
ligion with the premise that God has a plan, or in some evil exists - one being everything is ordained by God,
way inuences human events. As with karma and free second being karma, third being chance events (yadrc-
will problem above, schools that insist on primacy of re- cha, ).[137][138] The Mahabharata, which includes
births face the most controversy. Their answers to psy- Hindu deity Vishnu in the form of Krishna as one of the
chological indeterminacy issue is the same as those for central characters in the Epic, debates the nature and ex-
istence of suering from these three perspectives, and
addressing the free will problem.[124]
includes a theory of suering as arising from an inter-
play of chance events (such as oods and other events
of nature), circumstances created by past human actions,
7.3 Transferability and the current desires, volitions, dharma, adharma and
current actions (purusakara) of people.[137][139][140] How-
Some schools of Asian religions, particularly Buddhism,
ever, while karma theory in the Mahabharata presents al-
allow transfer of karma merit and demerit from one per-
ternative perspectives on the problem of evil and suer-
son to another. This transfer is an exchange of non-
ing, it oers no conclusive answer.[137][141]
physical quality just like an exchange of physical goods
between two human beings. The practice of karma Other scholars[142] suggest that nontheistic Indian reli-
transfer, or even its possibility, is controversial.[126][127] gious traditions do not assume an omnibenevolent cre-
Karma transfer raises questions similar to those with ator, and some[143] theistic schools do not dene or
substitutionary atonement and vicarious punishment. It characterize their God(s) as monotheistic Western reli-
defeats the ethical foundations, dissociates the causality gions do and the deities have colorful, complex person-
and ethicization in the theory of karma from the moral alities; the Indian deities are personal and cosmic facil-
agent. Proponents of some Buddhist schools suggest that itators, and in some schools conceptualized like Platos
the concept of karma merit transfer encourages religious Demiurge.[136] Therefore, the problem of theodicy in
giving, and such transfers are not a mechanism to transfer many schools of major Indian religions is not signi-
bad karma from one person to another (that is, demerit). cant, or at least is of a dierent nature than in Western
religions.[144] Many Indian religions place greater empha-
In Hinduism, Sraddha rites during funerals have been
sis on developing the karma principle for rst cause and
labelled as karma merit transfer ceremonies by a few
innate justice with Man as focus, rather than developing
scholars, and disputed by others.[128] Other schools
religious principles with the nature and powers of God
in Hinduism such as the Yoga and Advaita Vedantic
and divine judgment as focus.[145] Some scholars, par-
philosophies and Jainism hold that karma can not be
ticularly of the Nyaya school of Hinduism and Sankara
in Brahmasutra bhasya, have posited that karma doc-
trine implies existence of god, who administers and af-
fects the persons environment given that persons karma,
7.4 The problem of evil but then acknowledge that it makes karma as violable,
contingent and unable to address the problem of evil.[146]
There has been an ongoing debate about karma the- Arthur Herman states that karma-transmigration theory
ory and how it answers the problem of evil and related solves all three historical formulations to the problem of
problem of theodicy. The problem of evil is a signi- evil while acknowledging the theodicy insights of Sankara
cant question debated in monotheistic religions with two and Ramanuja.[147]
beliefs:[130] (1) There is one God who is absolutely good
and compassionate (omnibenevolent), and (2) That one Some theistic Indian religions, such as Sikhism, sug-
God knows absolutely everything (omniscient) and is all gest evil and suering are a human phenomena and
powerful (omnipotent). The problem of evil is then stated arises from the karma of individuals.[148] In other theistic
in formulations such as, why does the omnibenevolent, schools such as those in Hinduism, particularly its Nyaya
omniscient and omnipotent God allow any evil and suf- school, karma is combined with dharma and evil is ex-
fering to exist in the world"? Max Weber extended the plained as arising from human actions and intent that is
problem of evil to Eastern traditions.[131] in conict with dharma.[136] In nontheistic religions such
as Buddhism, Jainism and the Mimamsa school of Hin-
The problem of evil, in the context of karma, has been duism, karma theory is used to explain the cause of evil
long discussed in Eastern traditions, both in theistic and as well as to oer distinct ways to avoid or be unaected
non-theistic schools; for example, in Uttara Mms by evil in the world.[134]
Sutras Book 2 Chapter 1;[132][133] the 8th century argu-
ments by Adi Sankara in Brahmasutrabhasya where he Those schools of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism that
posits that God cannot reasonably be the cause of the rely on karma-rebirth theory have been critiqued for their
world because there exists moral evil, inequality, cruelty theological explanation of suering in children by birth,
and suering in the world; [134][135]
and the 11th century as the result of his or her sins in a past life. Others
8.3 Psychoanalysis 9

disagree, and consider the critique as awed and a mis- The Theosophist I. K. Taimni wrote, Karma is nothing
understanding of the karma theory.[150] but the Law of Cause and Eect operating in the realm
of human life and bringing about adjustments between an
individual and other individuals whom he has aected by
8 Comparable concepts his thoughts, emotions and actions.[154] Theosophy also
teaches that when humans reincarnate they come back as
humans only, not as animals or other organisms.[155]
Further information: Poetic justice and Mills of God
Western culture, inuenced by Christianity,[7] holds a
8.3 Psychoanalysis
Jung once opined on unresolved emotions and the
synchronicity of karma;

When an inner situation is not made con-

scious, it appears outside as fate.[156]

Popular methods for negating cognitive dissonance

include meditation, metacognition, counselling,
psychoanalysis, etc., whose aim is to enhance emo-
tional self-awareness and thus avoid negative karma.
This results in better emotional hygiene and reduced
karmic impacts. Permanent neuronal changes within the
amygdala and left prefrontal cortex of the human brain
attributed to long-term meditation and metacognition
techniques have been proven scientically.[157] This
process of emotional maturation aspires to a goal of
Individuation or self-actualisation. Such peak experi-
ences are hypothetically devoid of any karma (nirvana or
It Shoots Further Than He Dreams by John F. Knott, March moksha).

notion similar to karma, as demonstrated in the phrase 9 See also

"what goes around comes around".
8.1 Christianity Amor fati
Mary Jo Meadow suggests karma is akin to Christian no- Anantarika-karma
tions of sin and its eects.[151] She states that the Chris-
tian teaching on Last Judgment according to ones char- Causes of Karma
ity is a teaching on karma.[151] Christianity also teaches Consequentialism
morals such as reap what one sows (Galatians 6:7) and live
by the sword, die by the sword (Matthew 26:52).[152] Most Destiny
scholars, however, consider the concept of last judgment
as dierent than karma, with karma as ongoing process Just-world hypothesis
that occurs every day in ones life, and last judgment in Dharma
contrast being a one time review at the end of life.[153]
Ethic of reciprocity

8.2 Theosophy, Spiritism, New Age Ho'oponopono (Karma section)

Just-world hypothesis
The idea of karma was popularized in the Western world
through the work of the Theosophical Society. In this Karma yoga
conception, karma was a precursor to the Neopagan law
of return or Threefold Law, the idea that the benecial or Moksha
harmful eects one has on the world will return to oneself. Nishkam Karma
Colloquially this may be summed up as 'what goes around
comes around.' Prattyasamutpda

Self-fullling prophecy [AN 3:99]. [...] The feedback loops inherent in this/that
conditionality mean that the working out of any particu-
Types of Karma lar cause-eect relationship can be very complex indeed.
This explains why the Buddha says in AN 4:77 that the
Unintended consequence results of kamma are imponderable. Only a person who
has developed the mental range of a Buddhaanother im-
Work (Christian theology)
ponderable itselfwould be able to trace the intricacies
Sakhra of the kammic network. The basic premise of kamma is
simplethat skillful intentions lead to favorable results,
Tibetan Buddhist Philosophy of Karma and unskillful ones to unfavorable resultsbut the pro-
cess by which those results work themselves out is so in-
tricate that it cannot be fully mapped. We can compare
this with the Mandelbrot set, a mathematical set gener-
10 Notes ated by a simple equation, but whose graph is so complex
that it will probably never be completely explored.[89]
[1] Keown: The remote eects of karmic choices are re-
ferred to as the 'maturation' (vipka) or 'fruit' (phala) of [7] Khandro Rinpoche: Buddhism is a nontheistic philos-
the karmic act.[68] ophy. We do not believe in a creator but in the causes
and conditions that create certain circumstances that then
[2] In early Buddhism rebirth is ascribed to craving come to fruition. This is called karma. It has nothing to
or ignorance,[75][76] and the theory of karma may do with judgement; there is no one keeping track of our
have been of minor importance in early Buddhist karma and sending us up above or down below. Karma
soteriology.[77][78][79] is simply the wholeness of a cause, or rst action, and
its eect, or fruition, which then becomes another cause.
[3] Rupert Gethin: "[Karma is] a beings intentional 'actions In fact, one karmic cause can have many fruitions, all of
of body, speech, and mindwhatever is done, said, or which can cause thousands more creations. Just as a hand-
even just thought with denite intention or volition";[82] ful of seed can ripen into a full eld of grain, a small
"[a]t root karma or 'action' is considered a mental act or amount of karma can generate limitless eects.[92]
intention; it is an aspect of our mental life: 'It is inten-
tion that I call karma; having formed the intention, one [8] Dasgupta explains that in Indian philosophy, acintya is
performs acts (karma) by body, speech and mind.'"[83] that which is to be unavoidably accepted for explaining
facts, but which cannot stand the scrutiny of logic.[97] See
[4] There are many dierent translation of the above quote also the Aggi-Vacchagotta Sutta, Discourse to Vatsagotra
into English. For example, Peter Harvey translates the on the [Simile of] Fire, Majjhima Nikaya 72,[98][99] in
quote as follows: It is will (cetana), O monks, that I call which the Buddha is questioned by Vatsagotra on the ten
karma; having willed, one acts through body, speech, and indeterminate question,[98] and the Buddha explains that
mind. (A.III.415).[86] a Tathagata is like a re that has been extinguished, and is
deep, boundless, hard to fathom, like the sea.[100]
[5] Dargray: When [the Buddhist] understanding of karma is
correlated to the Buddhist doctrine of universal imperma-
nence and No-Self, a serious problem arises as to where
this trace is stored and what the trace left is. The prob- 11 References
lem is aggravated when the trace remains latent over a
long period, perhaps over a period of many existences.
[1] See:
The crucial problem presented to all schools of Buddhist
philosophy was where the trace is stored and how it can Encyclopdia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 15,
remain in the ever-changing stream of phenomena which New York, pp 679-680, Article on Karma; Quote -
build up the individual and what the nature of this trace Karma meaning deed or action; in addition, it also
is.[87] has philosophical and technical meaning, denoting
[6] Bhikkhu Thanissaro: Unlike the theory of linear causal- a persons deeds as determining his future lot.
ity which led the Vedists and Jains to see the relation- The Encyclopedia of World Religions, Robert Ell-
ship between an act and its result as predictable and tit-for- wood & Gregory Alles, ISBN 978-0-8160-6141-9,
tat the principle of this/that conditionality makes that pp 253; Quote - Karma: Sanskrit word meaning
relationship inherently complex. The results of kamma action and the consequences of action.
(kamma is the Pali spelling for the word karma) ex- Hans Torwesten (1994), Vedanta: Heart of Hin-
perienced at any one point in time come not only from duism, ISBN 978-0802132628, Grove Press New
past kamma, but also from present kamma. This means York, pp 97; Quote - In the Vedas the word karma
that, although there are general patterns relating habitual (work, deed or action, and its resulting eect) re-
acts to corresponding results [MN 135], there is no set ferred mainly to...
one-for-one, tit-for-tat, relationship between a particular
action and its results. Instead, the results are determined [2] Karma Encyclopdia Britannica (2012)
by the context of the act, both in terms of actions that
preceded or followed it [MN 136] and in terms ones state [3] Halbfass, Wilhelm (2000), Karma und Wiedergeburt im
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[4] Lawrence C. Becker & Charlotte B. Becker, Encyclope- [18] Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 4.4.5-6 Berkley Center for
dia of Ethics, 2nd Edition, ISBN 0-415-93672-1, Hindu Religion Peace & World Aairs, Georgetown University
Ethics, pp 678 (2012)

[5] James Lochtefeld (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of [19] The words deed, acts above are rendered from karma;
Hinduism, Rosen Publishing, New York, ISBN 0-8239- see Brihadaranyaka James Black, Original Sanskrit &
2287-1, pp 351-352 Muller Oxford English Translations, University of Wis-
consin, United States (2011)
[6] Karma in: John Bowker (1997), The Concise Oxford
Dictionary of World Religions, Oxford University Press. [20] Bruce R. Reichenbach, The Law of Karma and the Prin-
ciple of Causation, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 38,
[7] Parvesh Singla. The Manual of Life Karma. Parvesh No. 4 (Oct., 1988), pp. 399-410
singla. pp. 57. GGKEY:0XFSARN29ZZ. Retrieved 4
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(1962), Buddhism in Translations, Atheneum Publica-
[8] Eva Wong, Taoism, Shambhala Publications, ISBN 978- tions, New York, pp 216-217
1590308820, pp. 193
[22] see:
[9] Julius Lipner (2010), Hindus: Their religious beliefs
and practices, 2nd Edition, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415- James McDermott, Karma and Rebirth in Early
45677-7, pp 261-262 Buddhism, in Editor: Wendy D. O'Flaherty (1980),
Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Tradi-
[10] Karl Potter (1964), The Naturalistic Principle of Karma, tions, University of California Press, ISBN 978-
Philosophy East and West, Vol. 14, No. 1 (Apr., 1964), 0520039230, pp 165-192
pp. 39-49
Padmanabh Jaini, Karma and the problem of re-
[11] Wendy D. O'Flaherty (1980), Karma and Rebirth in Clas- birth in Jainism, in Editor: Wendy D. O'Flaherty
sical Indian Traditions, University of California Press, (1980), Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Tra-
ISBN 978-0520039230, pp xi-xxv (Introduction) ditions, University of California Press, ISBN 978-
0520039230, pp 217-239
[12] Wendy D. O'Flaherty (1980), Karma and Rebirth in Clas- Ludo Rocher, Karma and Rebirth in the Dhar-
sical Indian Traditions, University of California Press, masastras, in Editor: Wendy D. O'Flaherty (1980),
ISBN 978-0520039230, pp 3-37 Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Tradi-
tions, University of California Press, ISBN 978-
[13] Karl Potter (1980), in Karma and Rebirth in Classical In-
0520039230, pp 61-89
dian Traditions (O'Flaherty, Editor), University of Cali-
fornia Press, ISBN 978-0520039230, pp 241-267 [23] Damien Keown (1996), Karma, character, and conse-
quentialism, The Journal of Religious Ethics, pp 329-350.
[14] See:
[24] Karl Potters suggestion is supported by the Bhagavad-
For Hinduism view: Jerey Brodd (2009), World
Gita, which links good bondage and bad bondage to good
Religions: A Voyage of Discovery, Saint Marys
habits and bad habits respectively. It also lists various
Press, ISBN 978-0884899976, pp. 47;
types of habits - such as good (sattva), passion (rajas)
For Buddhism view: Khandro Rinpoche (2003), and indierent (tamas) - while explaining karma. See the
This Precious Life, Shambhala, pp. 95 cited Potter reference; elsewhere, in Yoga Sutras, the role
of karma to creating habits is explained with Vsans - see
[15] see: Ian Whicher, The Integrity of the Yoga Darsana: A Re-
consideration of Classical Yoga, State University of New
Kaufman, W. R. (2005), Karma, rebirth, and the York, ISBN 0-7914-3816-3, Chapter 3, particularly pp
problem of evil, Philosophy East and West, pp 15- 102-105
Sharma, A. (1996), On the distinction between [25] Ian Whicher (1998), The nal stages of purication in
Karma and Rebirth in Hinduism, Asian Philosophy, classical yoga, Asian Philosophy, 8(2), pp 85-102
6(1), pp 29-35;
[26] Harold Coward (1983), Psychology and Karma, Philos-
Bhattacharya, R. (2012), Svabhvavda and the ophy East and West 33 (Jan): 49-60.
Crvka/Lokyata: A Historical Overview, Journal
of Indian Philosophy, 40(6), pp 593-614 [27] Francis X. Clooney, Evil, Divine Omnipotence, and Hu-
man Freedom: Vedntas Theology of Karma, The Jour-
[16] Harold Coward (2003), Encyclopedia of Science of Reli- nal of Religion, Vol. 69, No. 4 (Oct., 1989), pp. 530-548
gion, MacMillan Reference, ISBN 978-0028657042, see
article on Karma [28] Wilhelm Halbfass (1998), Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
Routledge, London, see article on Karma and Rebirth (In-
[17] Maria I. Macioti, The Buddha Within Ourselves: Blos- dian Conceptions)
soms of the Lotus Sutra, Translator: Richard Maurice
Capozzi, ISBN 978-0761821892, pp 69-70 [29] see:

James Hastings et al. (1915), Encyclopedia of Reli- [44] see:

gion and Ethics (Hymns-Liberty), Volume VII, Ar-
ticle on Jainism, pp 469-471; Y. Masih (2000) In : A Comparative Study of Reli-
gions, Motilal Banarsidass Publ : Delhi, ISBN 81-
Christopher Chapple (1975), Karma and the path
208-0815-0, page 37, Quote - This conrms that
of purication, in Virginia Hanson et al. (Editors) -
the doctrine of transmigration is non-aryan and was
Karma: Rhythmic Return to Harmony, ISBN 978-
accepted by non-vedics like Ajivikism, Jainism and
0835606639, Chapter 23;
Buddhism. The Indo-aryans have borrowed the the-
Krishan, Y. (1988), The Vedic origins of the doc- ory of re-birth after coming in contact with the abo-
trine of karma, South Asian Studies, 4(1), pp 51-55 riginal inhabitants of India. Certainly Jainism and
non-vedics [..] accepted the doctrine of rebirth as
[30] Obeyesekere 2005, p. 1-2, 108, 126-128. supreme postulate or article of faith.
[31] Mark Juergensmeyer & Wade Clark Roof 2011, pp. 272- Gavin D. Flood (1996), An Introduction to Hin-
273, 652-654. duism, Cambridge University Press: UK ISBN 0-
521-43878-0, page 86, Quote - The origin and
[32] Austin Creel (1986), in Editor: Ronald Wesley Neufeldt, doctrine of Karma and Sasra are obscure. These
Karma and Rebirth: Post Classical Developments, State concepts were certainly circulating amongst sra-
University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0873959902, manas, and Jainism and Buddhism developed spe-
Chapter 1 cic and sophisticated ideas about the process of
transmigration. It is very possible that the kar-
[33] M Yamunacharya (1966), Karma and Rebirth, Indian mas and reincarnation entered the mainstream bra-
Philo. Annual, 1, pp 66 haminical thought from the sramana or the re-
nouncer traditions.
[34] M. Hiriyana (1949), Essentials of Indian Philosophy,
George Allen Unwin, London, pp 47 Bimala Law (1952, Reprint 2005), The Buddhist
Conception of Spirits, ISBN 81-206-1933-1, Asian
[35] James Lochtefeld (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Educational Services; in particular, see Chapter II
Hinduism, Volume 2, Rosen Publishing, New York, ISBN
0-8239-2287-1, pp 589 Y. Krishan, The doctrine of Karma and raddhas,
Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Insti-
[36] Harold Coward (2003), Encyclopedia of Science of Reli- tute, Vol. 66, No. 1/4 (1985), pp. 97-115
gion, Karma
[45] Yuvraj Krishan (1985), The doctrine of Karma and rad-
[37] see: dhas, Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Insti-
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Wilhelm Halbfass (1998), Encyclopedia of Philos-
ophy, Routledge, London, see article on Karma and [46] Wendy D. O'Flaherty (1980), Karma and Rebirth in Clas-
Rebirth (Indian Conceptions) sical Indian Traditions, University of California Press,
ISBN 978-0520039230, pp xvii-xviii; Quote - There was
Ronald Wesley Neufeldt, Karma and Rebirth: Post
such constant interaction between Vedism and Buddhism
Classical Developments, State University of New
in the early period that it is fruitless to attempt to sort
York Press, ISBN 978-0873959902
out the earlier source of many doctrines, they lived in one
[38] A. Javadekar (1965), Karma and Rebirth, Indian Philo- anothers pockets, like Picasso and Braque (who, in later
sophical Annual, 1, 78 years, were unable to say which of them had painted cer-
tain paintings from their earlier, shared period).
[39] Damien Keown (2013), Buddhism: A very short introduc-
tion, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199663835 [47] Wendy Doniger (1980). Karma and Rebirth in Classical
Indian Traditions. University of California Press. pp. xii
[40] tienne Lamotte(1936), Le trait de l'acte de Va- xxiii. ISBN 978-0-520-03923-0.
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[41] Krishan, Y. (1988). The Vedic Origins of the Doc- California Press. pp. 165192. ISBN 978-0-520-03923-
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[63] Kragh 2006, p. 11.
[53] E. Washburn Hopkins, Modications of the Karma Doc-
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[65] P. T. Raju (1985). Structural Depths of Indian Thought.
[54] Christopher Chapple (1986), Karma and creativity, State State University of New York Press. pp. 147151. ISBN
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[68] Keown 2000, p. 36-37.
[56] J. Bruce Long, The concepts of human action and re-
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Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions, Univer-
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[71] Kragh 2001, p. 11.
[57] see:
[72] Keown 2000, p. 810-813.
Christopher Chapple (1986), Karma and creativ-
[73] Klostermaier 1986, p. 93.
ity, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-
88706-251-2; [74] Buswell 2004, p. 712.
Manmatha Nath Dutt (1896), Vana Parva - in mul-
[75] Vetter 1988, p. xxi.
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