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- Entrepreneurship for Rural Areas and Social Integration


Estonia, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Turkey, Belgium, Spain

This guide can be used by entrepreneurs

to open a small enterprises in their country or in

another six countries.


Introduction................................................................................................................ 6

The partener organizations.................................................................................... 7

Demographics........................................................................................................ 20

Education................................................................................................................ 32

Economical development and opportunities for rural areas........................... 43

Sources........ 55

Chapter 1: First steps in entrepreneurship.......................................................... 56

The practical steps that must be done by an entrepreneur to open a small

enterprise in that country...........................................................................................

Hints and advices.............................................................................................. 117

A comparative study between specific situations of the participating


Quiz time................................................................................................................. 184

Chapter 2:. Creative ideas and successful businesses presentations...................... 192

Exemples of creative ideas and successful businesses presentations 193

Methods for internet advertising......................................................................... 370

Chapter 3: Social entrepreneurship and volunteering work - solutions for rural

areas sustainable developmen.....................................................................................

Exemples of social entreprises............................................................................... 380

Some competences necessary for social entrepreneurship.................................. 518

Quiz time.................................................................................................................. 513

Annex 1: Legislation and specific conditions/country.............................................. 516

Study about the policy and legal framework for social enterprise in
participants countries..................................................................................................

Anexx 2: Good practices examples & E-learning platform and/virtual

Good practices examples............................................................................................ 537

E-learning platform and/virtual laboratory............................................................. 542

Anexx 3: Dissemination............................................................................................... 674

Anexx 3: Dissemination instruments.......................................................................... 550

THE PARTENER Presentation of each organization

Total number of population

Number of population who living in

rural/urban area

Age strucure
Unemployment rate

Overcowding rate


EDUCATION Education levels

Economical situation


ASCETIS, Association for Science, Culture,

Ecology, Youth and Social Integration is a not for
profit , nongovernmental organization located in
Piatra Neamt, Romania which is activating at
regional and international level as a private entity that
is connecting the local communities and organizations
with similar organizations from Europe with the
scope of social and economic cohesion.
ASCETIS main scope is to prevent poverty and social exclusion in Neamt county
witch is located in the poorest region of Romania and one of the poorest regions of Europe,
the N-E region, by promoting the touristy and cultural potential of this region, developing
education, training programs ,guidance and counseling to youth and socially
disadvantaged adults and to the trainers working with this categories of learners, promotion
of local values and environment protection.

Since 2007, when ASCETIS was created as a not for profit educational NGO with
very highly qualified and experienced staff, having 6 highly qualified specialists in
education as permanent members and collaborating with a wide range of specialists in
various domains the following activities were developed:
education and support of youth and adult people who belong to socially
disadvantaged groups;
development of environmental, scientific, cultural, sportive, educational and
social programs and offering of guidance and support to local schools and
NGO-s in order to extend their educational offers;
promotion of scientific and cultural values specific to Romania and especially
to its' N-E Region, promotion of European values to Neamt county population
by workshops, conferences, publications;
protection of the environment and diversity;
promotion of sustainable development and specific ecological measures within
rural and urban communities;

supporting socially disadvantaged students;
offering free additional training for students with poor results in school;
offering free additional training for students capable of performance;
offering authorized coaching courses for teachers/engineers/graduates of higher
offering initiation and qualification courses in very modern jobs as Web
Designer and Computer Controlled Technologies for youth and adults at risk of
social marginalization in order to increase their employability;
running training projects for disadvantaged students;
organization of environment protection actions, awarding the best volunteers;
education of youngsters to protect environment and to develop their skills for
sustainable development and cultural diversity protection;
entrepreneurial counseling and advice for young graduates that want to start
independent productive activities.

cultural-educational non-profit NGO located in
Rzeszw, south-east of Poland and operated in a
deprived area where employment opportunities are
scarce or non-existent, and that socio-economic
disadvantage translates into lower-than-average
income households. The lack of cultural, educational
and vocational centers and early retirement causes
stagnancy, regress and both intellectual and physical

The unemployment in Podkarpackie Province is high 14,4 % November 2014

(recourse: Statistic data of Provincial Labor Office in Rzeszw). Besides, many
families in Podkarapcke Province suffer of poverty ( 43,6 % of them comes from the
unemployed, EU 46 %), people without education PL 28,2%, EU 24 %, single parents PL
29,8%, in EU 34,5%, large families PL 38,6% in EU 32,3% ( recourse , Poverty-GUS
General Statistic Office in Poland , June 2014, Eurostat 2014).

VESUVIO provides non-formal and informal learning, training activities and cultural
initiatives directed to young and adult people in various area of learning according to
strategic framework for European cooperation including the correspondence with learners
needs shown by the local society and labour market. Its general aim is to develop the
values of respect for human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality in international
dimension by organizing European educational collaboration. NGO promotes
development of key competences including basic skills, as well entrepreneurship in

education, foreign languages, digital skills for active citizenship, employability and
business creation.

VESUVIO completed with a success a few international partnership projects under

LLP program in Grundtvig and Leonardo da Vinci Partnership sub-programs that
developed mentioned above objectives, being the project creator and manager. Organized
courses, workshops, debates, educational visits, local and international meetings,
conferences and other activities in different topics eg.(handicrafts, tourism, jewelery,
horticulture and flora , culture and traditions ) allowed to portrait VESUVIO as a
responsible partner and learning provider on European and local arena. One of the
partnership project LDV Cultural Treasure Hunt received the status of star project and
is placed in the official website of Polish National Agency.

International experiences and educational exchanges developed among our staff and
learners high tolerance to different cultures, religion what fully prepared the organization
to further international collaboration in new program Erasmus+.

Eesti People to People is a non-profit

organization from Estonia registered in 1997 and with
activities since 1993 as a chapter of People to People
International (PTPI) NGO. The purpose of People to
People aims to enhance international understanding
and friendship through educational, cultural and
humanitarian activities involving the exchange of
ideas and experiences directly among peoples of
different countries and diverse cultures.

Eesti PTP is committed to enhance cross-cultural communication within each

community, and across communities and nations. Tolerance and mutual understanding are
central themes

Eesti People to People has 20 members and more then 100 volunteers, many in rural
areas. Eesti PTP organised training courses for youth and adults. Eesti People to People is
active as sending and hosting organisation and participated in LLLP and Erasmus+
projects. Eesti People to People was partner in Grundtvig Partnership, Leonardo da Vinci
Partnership, NORDEN, NordPlus, DAPHNE III, EuropeAid and Erasmus+ projects.

Eesti People to People is active as sending and hosting organisation and participated
in many Youth in Action Programme projects in Estonia and abroad. Eesti PTP organised
mainly training courses in gender, media, communication and European Citizenship and

Eesti People to People staff members has Youth in Action Programme experience as
trainers, projects coordinators and group leaders. They hosted six projects during last 3
years and took abroad more than 50 groups.

The main topics for staff members as trainers are media, communications, gender,
European citizenship and values. All staff members have experience in Youth in Action
Programme, EuropeAid, DAPHNE III, Grundtvig Partnership, Seniors, Workshops,
Leonardo da Vinci Partnership and NordPlus projects as organisers, partners and

There are professional journalist, educators and trainers among Eesti People to
People key staff persons. They coordinated in Estonia Grundtvig Partnership project
Europe needs active seniors (2008-2010),EuropeAid project "Enhancing policy
coherence: making development work better (2009-2012), Leonardo da Vinci Partnership
project Cultural treasure hunt (2010-2012),Youth in Action EyoUth-Day
comprehensive non-formal learning for the futures European youth citizens" project
(2011-2012), organised Youth in Action Programme trainings in Estonia Gender and
Media (2011), "Young people as important actors in social media" (2013), European
Citizenship Education: Meanings, Understandings and Actions" (2013), evaluation meeting
Gender and media toward creativity and entrepreneurship (2012) and "3C in youth work:
Creative thinking - efficient Communication - active Citizenship"(2013) training course in
Armenia, also youth exchange Creative reading and writing access for youth to global
media (2012), DAPHNE III project Impact Of Relationship (2012-2014) and
EuropeAid project Makutano Junction: a multi-media approach to effective development
education (2013-2015). At the moment they coordinate Erasmus+ KA1 mobility for adult
project Reading the city in adult (2014-2015).

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Foundation FIS is a non- profit organization
operated in Rzeszow in south- east of Poland where
unemployment is very high. This situation leads to
increasing number of people endangered of social
exclusion. The main goals of the foundation is to react
on current economical and social situation and support
people in their professional and social life by
creatingequal opportunities for vulnerable groups,

professional integration of people at risk of social exclusion, supporting economic

development, including the development of entrepreneurship, promoting vocational and
continuing training, promoting labor mobility in the European labor market and social

Foundation collaborates with entrepreneurs/ designers, architects, handicraft artists,

jewelery makers, florists, tourist guides and others/ inviting them for sharing experiences,
for trainings, for helping people to find a job. Foundation has got good relationships and
contacts with local stakeholders and regional labor office subscribing and supporting their
employment politics and combating social exclusion. Proposed project isas an integral part
ofexistinglearning activities in foundation that could enrich international partnership and
help to elaborate new approaches in vocational training. European outline, sustainable
development, European and local labour markethave always been in the interest of trainees
and staff as well as European cultural and natural heritage.

The participation in Erasmus+ program is a great new challenge and space for sharing
new ideas, experiences, communicate with other people who are interested to open small
business and support them. It is also the occasion to getting know more about people from
different culture and find solutions for similar social problems. It is a chance to create
European added value, chance to create European dimension in vocational learning and
validate acquired vocational knowledge, skills and competences using EU tools such as
Europass or ECVET.
Staff of Foundation FIS has got experiences in international partnership projects. One
of them has been Leonardo da Vinci partnership project Making jewellery- small
enterprises for a big European crises ( 2013-2015), where foundation staff took a
considerable role in organizing vocational trainings for future jewelers providing experts in
handicraft and the support in organizational and logistic issues. The staff has also large
experience and expertise in the field of trade and entrepreneurship, as well experience in
international cooperation in vocational education filed and can benefit the partnership in
vocational and entrepreneurial trainings.

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The partner is directly involved with the working life in the context of vocational
trainings, cooperates very closely with handicraft market and is able to share its expertise,
experience and valuable insights from the perspective of world of work , what is the core
of strategic partnership and collaboration. Foundation can enhance European dimension of
informal vocational training, ensure that the project results and its future exploitation will
be applicable for other enterprises and creative sector.

Organisation - KOGED is a
non-governmental and non-profit
organisation from Turkey. As its
name implies, KOGED is mainly
engaged in activities aiming at the
cultural development of the
community, personal development of
individuals, charity actions and
awareness-raising campaigns for social

Hence, the organisation has been implementing non-formal training activities and
events such as meetings & amp; workshops to raise the communitys awareness of the
important social issues.

It has also been implementing national and international projects to achieve the
previously stated aims. Amongst the issues KOGED has addressed so far are equity,
gender equality, domestic abuse, womens rights, volunteerism, vocational guidance by
professionals ,intergenerational learning, social & amp; basic skills training such as
linguistic and ICT and the development of the civil society organisations. That is why
KOGED has been giving support to other organisations in the writing and implementation
of internationally-funded projects. The number of permanent staff is five. KOGED also has
a number of volunteer teacher/trainers who work on an on & amp; off basis. The
organisation has about 50 registered members plus a wide network of local
contacts(especially CSOs & schools).

KOGED has been engaged in social responsibility projects since its foundation&
gained a wide audience. It has organised several training workshops for adult learners on
the development of social skills, too. It collaborated with Kocaeli University &the local
government to implement a national project in 2014 which focused on societal gender
equality. The target group were disadvantaged women &youth who were trained to
produce cloth bags for sale. This experience will come handy in identifying the target
groups & plan the local activities tailored to their needs. Also, in a previous project

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focusing on volunteerism, KOGED volunteers trained a group of persons from low-income
families to produce handicraft to make money. KOGED is using its experience &wide
local and international network to implement & disseminate international projects

Bulgarian Development Agency (BDA) is a

non-profit association undertaking activities for public
benefit, established in Sofia, Bulgaria. The association
aims to contribute to the regional development as well
as to promote the democratic and integration processes
in the context of Knowledge society.

It is to be achieved through elaboration, localization and transfer of innovative

training and education products, materials and methodologies; analysis, transfer and
dissemination of best practices; establishment and promotion of centres of excellence,
establishment and popularization of VET networks; contribution to the process of
elaboration of EQF and validation of non-formal and informal learning in VET, etc.

Partner activities are mainly concentrated in the following directions, relevant to EU

Lifelong Learning Programme priorities:

Validation and recognition of non-formal and informal learning. In our projects

we have been working to promote the initiatives and the learning methods that
encourage and remove the obstacles that are currently present before the
recognition of learning outcomes and qualifications acquired as a result of non-
formal or informal learning activities.

Cooperation between all sectors of education, training and business making

education and training more relevant to the needs of the labour market,
improving people's employability and entrepreneurial potential. Our activities are
focused on the modernization of education and training in the context of
Information society, based on full social inclusion, contribution to the transfer of
technologies and innovations from the education sector to business and in this
way supporting the development of SMEs sector in Bulgaria; promoting public-
private partnership and establishing contact networks for the exchange of
efficient best practices.

Initial and continuous training of teachers, trainers and education and training
institutions' managers aiming at a higher quality of education by cooperation and
exchange of good practices in the related areas. In our work we are aiming at the

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improvement of the quality of the initial education of teachers, trainers and
practitioners as well as their managers by the acquisition of key competences and
pedagogical skills that will lead to their professional advancement and

Acquisition of key competences throughout the education and training system,

especially adult education for low-skilled adults, disadvantaged and marginalised citizens.
We have worked on projects seeking to improve the quality of training systems using ICT,
distance learning and e-learning, to widen access to adult learning. Our main objective was
the development and transfer of innovative policies, contents, methods and procedures
within vocational education and training.

M&M Profuture Trainingis a modern

consulting company form Spain founded in 2014
whose staffs has wide experience in managing and
implementing training procedures and activities
that give them enough skills and knowledge to
develop the activities related to a wide range of

The company is specialized in different spheres - development and management of

projects under different programs, creation of quality standards based in ISO for quality
management, need analysis, VET training and qualification, etc.
Our work focuses on the connection between business needs, organizational plans
and human resources management and we are constantly carrying out analysis in order to
develop and improve companies and their staff. M&M has a huge network that allows the
company to be in contact with other companies, foreign partners, stakeholders, laboral
market, consulting companies, educational institutions and universities, experts, public
administration, etc., and it works in close cooperation with all of them, which facilitates
precise knowledge of the reality and direct contact with the target group of the project.

On the other hand, M&M has a close professional relationship with different
organizations, such as incubators, business centres, social organizations and industrial
networks and collaborates together to create and maintain employment through the
promotion and implementation of high quality VET training, reskilling and qualification of
the workforce. M&M is member of the Chamber of Commerce of Barcelona, of the
Observatory of Women Business and Economy, partner in the Network of Entrepreneur
Women of Barcelona and Cornell de Llobregat and collaborator of the Labora Program,
led by the Local Institute of Social Services of the Barcelona local government. Therefore,
our previous experiences gave us a unique insight of the practical aspects of implementing
large scale co-funded projects and also provided us an extremely wide network of

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collaborating organizations from both Spain and all over the world. Their staffs have
actively participated and coordinated projects under different European programmes
(Lifelong Learning, Erasmus+, Europe for Citizens, National, Autonomous and Local
Calls) and as a result of this experience in national and international activities and
projects, they obtained the basis to participate, with a high level of quality and know-how
in a wide range of projects. In addition to that, M&M Profuture Training will be
responsible of organizing the World TVET Conference 2015 in Barcelona in year 2018,
together with the government and several TVET providers, a conference aimed at decision
makers and practitioners from the industries, GLCs, public sectors, learning institutes, and
skills centers, policy Makers, Leaders, Principals, Researchers, Educationists, and
Specialists, Administrators and Planners of TVET. Our participation in the projects
mentioned below gave us also the opportunity to produce and collect a large number of
innovative training tools and to improve several aspects of training methodologies that,
added to our previous experience in vocational training, made us a highly qualified and
experienced training provider. M&M provides the following integrated tailored services:
business consulting & support, analysis of training needs, pedagogical approach of
training and development of educational models, evaluation of learning processes,
promotion of workers and students mobilities to improve their training, experience and
profiles, design and creation of learning units and didactic materials, organizational
support & production and transfer of innovation and know-how, project planning,
submission and management, assistance in improving employment and initiatives (e.g.
orientation) paying special attention to women, young people and other groups in social
and labour exclusion risk.

M&Ms staff, as mentioned above, has vast experience in the implementation of

national and EU projects, with a specific focus on the Lifelong Learning Programme and
Erasmus+. They have implemented a large number of projects in many different fields and
will therefore provide projects with their experience and know-how, by exploiting the
methods and processes developed in these previous projects and further developing them to
meet the specific needs of the specific projects and target groups. As a training service
provider, M&M organizes, manages and delivers high quality specialized training for
companies, local and other public authorities which gives the company the tools to
implement and manage high quality projects.

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Centre Culturel de Habay (Habay Cultural
centre) is a nonprofit association form Belgium born
more than 40 years ago. In 2000 the association
evolved to the position of a recognized and state
supported Cultural center. This recognition is linked to
missions specified in different regional laws.

The main tasks of our Centre are the following ones:

Propose different activities in Education Permanente also known as Education

Populaire in France. This mission aims to help adult to better understand the
evolutions of the world they live in and give them some of the necessary tools to
act. This work consists in citizen mobilization, questioning the values of the
society, past or present events. This lead to different more activities like organizing
conferences, debates, exhibitions, movie club, depending of the citizen will and
To choose and program theatre and concerts for schools and for all the citizens of
the territory. This includes the artists company selection, renting the necessary
equipment and the theater, planning and producing the communication, assume the
technical and administrative aspects, the catering for the artists.
Organize a variety of workshops like music theory and practice, computer science,
cooking, advance training in WEB design, foreign languages, art, theatre, personal
To help local associations to develop their own cultural and social projects.

The Cultural center works often with the CPAS of the city (Centre Public
dAideSociale Public Centre for Social Welfare). One of the axes we are working on is a
program to help the most precarious persons of our community to find back or to access a
first jobs.

The first step is about self-confidence through different workshops using art as a tool.
The second module is more practical: CV and letters writing, simulations of phone calls,
interviews... The Center also propose different trainings, workshop and networking to
support people on their way to gain more efficiency in managing projects.

The city of Habay is situated in the south rural area of Belgium, in the largest rural
province of the country: Province of Luxembourg. The population density of Belgium is
above 350 inhabitants per square kilometer while the one of Habay is only 72.

Due to this atypical situation in Belgium, the Cultural center association has
developed specials skills to answer the populations requests. Since the launch of the

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association, the association organized workshops depending on peoples demand and
volunteers proposal.

They started first with language training with two objectives :

Share the others culture and traditions to better understand them.
Help to add competences to the population as as there was no other offers on
the territory for adults.

Habay Cultural Center works according to the regional laws of the sector. The
association is especially keen in activating and motivating citizen in formal or informal
groups to reach objectives they define together. This expertise is recognized as Education
Permanente and lead to events like the 14-18 commemorations in the community.

Technical College Gheorghe Cartianu from

Piatra Neamt, N-E region, Romania is a big
technological high-school with 1500 students and 82
teachers .

72% of the school students are living in rural areas, in the same time the industry of
the region is very poor because of the economical recession, agriculture and tourism are the
base of the economy in the area. A very big percentage of the region's active population is
occupied in agriculture.

The range of qualifications that can be obtained in the school is very wide and can
be divided into five major areas: computers and computer science, electronics and
telecommunications, mechanical and metalworking, construction andbuilding design,
textiles and leather, chemistry and environmental protection, food industry and services .
In each one of this areas they qualify students at level 2,3 or 4 ( VET school level or VET
high-school level ). For the 5 level of qualification they have also qualification offer in the
jobs Technician in Food Quality and Technician for Measurements in Constructions. They
also qualify adults for the qualifications: Technician in computer science, Worker for
building crawling, Worker for textile assembling , Welder, Locksmith for metal structures
and technological equipment.

The N-E region where the school is situated is one of the poorest regions of
Romania. The region has" the highest level of poverty from all Romanian regions and from
European Union ". The students are very often coming from poor families at risk of

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social exclusion. The industry in county is situated at a low level with catastrophic
consequences in creating jobs.

As a general consequence of the industry decline the unemployment rate is very

high and the graduates cannot find workplaces easily in the first years after graduation. The
graduates unemployment rate was 16% at the end of 2014.

Despite the demographic positive evolution, in the villages there are very few
young workers because of the lack of working opportunities. Most of the youngsters are
migrating to urban regions of Europe after school graduation.

Education and training offered by the school must be adjusted to the reality of the
workforce-market and because of the lack of working offers in the area it is compulsory to
train all the students in the field of entrepreneurship.

In a focus-group study that was have made among our students from terminal years
was discovered their need to be guided not only in how to start entrepreneurial activities in
our country but also in other European countries and in how to find the needed resources
for their activities.

The region of high-school offer good opportunities of rural areas development by


The hospitality services are well and continuously developed as a result of the fact
that Neamt County has many possible opportunities to excel in tourism marketing as an
economic development generator.

The natural environment of the region offers a wide diversity of attractions and very
good opportunities for development of small businesses and social entrepreneurship with
the condition of a good ecologic education provided to the population living in the area.

ASSOCIATION ERA is a non-profit and non-

governmental organization. Their work is targeting the
area of N-E region of Romania, to develop culture and
local communities by using of visual arts as practical

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educational means which has the purpose to promote the well-being of our community by
educating children, sustain youth and women's development as well as active aging in the
N-E region of Romania.

Another goal of the organization's activity is to promote and encourage a public

interest in the history, traditions, arts, crafts, language, and culture of Romania within its
NE-region and in Europe.

They use a high professional level of artistically expression for sharing this
values trough exhibitions, debate clubs, active citizenship, photo-voice,promotion of local
cultural values and preservation of cultural heritage. Their aim is also to promote peace
and democracy, tolerance and respect all over the world , to promote Romanian culture and
other cultures and languages by using visual art as an international communication
language because they believe that variety of arts and cultures make our world so

ERA cultural association promoted and also added a very important contribution to
the local culture and heritage through professional art works, restoration of important
monuments ,exhibitions , publications ,cultural, social and recreational programs and
informal education.

They are organizing painting and handicraft classes for children and for adults.

They established contacts with many important artists from Romania and from many
other European countries and they have affiliations with many organizations with similar
vision and aims.

They promote peace and democracy by using visual arts and youth voices expressed
in visual arts, and journalism.

Their activities are sustainable, they never got financing from European Commission
or other European founds but they get sustaining from their community and they are very
good and experienced social entrepreneurs.

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Total number of population

Total number of population in

Romania is 19.908.574 out of which
9735441 men and 10173133 women.

The distribution urbanrural is

10724248 inhabitants in urban areas
(54%) and 9184326 in rural areas

The unemployment rate in rural areas is 5,7% and the unemployment rate in urban areas is

Age structure:
age Percent
age 0-14 14.6%
male 1,628,220/female 1,541,914
age 15-24 11.3%
male 1,258,746/female 1,197,681
age 25-54 45.7%
male 5,021,370/female 4,916,576
age 55-64 13%
male 1,320,781/female 1,508,878
age 65 years and more 15.4%
male 1,346,864/female 1,988,841


Total is 41,1% and it refers to:

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Housing dark with insufficient natural light
House without bath / shower inside
House without toilet own indoor usage

In Romania overcowding rate is 52.3 % . This indicator is defined as the percentage of the
population living in an overcrowded household. A person is considered as living in an
overcrowded household if the household does not have at its disposal a minimum of rooms
equal to:
- one room for the household;
- one room by couple in the household;
- one room for each single person aged 18 and more;
- one room by pair of single people of the same sex between 12 and 17 years of
- one room for each single person between 12 and 17 years of age and not
included in the previous category;
- one room by pair of children under 12 years of age.

In urban areas more than 50% ( 55,6%) of houses are small houses with 1-2 rooms and in
rural areas 66% of houses are 2 or 3 rooms.

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Total population number in Poland is

38.478.602 out of which 18.551.719
men and 19.926.883 women.

People living in cities 60,9 % -

23.433.468, out of which
11.075.727 men and 12.357.741

People living in rural areas 39,1 % - 15.045.134 out of which 7.260.236 men and
7.784.898 women.

Age structure

age Percent
age 0-14
male 2,876,264/female 2,716,569
age 15-24
male 2,333,627/female 2,235,228
age 25-54
male 8,459,153/female 8,355,491
age 55-64
male 2,658,106/female 2,973,933
age 65 years and more
male 2,224,569/female 3,513,339
Source :

People living in rural areas, total number 15.262.250

Age groups distribution

age number
15-19 946524
20-24 1149562
25-29 1175786
30-34 1212145

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35-39 1161942
40-44 1068139
45-49 970597
50-54 1006303
55-59 1062648

People living in cities total number 23.216.352.

Age group distribution

age number
15-19 1091973
20-24 1372746
25-29 1753283
30-34 2040263
35-39 1900121
40-44 1568484
45-49 1348785
50-54 1484459
55-59 1852910

General unemployment in Poland in June 2015 / resource: GUS - Central Statistical

Office in Poland / is 10.3 %, out of which in Podkarpackie Region 13.1 % out of which

- Unemployment rate in rural areas

resource: GUS - Central Statistical Office in Poland June 2015

Men: Total 780.400 Women: total 841.900

age to 24 107.700 107.700
age 25-34 181.400 181.400
age 35-44 154.000 154.000
age 45-54 152.200 152.200
age 55 and more 185.200 185.200

-Unemployment in cities

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In cities of Podkarpackie Region average unemployment is 14,7%.

Major cities in Podkarpackie Region : Krosno 7,5 % , Przemyl 16,8 %, Rzeszw

7,9 %, Tarnobrzeg 15,0%



Total population number in Estonia is

People living in rural areas are in total
425,332 (32%).
People living in cities total number is
887.039 (68%) .

On 2nd quarter 2015 official unemployment in Estonia was 6,5%. In one year it decreased
for youth to 5% because increased the number of youth in age 1524 who have jobs.
In terms of employment, 68% of people aged 15 to 64 in Estonia have a paid job

Age structure

age Percent
age 0-14
male 101,018/female 95,204
age 15-24
male 72,318/female 68,373
age 25-54
male 250,244/female 271,450
age 55-64
(male 71,518/female 94,029
age 65 years and more
male 77,492/female 156,275

Total deprivation rate and distribution

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The percentage of people in the risk of poverty in Estonia is 23,5% total ( out of
which children 22,3%, adults aged 18-64 22,7% and elderly 28%).

Housing deprivation rate by number of items (% of population), 2009 in

Estonia is 13%

Housing cost overburden rate by tenure status (% of population), 2009 in

Estonia is 4,4%.
The deprivation rates by howsing problems: leaking roof 20,2% , missing
bath/shower 12,8 %, missing flushing toilet 12,2% , darkness 4,7%.


The population of Turkey became 77
million 695 thousand 904 people as of
December 31, 2014 census. Male
population is 38.984.302 and female
population is 38.711.602.

People living in rural/urban areas, total number and age groups distribution:
The number of people living in townships and villages (rural areas having population
fewer than 20.000) is 6.409.722 (8,2% of the total population)out of which male
population:3.228.312 and female population:3.181.410.
The number of people living in province and district centers (urban areas) is
71.286.182 out of which male population - 35.755.990 and female population -

Unemployment rate in rural areas and in cities:

Unemployment rate registered as 9.8% in the period of July,2015 while youth
unemployment rate including 15-24 age group realized as 18.3% with 0.1 percentage point
increase, unemployment rate for 15-64 age group occured as 10% without any change from
2014. Unemployment reached to 6.1% with 0.6 percentage points increase in rural areas in
2013.(Household Labour Force, 2013,TurkStat Press Release No: 16015, March 2014)
Unemployment rate was realized as 11.5% with 0.4 percentage points increase in urban
areas in 2013.
(Household Labour Force, 2013,Turk Stat Press Release No: 16015, March 2014)

Non-seasonally adjusted main labour force indicators, July 2014 2015 can be seen below:

25 | P a g e
Total deprivation rate and distribution

Severe material deprivation rate, which is defined as the percentage of population with an
enforced lack of at least four out of nine material deprivation items.

These items are arrears on mortgage or rent payments, utility bills or other loan
payments, etc., capacity to afford paying for one week's annual holiday away from home,
capacity to afford a meal with meat, chicken, fish every second day, capacity to face
unexpected financial expenses, households cannot afford a telephone (including mobile
phone), a colour TV, a washing machine, a car and ability of the household to pay for
keeping its home adequately warm.

Material deprivation rates were updated according to Eurostat arrangements for 2006-
Material deprivation rate, 2006-2014

In 2014 the material deprivation rate decreased to 29.4% as compared with the 43.8% in
*Income and Living Conditions Survey, 2014,TurkStat Press Release, No: 18633
18 September 2015

26 | P a g e
Overcrowding rate and distribution
In line with EU member states, Turkstat conducted population and housing census in
2011. This study was designed as a comprehensive sample survey which was based on
administrative registers.

Information which can not be derived from Address Based Population Registration
System, such as; household characteristics, labor force, employment, unemployment,
migration, reason for migration, disability and building and dwelling characteristics etc.
was planned to be obtained from 2011 Population and Housing Census. The survey was
conducted by interviewing about 2,2 million households in selected enumeration areas and
a complete enumeration was realized in institutional places. Enumerators collected
information by face to face interviewing method from about 9 millions of people.
According to this survey;the number of households in Turkey is 19 481 678, average
household size is 3.8.
Number of occupants per room (living room is included and kitchen, bathroom and
toilet is excluded) is calculated as 1.1.

TurkStat News release:No: 15843,31 January 2013


Total population number in Bulgaria is -
7 202 198 inhabitants out of which 3 502
015 men and 3 700 183 women.

People living in rural areas, - 73.1% of the total population lives in the urban areas, 28.3%
inhabit rural areas.
People living in rural areas:- 73.1% of the total population lives in the urban areas, 28.3%
inhabit rural areas.

There is a notable migration between towns and villages.

27 | P a g e
The table above presents the total numbers of migrants between towns and villages divided
by gender.
Total number of inhabitants in big cities - 5 211 209out of which 2 541 532men and 2 725
948 women
The total unemployment rate for the country is 9.2%, youth unemployment rate- 20.70%
21% of the total population is living at the risk of poverty
Overcrowding is more accentuated in towns , but in villages there are less possibilities for
providing proper utilities for each home.
Total number of dwellings in the country- 3 927 769, from which 2 604 893 are in towns
and 1 322 876 in villages. In 2015 there were 600 new dwellings build, from which non
were build in villages.


Total population number : 11 200 000
(in 2014)
People living in rural areas, total
number: 975 000
People living in cities total number:
7 600 000
People living in intermediate regions:
2 600 000

28 | P a g e
Belgium is situated between France, Netherlands, Luxembourg and Germany. There
are 10 provinces included into 3 different regions. The Brussel capital region in the center
of the map in orange, the Flamish region in yellow and the Walloon Region in red.

All those 3 regions have their own languages and government. Three different
languages are spoken in Belgium: French, Dutch and German.

Unemployment rate in rural areas: 7%

Unemployment in cities: 8,9%
Unemployment rate of Belgium (in September 2015): 8,5%
Overcrowding rate was 2,8%


Total population number in Spain is :
46.439.864 .
Spain's population density, at
91/km (235/sq mi), is lower than that of
most Western European countries and its
distribution across the country is very
unequal. With the exception of the region
surrounding the capital, Madrid, the most
populated areas lie around the coast.

The population of Spain more than doubled since 1900, when it stood at 18.6 million,
principally due to the spectacular demographic boom in the 1960s and early 1970s.

Age distribution

29 | P a g e
age Percent
male 3,791,781/female 3,575,157
male 2,370,289/female 2,212,511
male 11,158,451/female 10,752,197
male 2,662,055/female 2,799,379
65 and over
male 3,582,643/female 4,833,478

The rural environment in Spain covers 90% of the territory and 20% of population
resides on it (up to 35% including peri-urban areas).Applying standard criteria in European
official statistics (Eurostat) we determine the population that lives in urban clusters
(contiguous grid cells with a minimum population density of 300 inhabitants per km2 and a
minimum population of 5.000 inhabitants) and outside these clusters, which are called rural
areas. In Spain the Sustainable Rural Development Act (LDS MR) indicates that:
A rural area has a density of <100 inhabitants / km2.
Rural areas: geographical space formed by the aggregation of municipalities
or smaller local authorities with population <30,000 and density of <100
inhabitants per km2
Small rural municipality: population <5,000
Generally speaking, rural areas in Spain is characterized by low population
density, 19.79 hab./ Km2 on average.
We are talking about a population of 1.7 million people, of which 52% are
men and the other 48% are women.
Resource: Gonzlez et al. 1985, p. 82, cuadro 7 y EJR 2000.

Professional Males Females Males

Females - 2000
Situation - 1984 - 1984 - 2000
Students 10,00 11,7 32,0 39,4
Home 0,8 31,5 0,9 8,7
Workers 68,3 40,9 58,6 39,1
Unemployers 20,8 15,9 7,9 12,2
Agricultor 35,8 17,0 11,3 2,1

Rural population in the target age group

30 | P a g e
15 to 19 480.514 248.325 232.189
20 to 24 555.645 288.482 267.163
25 to 29 682.212 358.346 323.866

-people living in cities total number and age groups distribution

Urban Areas

Size of the municipality Total of inhabitants

From 5.001 to 10.000 inhabitants 3.877.467
From 10.001 to 20.000 inhabitants 5.131.973
From 20.001 to 50.000 inhabitants 7.422.185
From 50.001 to 100.000 inhabitants 5.857.902
From 100.001 to 500.000 inhabitants 11.014.339
Over 500.000 inhabitants 7.539.304

Total spain unemployment rate: 4.094.042 (sep. 2015) Date: Second quarter
- unemployment rate in rural areas

Activities Unemployed % var

Agriculture, hunting and 185.812 -7,76
activities related
Forestry and logging 11.543 -13,24
Fisheries and aquaculture 5.101 -10,67

- unemployment in cities

Activities Unemployed % var

Industry 391.140 - 1.02
Construction 451.874 - 2.14
Services 2.707.511 1.62

31 | P a g e

Education in Romaniais separated on 2 big levels:

I. PRE-UNIVERSITY education, divided into 5 levels:

1) Preprimary (kindergarten) duration: 3 years (is optional);

2) Compulsory education (consists of 4 years of primary, 4 years of
middle school and 2 years of lower secondary education)
a) Primary/ Elementary school grades I-IV.
b) Secondary/ Middle school grades V-VIII ends with a national
examination/ certificate.
c) Lower secondary education grades IX-X.
3) Non compulsory education/ Upper secondary education
High school XI-XII grades, ends with Bachelor Exam/
certificate. Professional education (1 to 3 years, preparing the students
for jobs: car mechanic, plumber);
4) Post-secondary education can last between 2 and 5 years.
II. HIGHER EDUCATION Bologna Agreement, it takes 3 years to
complete. Masters programstake 2 years and they are a prerequisite for
admission to PhD programs (who take 3 years to complete).
In 2002, the Ministry of Education and Research from Romania, introduced at the
secondary school level the subject Entrepreneurial education, on 10th grade (only one year
of study), 2 hours/ week. Unlike in primary education, students learn entrepreneurship
education as a separate subject and it is compulsory. At this level of education, the subjects
areas most likely to incorporate entrepreneurship education are economics, business
studies and careers education.
The general and specific competences of the curriculum are:

use of concepts specific to entrepreneurship education for the organisation of

knowledge and explanation of facts, events, and real life processes;

32 | P a g e
application of knowledge specific to entrepreneurship education in situations
characteristic of the market economy, as well as in the analysis of personal
development possibilities;
cooperation within different groups for finding solutions to theoretical and
practical problems specific to the world of businesses;
evaluating proper behaviours for a changing economic and social environment;
formulating opinions referring to solutions to community problems, initiating
and running businesses;
giving examples of qualities of a successful entrepreneur;
establishing, through cooperation with others, ones roles in a business
critical analysis of ones behaviour in choosing a professional career, as well as
of the availability for professional re-orientation in relation to the dynamics of
the economic and social environment;
evaluating the possibility to run ones profitable business considering the
interests of the community.
Values and attitudes:
independent thinking and action;
positively relating to others;
responsibility in entrepreneurship;
free initiative;
economic efficiency.


Entrepreneurship education in Poland starts in lower secondary education

(gimnazjum). The pupils at the age of 13 and 14 have an obligatory subject called Social
Studies. The subject, which lasts 76 hours, realizes three modules, one of which is
economic and entrepreneurship education (25 hours).
Entrepreneurship as a separate obligatory subject is included in the curriculum in all
secondary schools in Poland (for pupils at the age of 16, 17 or 18).
Entrepreneurship education has to realized within at least 76 hours, but it can be
broadened by the decision of headmasters of particular schools. The content of the subject
is interdisciplinary.
Entrepreneurship Education in Secondary Schools in Poland includes:

33 | P a g e
Education aims: Active and conscious participation in economic sphere. Mounding
the ability in team working.Mounding entrepreneurial attitudes. Developing the interests in
running up own business.
Education content: Entrepreneurial attitude and personality. Team working.Profit and
Professional and economic activities.Market and market economy.
Economic growth and its measures.Stock exchange.Household. Polish system of
Insurances. Enterpriseits forms and role in the economy.Costs and incomes of enterprises.
Investing and financing. Money and banks.Procedure of setting up a firm.Employing
employers.Labour market and unemployment.Economic globalization.Foreign
trade.Business ethics.

Education effects: Ability of team working and negotiating. Distinguishing between

different forms of investing.Ability of predicting and forecasting of the profitability of
economic ventures. Identification of basic forms of enterprises. Preparing documents for
setting up own business. Preparing basic tax documents.

School tasks: Help in developing the interests in running up own business.

Supporting pupils in gaining the knowledge and skills for entrepreneurship. Supporting
pupils in choosing the future career.

Practical vocational trainings

Practical vocational training may be organized in school laboratories and workshops,
in conditions as close as possible to real working conditions. Training can also take place
in practical or continuing training centres equipped with modern technology or at the
employers premises. Practical vocational training at the employers premises applies to
students of public upper-secondary schools that offer vocational education as well as to
juvenile workers/apprentices undergoing practical training
as a part of apprenticeship training. As a part of practical vocational training, traineeships
are obligatory for all occupations at technical and post-secondary level and take place in
the enterprises relevant for a given occupation. The period of traineeship lasts from 4 to 12
weeks, depending on the occupation.
70% of young people declare positive attitude to open own small business. The
motivation : independence - possibility to be as a self-chief.

The main emphasis in vocational education lies in acquiring professional skills and
practical experience. Vocational education system in Estonia is regulated by the Vocational
Educational Institutions Act which provides the basis for the establishment, maintenance,
transfer, reorganisation and closure of vocational educational institutions, the basis for the

34 | P a g e
right to provide instruction, management, organisation of studies, state-commissioned
education and financing, the rights and obligations of members of schools, and state
supervision over the activities of schools.
In 2013, the parliament passed the Vocational Educational Institutions Act that
fundamentally changed the regulation of the vocational education system. Among most
notable aspects are the following:
defining new categories of vocational training directly linked to the Estonian
Qualifications Framework;
extensive use of outcome-based principles in the evaluation and establishing of
qualification criteria for types of vocational training, curriculums and for personnel
working in the teaching and pedagogical profession;
establishing the right to provide instruction;
defining and implementing the use of the new unit (Estonian vocational education
credit points) for measuring study volumes.
Uniform requirements for vocational training are regulated by the Vocational
Education Standard.

In order to speed up the implementation of reforms instigated by the Vocational

Educational Institutions Act and the latest Vocational Education Standard, a reform of the
vocational education curricula and administration was carried out on years 2013-2014.

Vocational education institutions are primarily funded by the state. Vocational

education may be acquired either after graduation from basic school or after graduation
from upper secondary school. Since 2006 it can also be acquired by people who have not
obtained their basic education. Studies in the vocational secondary education curricula on
the basis of basic education last at least 3 years. The duration of studies in the post-
secondary vocational education curricula on the basis of secondary education is from 0.5 to
2.5 years.

In the academic year 2010/2011 there were altogether 43 vocational education

institutions in Estonia, 3 of which were owned by municipalities and 10 by the private
sector. In addition, there were 8 applied higher education institutions which also provide
vocational education curricula.
The network of vocational education institutions has been reorganized over the last
10 years. Several small vocational education schools have been merged to become regional
vocational education centres who serve as a bridge between VET education and labour
Students can acquire either vocational secondary or vocational post-secondary non-
tertiary educations in vocational education institutions. In 2000, the Estonian Parliament
passed the Act of Recognition of Foreign Professional Qualifications.
More about vocational education in Estonia here:

35 | P a g e
Tallinna Majanduskool provide education in entrepreneurship for students and adult
learners in cooperation with Department of unemployment

There are cross-curricular teaching and optional entrepreneurship education in


In Estonia, at the national level, several Ministries and the Estonian Chamber of
Commerce have adopted a policy document on the promotion of entrepreneurship
education entitled I am an entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship education is recognised as a
cross-curricular objective at all levels of schooling. Entrepreneurial competences are
among the essential competences that ought to be acquired at all school levels. In
secondary education, it is a part of the compulsory subject "Civic studies" and the optional
subject "Economics and business studies". There are methodological materials (guidelines)
available for schools and teachers to implement entrepreneurship education throughout the
country. Support available to schools and teachers is diverse. Examples include the
Enterprise in Schools, an initiative aimed at changing the curriculum and embedding
entrepreneurship as an integral part of the teaching. The ENTRUM programme presents a
different approach. Recognised as one of the best youth entrepreneurship programmes, it
promotes the development of the students entrepreneurial mindset and skills through
bridging school-based learning with the outside world.

ENTRUM is the Youth Entrepreneurship Ideas Contest and Development

Programme. It was originally launched by Estonia's largest energy company Eesti Energia
in cooperation with the Estonian Chamber of Commerce. The programme starts with the
concept of an ideal personality for entrepreneurial people and has set up a four-step
methodology to create the entrepreneurial mindset. ENTRUM targets 13-19 year olds and
bridges the gap between entrepreneurship education in the formal education system with
the non-formal education system. The age range is one of the most significant in terms of
formative years, as what happens during this time often determines life choices.

Junior Achievement Estonia for 20 years promotes entrepreneurship in schools and

organised many entrepreneurship events. One third of Estonian schools have been teaching
business in one form or another since 1992, mostly using a Junior Achievement

The only survey of the entrepreneurship activity of the inhabitants of Estonia

(Estonian Institute of Economic Research, 2004) collected information about attitudes and
involvedness in entrepreneurship. It showed that 11.9% of the 1,000 interviewed people
identified themselves as entrepreneurs and 9.1% as aspiring entrepreneurs (thinking about
starting a company or in the process of doing it). Almost four fifths of the respondents
were not interested in entrepreneurship and over 60% had never thought about establishing
their own company. In the same survey, 2/3 of respondents preferred paid employment and

36 | P a g e
less than one third preferred being self-employed (an entrepreneur). Comparing this
number to the Eurobarometer survey (European Commission, 2004), it is closest to
Finland, where 70% of the population preferred paid employment and 26% preferred
entrepreneurship. In the pre-expansion EU (15 countries), an average of 49% preferred
paid employment and 47% of the population preferred being an entrepreneur. Estonia has
been one of the most active countries in Eastern Europe with regard to creating companies
(Statistics Estonia, 2003).

In the years 20042010, the number of active companies per one thousand
workingage inhabitants increased by almost a third: from 49 companies to 72 (Statistics
Estonia, 2012). In the same period, there were several fluctuations in Estonias
entrepreneurship activity caused by the economic crisis The number of started companies
grew in the years 20042006, began declining in mid-2006 and regained a growth trend in
2009. The number of company closures began increasing in 2007 and decreasing again
from 2009. Information about entrepreneurship activity in Estonia in 2011 can be obtained
from the Estonian people and residential space census and workforce survey. According to
the census, a total of 7.4% of employed people in the age group of 1564 are entrepreneurs
in Estonia, including 3.5% of entrepreneurs with employees and 3.8% without (database of
Statistics Estonia). According to the workforce survey (Statistics Estonia, 2012), in 2011,
8.4% of employed people in Estonia were entrepreneurs, including 4.4% of entrepreneurs
without employees. In the GEM framework, active entrepreneurs include the so-called new
entrepreneurs and established entrepreneurs who are active during the survey.

Turkish national education is a state-supervised system .Compulsory education lasts
12 years. Primary and secondary education is free of charge in public schools, between the
ages of 6 and 18.
Pre-primary education
includes the optional education of children under the age of compulsory
primary education;
is provided as nursery classes within formal and non-formal educational
Primary education(1st&2nd Levels)

37 | P a g e
lasts 8 years;
directed to children between 614;
compulsory for all.
Secondary education(4 years,compulsory)
aims to prepare pupils for higher education, a vocation , life and business in
line with their skills and abilities;
directed to pupils aged 14-18.
Acceptance into a high school requires getting good scores in the entrance exams or
having high grades at primary school.
i. General secondary education aims to give general knowledge to pupils
ii. Vocational&technical secondary education aim to train pupils as manpower
in business and other professional areas.
Those finish secondary schools receive a diploma.
Those who finish vocational and technical secondary schools may take a
proficiency exam in their own professions. Graduates of technical high school or of 4-year
programs in vocational& technical schools are given a certificate to start businesses.
Higher education
University entrance is regulated by the national examination,SYS.
Universities provide either two or four years of undergraduate studies, while
graduate programs last a minimum of two years. Some universities also ask for an
additional year of English preparatory study to be completed before the start of
studies, unless an exemption examination is passed.
Higher education is free in public universities.
Entrepreneurial education is mostly provided by universities,the state and the
private sector in Turkey.Although,entrepreneurship is not included as a compulsory
subject in the school curricula,it is offered as elective course within the 9th/10th/11th/12th
grades of senior secondary schools. Below are some public&private institutions which
provide entrepreneurship education:

KOSGEB, Republic of Turkey,Small&Medium Enterprises Development

MEKSA,Foundation to Support Vocational Education and Small Industry
TESK,Confederation of Turkish TradesmenCraftsmen
TrkiyeHalkBankas (HALKBANK)
KUR,TurkishLabour Agency
TOSYV,Turkish Foundation for SMEs,the Self-employed & Business Managers
TOBB,The Union of Chambers&Commodity Exchanges of Turkey


Education in Bulgaria is compulsory until the age of 16. The school year consists of
two terms, starts on September 15th and ends in May or June. The education system
consists of the following levels: pre-primary education, primary education, secondary
38 | P a g e
education and higher education. Pre-primary education (ISCED97, Level 0) embraces the
children between 3 to 6/7 years old.
Secondary education in Bulgaria (upper level) can be divided in general education
and vocational training. The general secondary education on its part divides in
comprehensive one and specialized one. There are comprehensive schools of general
education (3-4 years of attendance) and specialized secondary schools (4-5 years of
attendance). The admission to the specialized schools is upon completion of grade 7 or
grade 8 and successful passage of the entry exams, corresponding to the school profile (in
Bulgarian language and literature, mathematics, humanities etc.)
General secondary education (upper level) is offered by:
Secondary comprehensive schools, they cover: primary school level grades 1
through 4; junior high school grades 5 through 8 and secondary school level grades 9
through 11.
Vocational secondary education is available at the vocational-technical and in the
technical schools. The vocational-technical schools offer three years of training upon
completion of grade 8 and 5 years of training upon completion of grade 7. Both result in
specialized secondary education.
Entrepreneurial education is not included in the compulsory curriculum in schools
but there are projects to include it in curriculum in the future. However, there are high
schools, which contain this type of classes in their curriculum. In universities,
entrepreneurial studies exist on both Bachelor and Master level.

Based upon theLey Orgnica de Educacinor Fundamental Law of Education,
education is compulsory for all children and young people who are resident in Spain
between the ages of six to 16 years, with primary education (primaria) lasting six years
followed by four years of compulsory secondary education (Educacin Secundaria
ObligatoriaorESO), at the end of which a Certificate of Education is received. All students
receive basic vocational training at secondary level. State education is free of charge in
Spain from preschool to 18 years.
The Spanish education system is divided into four stages, two of which are
Nursery and preschool (educacininfantil) optional
Primary (educacin or escuela primaria) compulsory
Compulsorysecondaryeducation (educacin secundaria obligatoria)
Uppersecondaryeducation(bachillerato) optional

39 | P a g e
As regards entrepreneurial training, no certificate is handed to students after
completing the entrepreneurship training, other than the grade they get when they complete
the subject.
All entrepreneurial lessons are face to face contact lessons. There is no blended
learning system and the minimum amount of hours dedicated to this program is 66 of a
total of 2000 for each VET program.
The students are taught subjects such as Business Innovation Factors, Selecting the
business idea, Internal organization of the company, Legal form and resources, Feasibility
of the company, Documentation management of the implementation of a business and
Project management business.
As for specific training to undertake entrepreneurship, according to the GEM project
in 2009 in Spain 31% of the active population (between 18 and 64) claimed to have
training, compared to 69% who said not having .If we consider only the group of
entrepreneurs, it is observed that 49% claimed to have undertaken specific training,
compared to 51% who said not to have it. (Resource: White Paper on entrepreneurship in

Education in Belgium is compulsory between the ages of six and eighteen or until
one graduate from secondary school.

40 | P a g e
Free pre-primary school is provided from the age of two years and six months until
six years old. The aim is to develop in a playful way the childrens cognitive skills
(creativity and independence), capacity to express themselves and communicate.
Primary consists of six years. Education in primary schools is traditional: it
concentrates on reading, writing, mathematics, music, religion, biology, history and so on.
In secondary education provides you a broad general basis with option like economy,
mathematics, sciences, languages and so on. In secondary school you have the choice of
general, professional (electricity, mechanic, bakery,) or technical education (art,
accountancy, secretary, ).
After all these steps you can work or going in College or university. Its up to you,
and your finance.

The enterprising mind can be approached on schools via associations such as LJE, JA
Europe to children from the age of 8 to 12. An animation is organized with the children on
the commercial environment (middle), the financial flow, etc. This program is free but the
request must be made by the teacher. The formation will be organized by the LJE or JA
Europe. Then an important point for young people is the creation of a small company. This
concept is available for young between 16 to 18 years old which is called Mini
entreprise. Thanks to a coach's help, the student set up a project which they are going to

41 | P a g e
defend by selling actions, etc to sell their products. This program cost 7 by participant. In
this project, the association sets up taxes and fines to confront them with the reality.

42 | P a g e


There is a large number of SMEs in Estonia, accounting for 99.7% of the countrys
non-financial business
economy (NACE
Sections C to I, and K)
(see table). SMEs,
however, are less
important in terms of
their contribution to
providing jobs and
wealth: 79.2% of
workforce are employed
in an SME, while 73.2%
of the non-financial
business economys
value-added was
generated by SMEs.
Furthermore, while the
number of enterprises is
comprised largely of
micro enterprises
(86.8%), the number of people employed and value added is more equally split between
micro, small and medium-sized enterprises.
There no special data in Estonia on attitudes of young people living in rural areas
towards professions or shortages differentiated by professions in your country. Young
people know that entrepreneurship is the way to solve problems with unemployment.
Unfortunately, many young people are going to look for jobs abroad and do not come back
to Estonia.
The 2011 survey also found that Estonian companies primarily enter foreign markets
through direct contact with clients, 69%. This has not changed greatly since 2008.
However, between 2008 and 2011 there was a huge increase in marketing (from 11% to
38%) and indirect exports (from 6% to 20%). More established forms of
internationalisation, such as licensing and franchising, or direct investments do not feature.
The reasons for this include a lack of exportrelated knowledge and skills for potential and
new exporters. The fact that one half of exporters are fulfilling ad hoc export orders is a
source of considerable concern. Only every sixth company has an export strategy or export
plan and export budget. Nearly a quarter of exporters claim that exports constitute a part of
their general business strategy. Random export orders are mostly taken on by smaller
companies (Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communication, 2011 and European
Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, 2013).

43 | P a g e
Young people would like to be entrepreneurs but there are problems with start-ups
and other financial issues.


In Poland social economy is in continous development but still at beginning.

The number of Social
Enterprises is continuously
increasing: in 2013
number of Social
Enterprisewas 936 in
2014 number of Social
Enterprisewas 1300
80% of social
cooperatives/ enterprises was
foundedby individuals, most
of whom
Most often,
cooperatives have from 5 to9
Volunteers benefited
almost every third social
More than73.5% of social
cooperatives/ enterprises
declared that they cooperated
with non-governmental
organizations, usually
throughex change of
experience and cooperation in
the implementationof
individual initiatives or

Social cooperativesare runby a groupof unemployed or social exclusion people.

Their main objectiveis to come back tothe labor market.The unemployedwho want totake
up suchactivities, mayapply for a grantfrom the Labour Fund/ European Social Funds.
Cooperativescan be alsocreated bynon-governmental organizations, churchesand local
Most cooperativeshave declaredactivities related to thefood serviceand
accommodation(18.3%). Every seventhledactivities related tohealth careandsocial
Young people living in rural areas with parents who are big farmers declare to

44 | P a g e
and develop family business being the producer of food.
Micro Enterprises have an important role in Polish economy in 2013 they been
1.630.700 and in 2014 the number of SMEs increasedto 1.754.400
The social economy sector in Poland includes a diverse range of institutions, some
emerging from the traditional non-government sector and others more closely associated
with the private sector. Over 19% out of a total of 64,500 non-government organizations
(NGOs) take advantage of the possibility of running an income-generating business


Commerce and Businesses has launched the 'Government Strategy for the Development of
the Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Sector by 2013' developed within a
project co-funded by the European Social Fund.

At present, there is a
draft Government
Decision on the
approval of this
strategy. The general
objective of the strategy
is the economic revival
and the support for the
development of SMEs
over 2010-2015.

The measures and actions proposed within Priority 'Promoting an entrepreneurship

culture and making entrepreneurship education efficient' refer to:
Continuous development of the education system in order to efficiently support the
promotion of an entrepreneurship culture;
Developing specific modules within the school curriculum, which provide students
with the opportunity to learn concrete things and the option of extending their
entrepreneurship knowledge;
Appropriate teacher training;
Supporting the partnership between businesses and the education system with a
view to promote entrepreneurship by developing curricula, in cooperation with
local businesses, which provide students with the opportunity of hands-on
experience through activities in a company. (only RO)

45 | P a g e
In Romania (as in Europe), SMEs are considered to be one of the principal driving forces
in economic development, because:
they stimulate private ownership and entrepreneurial skills;
they are flexible ;
can adapt quickly to changing market demand and supply situations;
they generate employment;
help diversify economic activity;
make a significant contribution to exports and trade;
play an important role in innovation and the high-tech business;
due to their flexibility and creativity many of them became large businesses;
they create more jobs than larger enterprises, while they are more flexible and
In Romania, more than 99% from all enterprises is represented by small and
mediumsize enterprise (NIS). Still, according to a survey made by Post -Privatization
Foundation, Romania ranks 17th in the European Union in terms of total value added
SMBs and last place by the number of active SMEs . According to the study, in
Romania 426 295 SMEs are active in the non-financial economy, the lowest density of
SMEs UE 28 , and these 2.71 million employees. Romania is thus 8th in the European
Union as a share of total employment in SMEs. Also, the added value achieved by SMEs is
25.8 billion.
In Romania there are small and medium sized firms 21.3 per thousand inhabitants, the
EU average is 42.7 of companies.
A study recently made among high-school students living in rural areas shows that
they are opened to any kind of job , profession or entrepreneurial activity but they are not
helped at all in professional development or entrepreneurial activity.
Most of the adults , teachers, educators consider that the most appropriate job for a
rural area is to work in agriculture or in alimentation domain , but they also consider that
jobs like medical assistant , medic , dentist pharmacist and other jobs in the domain of
health care can be done successfully in rural areas and the qualified persons that choose to
work in villages can make a successful career there. Social assistance and education jobs
are also considered appropriated for the youngsters that want to make a career in a rural
There are some professions like IT specialist , engineer in constructions ,
transportation, electro-technics, communications, monuments restaurateur , painter ,
designer ,bookkeeper generally considered as less possible to be done successfully in rural
All youngsters consider that social entrepreneurship is very necessary and it has to be
present in rural areas as much as in urban places .
In the same time there is not known the legal status of social entrepreneurship , who
should organize it, who should finance it. People are connecting social entrepreneurship
rater with social professions like educator , social assistant, teacher, youth worker than
with people concerned by society problems that want to use community resources to solve
the social problems.
They think that qualified people should be involved in social entrepreneurship and
people interested in changing society into a better one should also be involved in social
A small number of people think that the government should be involved in social
entrepreneurship by social programs.

46 | P a g e

Total number of
enterprises in Bulgaria- 307
115, from which : SME-
306.434 (99.8%), micro-
enterprises- 278.139, small
enterprises- 23 950,
medium sized- 4 345. No
information available on
social enterprises.
Before the world
economic crisis, Bulgaria
managed to become one of
the top destinations for
foreign direct investments
(FDI) not only on regional
scale but on a global one,
A few countries could boast about an inflow of foreign direct investments at the
rate of 30% of GDP only per one year. That is exactly what happened in 2007 when
Bulgaria ranked among the top countries with regard to attracted investments. The boom in
the construction and real estate businesses, followed by a credit expansion and a quick
increase in the domestic demand, was the main incentive for foreign investments in 2008.
The opportunities in the construction business and the related sector of real estates
attracted about 30% of the total foreign direct investments.
Nonetheless, foreign direct investments from 2000 to 2008 were not allocated to
these two sectors only. The boom of financial services, particularly loans to businesses and
individuals during the years of growth of manufacturing and consumption, also attracted a
serious share of almost 20% of all foreign direct investments during the 20002008 period.
Manufacturing got a similar share (17%) in the total amount of foreign direct investments
during that period of rapid economic growth. The sectors related to the construction and
the consumption boom such as the manufacturing of vehicles and furniture were among
those that benefited the most. Investments were also made in the trade and repair services
sectors about 18% of the total amount of investments for the 20002008 period.

Share of total FDI for the 2000-2008 period, %


47 | P a g e
The serious differences in the capacity of individual districts of Bulgaria to attract
foreign direct investments deepened the gap between the more developed and richer ones,
on the one hand, and the poor and lagging ones, on the other. The strong positive relation
between the main indicator of well-being GDP per capita and the cumulative foreign
direct investments (per capita) is clearly visible from the data pertaining to the two
indicators as at 2011. The correlation coefficient between the two indicators is 0.9 (the
maximum allowable rate being 1), which shows a high degree of approximation to
complete linear dependence between these two indicators that are important for the
economic development. This means that the districts with the most considerable inflow of
foreign investments are the ones that have the highest well-being and incomes, measured
by GDP per capita.

Investments and age dependence of the population

Developing a business needs human capital. Investors consider the available
workforce and, on their part, attract people who search for jobs. A correlation between the
investments inflow on the one hand and the share of people of working age in a district on
the other could be researched on this account. The data on foreign (FDIs) and domestic
investments (FTA expenditure) and the age dependency ratio on regional level, which
shows the proportion of the population aged 65+ to the population of working age (aged 15
to 64), could be used for this purpose.

Foreign investments and age dependency

The data on foreign direct investments and the age dependency demonstrate a clear
negative correlation between them. Districts featuring lower age dependency, i.e. the ones
where the share of the working-age population is relatively high, attract more foreign
investments as well. The inverse relationship is also true districts where there are more
investments, and more jobs respectively, also attract more people of working age that look
for jobs.

Sofia (capital) once again stands out against the rest of the country, featuring the
lowest age dependency ratio (22.7%; 28.5% being the ratio for Bulgaria in 2012) and the
highest cumulative stock of foreign investments (more than 9,000 euros per capita; 3,000
euros per capita being the average for the country in 2012). The districts of Burgas and
Varna feature a relatively high stock of foreign direct investments and a low age
dependency ratio. The districts of Sofia, Stara Zagora and Plovdiv have similar levels of
foreign investments, but can be considered more ageing districts. Vidin also stands out
from the most of districts, featuring the most rapidly ageing population (age dependency
ratio of 65+/15-64 was 42.8% in 2012) and one of the lowest rates of foreign investments.
The dominant sector in the rural areas is agriculture and the professions that immerge
from this field are typically distributed in rural areas and are not suitable for urban
The concept of Social entrepreneurship in Bulgaria rather new so at this point there
are no surveys available on the topic.


48 | P a g e
The number of SMEs in Turkey
was 2 695 131 in 2013.
The SMEs constituted 99,8 per cent
of the total number of enterprises,and
74,2 per cent of employment. The vast
majority of SMEs were active in trade
sector for the year 2013.*

At Statistical Classification of Economic Activities (NACE Rev. 2) section level,

39.9% of SMEs were active in Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and
motorcycles, 15.7% were active in Transportation and storage; 12.6% were active in
Manufacturing industry.
*Kk ve Orta Byklkteki Giriim statistikleri, 2015,TurkStat, Say: 21864
19 Kasm 2015
Basic Indicators according to size,2013(see the glossary below)


49 | P a g e
Giriim Says:The number of enterprises
alan Says:The number of employees
Faktr Maliyetiyle Katma Deer:Value added at factor cost

SMEs in manufacturing industry by size class and technology level, 2013


Turkish economy is heavily dominated by SMEs, with large enterprises making up

only a small fraction of firms.

50 | P a g e
European Commission: Enterprise and Industry 2014 SBA Fact Sheet Turkey

There is no specific data concerning the popular professions young people from rural
areas favour; Generally speaking, the most popular professions young people in Turkey
prefer to study after high school are Medicine, Law, Teaching, Logistics, Psychological
Counseling&Guidance, Architecture, Engineering (Computer, Industry, Electronics,
Chemical, Mechanical and Civil Engineering the most popular).
Among the fields students seem to prefer less are: Physics, Chemistry, Biology,
Maths, History, Geography.
The reason is the graduates of these faculties can no longer become teachers after
According to a study conducted by the Ministry of National Education in 2012,
while students at vocational&technical schools would prefer to study IT, electric-electronic
technologies, accounting&finance, child care education, machine technologies, clothing
production technologies, office management and secretarial work, many oft hem would not
like to make a career in griculturaltechnologies, plasticstechnology, animalhealth,
ceramics&glass technology, shoemaking technology, jewellerytechnology, airplane
maintenance and gardening.


According to the data gathered by CIRIEC International3 (2012), for the project
The Social Economy in the European Union, there are approx. 200 768 social economy
organizations, Spain ranking 3rd in the European Union, with a social entrepreneurship
employment share between 2% and 5%

51 | P a g e
- There is not any specific
data about the attitudes of young
people living in rural areas.
Statistics and reports give us
general information about their
- To set up a business
suppose to need a specific
resources and some of them are
found in rural areas and others in
cities. This means that the
professions related to theses
business have to be matched
with the specific resources to be

80% of young respondents answer positively to the idea of creation of their own
business. In fact, 40% said he had many ideas that can be converted into future business;
although are more enterprising men than women.
Resource: White Paper on entrepreneurship in Spain
A third of the Spanish pre-college youth, 35%, raises undertaking as a future
career path;
Young people with more entrepreneurial spirit in Spain are those of Castile
and Leon (38,3%), Galicia (37,9%) and Valencia. The least those of
Andalusia, Murcia and Castilla La Mancha;
Spaniards are who have the least European entrepreneurial initiative , 36%
less than the Italians, the most who want to start with 58%;
The students greatly appreciate the use of business simulators in their
Resource: Young Business Talents Report, 2015 Social research of young pre-
university students between 15 and 21 years, who are studying the 4th year, 1st and 2nd
high school and middle and higher vocational training courses

52 | P a g e

The enterprising mind can

be approached on schools via
associations such as LJE, JA
Europe to children from the age
of 8 to 12. An animation is
organized with the children on
the commercial environment
(middle), the financial flow, etc.
This program is free but the
request must be made by the
teacher. The formation will be
organized by the LJE or JA
Europe. Then an important point
for young people is the creation
of a small company.

This concept is available for young between 16 to 18 years old which is called Mini
entreprise. Thanks to a coach's help, the student set up a project which they are going to
defend by selling actions, etc to sell their products. This program cost 7 by participant. In
this project, the association sets up taxes and fines to confront them with the reality.
In 2013, Belgian real market economy had two hundred and fifty thousand companies.
Among which 247065 are SMEs
There is no specific data about young people living in rural areas preferences for jobs .
Here is a list of shortage professions: Butcher, Nurse, Cook, Electricity, Baker, Primary
school teacher, Civil engineer, Translator A large part of works can be done in urban or
rural areas, except a few jobs like these one: Car factories, Fishing, Iron and steel industry,
Aeronautics, Tourism for the urban areas and Forest ranger, Seasonal worker (fruit picker ,
Christmas tree cutter,) and Tourism for the rural areas.
However, the jobs offer is higher in urban areas because there are more companies, but
as the country is small it is easy to access the different cities even if your home is located
in a rural emplacement.
The young graduates are in search of sense. They are more and more numerous to
look for a first employment in a company which combines economic efficiency and
commitment to employees. And it is true whatever is their training, which they take out of
College, university graduates or of more specialized training. The social entrepreneurship
and the voluntary and united sector generally are particularly appreciated and offer very
beautiful opportunities. It is one of only sectors who continued to create jobs in times of
crisis and who continued to recruit young graduates.48 entreprises in social economy are
situated in our Province (industry of wood, cooking, agriculture, )

53 | P a g e

evelopmet in_Estonia
Household Labour Force, 2013,TurkStat Press Release No: 16015, March 2014
Small and Medium Size Enterprises Statistics, 2014,TurkStat Press release no: 18521
TrkiyedeGenlerinKatlmAratrmas 2014, KONDA Aratma ve
Danmanlk,GenlerinKatlmProjesi (PROJECT EBEKE)
Human Development Report ,Youth in Turkey,UNDP 2008
OECD(2015)Entrepreneurship At a Glance,2015,OECD Publishing,Paris, http://
SpainYoung Business Talents Report, 2015
Gonzlez et al. 1985, p. 82, cuadro 7 y EJR 2000.
JOseph Harrison, David Corkill (2004). "Spain: a modern European economy".
Eurostat Real (Rseau dtude et danalyse en province de Luxembourg) Tableau
de bord socio-conomique de la province de Luxembourg Edition 2012

54 | P a g e

55 | P a g e

THE PRACTICAL Specific rules and facilities offered to young entrepreneurs

STEPS THAT MUST BE and investors in rural areas by the government

DONE BY AN Some questions a young entrepreneur should answerto set


Hints and advices with good practices examples will be

also added by each partner
This part is translate in English and in all the other
languages of the participating countries

A COMPARATIVE Number of days required to open a business in the

STUDY BETWEEN participating countries and cost


VAT rates in participating countries


56 | P a g e


For entrepreneurs in Romania, there are the following legal forms of business
General Partnership;
Limited Partnership;
Limited Partnership by Shares;
Limited Liability Company;
Joint Stock Company;
Joint ventures;
Branches and subsidiaries of foreign company;
Authorized person;
Individual enterprise;
Family business;
NGO sector ( associations, fundations).

Limited Liability Companies (S.R.L.) and Joint Stock Companies (S.A.) are the most
common types of companies set up in Romania.

JURIDICAL FORM 1: Limited Liability Company

The main features of Limited Liability Company are:

57 | P a g e
At least one shareholder and maximum of 50 shareholders;
Separate legal existence from its owners;
Minimum required share capital of RON 200 divided into shares;
Minimum nominal value of share of RON 10;
Shares are offered to the public and are freely transferrable;
Shareholders are only liable up to the amount they contributed (value of the share).

JURIDICAL FORM 2: Joint Stock Company

The main features of Limited Liability Company are:

At least 2 shareholders (there is no maximum limit);
Minimum required share capital of RON 90.000 divided among a minimum of 2
shareholders.Value minimum required share capital changes every 2 years
according to the exchange rate, to keep the amount in RON equal to EUR 25.000
which will be announced by the government;
Minimum nominal value of share of RON 0,1;
At least 2 shareholders (there is no maximum limit);
Shareholders are only liable up to the amount they contributed (value of the share);
Shareholders need to pay 35% of the subscribed capital before submitting the
documents of incorporation. Remaining has to be paid within 12 months after the
incorporation date;
Ordinary shareholders meeting needs to take place at least once a year and within
5 months after the companys fiscal year.

Steps to set up Joint Stock Companies and Limited Liability Companies in Romania

Joint Stock Companies and Limited Liability Companies companies need to set up a
Constitutive Deed or Articles of Association which need to be signed by the
shareholders. The Constitutive Deed needs to contain the following: identification data of
the shareholders, type, name and registered office of the company, scope of activity,
subscribed and paid share capital etc.
Evidence of verification of company name availability and reservation
there of with the Trade Registry Office;
Deposit funds in a bank and obtain a document confirming bank deposit
of sufficient funds ( The list of banks in Romania);
The company needs to register with the Romanian Trade Office.
Register for VAT with the Ministry of Public Finance;
Register the employees contracts with the Territorial Labor Inspectorate.

JURIDICAL FORM 3: Non-governmental organization (NGO) - Association

The Romanian NGO sector is quite dynamic, with constantly high and
increasing registration rates of organisations. 20% of the NGOs are registered and
function in rural areas;
Most NGOs in Romania, are involved in the provision of social, health or

58 | P a g e
education services but also other community interest services such as youth or
Minimum required share capital is minimum salary per economy.

Steps to set up Non-governmental organization in Romania

Verification of NGO name availability and reservation there of with the Ministry
Of Justice;
Non-governmental organization need to set up a Constitutive Deed
and Statuts. The articles of incorporation and statutes must be authenticated by the
Deposit funds in a bank (heritage) ( The list of banks in Romania);
Getting a favorable sentences from the Court;
Obtaining the Certificate of Registration in the Register of Associations and
Foundations (RAF);
Register for VAT with the Local Public Finance.

The differences between Limited Liability Company, Joint Stock

Company and Non-Governmental Organization

Limited Liability
Joint Stock Company NGO (Association)

Minimum required share Minimum required share minimum salary per

capital of RON 200 capital of RON 90.000 economy
This is one of the reasons why some of the largest companies or multinationals
companies in Romania are LLC.
For a Joint Stock Company,
the shareholders need to
For a NGO the subscribed
pay 35% of the subscribed
For a LLC the subscribed capital heritage (
capital before submitting
capital must be paid before minimum salary per
the documents of
submitting the documents economy) must be paid
incorporation. Remaining
of incorporation before submitting the
has to be paid within 12
documents of incorporation
months after the
incorporation date
There may be elements of
heritage but they must be
Shareholders control the Shareholders control the
disposed of or used for the
social parts. nominal value
purpose for which the
NGO was set up
The number of
A LLC may have a single The number of members
shareholders must be
shareholder must be greater than three
greater than two.

59 | P a g e
The Board of Directors is
Any associate may block Decisions shall be taken by
subordinate to the General
the activity of the company. majority.
Evidence of verification of Evidence of verification of
Verification of NGO name
company name availability company name availability
availability and reservation
and reservation and reservation
there of with the Trade there of with the Trade
of with the Ministry Of
Registry Office Registry Office Justice

An LLC needs to register Joint Stock Company needs The NGO need to register
with the Romanian Trade to register with in Register of Associations
Office the Romanian Trade Office and Foundations
pay TVA
If the turnover is less than
pay TVA Not pay TVA
35000 euro per year, is no
need to pay TVA as a LLC



- What made you choose this type of business?

- How did you choose the name of the company?
- How did you get your idea or concept for the business?
- Have you the resources needed (time, money, knowledgebase, shareholders) to
start your business?
- Whats your companys goal?
- The idea is it already in the market?
- Whats the opportunity?
- What is the problem you are looking to solve?
- Do you have the skills to be an entrepreneur?
- How do you advertise your business?
- How do you advertise your product/service?
- What do you look for in an employee? The most important thing is that they fit
into your organization culture!
- What made you choose your current location?
- Do you work locally or nationally?
- What is unique about your business?
- Your company will have a profit? When?
- Does your company help the community where it is located?

60 | P a g e

Pentru antreprenorii din Romnia, acestea sunt urmtoarele forme juridice de organizare a
Societate n Nume Colectiv SNC;
Societate n Comandita Simpl SCS;
Societate n Comandita pe Aciuni SCA;
Societate cu Rspundere Limitat SRL;
Societate pe Aciuni SA;
Societate cooperatiste;
Sucursale i filiale ale companiei strine;
Persoan autorizat;
Intreprindere individual;
Intreprindere familial;
NGO sector ( asociaii, fundaii).

Societile cu Rspundere Limitat i Societile pe Aciuni sunt cele mai ntlnite forme de
companii nfiinate n Romnia.

FORMA JURIDIC 1 : Societate cu Rspundere Limitat

Principalele caracteristici ale Societii cu Rspundere Limitat sunt:

Cel puin un asociat i maxim 50 asociai;
Existen juridic separat ntre asociaii acesteia;
Capitalul social al unei societi cu rspundere limitat nu poate fi mai mic de 200
Prile sociale se mpart n mod egal, iar valoarea acestora nu poate fi mai mic de 10
RON/parte social;
Prile sociale pot fi cumprate i sunt transferabile;
Asociaii sunt rspunztori n msura prilor sociale pe care le dein.

FORMA JURIDIC 2: Societate pe Aciuni

Principalele caracteristici ale Societii pe Acini sunt:

Cel puin 2 acionari (nu exist limit maxim);
Minimum capitalului social cerut este 90.000RON mprit la minim 2 acionari;
Valoarea minim de capital cerut se schimb la fiecare 2 ani n funcie de rata de
schimb valutar astfel nct valoarea n RON s fie echivalent cu 25.000 EURO i
este anunat de ctre guvern;
Actiunile nu pot avea valoare nominala mai mica de 0,1 lei;
Shareholders are only liable up to the amount they contributed (value of the share);
61 | P a g e
Acionarii trebuie s plteasc la nceput un procent de 35% din valoarea
capitalului iar restul n decurs de 2 ani de la data nmatriculrii;
Adunarea general ordinar a acionarilor se ntrunete cel puin o data pe an, n
maxim 5 luni de la ncheierea exerciiului financiar.

Pai pentru nfiinarea unei Societi pe Acini i a unei Societi cu Rspundere Limitat n

Societile pe Aciuni i Societile cu Rspundere Limitat trebuie s nceap cu

intocmirea Actului Constitutiv care trebuie s fie semnat de asociai. Actul Constitutiv
trebuie s conin: date de identificare ale asociailor, tipul, numele i sediul societii,
scopul activitilor, capital social subscris i pltit etc.
Dovezi ale verificrii disponibilitii numelui companiei i rezervarea acestuia la
Oficiul Registrului Comerului;
Cerearea unui depozit bancar i obinerea unui document care s confirme
existena de fonduri suficiente( Lista cu bncile din Romnia);
nregistrarea companiei la Oficiul Registrului Comerului;
nregistrarea pentru VAT la Ministerul Fianelor Publice;
nregistrarea contractelor angajailor la Inspectoratul Teriotorial de Munc.

FORMA JURIDIC 3: Non-governmental organization (NGO) Association

Sectorul ONG romnesc este destul de dinamic, cu o constan rat de cretere a
nregistrrilor de noi organizaii. Un procent de 20% din ONG-uri sunt nregistrate
i funcioneaz n mediul rural;
Cele mai multe ONG-uri din Romnia, sunt implicate n servicii sociale, sntate,
or servicii educaionale dar de asemenea i n servicii comunitare, cu tineret sau
Minimul ce capital cerut este salariu mimim pe economie.

Pai pentru nfiinarea unui ONG n Romnia

Verificarea disponibilitii numelui i rezervarea acestuia se face la Ministry Of

ntocmirea Actului Constitutiv i a Statutului. Acestea trebuie autentificate de un
Constituirea patrimoniului prin depoyit la o banc ( Lista cu bncile din Romnia);
Obinerea unei sentine favorabile de la Judectorie;
Obinerea Certificatului de nregistrare de la Regstrul Asociaiilor i Fundaiilor
Obinere cod fiscal de la Local Public Finance.

Diferene ntre Societatea cu Rspundere Limitat, Societatea pe Aciuni

i Organizaia Nonguvernamental

62 | P a g e
Limited Liability Company Joint Stock Company NGO (Association)

Minimum capitalului social Minimum capitalului social

Salariu minim pe economie
cerut este 200RON cerut este 90.000RON
Acesta este unul dintre motivele pentru care unele mari companii i multinaionale din
Romnia sunt Societi cu Rspundere Limitat.
Pentru un SA trebuie pltit Pentru un ONG
la nceput un procent de capitalul social -
Pentru un SRL capitalul
35% din valoarea patrimoniul (un salariu
trebuie depus nainte de
capitalului iar restul n minim pe economie)
nmatricularea societii
decurs de 2 ani de la data trebuie pltit nainte de
nmatriculrii societii nmatriculare
Dac exist elemente de
patrimoniu, acestea trebuie
Asociaii controleaz pri Acionarii controleaz
donate sau folosite in
sociale aciuni
scopul pentru careONG-ul
a fost constituit
Un SRL poate avea un Numrul de acionari Numrul de membri trebuie
singur asociat (asociat unic) trebuie s fie mai mare ca 2 s fie mai mare ca 3
Consiliul de administraie
Orice acionar poate bloca Deciziile pot fi luate prin
este subordonat Adunrii
activitatea companiei majoritate de voturi
Evidena, verificarea i Evidena, verificarea i
Verificarea i rezervarea
rezervarea numelui rezervarea numelui
numelui se face la
companiei se face la companiei se face la
Ministerul de Justiie
Registrul Comerului Registrul Comerului
Un SRL trebuie s se Un SA trebuie s se Un ONG trebuie s fie
nregistreze la Oficiul nregistreze la Oficiul nscris n Registrul
Registrului Comertului Registrului Comertului Asociaiilor i Fundaiilor
Pltitoare de TVA
Dac cifra de afaceri este
mai mic de 35000EURO Sunt pltitoare de TVA Nepltitoare de TVA
nu este nevoie s fie pltit

Cteva ntrebri la care ar trebui s rspund un tnr antreprenor,

pentru a porni o afacere

- Ce te-a fcut s alegi acest tip de afacere?

- Cum ai ales numele companiei?
63 | P a g e
- Cum i-a venit ideea sau conceptul afacerii?
- Dispui de resursele necesare (timp, bani, cunotine de baz, asociai) pentru a-i ncepe
- Care este scopul (obiectivul) companiei tale?
- Ideea exist deja pe pia?
- Care este oportunitatea?
- Ce problem vrei s rezolvi?
- Ai aptiudinile necesare pentru a fi un antreprenor?
- Cum ii promovezi afacerea?
- Cum ii promovezi produsele/serviciile?
- Cum ii alegi angajaii? Cel mai important lucru este ca acetia s se potriveasc culturii
organizaionale din companie.
- Ce te-a fcut s alegi locaia?
- Vei lucra la nivel local sau naional?
- Ce este unic n afacerea ta?
- Compania ta va avea profit? Cnd?
- Compania ta ajut comunitatea n care se afl?


An young entrepreneur can start up business on the day of submission of an application

for entry in the register to the Central Registration and Information on Business (CEIDG)
or after the date of entry in the National Court Register. EU citizens may pursue business
activity in Poland under the same rules as Polish citizens.


Measure 1 submission of an application for registration to the Central Registration and

Information on Business (CEIDG)

Applications for registration in CEIDG can be submitted via a digital form available on
the CEIDG website: Such applications must be signed using a digital
signature or a signature certified by a trusted profile of a digital platform of public
administration services (ePUAP elektroniczna platforma usug administracji publicznej).

64 | P a g e
Applications can also be submitted on the relevant form at a selected local authorities
office, personally or by registered mail (in such case the application has to be signed by the
applicant and the signature has to be certied by a notary).

Each application for registration in the CEIDG should have attached a declaration about
absence of judgments with a prohibition on the pursuit of business activity, a prohibition
on practicing a specific profession and a prohibition on pursuit of an activity that is
connected with upbringing, treatment, education or care of minors.

After submission of an online application for entry in CEIDG, applicants receive a relevant
confirmation of receipt to the e-mail address specified in the application. If the application
is submitted personally, the local authority office confirms its receipt.

The data provided in the application for entry in CEIDG are sent, without the trader's
involvement, to the competent revenue office, statistical office and Social Insurance
Institution or Agricultural Social Insurance Fund with information about the entry to

An application for registration in CEIDG is, at the same time, an application for the award
of REGON number (National Business Registry Number), an application for the award
of a NIP number (Tax Identication Number) and a taxpayers registration for
contributions paid to the Social Insurance Institution, as well as a declaration of the
selected form of taxation. VAT registration application can be attached to the application
for registration in CEIDG. REGON number provides general characteristics of the entities
operating in Poland .NIP (Tax Identication Number) is a ten-digit code used to identify
entities that pay taxes in Poland.

Social insurance contributions (for retirement and disability pension insurance, for sickness
and accident insurance) and health insurance contributions should be paid each month.

The following information should be provided in the application:

specification of the entrepreneur and their PESEL number (personal identification

date of birth;
address of home, address of business operations;
entrepreneurs NIP number;
specication of business (in accordance with the Polish Classication of
Activities, PKD),
the date of starting business operations;
the form of the income tax to be paid;
telephone number and e-mail address.

An application for registration in CEIDG is free of charge. Declaration of VAT

statements is paid - fee PLN 170.

Measure 2 business stamp

65 | P a g e
The business stamp might be useful for financial and banking purposes. It should contain
(at least) the following data: full business name, registered seat and Tax Identification
Number (NIP).

Measure 3 opening a business bank account

An entrepreneur in Poland is not obliged to have a bank account. Nonetheless, a bank

account is necessary to conduct major financial transactions and facilitates handling of
formal matters at offices. To open a bank account, the following documents are required:

identity card;
certificate of registration in CEIDG in the form of a printout from the CEIDG
a copy of the REGON number (original available for inspection);
the business stamp.


1. Civil law partnership

A civil law partnership has no legal personality. The partnership is not formed by
an entrepreneur, but by the partners who register as entrepreneurs in the business activity
register. In order to register a civil law partnership, no capital is required. All partners are
jointly and severally liable for the partnerships liabilities.

2. Partnerships

1) General partnership the basic form of a partnership. Its characteristic feature is

the scope of the partners liability. Each partner has the representation right.

2) Limited liability partnership intended exclusively for the practice of liberal

professions freelancers listed in the Code of Commercial Companies and Partnerships. A
partner in the partnership is not held liable for the partnerships liabilities arising from the
practice of a freelancers by other partners in the partnership.

3) Limited partnership intended both for natural and legal persons and enables
significant limitation of liability. At least one of the partners the unlimited partner has
unlimited liability for the partnership's liabilities, whereas the liability of other partners
the limited partners is limited to a specied amount, which is referred to limited partner

4) Limited joint-stock partnership intended for large-scale business operations.

The minimum contribution of PLN 50,000 (12.500 EURO ) is required. The scope of
liability in a limited joint-stock partnership is regulated the same way as in a limited

More information: Central Registration and Information on Business (CEIDG)

66 | P a g e Ministry of Economy Ministry of Justice (tab National registers) Polish Agency for Enterprise Development provides assistance
to persons who want to open their own business, and to the already operating businesses - Social Insurance Institution National Tax Information Central Statistical Office - Polish Information and Foreign Investment Agency, portal for small and medium-sized enterprises run by Group - National Court
Register (access to the National Court Register is also available at the Ministry of Justice
website, tab National registers)


Mody przedsibiorca moe rozpocz dziaalno gospodarcz w dniu zoenia wniosku o

wpis do rejestru do Centralnej Ewidencji i Informacji o dziaalnoci (CEIDG) lub od daty
wpisu do Krajowego Rejestru Sdowego. Obywatele UE mog prowadzi dziaalno
gospodarcz w Polsce na takich samych zasadach jak obywatele polscy.


Dziaanie 1 - zoenie wniosku o rejestracj do Centralnej Ewidencji i Informacji o

Business (CEIDG)

Wnioski o rejestracj w CEIDG mona skada za porednictwem formularza cyfrowej

dostpne na stronie internetowej CEIDG: Takie wnioski musz by
podpisane za pomoc podpisu cyfrowego albo podpisu certyfikowany przez zaufany profil
cyfrowej platformy usug administracji publicznej (ePUAP - Elektroniczna Platforma
Usug Administracji Publicznej).

Wnioski mona rwnie skada na odpowiednim formularzu w wybranym biurze lokalnej

gminy, osobicie lub listem poleconym (w takim przypadku wniosek musi by podpisany
w obecnoci notariusza).

Do kadego wniosku o rejestracj w CEIDG naley doczy owiadczenie o braku

orzecze o zakazie prowadzenia dziaalnoci gospodarczej, o braku zakazu wykonywania
okrelonego zawodu i braku zakazu wykonywania dziaalnoci, ktra jest poczona z
wychowaniem, terapi, edukacj lub opiek nieletnich.

Po zoeniu wniosku on-line do wpisu w CEIDG, wnioskodawca otrzyma odpowiednie

potwierdzenie odbioru na adres e-mail wskazany w zgoszeniu. Jeeli wniosek zostanie

67 | P a g e
zoony osobicie, gmina biura potwierdza jego odbir.

Dane zawarte we wniosku o wpis do CEIDG s wysyane, bez udziau przedsibiorcy, do

waciwego urzdu skarbowego, urzdu statystycznego oraz Zakadu Ubezpiecze
Spoecznych lub Kasy Rolniczego Ubezpieczenia Spoecznego z informacjami o wpisie do

Wniosek o rejestracj w CEIDG jest jednoczenie wnioskiem o przyznanie numeru

REGON ( Numer Krajowego Biznesu ), wnioskiem o przyznanie numeru NIP (Numer
Identyfikacji Podatkowej) i rejestracj podatnika do Zakadu Ubezpiecze Spoecznych, a
take deklaracj wybranej formy opodatkowania. Wniosek o VAT moe by doczony do
wniosku o rejestracj w CEIDG. Numer REGON to informacja o polskich podmiotach
gospodarczych (nie tylko przedsibiorcw). NIP (Numer podatkowy) to
dziesiciocyfrowy kod uywany do identyfikacji podmiotw, ktre pac podatki w Polsce.

Skadki na ubezpieczenia spoeczne (na emerytury i ubezpieczenia rentowe, na

ubezpieczenie chorobowe i wypadkowe) oraz skadki na ubezpieczenie zdrowotne
powinny by opacane co miesic.

Ponisze informacje powinny by zawarte we wniosku:

okrelenie przedsibiorcy- (osobisty numer identyfikacyjny-PESEL)

data urodzenia
adres zamieszkania przedsibiorcy i adres wykonywania dziaalnoci
numer NIP przedsibiorcy
specyfikacja dziaalnoci gospodarczej (zgodnie z PKD)
data rozpoczcia dziaalnoci gospodarczej
forma podatku dochodowego do zapaty
numer telefonu i adres e-mail

Wniosek o rejestracj w CEIDG jest bezpatny. Deklaracja VAT (zgoszenie wniosku)

obejmuje opat - obecnie 170 z.

Dziaanie 2 - piecz firmy

Piecz firmy do celw finansowych i bankowych. Powinna ona zawiera : nazw firmy,
adres firmy i numer identyfikacji podatkowej (NIP).

Dziaanie 3 - otwarcie konta bankowego biznesu

Przedsibiorca w Polsce nie jest zobowizany do posiadania rachunku bankowego.
Niemniej jednak, konto bankowe jest niezbdne do prowadzenia wikszych transakcji
finansowych i uatwia prowadzenie spraw formalnych w urzdach. Aby otworzy konto w
banku, wymagane s nastpujce dokumenty:
dowd osobisty,
zawiadczenie o wpisie w CEIDG w formie wydruku ze strony internetowej CEIDG,
kopia zawiadczenia o przyznanie numeru REGON (orygina do wgldu),
piecz firmowa

68 | P a g e

1. Spka prawa cywilnego

Spka cywilna nie posiada osobowoci prawnej. Partnerstwo nie jest tworzone przez
przedsibiorc, ale przez partnerw, ktrzy zarejestruj si jako przedsibiorcy w
ewidencji dziaalnoci gospodarczej. W celu rejestracji spki cywilnej nie jest wymagany
kapita. Wszyscy partnerzy s odpowiedzialni solidarnie za zobowizania partnerstwa.

2. Spki partnerskie

1) Spka jawna - podstawowa forma spki osobowej. Jej cech jest peny zakres
odpowiedzialnoci wszystkich wsplnikw. Kady partner ma prawo reprezentacji.

2) Spka z ograniczon odpowiedzialnoci - przeznaczone wycznie do uprawiania

wolnych zawodw wymienionych w Kodeksie spek handlowych. Partner w spce nie
ponosi odpowiedzialnoci za zobowizania partnerstwa wynikajce z praktyki wolnego
zawodu przez pozostaych partnerw w ramach spki.

3) Spka komandytowa - przeznaczona jest zarwno dla osb fizycznych i prawnych,

oraz umoliwia znaczne ograniczenie odpowiedzialnoci. Co najmniej jeden z partnerw
ma nieograniczon odpowiedzialno za zobowizania spki, natomiast
odpowiedzialno pozostaych wsplnikw komandytariuszy, jest ograniczona do kwoty
wkadu partnera.

4) Spka komandytowa akcyjna - przeznaczona dla prowadzenia dziaalnoci

gospodarczej na du skal. Zgodnie z obowizujcymi przepisami, wymagany jest
minimalny wkad 50.000 z (ok. 12.500 euro). Zakres odpowiedzialnoci w spce
komandytowej-akcyjnej jest regulowany w taki sam sposb, jak w spce komandytowej.


69 | P a g e
Selecting the form of business

The first stage in establishing a company is selecting the form of business, which depends
most of all on your companys area of activity and related risks and needs, amount of
capital and objectives.

The most common forms of business in Estonia are sole proprietor (FIE), private limited
company (O) and public limited company (AS).

A sole proprietor (also referred to here by its Estonian acronym, FIE) is a form of business
that is best suited to those who are going into business alone or with their family.

The advantages of operating as a FIE:

No minimum capital requirement.

Registration is simple.
Sole proprietors are not required to have articles of association.
However, sole proprietors have unlimited personal liability for debts incurred in
How to be a FIE, read here:

The private limited company (osahing or O in Estonian) is the most common form of
business in Estonia.

The advantages of the private limited company:

simple and quick registration;
a relatively low share capital requirement (2500 euros);
shareholders have no personal proprietary liability for the private limited
companys obligations.

From 01.01.2011 a private limited company can be established without contributing

the share capital if the proposed area of activity does not require capital investments. The
share capital of such a company will be formed by the liabilities of the founders amounting
to the sum they promised to provide as share capital contribution.

How to start O, read here:

The public limited company (aktsiaselts or AS in Estonian) is the form of business with the
highest capital requirement (at least 25,000 euros) and must have a multi-tiered
management structure.

The advantages of the public limited company are the following:

70 | P a g e
the possibility of listing the company on the stock exchange;
the possibility of involving a wide number of shareholders;
suitable for implementing major projects;
shareholders have no personal proprietary liability for the public limited companys

How to start AS, read here:

Operations in establishing a company

When you have settled on a suitable form of business, selected a business name and area of
activity, you can begin registering the company.

There are two ways of doing so:

electronic registration via the e-Commercial Registers Company Registration

through a notary.
The Commercial Register registrar will enter your company into the Commercial Register.
The notary will prepare the necessary documents for you. The notarys office will have all
of the samples of documents and templates necessary for founding companies. Registering
a company through a notary will usually take 2-3 days.

Here you can make electronic registration of your company:

Registering an Internet domain is optional when establishing a company. If you want to create a
homepage for the company, an appropriate domain should be registered in time.Before registering
a domain name, make sure that the domain name you want is available. You cannot register two
identical domains. Check domain availability on the homepage of the Estonian Internet Foundation

Read more about the establishing the company in Estonia here:

Other useful links to start business in Estonia: - Portaal ettevtetele (portal for entrepreneurs) - Notarite Koda (about notarys offices)

71 | P a g e - Krediidi info ja haldusksimused (about credints and loans) - Maksuamet (about taxes) - Registrite ja Infossteemide Keskus (about registration) palgakalkulaator (how to calculate salories) (about accounting)


Ettevtlusvormi valik

Ettevtte loomise esimeseks etapiks on ettevtlusvormi valik, mis sltub ennekike teie
ettevtte tegevusalast ja sellega seotud riskidest ning vajadustest, rahalistest ressurssidest
ja eesmrkidest. Kige levinumad ettevtlusvormid Eestis on fsilisest isikust ettevtja
(FIE), osahing (O) ning aktsiaselts (AS).
Fsilisest isikust ettevtja (edaspidi FIE) on ettevtlusvorm, mis sobib kige paremini
nendele, kes alustavad tegevust ksi vi koos perega.
FIE-na tegutsemise eelised:
minimaalse kapitali nue puudub;
registreerimine on lihtne;
FIE-l ei pea olema phikirja.
Samas vastutab FIE ettevtlusega tekkinud kohustuste eest kogu oma isikliku

Rohkem info siin:

Osahing on enimlevinud ettevtlusvorm Eestis. Osahingu eelisteks on:

lihtne ja kiire registreerimine;
suhteliselt madal nutud osakapital (2500 eurot);
puudub osanike isiklik varaline vastutus osahingu kohustuste eest.

72 | P a g e
Alates 01.01.2011 saab osahingut asutada ilma osakapitali sissemakseta, juhul kui
tulevane tegevusvaldkond kapitalimahutusi ei nua. Niimoodi asutatud osahingu
osakapitali moodustavad nuded osanike vastu, kes vastutavad tegemata sissemaksete ees
kuni selle summa ulatuses, mida nad sissemaksena teha on lubanud.
Rohkem info siin:
Aktsiaselts on krgeima kapitalinudega (vhemalt 25 000 eurot) ettevtlusvorm, mis peab
omama mitmetasandilist juhtimisstruktuuri.
Aktsiaseltsi eelised:
vimalus noteerida ettevte brsil;
vimalus kaasata lai ring aktsionre;
sobiv suuremate projektide lbiviimiseks;
puudub aktsionride isiklik varaline vastutus aktsiaseltsi kohustuste eest.
Rohkem info siin:
Ettevtte asutamise toimingud
Kui olete leidnud sobiva ettevtlusvormi, valinud rinime ning tegevusala, saate alustada
ettevtte registreerimist. Selleks on kaks vimalust: elektrooniline registreerimine e-
riregistri ettevtjaportaalis vi notari kaudu. riregistri pidaja kannab teie ettevtte

Ettevtjaportaalis on vimalik registreerida osa-, tis- ja usaldushingut,

mittetulundushingut ning alustada ettevtlust FIE-na. Tulundushistut ning aktsiaseltsi
elektrooniliselt asutada ei ole vimalik.
Osahingu elektroonilisel registreerimisel tuleb sisestada asutajate ning loodava hingu
andmed, rinimi, kujundada tpphikiri, tasuda riigiliv ja soovi korral teha osakapitali
sissemakse. Ettevtjaportaal vimaldab osahingu asutamist ka ilma kohese osakapitali
sissemakseta. Ettevtte elektroonilist registreerimist:
Ettevtte registreerimine notari abil
Esmalt tasuge phikapitali sissemakse ning riigiliv. Seejrel tuleb teil notari abiga
koostada ja riregistrile esitada jrgnevad dokumendid:
sidevahendite andmed
panga tend phikapitali sissemakse kohta
tend riigilivu tasumise kohta.
Notar valmistab teile ette vajalikud dokumendid ning notaribroodes on olemas ka kik
rihingute asutamiseks vajalikud nidised ja dokumendiphjad. Ettevtte asutamine
notari kaudu vtab aega ldjuhul 2-3 peva.

73 | P a g e
Rohkem info siin: - Portaal ettevtetele - Notarite Koda - Krediidi info ja haldusksimused - Registrite ja Infossteemide Keskus - Eesti Maksu- ja Tolliameti kodulehklg - palgakalkulaator- kuidas arvutada neto palka vi teada saada,
millised on tandja palgakulud - palju huvitavaid t- ja maksuteemalisi artikleid, koolituste
andmebaas, seadused ning kalkulaatorid - Tinspektsioon - huvitavat lugemist ttervishoiust ja tohutusest; ning
tsuhetset ja tvaidlustest.


Turkey's regulatory environment is extremely business-friendly for those who would like
to set up business in Turkey. Anyone can establish business, irrespective of their
nationality and/or place of residence. In Turkey, enterprises can be set up in a number of
legal forms. Summary of the four principal legal forms are presented below.

JURIDICAL FORM 1:Sole proprietorship

A sole proprietorship enterprise is owned and operated by one person only. He/she can can
hire employees and give them managerial roles, but most simply wish to run a business on
their own. Since the person is the sole proprietor of the enterprise, all profits made and, all
losses incurred are that person's alone.

This kind of enterprise has no legal existence , juridical personality or patrimony separate
from that of its owner.

As a sole trader, you can start trading almost immediately, without too much initial
investment in overheads. If your business is largely dependent on you and your skills, sole

74 | P a g e
trader status may be the most appropriate option. Businesses run by individuals such as
consultants, writers or artists, or those in the building trades, often fit into this category.

A sole proprietor is subject to Income Tax in Turkey.The start-up formalities are minimal
and costs are relatively low. Also,the closing procedure is simple.These are the reasons
why many entrepreneurs in Turkey choose this type of legal status for their enterprise.

The first step is that the natural person either registers herself/himself as self-employed by
filling in the starting&closing work notification form and by submitting it to the Tax Office
or he/she can appoint an accountant or external audit to carry out the work for
himself/herself. This form can be obtained from the local Tax Office.The form should be
accompanied by certain other documents to be provided by the applicant

iOnYuz_calisma.html (the Starting/Closing Work Notification Form,Front&Back Pages)

Company Establishment in One Day

It is possible to establish a company in a single day by applying to the relevant trade

registry office with the required documents. The company is established once the founders
declare their intent to set up a joint stock company in the articles of association, which
have been issued in accordance with the law, and where they, with their notarized
signatures, unconditionally acknowledge and undertake to pay the whole capital. The
company receives its legal entity status upon registration with the trade registry.The
most common incorporated companies in Turkey are Joint-stock company (A..) and
Limited liability company (Ltd. ti.)

JURIDICAL FORM 2: Joint-stock company (A..)

A Joint Stock Company is a limited company that can issue stock certificates.The
companys stock capital is divided into shares and the liability of the shareholders is
limited to the subscribed capital and paid by the shareholder. At least one shareholder (real
person or legal entity) and a minimum capital of TRY 50,000 are mandatory. The company
shall include mandatory organs such as a general assembly , a board of directors and
Supervisory Board.

JURIDICAL FORM 3: Limited Liability Company

It is a company established with at least one shareholder (real person or legal entity) and
the liability of the shareholders is limited to the subscribed capital and paid by the

75 | P a g e
shareholder. A minimum capital of TRY 10,000 is mandatory.Although similar to Joint
Stock companies in other respects,stock certificates are not issued.

JURIDICAL FORM 4:Non-profit legal person(Asssociations&Foundations)

The non-profit organizations in Turkey are established as foundations and association and
are governed by the Law for Foundations and the Associations Law. The Turkish
associations are membership non-profit organizations created with the aim to achieve an
objective stated in their Statute.They are not permitted to achieve profits for its members.
At least seven founders are needed for establishing an association. The organs of the
associations are the general council, the board of management and the audit board. The
recognition of the statute of association is earned after the submission of foundation deed
and other documents, such as the Statue and a list with all the members to the Ministry of
Interior, Department of Associations.




-Do I really want to set up my own enterprise?Is the enterprise suitable for me?
-What kind of skills does the enterprise need?Do I have these skills?If not,where can I gain
-Is there any demand for my enterprise in the market?Where and how can I sell my
products/services and to whom?
-What do I need to start up my business?What resources do I have to meet these
needs?What would the costs amount to?
-Can I make money in this business?What are the steps to start up the enterprise?How can I
organise the process?
-How can I find seed capital for the start up,do I have enough resources? Is the necessary
labour and equipment within my reach?

76 | P a g e
-What is the legal aspect of the business?Are there any legal obligations and can I meet
-Are there any other producers/service providers doing the same job in the market?How
can our product/service become different from theirs?
Marketing Plan Guide-KOSGEB from


Trkiyede her isteyen milliyet ve / veya ikamet yeri neresi olursa olsun i kurabilir.
Trkiye ,i kurmak isteyenlere son derece uygun koullar sunar. Trkiye'de kurulabilecek
irket formlar arasnda en yaygn drt hukuki form hakknda zet bilgi aada

RKET BM1: ahs irketi

Bir ahs kuruluu, sadece bir kii tarafndan iletilmektedir. Bu kiiler,bakalarn ie

alabilir, hatta onlara ynetimde grevler verebilirse de ,ilerini kendileri ynetmek isterler.
Kii,iletmesinin yegane sahibi olduundan,btn kar ve olumas halinde tm zararlar
iletme sahibi kiinin hanesine yazlr. Bu tr iletmelerin i yeri sahibinden ayr olarak
dnlecek kanuni varl veye tzel kiilii bulunmamaktadr.

Eer ahs irketiyle ticaret yapyorsanz,fazla yatrm yapmadan ie hemen

balayabilirsiniz.Eer iiniz byk lde size ve becerilerinize balysa,ah irketi
kurarak ticaret yapmak en iyi seenek olabilir.Bireysel alan
danmanlar,yazarlar,sanatlar veya inaat sektrnde alanlar sklkla bu seenei tercih

ahs irketleri Trkiyede Gelir Vergisne tabiidir.e balama formaliteleri az olup

masraflar da grece dktr.Ayrca,i bitirme/i yerini kapatma ilemleri de
basittir.Trkiyede pek ok giriimci bu sebeplerden dolay bu tzel kiilik yapsn tercih

Bu tarz almak isteyen kilerin ataca ilk adm,kiiler ,kendi balarna altklarn
beyan edecekleri e Balama/Kapama Bildirim Formunu doldurup bu belgeyi yerel
Vergi Dairesine teslim etmektir. Bu ii kendileri yapabilecekleri gibi,bir mali mavir
veya muhasebeci vastasyla da bavuruda bulunabilirler.Bavuran ahsn,bu forma baz
baka belgelerimde eklemesi gerekmektedir.

77 | P a g e
iOnYuz_calisma.html (e Balama/Kapatma Bildirim Formu,n&Arka Yzler)

Bir Gnde irket Kurmak Mmkn

Trkiyede ilgili Ticaret Odasna gerekli belgelerle mracaat edilerek bir gn iinde irket
kurmak mmkn olmaktadr.irketi kuranlar,kanuna uygun hazrlanm tzklerinde bir
anonim irket kurma isteklerini beyan ve noterce onayl imzalar eliinde tm sermayeyi
demeyi koulsuz olarak taahht etmilerse irket kurabilirler.Yeni kurulan irket,ticari
kaydn yaptrdktan sonra tzel kiiliine kavuur.Trkiyede en yaygn irket trleri,

Anonym(A..) ve Limited(Ltd.ti.) irketlerdir.

RKET BM 2: Anonim irket (A..)

Anonim irketler hisse senetleri databilen irketlerdir.irketin sermayesi paylara

blnm olup, pay sahiplerinin sorumluluu taahht etmi olduklar sermaye paylar ile
snrldr ve pay sahipleri tarafndan denir. Anonim irketler, en az bir pay sahibi (gerek
veya tzel kii) ile kurulur ve asgari sermaye gereksinimi 50.000 TLdir. Genel kurul,
ynetim kurulu ve denetim kurulu anonim irketlerin zorunlu organlardr.

RKET BM 3: Limited irket

Limited irket, en az bir ortak (gerek veya tzel kii) ile kurulan ve ortaklarn
sorumluluunun taahht etmi olduklar sermayeyle snrl olup ortaklar tarafndan
dendii irkettir. Asgari sermaye gereksinimi 10.000 TLdir.Limited irketler,dier
ynlerden anonim irketlere benzemekle beraber,hisse senedi datmadklar iin anonim
irketlerden ayrlrlar.

RKET BM 4: Kar amac gtmeyen tzel kiilikler (Dernekler&Vakflar)

Trkiyede kar amac gtmeyen kurulular dernek ve vakflar olarak adlandrlrlar.Bu

kurulular,Vakflar Kanunu ve Dernekler Kanununa kaydedebilen
dernekler,tzklerinde belirtilmi ama veya amalar gerekletirmek zere
oluturulurlar.Dernek yelerinin kar amal almasna izin verilmemektedir.Bir dernek,en
az yedi kiyle kurulur.Derneklerde,Genel Kurul,Ynetim Kurulu ve Denetleme Kurulu
tekil edilmesi zorunludur.Dernek tznn kabul,dernein kurulu karar ,tm yelerin

78 | P a g e
imza listesi ve ve tzn kendisi ileri Bakanl,Dernekler birimine teslim edildikten
sonra gerekleir.



- Gerekten kendi iimi kurmak istiyor muyum?Bu i benm iin uygun mu?
-Bu i iin ne gibi beceriler gerekiyor?Ben bunlara sahip miyim?Deilsem,bu becerileri
nasl kazanabilirim?
-Piyasad bu ie talep var m?rn&hizmetlerimi nerede,kime nasl satabilirim?
-letmemi kurmak iin nelere ihtiyacm var?Bu ihtiyalar karlamak iin hangi
kaynaklara sahibim?Masraflar ne kadar olacak?
-Bu ite para kazanabilir miyim?letmemi kurmak iin hangi admlar takip
etmeliyim?Kurulu aamalarn nasl organize edebilirim?
-Balang iin sermayeyi nasl bulabilirim?Yeterince kaynam var m?Gerekli ekipman
ve igcne sahip miyim?
-letmemin hukuki yn nasl olacak?Yerine getirmem gereken koullar var m,bunlar
nasl yerine getirebilirim?
-Piyasada ayn ii yapan baka hizmet salayclar/reticiler var m?Mterileri
rnlerimin/hizmetlerimin onlarnkinden farkl olduuna nasl inandrabilirim?

Marketing Plan Guide-KOSGEB from


79 | P a g e
There are several ways to register your organization in Bulgaria. Your choice have to
depend mainly on the purposes of your future organization, the type of financing, the
number of partners and the product or service which it will provide. The most well-spread
types of organizations are Sole trader, limited liability company, joint-stock company and
non-profit organization. In the following text you will find the specifics regarding the
registration of this companies in Bulgaria.

Sole Trader

After you clear your idea the next step is to think about how are you going to register your
company. If you plan to have small company in which you will be the only employer with
few employees, you may want to register as sole trader. In order to do so you have cover
the following requirements:

1. 18 or more years-old;
2. To have permanent citizenship
3. Not to be in production for bankruptcy;
4. Yet if you have previously declared bankruptcy, than your rights must be restored;
5. You have not been convicted in bankruptcy;
6. You have not been a governor, member of the management or supervisory body of
a company terminated due to bankruptcy during the last two years;
7. You have not been a governor, member of the management or supervisory body of
a company which has been established with effective penal decree defaulting on
creating its defined levels of stocks under the stocks of oil and petroleum products.

If you cover all of these requirements, you can go further with the registration of your
organization. The name of your organization must include name sir name without
abbreviations. You should check first if this name is free, and proceed with the registration.
( The sole trader must add his personnel data and the data
related to his establishment as well as a specimen of signature to the request for
registration in the commercial register. And now you can proceed with the payment. If
you want to register the tax is 35 BGN. However, if you use the electric form it is going to
be less expensive- 15 BGN.

80 | P a g e
The sole trader is subject of the Bulgarian corporation tax which takes 15 % of his gains
(receipts minus business expenses). Furthermore, he has to make social security payments
measured by his receipts.

Limited liability company

The next type of organization is limited liability company, or the so called Ltd. According
to the Bulgarian Foreign Investments Agency, an OOD - the Bulgarian limited liability
company - is one of the most popular choices for small and medium businesses.

As it was the case with the sole trading, here as well firstly you have to check if the name
of your future company is appropriate. It is obligatory before submitting documents for
registration of the company as LTD in Bulgaria to verify that the name you chose is unique
and not repeated with other, already entered in the Commercial Register.

You can easily check the internet site of the Commercial Register in the section
"References" to verify whether the company you want to enter must be free from the
resulting page - "to the company" in the "company name" - to write the business name you
want to register. If you see below in red - "No results available." , This means that the
name is available and can be used.

After you make sure that the name you want to choose is free, you can proceed with the
registration. The form contains information about the company, manager, capital etc. Note
that the fill using Adobe Reader. The next step is to register your signature. This needs to
be approved by notary.

Once you are done and you have completed the above steps to select the bank of the
opening of the capital account of the newly registered company in Bulgaria - LTD.

Once you have selected the bank should go and bring capital to the inaugural of the
company (the opening of escrow account). There should carry your ID card and signed the
Constitutive Act and the Memorandum of the newly established company. The minimum
capital required as a Ltd company is 2BGN. Although our experience as Accounting Office
indicates that rightly is the introduction of financial capital corresponding to the volume of
your company (eg: a small company with 2-player employee - at least 100 BGN, a large
company with 50 employees - at least 1000BGN.). This is due to various reasons, which
could be explained in two sentences so I will miss. Here again, the choice is yours. Bank
fees vary but are in the range of 10-20lv.+

Then you can pay the fee for registering a company as LTD or Ltd, which amounts to
160BGN must have the account number of the commercial register in order to make the
transfer in rightly says "registration fee Ltd". (If filing electronically this tax is 80 lv.)

Joint-stock company

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A joint-stock company is a corporation whose capital is divided into shares. The liability of
shareholders for the obligations of the company is limited to the extent of the participating
interest they hold in the capital. The structure and organisation of the joint-stock company
are regulated in the Commerce Act, but promoters are free to agree on such clauses in the
articles of association of the company as best suit the specifics of their needs. A joint-stock
company may be incorporated by one or more natural persons or legal entities, and in case
the capital is owned by a single person, a single-shareholder joint-stock company (EAD) is
formed. The minimum amount of capital of the company is BGN 50,000, and the
minimum nominal value of a share is BGN 1. In case a larger nominal value of shares is
opted for, it must be defined in terms of whole numbers.

The capital of a joint-stock company is divided into shares of identical nominal value. The
shares are securities and they can be traded on the stock exchange. Either registered shares
or bearer shares may be issued. Both types of shares may be preference. Registered shares
are transferable by means of endorsement, and the transfer must be entered into the
Register of Registered Shareholders in order to have effect in respect of the company. The
articles of association may also lay down other conditions for their transfer. Bearer shares
are transferable by means of delivery to the transferee.

Non-profit organization

According to the Bulgarian Law on Non-profit Legal Entities, there are two legal forms of
NGOs: associations and foundations.

There is a specific type of non-profit organizations, called chitalishta, which are regulated
by a special law. They are community centers which main activities are in the field of
culture, education and dissemination of information for the community.

Founders of NGOs can be legal entity/ies (other NGOs, trade companies, municipalities,
etc.) or physical person/s. Founders can be either nationals of Bulgaria or of another
country. Physical persons - founders of NGOs must be at least at the age of 18. There is no
minimum capital requirement for establishing an NGO. There is a minimum requirement
for number of founders of an association and it is different according to the benefit status
that it has. If the association is established as an organization in mutual benefit, the
founders must be at least 3 entities (physical and/ or legal entities). If the association is
established in public benefit, then the founders must be at least 3 legal entities or at least 7
physical persons. For establishing a foundation there is no such requirement which means
that it can be done by one person or more.

NGOs are registered in the regional court according to the seat of the organization. When
the registration in the court is complete, the non-profit organization acquires its legal
personality. After the court registration, NGOs have to be entered in the BULSTAT
register in order to receive an identification number for tax purposes. The last obligatory
registration for all NGOs is in the State Agency for National Security.

82 | P a g e
There is a special registration for public benefit NGOs in the Central Register for Non-
profit Legal Entities with the Ministry of Justice. After this registration, the public benefit
NGOs can have the benefits that the law provides to them (tax benefits and others).

The court refuses registration of an NGO if the purposes, activities or other provisions of
the statutes do not comply with the legal requirements (for example the activities for
achieving the purposes should not be legal i. e. they can not violate the territorial integrity
of the state or human rights, etc.). The court can requests additional information if there is
a missing document or there is a need to make a technical amendment in the text of the
statutory documents, etc. In such cases the court gives instructions to the founders and after
the instructions are followed, the registration procedure can be finalized.



What do I like to do the most?

Do I have any hobbies?
Can I imagine myself being dedicated to my organization, putting my hearth and saw
into it?
Am I self-organized?
Do I have my own savings, should I ask my friends or family for a loan or should I
contact a bank?
Are there any recourses, which I already possess and may be in hand?
Is my organization going to operate locally, on national or international level?
Am I going to need any logistic advices and help?
Do I have a clear idea in my mind what do I want to achieve?
Can I handle the stress which will follow?
Am I aware of the current situation of the economy?
Do I have friends or relatives, which can help me with the management?
Is there a specific market opportunity that I saw or is it something I just feel like doing?
Can I afford to handle eventual financial loss?
Can I manage to give up my free time in order to be successful?
Is there some advantage I have comparing with the competitors on this market?
- Do I prefer the risk or I would rather act safely?


83 | P a g e
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87 | P a g e
Your business structure in Belgium
There are two options to choose the legal structure for your own professional business

the individual company (self-employed as a natural person);

the company (legal person).
For more information on the advantages and disadvantages of each option, please see the
chapter entitled "Choosing a legal status: one-man business or company".

If you decide to carry out your work using the legal form of a company, you have to make
sure to choose the most appropriate type of company. This choice is critical for the future
of your business. Dont hesitate to call upon the advice of experts such as notaries public,
lawyers, accountants, tax experts, financial reviewers, etc.

What are the most common types of companies?

This section offers a brief presentation of the most common types of companies.

For more information, please see the Belgian Companies Code which forms the legal basis
of these different types of companies.

Private Limited Companies

Private Limited Companies (PLC) are created by one or more persons who only commit
their contribution. Their responsibility is therefore limited.

The shares are registered (the holder is mentioned by name and thus is identifiable) and
there are only limited possibilities to sell shares. Thus, associates always know who they
are collaborating with.

The one-person private limited company is a variation of the PLC which allows self-
employed workers to create a one-man company and distinguish their own private assets
from the companys assets. This type of company is often best suited to the needs of young

Limited Liability Companies

88 | P a g e
Limited Liability Companies are those which mainly rely on contribution of capital from
associates. This type of commercial company has the advantage of making a complete
distinction between the company and its shareholders, which are usually anonymous. In
general, shares are easy to transfer, without limits.

However, this type of company requires a minimum capital of 61,500 euros, whereas few
entrepreneurs have this type of capital before the launch of their business. Furthermore, the
administrative management of such companies is relatively difficult for small companies
(board of directors, general assembly, etc.).

Cooperative Companies
There are two types of cooperative companies:

Cooperative companies with unlimited liability

Cooperative companies with limited liability.
The cooperative company with unlimited liability is a flexible legal structure which does
not require notarised deeds or minimum capital. Associates of these types of companies are
jointly responsible for the commitments made by their company.

This structure offers limited responsibility but is governed by stricter operating rules.

General Partnerships
A general partnership is a company of persons whose corporate purpose is to engage in a
civil or commercial activity under a common name. There is no legal minimum capital. Its
existence is linked to its associates. This type of company requires few administrative
formalities, but it remains less commonly used because the associates have joint, unlimited
responsibility for the companys commitments.

Limited Partnerships
Limited partnerships include general and limited partners. General partners are responsible
for management. Limited partners are financial contributors which may not interfere with
the companys management. There is no legal minimum capital.

Only general partners are jointly and indefinitely responsible with their assets for the
company's debts and losses. Limited partners are only responsible for the amounts they
promised to provide, unless they have become involved in managing the company.

Partnerships limited by Shares

A partnership limited by shares is a type of limited partnership. It involves two types of

General partners, amoung which the company managers are to be chosen;

Limited partners, who provide capital and are shareholders.

89 | P a g e
The social security status of self-employed workers
Who is eligible for this status?
Self-employed workers
Self-employed workers are those who engage in professional activity in Belgium for which
they have no employment status or have not signed an employment contract. There is no
subordinate relationship. The person is not an employed worker or a government

As such, he/she has his/her own social security status and is covered by a specific social
security scheme.

Self-employed workers may also choose to take on the status of complementary self-
employed. In this case, their social security coverage is linked to their employed job
(provided it is at least half-time) or through another status (ex: pensioner).

An assistant is a person who assists or replaces a self-employed worker in the pursuit of
his/her professional activity without being bound by any employment contract. Such a
person is also considered a self-employed worker. Assistants are often family members of
self-employed workers, though not always.

Assisting spouses
An assisting spouse is anyone who:

Is the partner of a self-employed worker (via a marriage contract or cohabitation);

Provides actual assistance;
Does not receive income from other professional activities or replacement income
with social security coverage which is at least equal to that of self-employed
In this case, the assisting spouse is subject to the maxi-status of self-employed workers.
This status provides the same benefits as those given to the self-employed workers with the
exception of bankruptcy insurance.

Active managers, directors and associates

Active managers, directors and associates are considered self-employed workers and are
therefore subject to the social security status of self-employed workers.

What are my obligations as a self-employed worker?

Registering with a social insurance fund
As a self-employed worker, you must register with a social insurance fund for self-
employed workers. You may register with the fund of your choice. This obligation also
applies to part-time self-employed workers.

90 | P a g e
Since 1 April 2010, all new self-employed workers must be registered with a social
insurance fund for self-employed workers by the time they start their actual self-employed

If you fail to do so, the National Social Insurance Institute for Self-Employed Workers
(INASTI) will ask you to bring your situation in line with legal requirements. If you take
no actions, you will be automatically registered with the National Auxiliary Fund for Self-
Employed Workers.

If you set up a company to engage in self-employed activities, you must register with a
social insurance fund. The same goes for your company.

Registering with a health insurance fund

If you would like to benefit from sickness and incapacity insurance as a self-employed
worker, you must register with the health insurance fund of your choice.

You must provide proof of payment of social security contributions from your social
insurance fund.

Paying social security contributions

As a self-employed worker, you must pay social security contributions to your social
insurance fund.

At the beginning of each quarter (January, April, July and October), you will receive a
notice listing the amounts to pay. These contributions must be paid before the end of each

The amount of social security contributions due for self-employed workers depends on the
level of professional income achieved during the three previous years of work. There are
minimum and maximum limits to contributions.

At the beginning of self-employment, it is impossible to make these calculations since your

income is still unknown.

If you are starting as a self-employed worker, you will pay provisional contributions for
three years. After these first three years, your contributions will be calculated and adjusted
according to the actual professional income of your first year of activity.

If you are a part-time self-employed worker, you may be subject to lower social security

Exemption from contributions

If you are in or close to a situation of need, you may apply in order to be granted an
exemption from contributions.

91 | P a g e
To do this, you have to submit an application to your social insurance fund, which will
compile a dossier and forward it to the Commission for Exemption from Contributions.
This exemption may be total or partial.

What are my rights?

The employment status of self-employed workers includes not only obligations but also
certain rights. If you follow all legal requirements, you will have the right regarding:

family benefits ;
sickness and incapacity insurance ;
maternity insurance ;
pension benefits ;
social insurance in case of bankruptcy.

Family benefits
Family benefits include:

childbirth or adoption allowances;

monthly family benefits;
other benefits such as age-based supplementary payments and orphan allowances.

Sickness and incapacity insurance

The employment status of self-employed workers includes a sickness and incapacity
insurance which covers certain health care needs and incapacity for work.

As part of this insurance, you are required to register with the insurance fund of your

Since 1 January 2008, coverage for minor risks (medical or dental visits, etc.) is included
with your obligatory sickness insurance. All self-employed workers now benefit from the
same healthcare coverage. It is identical to employees' coverage, without having to take out
voluntary insurance with your health insurance fund.

Work incapacity insurance

The insurance covering incapacity for work guarantees that you will receive a replacement
income under certain conditions, if you are forced to stop your professional activity
following an accident or sickness:

For the first month of incapacity, you will not receive any compensation;
From the second month on, you will receive daily compensation;
Starting from the second year (invalidity period), the compensation is increased.
Maternity insurance

92 | P a g e
Self-employed worker and assisting spouses who give birth, will be eligible for 6 to 8
weeks of maternity leave (7 to 9 in case of multiple births) and are entitled to maternity

Since 1 January 2006 maternity assistance is also provided in the form of service vouchers.

Pensions benefits
In addition to the retirement pension which self-employed workers receive at the end of
their career, there are also survivors pensions which exist for surviving spouses.

If you would like to receive a bigger pension you may, under certain conditions, take out
supplementary pension insurance.

Bankruptcy insurance
If you have declared bankruptcy, this insurance will allow you to:

maintain your rights regarding healthcare insurance and family benefits for four
obtain temporary compensation.



What is the size of your market? Is it local, national or world?

How many customers can you hope?
Is your offer in sync with the expectations of the market?
Are you in competition, frontal or partial, with an existing offer?
Who are your competitors?
Have you already managed a company or a profit center?
Are you trained in the management?
What will be your financial needs in the next years (loans, schooling of the
Did you calculate your budget of communication?
What communications tools have you?
What is your global financial need?
What will be the deadline of collection of revenue of the customers? You can
obtain suppliers of the payment times?
When do you think you'll reach the breakeven point?

93 | P a g e

Vous souhaitez vous installer comme indpendant ou crer votre socit ?

Il existe deux manires bien distinctes d'exercer votre activit :

soit en personne physique : il n'existera aucune sparation claire entre votre
patrimoine priv et le patrimoine de votre entreprise. Vous engagez donc
l'ensemble de votre patrimoine, y compris votre patrimoine priv, face au risque
d'entreprise ;
soit en constituant une socit(cest--dire une entreprise en personne morale) :
une socit dote de la personnalit juridique est (dun point de vue juridique) un
sujet qui, en toute indpendance, a des droits, des obligations et un patrimoine
propre distinct de celui des associs.

Avant de vous lancer et de commencer vos dmarches, posez-vous les bonnes questions.
En voici une liste non exhaustive mais qui devrait toutefois vous permettre d'affiner votre
1. Dcrire son projet
Quelles activits allez-vous proposer ? Quelle est votre ide principale ?
Dcrivez votre projet clairement et par crit.
2. Analyser son environnement
Il y a beaucoup de risques que votre ide ne soit pas unique. Cela ne doit pas vous
dissuader, mais prenez le temps d'analyser votre environnement.
A quoi ressemble votre march ?
Qui sont vos concurrents ?
Quels services offrent-ils ?
Dressez-en la liste avec leurs points forts et leurs points faibles.
Que pouvez-vous proposer de mieux ?
Quels sont vos clients potentiels ?
Quelles sont les volutions possibles dans votre secteur d'activits ?
3. Commercialiser son ide
Quels produits et services allez-vous offrir ?
Quels sont ceux que vous ne souhaitez pas proposer ?
Quelle politique de prix allez-vous adopter ?
O vos produits seront-ils disponibles (dans un commerce, sur internet ) ?
Comment allez-vous les faire connatre ?
Comment grer les commandes, la livraison, les plaintes ventuelles ?

94 | P a g e
4. Organiser sa socit
Quel statut choisir ? Une entreprise individuelle ou une socit ?
Comment allez-vous organiser la socit ? Qui va grer cette socit ?
Quelle sera son implantation ?
Engagerez-vous du personnel ?
5. Financer son projet
N'entamez pas cette tape avant d'avoir effectu les 4 tapes prcdentes.
Prparez un plan financier. Celui-ci devrait prendre en compte les questions suivantes :
Quelle est la mise de dpart ncessaire ? Quels investissements devez-vous prvoir ?
Pour quels montants ?
Quels seront vos frais fixes ?
Quel sera le cot de vos matires premires ?
Quelle marge bnficiaire allez-vous prendre ?
Quelle est la marge minimum pour couvrir vos cots ?
Pour quel type de financement allez-vous opter ?
Fonds propres ou sources de financement extrieures ?

Types de socit

Entreprise individuelle

Vous voulez fonder une entreprise, ouvrir un commerce, mettre sur pied une association
caritative ? Il vous faudra alors, dans la plupart des cas, crer une socit. Il existe
diffrents types de socits avec, chacune, des caractristiques propres. Ds lors, deux
questions se posent vous :

Quel type de socit choisir ? (une S.P.R.L., une S.A., une A.S.B.L. ?)

95 | P a g e
Quel statut adopter ? Allez-vous opter pour une entreprise en personne
physiqueou en personne morale (socit), pour une association de fait ou
uneassociation momentane ?

Pour effectuer le bon choix et assurer le succs de votre entreprise, il est donc important de
connatre :

les caractristiques principales des diffrents types de socits;

les obligations lies aux statuts des socits ;

les dmarches effectuer pour constituer cette socit.

Acte constitutif

L'acte constitutif est le texte de base de constitution d'une nouvelle socit. Il s'agit d'un
acte juridique qui permet de crer des droits nouveaux. Selon le type de socit crer, il
sera ncessaire ou non d'tablir cet acte :

soit sous la forme d'un acte authentique(acte notari) ;

soit sous la forme d'un acte sous seing priv.

Acte authentique ou acte notari

Lorsque vous optez pour l'une des formes juridiques les plus courantes (SPRL, SA, SCRL),
l'acte constitutif doit tre rdig devant notaire et fait l'objet d'un acte notari.Les
conventions ainsi passes acquirent une valeur et une scurit juridique. Les signataires
des actes pourront se prvaloir de cette scurit tant entre eux qu' l'gard de toutes les
personnes trangres ces conventions.
Acte sous seing priv
L'acte sous seing priv est une convention crite, tablie par les parties elles-mmes ou
par un tiers. Cette convention est signe par les parties ou par une personne qu'elles ont
dsigne comme mandataire en vue de rgler une situation contractuelle (vente, location,
socit, contrat de travail...).

Pour en savoir plus :

Formalits pralables la constitution d'une socit

Documents fournir pour tablir l'acte constitutif

Pour tablir lacte constitutif, vous avez besoin des documents suivants :
un plan financier ;

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en cas d'apport en numraire : la preuve de l'ouverture d'un compte au nom de la
socit en cration ;
en cas d'apport en nature : le rapport d'un rviseur d'entreprise.
Dpt de l'acte constitutif au greffe du tribunal de commerce
Les socits qui jouissent de la personnalit juridique doivent dposer un extrait de l'acte
constitutif auprs du greffe du tribunal de commerce du ressort judiciaire dans lequel est
tabli leur sige social et ce, dans les 15 jours qui suivent son tablissement.
Depuis juin 2006, les notaires peuvent dposer en une seule fois et de manire lectronique
l'acte constitutif auprs de la BCE, du greffe du tribunal de commerce et du Moniteur
belge. Une entreprise peut ainsi tre lance en quatre jours seulement.
Donnes mentionner dans l'acte constitutif
Lacte constitutif comporte les donnes suivantes :
la dnomination de la socit avec les ventuelles abrviations ou sigles ;
la forme juridique de la socit ;
l'adresse du sige social ;
la date de l'acte constitutif de la socit ;
l'identit des personnes habilites administrer, engager ou liquider la socit ;
la date de dissolution, si la socit a t constitue pour une dure dtermine ;
la date de l'assemble gnrale annuelle ;
le dbut et la fin de l'exercice comptable ;
le montant du capital social ;
l'identit de l'administrateur, du directeur ou du grant charg de l'administration

Consquences du dpt au greffe du tribunal de commerce

Le fait de dposer lacte constitutif au greffe du tribunal de commerce entrane une srie de
consquences :
l'obtention de la personnalit juridique ;
l'octroi d'un numro d'entreprise par la Banque-Carrefour des Entreprises ;
l'opposabilit de l'acte constitutif aux tiers.

Comptes bancaires

Ouvrir un compte vue

L'ouverture d'un compte vue auprs d'une banque ou d'un autre tablissement financier
est un pralable l'installation en socit, qu'il s'agisse d'une activit en personne physique
ou en socit (personne morale).
Ce compte doit tre diffrent du compte priv. Il doit tre utilis exclusivement pour les
oprations relatives l'activit du travailleur indpendant ou de la socit.

97 | P a g e
Le numro de ce compte doit figurer sur tous les documents commerciaux (lettres,
factures, ...) ct du nom de l'entreprise et de celui de l'tablissement financier.

Connaissances en gestion
Que ce soit titre principal ou complmentaire, toute PME qui veut exercer une activit en
tant qu'entreprise commerciale pour laquelle une inscription dans la Banque-carrefour des
Entreprises est ncessaire, doit pouvoir apporter la preuve de connaissances en gestion de
base auprs du guichet d'entreprises de son choix. Les PME qui veulent exercer une
profession rglemente doivent en outre fournir la preuve de leur comptence
professionnelle spcifique. Les grandes entreprises ne sont pas concernes par cette
Professions rglementes
Les professions rglementes sont regroupes en trois secteurs d'activits : cycle et
vhicule moteur, construction et lectronique, soins corporels.

Regroupement par secteur d'activits

29 des 34 professions rglementes sont regroupes en 3 secteurs d'activits :

secteur du cycle et des vhicules moteur ;

secteur de la construction et de l'lectronique ;
secteur des soins corporels, opticien, technicien dentaire et entrepreneur de pompes
Les 5 professions restantes sont :
grossiste en viandes-chevillard ;
installateur-frigoriste ;
dgraisseur-teinturier ;
restaurateur ou traiteur-organisateur de banquets ;

A quels critres une entreprise doit-elle rpondre pour tre considre comme une
Pour tre considre comme une PME, une entreprise doit satisfaire un certain nombre de
critres :
l'effectif en personnel doit tre infrieur ou gal 50 travailleurs en moyenne
annuelle ;
25 % maximum des parts et actions sont aux mains d'une ou plusieurs entreprises
autres que des PME ;
le chiffre d'affaire est gal ou infrieur 7.000.000 euros ou le total du bilan ne
dpasse pas 5.000.000 euros.

Vous souhaitez prouver vos connaissances en gestion de base et votre comptence

professionnelle ?

Il vous faut :

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prsenter un diplme valable ;
Par exemple : un certificat de l'enseignement secondaire relatif aux connaissances
en gestion de base, un diplme de l'enseignement suprieur, etc.

prouver une pratique professionnelle suffisante ;

Vous ne possdez pas de diplme mais vous avez travaill pendant un certain
nombre d'annes. Vous devez en apporter la preuve au moyen de documents crits :
contrat de travail, attestation de l'employeur, etc.

passer un examen auprs du Service public fdral Economie, P.M.E., Classes

moyennes et Energie ;
Si vous ne rpondez pas aux critres prcdents vous pouvez passer un examen et
obtenir un certificat de connaissance en gestion de base. Vous trouverez le
programme et les formulaires d'inscription sur le site du SPF Economie.

prouver, via une tierce personne, les capacits entrepreneuriales ;

Sous certaines conditions, vous pouvez faire appel une tierce personne en
d'autres mots une personne de votre entourage qui exercera effectivement la
gestion journalire de l'entreprise et qui peut apporter la preuve de ses
connaissances en gestion.


Il existe aussi un certain nombre de dispenses en ce qui concerne la preuve des

connaissances en gestion. Cest le cas, par exemple, des PME qui taient dj inscrites au
registre de commerce au 1e janvier 1999, des personnes exerant des professions dites
intellectuelles ou des professions dj rglementes en vertu d'une autre loi.

Pour de plus amples informations, visitez le site du SPF Economie, P.M.E., Classes
moyennes et Energie.

Enregistrement de l'acte constitutif

L'acte constitutif doit obligatoirement tre enregistr dans un des bureaux d'enregistrement
du SPF Finances. Lorsque l'acte est authentique, l'enregistrement se fait par le notaire
endans les 15 jours. Le dlai est port 4 mois lorsqu'il s'agit d'actes sous seing priv.

Cots d'enregistrement

Enregistrer un acte constitutif, quil soit authentique (notari) ou sous seing priv, a
malheureusement un cot.

dans les deux cas, les droits d'enregistrement slvent 25 euros ;

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quant aux actes notaris, il faut galement tenir compte des droits d'criture qui
slvent 95 euros.

Identification TVA

Qui est assujetti la TVA ?

Est en principe assujettie la TVA, toute personne qui exerce rgulirement l'activit de
fournir des biens ou des services :

de manire indpendante ;
avec ou sans but lucratif ;
principalement ou accessoirement.

Certaines activits ne sont toutefois pas soumises la TVA. Cest le cas, par exemple, des
mdecins, des avocats, des acteurs,...

Il n'est pas toujours vident de dterminer si certaines professions sont ou non assujetties
la TVA. Dans ce cas de figure, il est recommand de vrifier en s'adressant au bureau local
de TVA.

O s'adresser pour obtenir un numro de TVA ?

Pour obtenir un numro de TVA, il faut introduire une demande auprs du bureau local de
contrle TVA de la rgion dans laquelle l'entreprise est tablie. Les adresses des bureaux
locaux de contrle se trouvent dans l'annuaire tlphonique sous la rubrique SPF Finances,
secteur Taxation TVA ou sur le site internet
Vous pouvez galement faire appel aux services dun guichet d'entreprises pour l'activation
de votre numro d'entreprise comme numro de TVA. Ce service est payant et le montant
varie selon les guichets.

Choix du rgime TVA

Il existe trois rgimes de TVA :
le rgime normal ;
le rgime forfaitaire ;
le rgime de la franchise de la taxe.
Vous devez prciser le choix de votre rgime au bureau local de contrle TVA.
Pour plus d'informations, vous pouvez consulter la partie TVA du site du SPF Finances.

Licences et agrments

Demander une autorisation l'Agence fdrale pour la scurit de la chane

alimentaire (AFSCA)

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Toute personne qui exploite un tablissement o des denres alimentaires sont fabriques,
mises dans le commerce ou importes doit obtenir une autorisation del'Agence fdrale
pour la scurit de la chane alimentaire (AFSCA), Service inspection des denres

Cette obligation vaut pour tous les commerces qui vendent des denres alimentaires :

les entreprises du secteur Horeca ;

les cantines scolaires ;

les restaurants d'entreprise ;

ventuellement les librairies, stations-services

Dmarches effectuer pour obtenir une autorisation

Pour obtenir une autorisation de lAFSCA, il faut :
1. Introduire une demande crite en deux exemplaires auprs de lAFSCA, Service
inspection des denres alimentaires ;
2. Satisfaire, lors des contrles de lAFSCA, aux normes dhygine stipules dans la
rglementation ;
3. Payer une redevance pour la dlivrance de l'autorisation qui varie en fonction du
type d'activit et du nombre de personnes salaries occupes dans l'tablissement.
L'autorisation est dlivre pour une priode de trois ans. Une nouvelle demande doit tre
introduite au plus tard trois mois avant sa date d'expiration.

Enregistrement et agrment comme entrepreneur de construction

Les entrepreneurs de construction sont soumis des obligations spcifiques. Ils doivent se
faire enregistrer la Commission d'enregistrement de la province dans laquelle
l'entreprise est tablie (domicile ou sige social). Cet enregistrement permet de garantir que
l'entrepreneur est en rgle avec ses obligations sociales et fiscales.

Dmarches effectuer pour lenregistrement

Pour se faire enregistrer comme entrepreneur de construction, il faut :
1. Demander un formulaire spcial l'Administration des contributions directes ;
2. Envoyer, par lettre recommande, le formulaire complt au prsident de la
Commission d'enregistrement.
Remarque importante: si vous faites appel, pour l'excution de travaux immobiliers, un
entrepreneur non enregistr, vous serez considr comme solidairement responsable du
paiement des impts et des cotisations sociales dues par cet entrepreneur.

Agrment comme entrepreneur de travaux publics

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L'entrepreneur qui souhaite excuter des travaux pour l'Etat ou d'autres administrations
publiques doit tre agr (sauf pour des travaux d'ampleur limite). La demande
d'agrment doit tre adresse soit par l'entrepreneur lui-mme, soit par son association
professionnelle, la Commission d'Agrment des Entrepreneurs.

Autres licences ou agrments

Pour exercer certaines activits : exploitation d'abattoirs, agences de voyages, agences
matrimoniales, etc., vous devez disposer d'une licence ou d'un agrment spcifique au
secteur concern.
Liste de ces activits et des instances officielles auxquelles vous devez vous adresser pour
obtenir la licence requise.

Mutuelles et assurances

Affiliation une caisse d'assurances sociales

En qualit d'indpendant, vous devez vous affilier une caisse d'assurances sociales pour
travailleurs indpendants. Vous tes libre de choisir cette caisse dans un dlai de 90 jours
compter du dbut de votre activit (liste des caisses d'assurances sociales).

Si vous ne respectez pas ce dlai, l'Institut national d'assurances sociales pour travailleurs
indpendants (INASTI) vous demandera de rgulariser votre situation, faute de quoi vous
serez affili d'office la Caisse nationale auxiliaire.

Il est possible, sous certaines conditions, de changer de caisse d'assurances sociales.

Paiement des cotisations sociales

Les travailleurs indpendants doivent payer des cotisations leur caisse d'assurances
sociales. Au dbut de chaque trimestre civil (aux mois de janvier, avril, juillet et octobre),
ils reoivent un avis d'chance prcisant les montants payer. Les cotisations doivent tre
rgles au plus tard avant la fin de chaque trimestre.
Le montant des cotisations sociales dues en qualit de travailleur indpendant dpend de
l'importance des revenus professionnels perus durant les trois premires annes de
l'activit. Il existe des cotisations minimales et maximales.
Le calcul des cotisations est impossible en dbut d'activits puisque les revenus ne sont pas
encore connus. Les travailleurs indpendants dbutants devront donc verser des cotisations
provisoires et ce durant trois ans. Aprs ces trois premires annes, les cotisations seront

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calcules et rgularises sur base des revenus professionnels rels de la premire anne
En tant que personne morale les socits n'ont pas de droits la scurit sociale
contrairement aux travailleurs indpendants ou aidants. Quelqu'un qui entame une activit
indpendante et qui pour cela constitue une socit, doit lui-mme aussi bien que sa socit
s'affilier une caisse d'assurances sociales pour travailleurs indpendants.

Quels sont vos droits ?

Le statut social des travailleurs indpendants ne comprend pas seulement des obligations
mais aussi des droits. Une fois en rgle avec les prescriptions lgales, le travailleur
indpendant acquiert des droits en matire :
de prestations familiales ;
d'assurance maladie-invalidit ;
d'assurance maternit ;
de pension ;
d'assurance sociale en cas de faillite.

Les prestations familiales

Les droits aux prestations familiales comprennent :
l'allocation de naissance ou la prime d'adoption ;
les allocations familiales mensuelles ;
d'autres avantages comme les supplments d'ge et les allocations d'orphelin.

L'assurance maladie-invalidit
Le statut social des indpendants comprend une assurance maladie-invalidit qui couvre
certains soins mdicaux et l'incapacit de travail. Dans le cadre de cette assurance, les
travailleurs indpendants ont l'obligation de s'affilier la mutuelle de leur choix.

L'assurance soins de sant obligatoire

Lassurance soins de sant obligatoire garantit le remboursement de certains cots
mdicaux appels les gros risques (cots d'une opration, frais d'hospitalisation...). Les
petits risques (visite chez le mdecin, chez le dentiste...) ne sont pas couverts. Le
travailleur indpendant peut cependant prendre une assurance complmentaire auprs d'une
mutuelle de son choix.
Depuis le 1ejuillet 2006, sont couverts gratuitement pour les gros et petits risques :
les indpendants qui exercent pour la premire fois une activit indpendante titre
principal ;
les indpendants pensionns qui bnficient de la garantie de revenus aux
personnes ges.

L'assurance incapacit de travail

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Lassurance incapacit de travail garantit, sous certaines conditions, un revenu de
remplacement au travailleur indpendant qui doit interrompre son activit professionnelle
suite une maladie ou un accident.

durant le premier mois d'incapacit, le travailleur indpendant en incapacit de

travail n'est pas indemnis ;

partir du deuxime mois, il bnficie d'une indemnit journalire ;

partir de la deuxime anne (priode d'invalidit), les indemnits sont majores.

L'assurance maternit
Lorsqu'elles accouchent, les travailleuses indpendantes et les conjointes-aidantes sont
prsumes tre en incapacit de travail durant une priode de six semaines(sept en cas de
naissance multiple) et ont droit une allocation de maternit.

La pension
Il existe plusieurs formes de pension :
la pension de retraite dont bnficie le travailleur indpendant en fin de carrire ;
la pension de survie (en faveur du conjoint survivant) ;
la pension de conjoint divorc.
Si un travailleur indpendant dsire obtenir une pension plus importante, il peut, sous
certaines conditions, conclure un contrat d'assurance pour une pension libre

L'assurance faillite
Grce lassurance faillite, les indpendants faillis :
conservent leurs droits l'assurance soins de sant et aux allocations familiales
durant quatre trimestres ;
peuvent obtenir une indemnit temporaire.

Affiliation une mutualit

Pour pouvoir bnficier des prestations de l'assurance maladie-invalidit, les travailleurs
indpendants doivent s'inscrire auprs d'une mutualit de leur choix.

Numro d'entreprise

Qu'est-ce que le numro d'entreprise ?

Le numro unique dentreprise est une cl didentification. Ce numro permet aux

entreprises de pouvoir sidentifier :

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lors de lchange de donnes entre les entreprises et les pouvoirs publics ;

dans le cadre du transfert lectronique de donnes dans le nouvel environnement e-


Afin de limiter au maximum les charges administratives pour les entreprises existantes, il a
t choisi de ne pas introduire un tout nouveau numro. Cest pourquoi, il a t dcid
de transformer l'ancien numro didentification la TVA en un numro dentreprise.

Qu'est-ce que la Banque-Carrefour des Entreprises (BCE) ?

La Banque-Carrefour des Entreprises (BCE) est un registre reprenant toutes les

donnes didentification concernant les entreprises et leurs units dtablissement. Elle
reprend les donnes du registre national des personnes morales, du registre du commerce,
de la TVA, de lONSS et est tenue jour par les organismes comptents qui y introduisent
les donnes.

Inscription la BCE en qualit d'entreprise commerciale

Bien que les socits soient dj reprises dans la BCE et aient obtenu un numro
d'entreprise par l'intermdiaire du greffier du tribunal de commerce, elles sont galement
obliges de se faire inscrire auprs d'un guichet d'entreprises en tant que socit
commerciale ou artisanale.
Vous tes libre de choisir un guichet d'entreprises quel que soit le lieu d'tablissement de
votre entreprise.
Neuf organisations ont t agres en tant que guichet d'entreprises. Elles disposent de plus
de 200 bureaux locaux rpartis sur l'ensemble de la Belgique.
Le guichet d'entreprises vrifie si la socit remplit les conditions d'exercice de la
profession (connaissances de gestion de base et connaissances professionnelles, licence
boucher-charcutier, carte professionnelle pour trangers).
La procdure d'inscription est la mme que celle des personnes physiques.

Documents fournir pour l'inscription au guichet d'entreprises

Pour vous inscrire au guichet dentreprises, munissez-vous des documents suivants :
les donnes d'identification personnelle du ou des fondateurs ;
la dnomination sociale et le nom commercial de l'entreprise ;
la forme juridique ;
le numro d'entreprise ;
les adresses d'exploitation (y compris le numro de tlphone, de fax et ladresse e-
mail) ;
la date de dbut de l'activit ;
la date de publication de l'acte constitutif dans le Moniteur belge ;
le numro de compte d'une institution financire ;

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la preuve des connaissances de gestion de base et si ncessaire des connaissances
professionnelles ;
les licences spciales (ex. : carte d'trangers, licence boucher-charcutier) ;
un exemplaire des statuts et une attestation de mandat de gestion.
Le cot de l'inscription est de 71 euros plus 71 euros par unit d'tablissement

Consquences de l'inscription au guichet d'entreprises

Vous inscrire au guichet dentreprises entrane une srie de consquences:
l'inscription vaut, sauf preuve contraire, prsomption de la qualit de commerant
ou d'artisan ;
pour les entreprises commerciales ou artisanales, le numro d'entreprise remplace
soit le numro de registre de commerce soit le numro d'inscription en tant
qu'artisan ;
tous les actes, factures, annonces, communications, lettres, ordres et autres pices
manant des entreprises commerciales ou artisanales doivent toujours mentionner
le numro d'entreprise ;
le terme registre des personnes morales ou l'abrviation RPM suivi du numro
d'entreprise doivent galement apparatre sur les btiments, tals et moyens de
transport utiliss.


La notion de capital renvoie soit ladimension financire des ressources provenant de

l'pargne ou de l'emprunt, soit la dimension physique des biens de production.

La notion de capital humain permet, quant elle, de dsigner la rserve des capacits
humaines conomiquement productives.

Le capital exig lors de la cration d'une entreprise peut varier selon le type de statut
choisi pour la socit, il peut s'agir d'apport en nature ou en numraire.

A titre d'exemple, la constitution d'une SPRL requiert un capital minimum de 18.550 euros
alors que pour crer une SA, les actionnaires doivent s'engager investir dans un capital
social d'au moins 61.500 euros.

Plan financier

Avant de crer votre socit, il faut que vous tablissiez un plan financier relatif aux
activits envisages. Ce plan doit donner un aperu dtaill des ressources financires et

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des besoins ncessaires aux deux premires annes d'activit de la socit et doit permettre
de tenir les engagements financiers prvus.

Si vous tes fondateur d'une SPRL ou d'une SA, le plan financier tabli doit tre dpos
chez un notaire.

Il n'y a pas d'obligation lgale quant au contenu du plan mais celui-ci doit nanmoins
permettre d'tablir des prvisions pour les premires annes d'activits (voir exemple ci-

Les guichets d'entreprises agrs peuvent, le cas chant, vous aider prparer ce plan.

Pour de plus amples informations, visitez le site du SPF Economie, P.M.E., Classes
moyennes et Energie

Exemple de contenu pour le plan financier

1. Les renseignements gnraux sur l'entreprise ;
2. Les investissements raliser ;
3. Le personnel engager ;
4. Les emprunts ngocier ;
5. Les recettes (prvisions) ;
6. Les cots fixes ;
7. Les cots variables, c'est--dire les cots lis des activits spcifiques.
les prvisions concernant les comptes d'exploitation (en gnral des 2 ou 3
premires annes) ;
les prvisions pour le bilan ;
le tableau de financement ;
le plan de trsorerie de la premire anne d'activits.

Fonds propres
Moyens extrieurs

Vous avez pris la dcision de lancer votre entreprise. Vous prparez votre plan financier. Il
est de temps de savoir de quelle manire vous allez financer votre capital.

Diffrentes sources de financement sont envisageables. Ces sources sont divises en deux
catgories : les fonds propres et les moyens extrieurs.

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Les guichets d'entreprises pourront vous conseiller ou vous orienter vers les partenaires les
plus adquats pour financer votre projet.

Les aides accordes aux entreprises sont assez varies et dpendent notamment du secteur
d'activits envisag :
aides et conseils la formation : tudes de faisabilit, conseils, actions de
formation, aide au tutorat ;
aides l'embauche ;
aides la recherche industrielle : projets de recherche & dveloppement ;
aides la promotion du commerce extrieur ;
aides en faveur des jeunes indpendants ;



Quelle est la taille de votre march? Est-il local, national, mondial?

Combien de clients pouvez-vous esprer?
Votre offre est-elle en phase avec les attentes du march?
Etes-vous en concurrence, frontale ou partielle, avec une offre existante?
Qui sont vos concurrents?
Avez-vous dj dirig une entreprise ou un centre de profit?
Etes-vous form au management?
Quels seront vos besoins financiers dans les prochaines annes (emprunts, scolarit
des enfants...)?
Avez-vous chiffr votre budget de communication?
De quels outils de communication disposez-vous?
Quel est votre besoin financier global?
Quel sera le dlai d'encaissement des clients? Pourrez-vous obtenir des fournisseurs
des dlais de paiement?
Quand pensez-vous atteindre le seuil de rentabilit?

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Setting up a business in Spain is simple. The type of business entities available are in
keeping with those existing in other OECD countries and there is also a wide range of
possibilities capable of meeting the needs of the different types of investor who wish to
invest in or from Spain.

The most common forms of legal entity under Spanish corporate law are the corporation
(Sociedad Annima - S.A.) and the Limited liability company (S.L.)

The ordinary steps and expenses involved are similar for both legal forms and are detailed
in the following tables:

1.Clear name search certificate: Directly at the offices of Central Commercial Register or
on- line:
Application for provisional N.I.F: Ordinary procedure done at State Tax
2.Agency or by a Telematic procedure (
3.Opening of a bank account: Opening of a bank account in the entitys name for payment
of the capital stock.
4.Document containing representations by the beneficial owner: Document containing
representations by the beneficial owner
5.Execution of deed before a notary
6.Application for registration of the registered office at the Commercial Registry : The
deed of formation will be submitted (i) telematically by the notary; or (ii) in person by the
interested party
7.Period for assessment and registration in the Commercial Registry: Fifteen (15) days:
Directly at the offices of Central Commercial Register or on- line :
8.Obtainment of definitive N.I.F: Ordinary Procedure or Telematic Procedure
9.Opening formalities for tax and labor purposes: Registration for the purposes of the Tax
on Economic Activities ( / -

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To create a company, you have three options: make arrangements personally going to the
Treasury State, the notary, the Companies Registry and Social Security; go to a PAE
(Points of Attention to the Entrepreneur) or do it directly over the Internet .

1. Using PAE (Points of Attention to the Entrepreneur)

This notwithstanding, according to the provisions of the law, the regime will consist of the
following steps:

The first point is to find your nearest Points of Attention to the Entrepreneur (PAE)
( In addition to the ID of
all partners and workers and a document certifying the number of Social Security, you will
need your account number or credit card to pay the Companies Registry. You may also
need to take some other document, do a prior consultation.

At the Entrepreneur Service Point (PAE):

1.1. Completion of single electronic document (DUE) with all the information and
commencement of electronic processing.

1.2. Filling of request to reserve the name of the company (up to 5 different names) with
the Central Commercial Registry, which will issue a certificate within the following 6
business hours.

1.3. A date will immediately be set for the execution of the deed of formation by means of
real-time communication with the electronic notarial agenda, obtaining information on the
notarys office, date and time of execution of the deed, which will be within the 12
business hours following the filing of the application.

Once this is done, the system makes an appointment with a notary.

To the date with the notary you will have to carry the certificate of payment of the social
capital. There, the deed of the company will be granted.

The remaining procedures (Notary, Social Security and Tax Administration) are made
from the PAE point.

Currently, you can perform these procedures in 24 hours and for 100 euros (40 euros fee
for the commercial register and 60 euros at the notary).

2. Complete the formalities personally, following the same steps that in the PAE office
going to Treasury State, the notary, the Companies Registry and Social Security.

3. Directly over the Internet (

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Social Enterprise

The more common legal forms are the Cooperatives and the Laboral Companies

First steps to start a cooperative

They are similar to that of other societies, with the following specifications:

It is requested in the Registry of Cooperative Societies which is the competent body to

issue certifications on the existence of entities registered with the same name that another
which is intended to be.
The name must necessarily include the words "Sociedad Cooperativa" or its
abbreviation "S. Coop. "
The name of the Cooperative is reserved for a period of six months and may be
extended by two months if the company has initiated the period of creation.
Cooperatives are exempt from Transfer Tax and Stamp Duty in acts of incorporation
and capital increase, loan constitution and derivatives of acquisitions of certain assets and

First steps to start a Laboral Society

The paperwork to set up a Labour Society is the same as for a SL or SA, also, adding the
rating of Company Labour.

The rating of the Labour Company (the other process that is different regarding the
creation of cooperatives); it is performed by the Ministry of Employment and Social
Security or in the registration of the Autonomous Community.

Not for profit enterprise

The legal forms which may be taken are very diverse but the most common are foundation
and organization.

The main important procedures are similar to the other societies, the summary is:

The process begins with the definition of an ideology that embodies the principles by
which the performance of the organization is governed:
Statutes: The creation of a charter that will serve as a code of ethics based on the future
performance of NGOs in question.
Creation of Founding Act
Writing statutes notarized is the next step, and enrolment in the ministries of Interior,
Social Affairs and Foreign Affairs. This will depend on the main activities of the NGO..
Registration in the National Agency of Associations. and in the Local Agency
You have to apply for a number of NIF in the Ministry of Economy and Finance, to
acquire legal personality and be able to tax business transactions
Must request exemption from business tax (IAE), because it is an association or non-
profit foundation, and high in the Ministry of Labour and Social Security.
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Register as a volunteer organization in the own Local Agency of Volunteer
00001?category=) Catalonia

More Links and Sources: and

Web pages to know all steps to take and the legal obligations



- Am I prepared to devote the time, money and resources needed to start my business?
- What legal form I have to choose?
- What is my policy of product and prices?
- Can I get an economic return that allows me cover the costs?
- Is it possible to carry out the product / service with the existing knowledge and
- What advantage has my proposal over others?
- How much is the initial investment project?
- Do we have the necessary financial resources? If it is not, Can we get them?
- What I have to pay each month to operate your business?
- Are there enough people / companies interested in my product / service?
- Does the activity comply with the principles of social economy?
- What I am contributing to the community?
- Do I have the knowledge to carry up this project?
- Who is my competence?


Establecer un negocio en Espaa es bastante sencillo. El tipo de negocios disponibles estn

en lnea con los existentes en otros pases de la OCDE y hay tambin una amplia gama de
posibilidades para cubrir las necesidades de los diferentes tipos de inversores que desean
invertir en Espaa.

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Las formas jurdicas ms comunes de entidades legales amparadas por la legislacin
espaola son Cooperativas (Sociedades Cooperativas) and Sociedades Laborales (tanto
Sociedades Annimas - SA como Sociedades Limitadas - SL).

Los procedimientos ordinarios y los gastos implcitos son similares para ambas formas
legales y estn detallados en la siguiente lista:

1. Certificado de solicitud de nombre: directamente en las oficinas del Registro Mercantil

Central u online en la web
2. Solicitud del NIF provisional: procedimiento ordinario hecho en la Agencia Tributaria
Estatal o va telemtica en
3. Apertura de una cuenta bancaria: abrir una cuenta bancaria a nombre de la compaa
para pagar las acciones.
4. Documento que contenga las diferentes representaciones de los propietarios
5. Escritura notarial de incorporacin.
6. Solicitud de registro en el Registro Mercantil: la escritura de incorporacin se
presentar (i) va telemtica por el notario o (ii) personalmente por la parte interesada
7. Periodo de evaluacin y registro en el Registro Mercantil: quince (15) das:
directamente en las oficinas del Registro Mercantil Central u online en
8. Obtencin del NIF definitivo: procedimiento ordinario o telemtico en
9. Formalizacin de la constitucin en cuanto a impuestos y cuestiones laborales: registro
de las actividades para los impuestos y actividades econmicas ( / -

Para constituir una compaa, hay tres opciones: solicitar cita e ir personalmente a la
Tesorera del Estado, al notario, al Registro Mercantil Central y a la Seguridad Social; ir a
un PAE (Punto de Atencin al Emprendedor) o bien hacerlo directamente por internet.

1. Utilizar PAE (Punto de Atencin al Emprendedor)

Segn las diferentes normativas, esta opcin consistir en los siguientes pasos:

El primer punto es localizar el Punto de Atencin al Emprendedor (PAE) ms cercano

( Aparte de presentar el
DNI de todos los socios y trabajadores y un documento certificando el nmero de
Seguridad Social, se necesita un nmero de cuenta o una tarjeta de crdito para pagar el
registro de la compaa. Se pueden necesitar ms documentos, as que mejor consultar

En el Punto de Atencin al Emprendedor (PAE):

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1.1. Cumplimentar un documento electrnico nico (DUE) con toda la informacin e
inicio del proceso electrnico.
1.2. Cumplimentar la solicitud de reserva del nombre de la compaa (hasta 5 nombres
diferentes) en el Registro Mercantil Central, donde se emitir un certificado en las
siguientes 6 horas laborales.
1.3. Se concertar una cita inmediatamente para ejecutar la escritura de incorporacin
mediante comunicacin a tiempo real con la agenda electrnica del notario,
obteniendo informacin sobre la oficina del notario y fecha y hora de ejecucin de
la escritura, todo ello en las 12 horas posteriores tras haber cumplimentado la
solicitud. Cuando est cumplimentado, el sistema concertar una cita con el notario.

Para la cita con el notario se ha de llevar el certificado de pago del capital social
(acciones). All, se har la escritura de la compaa.

El resto de procedimientos (notario, Seguridad Social e Impuestos Administrativos) se

hacen desde el punto PAE.

Actualmente se pueden realizar todos estos procedimientos en 24 horas y por 100 (40
de tasas para el Registro Mercantil y 60 para el notario).

2. Realizar las formalidades personalmente, siguiendo los mismos pasos listados para la
oficina PAE, pero en este caso yendo a la Tesorera del Estado, al notario, al Registro
Mercantil Central y a la Seguridad Social.

3. Directamente por internet (

Empresa Social

Tal y como se ha mencionado anteriormente, las formas legales ms comunes son las
Cooperativas y las Sociedades Laborales (SA y SL).

Primeros pasos para constituir una Cooperativa:

Los procedimientos son similares a los de otras sociedades, con las siguientes

Se ha de registrar en el Registro de Sociedades Cooperativas, que es el organismo

competente que emite los certificados de la existencia de entidades registradas con el
mismo nombre que el que se intenta registrar.
El nombre debe incluir necesariamente las palabras Sociedad Cooperativa o su
abreviacin S. Coop.
El nombre de la Cooperativa se reserva por un periodo de seis meses y puede extenderse
dos meses ms si la compaa ha iniciado su periodo de creacin.
Las Cooperativas estn exentas de impuestos de transferencia e impuestos de timbre en
actos de incorporacin e incremento de capital, constitucin de prstamos y
adquisiciones derivadas de ciertos activos y derechos

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Primeros pasos para constituir una Sociedad Laboral

La burocracia para constituir una Sociedad Laboral es la misma tanto para una SL como
para una SA, siempre aadiendo la clasificacin de Compaa Laboral.

La clasificacin de Compaa Laboral (el otro proceso que es diferente respecto a la

creacin de Cooperativas) la otorga el Ministerio de Empleo y Seguridad Social o el
registro correspondiente en cada Comunidad Autnoma.

Empresas sin nimo de lucro

Las formas legales que pueden escogerse son muy diversas, pero las ms comunes son
Fundacin y Organizacin.

Los principales y ms importantes procedimientos son similares a los de otras sociedades.

El resume es:

El proceso empieza con la definicin de una ideologa que englobe los principios
por los cuales se guan las actividades de la organizacin.
Estatutos: la creacin de una escritura de constitucin que sirva como cdigo tico,
basado en las futuras actividades de las ONGs en cuestin.
Creacin de un Acta de Fundacin.
Redactar los estatutos notarialmente es el siguiente paso, junto con el registro en el
Ministerio de Interior, Asuntos Sociales y Asuntos Exteriores. Esto depender de
las principales actividades de la ONG.
Registro en la Agencia Nacional de Asociaciones y en la Agencia Local.
Se debe solicitar un nmero de NIF (Cdigo Fiscal) en el Ministerio de Economa y
Finanzas, a fin de adquirir personalidad legal y poder realizar transacciones de
impuestos de negocios.
Se debe solicitar la excepcin de impuestos de negocios (IAE) en el Ministerio de
Trabajo y Seguridad Social, ya que se trata de una asociacin o una fundacin sin
nimo de lucro.
Se debe registrar como una organizacin voluntaria en la propia Agencia Local de
Voluntariado (
associacio-00001?category web en el caso de Catalua, por ejemplo).

Ms enlaces y recursos:, and (pginas web para conocer todos los pasos necesarios y todas
las obligaciones legales).

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- Estoy preparado para dedicar el tiempo, dinero y recursos necesarios para iniciar mi
- Qu forma legal debo escoger?
- Cul es la poltica y el precio de mi producto?
- Puedo conseguir un retorno econmico que me permita cubrir los costes?
- Es posible desarrollar el producto/servicio con el conocimiento y la tecnologa actual?
- Qu ventajas tiene mi propuesta frente a las dems?
- Cunta es la inversin inicial del proyecto?
- Tengo los recursos financieros necesarios? Si no, puedo conseguirlos?
- Cunto tengo que pagar cada mes para operar con mi negocio?
- Hay suficiente gente/empresas interesados en mi producto/servicio?
- La actividad cumple con los principios de economa social?
- Qu aporto a la comunidad?
- Tengo el conocimiento necesario para llevar a cabo este proyecto?
- Cul es mi competencia?

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1.Articulating your business idea

Often people underestimate the beginning of formulating their business idea. Before you
proceed with the registration and the business plan you have to be sure that the role of the
entrepreneur is the right for you. You must have in mind that you wont have regulated
working hours, often you will have to work at night, during holidays or even while eating. The
risks which you have to take are higher and therefore sometimes even if you do your job,
according to the manual, the market is an unpredictable space and you have to be ready to face
failure. So before going further you have to be sure that you are ready to manage with the
stress and to sacrifice your free time.
Having in mind the previous statement, you will be deeply involved with your work. So it is
very important to find something which you like and makes you happy. If you just follow the
trends of the market, and choose the most beneficial area at this moment, in due time you may
find that your work doesnt give you pleasure. If you get bored by the thing that you do, your
clients will be the first one to notice that.
In this regard you should think about all the things which you conceder as hobbies at this point
and to choose this one, for which you feel the most confident. Sometimes is good to ignore the
present trend. As to say if you want to open a bakery in your town, just because at this point
many people are considering it beneficial, you can soon fell into the situation, when you
realize that you hate cooking and you hate your job. Instead, if you have passion for baking,
your clients will surely notice it and even if there are 10 more bakeries on your street, they will
still choose yours. You will have competitive advantage on this market.
After you have found the area, in which to start your own company, it is good to make a
research on the market. What are the new trends? Which approach is considered most
favorable by the clients? Often people hire consultants for this job, but if you cant afford one
you must put your afford in finding the needed information yourself.

2.Establishment of the new company

Establishment of the new company consists of three main phases: a preparatory phase, the
start-up period and the take-off period.
During the preparatory period, pay attention to the following:
market analysis
analysis of the business environment, a situation of occupations
price competition, find competitive advantage and market segment
the market price and the volume of the planned volume of sales
determine staffing needs, the division of labor, the structure of your company
determine the means of production and material needed

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develop a marketing strategy
find the prices of all the necessary costs, do the financial calculations
specify a start-up capital and the size of the break
choose the form of business, location and the name of your company
draw up an action plan

During the start-up period:

establish a company, open a bank account;
acquire the necessary permits, licenses and registration requirements in the registers of
the company;
design the trademark, website, letterheads, promotional labels, business cards, etc.
consult with experts (lawyer, accountant, etc.);
recruit and select employees;
purchases equipment, furniture, install communication devices;
sign the necessary insurance, procurement, contracts;
commence marketing.

Remember that during the start-up period all sales and cash receipts have to be
consolidated. When the first products are sold, money is not necessarily accrued
immediately because buyers usually do not pay for the products immediately, they do it in
a certain period of payment.
Incoming and outgoing cash balance does not always mean that the business is profitable,
vice versa do not be surpassed about the break. The business is on the track when cash-
flow is positive and company is profitable.

During take-off period it is important to achieve a balance point and a positive cash flow
from operations and to ensure a stable business. Business start-up capital is needed to run a
company and pay taxes on time.

Advices after you have started your business

When choosing the name of your organization, have in mind that the official language
of Bulgaria is Bulgarian. Therefore if you choose a catchy name in English, it is
possible to be misunderstood by the general public. Also it would be better if the
name is not too long and it is easy to memorize.
Remember that to use all the advantages of todays technological development.
Thanks to social media you have many free of charge channels for dissemination.
Always have in mind who is your main audience. If you have developed a local
bakery, stay connected with the people form the area. If you are providing VET
services, keep in touch with all the organizations, which require training for their
employees. If your target groups is mainly seniors, its not a good idea to emphasize
on social networks on the internet, better to concentrate on paper media, such as
magazines and newsletters.
Official website is a must. All the information should be easy to find. The most
important thing is to have visible contact details, as well as activities and previous

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Ones your website is active, it is also advisable to make an official email with the
same domain. It is always better, if your email ends up with,
than gmail or Hotmail.

Advices for choosing the business name

The name of an enterprise should be short &easy to pronounce and thus,remember.It

would be also wiser to use a picture,logo,photo etc with the name.The more visual the
name is the easier to keep it on mind.If the name makes a positive impact on people,it will
make your companys name more memorable.One final thing to keep on mind is that the
name should also be relevant to the nature of your business.

Use short name

The company name should must contain 1 or 2 words.Your business name wont
necessarily be more effective if its short, but it may be easier to remember. You can also
consider using an acronym, but be careful unless there is an obvious and memorable tie-
in, using an acronym can make your name too generic to be relatable to your target.
Use adjectives
If the company name consists of multiple words is fine to include adjectives. The colors
are strong elements in a company name because the colors creates a visual image. (Red
Dragon, Black Friday, Green Lantern)
Create new words
For example, you can put together one or more words (Microsoft -micro + soft), you can
repeat some letters (Peter Pan, Coca Cola, Cruise Control).
Check on the Competition
Make a list and compare them to spark youre your ideas and to help you develop a name
that really stands out from the crowd.
Think about Your Target Audience
You want your business name to resonate with the people you are trying to reach. Use
what you know about your target audience to measure the relevancy of any names you
come up with.
Verify and protect the company name
You must verify of company name availability, you make a reservation of with the Trade
Registry Office and you must protect your company name.

The name of the business should be short, clear with key words without difficult words
and phrases structures. In Poland the name should avoid difficult sounds with double
letter like : d, sz, cz, as well sounds , , that are difficult for the pronunciation. The
key words should reflect the nature of the business.

Dont use your name or surname or your daughter or sons name: Frutera Mari or
Neumticos Pepe, Mudanzas Garca or Transportes Gil. Only if you are a famous
person this option has sense.

Advices for a market study

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Use the Mystery shopping technique to measure the quality, services and obtain
information about your products and future products

Advices for visibility and communication

Create a good logo that defines your business.

This logo is simple, direct, concise and recognizable

Before the setting up the business, the future entrepreneur should have a practice as a
trainee in similar kind of business, or at least make the observation during the visits. Other
suggestion is to take opinion from other entrepreneurs in existing local similar business
about the amount of selling goods, the number of clients. It is also good to do an internet
research in wider scale including regional statistic data, do analysis of competition in the
industry in which entrepreneur will be operated - the offer and the volume of leading
eterprises, average selling prices, quality standards in force in the market.

To set up an enterprise without proper market research will most probably result in the
failure of your business.While doing the market study,ask the right questions to the right
people.Do not use only the Internet for market research.Not only may the information be
incorrect but this information will be open to everybody.Also,do not make the market
research only within your circle of friends,relatives,etc You should contact real customers
in order to get better and more realistic results.

Address on a particular segment of customers (For example: young people,18-29 years,

Be clear about your objectives before beginning your market research;
Check on the Competition;
Identify your target audience, how many respondents you require and what data you are
hoping to collect before beginning. Make sure your target group is relevant to your needs
and represents the market you are targeting;
Develop a chart or graph from the data collected to make it easier to visually analyze the
Dont ignore criticism because you dont want to hear it.It can be the most valuable
feedback you receive.
Make it quick and easy to complete your survey or questionnaire;
Ensure that all participants will remain confidential to encourage participation;
Keep your mind open to new opportunities and needs that you didnt consider before
conducting your research.

Advices for management, monitoring and evaluation

This has been written in the most text books for entrepreneurship, and it needs to be
repeated ones again. The first part of the management of your organization is to make a
strategy. This is the most abstract part of the process, so you need to be as creative as
possible. Here you need to present your mission, vision and goals. To clarify where do you
see your organization in 10 years. To find out what is your advantage towards the

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competition. To be ready to have a back up plan, if something goes wrong. Imagine it as
the framework in which your organization will function and yourself as the Capitan who
needs to find the most suitable direction.

For a successful business and and especially for a social enterprises the manager must be
the leader. The leadership and the management are complementary and in the meantime,
vitals for success. You can choose a team with specialists and you need to build an
organizational culture in your team.
Monitoring and evaluation are important management tools to track your progress and
facilitate decision making (develop a chart or graph from the data collected to make it
easier to visually analyze the results, polls on the internet, number of visitors to the site,
number of clients, profits, make it common practice to ask clients for suggestions at every
interaction etc )
You should be ready to learn as much as you can about sales marketing&operations.Cash
flow is crucial for business. So you have to get cash flow immediately.How?If the
enterprise offers professional services , deposits can be required prior to the work ,with
balances due on delivery.The same thing can be done in retail business,too,in the form of
advance payment. You have to bring in more cash than you pay out. To do this, you need
to keep the costs and expenses low.It is wiser to overestimate expenses and underestimate
revenues in a business plan.You should also focus on sales and marketing to increase

Entrepreneur should have a certain amount of money for the first month to cover all
The customer should pay in cash or within 14 days via bank account. Develop the strategy
to pay in the advanced for the goods.
The expenses of running the business should be at least as possible in the beginning.
Monitoring of business competitor.
Monitoring all expenses and incomes to keep balance.
Hire experienced book-keeper.
Every day analyze the clients expectations, needs and make an advice for them.
Be polite, with a smile when the customers arrive, dedicate time as much as possible with
the explanations.

Continuous monitoring of physical resources, work performance and financial outcomes

will let you know if the strategies are on-track or need revision.Thus, you will be alerted
to weaknesses in the enterprise and be able to take the necessary corrective changes based
on accurate information.You should carry out sufficient monitoring of the prvious years
results to effectively update your short-, medium- and long-term objectives.
Benchmark your enterprise;Monitoring change to the business is achieved by
benchmarking the performance of your enterprise. Benchmarking is not only important to
evaluate how the business compares with industry, but when your business is undergoing
change, benchmarking the performance is critical to evaluate success .

After you have your general strategy, you can start developing the small pieces (planning).
This is the operational level, where you need to be as precise as possible about your
actions. You must have in mind that the situation may change over time. So be prepared to
be flexible and not to stick to your old plans when needed.

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Advices for visibility and communication

You can use the web design company for:

Design a website to promote your business online (its a very good idea but not
The web site must be a dynamic not static site;
The site must have a visitor counter;
The web site should be promoted - the site should be attractive and easy to use, the
web site must be found by the search engines;
It should be regularly updated.
You can use advertising companies for business cards, flyers, calendars etc.
You can use massmedia.
You can write your company name on the cars and you can park it all into a visible

Tips for Visibility and Communication

Regardless of the size of an enterprise, its important to increase the opportunity to
network with your customers. That is why entrepreneurs need to have regularly-updated
company pages on social media platforms such as Facebook,Twitter and Linkedln. These
networks would be perfect tools for the business and engaging the customers.

Enterprise should have logo with easy readable letters and reflect profile of business and
be recognizable . The billboard should be placed in the external wall of the enterprise.
Many signpost should show the way to the enterprise. Business e-mail, website or
facebook should be created to keep communication with potential customer and advertise
the products.

National resources and specific websites :



Polish Agency for Enterprise Development


The budget of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Relations with the business
community has been supplemented with the amount of 1.7 million (RON) to
support SMEs and young entrepreneurs -
National Rural Development Programme -
Entrepreneurship for young people in rural area - Advices and opportunities -

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European program: Rural Renaissance-stimulating innovation and business
opportunities -
Start-up in rural area-
Ffinancing from State budget -
Rural affairs-forum -
Business ideas in rural area
A site were you find everything you need to know about doing business in Romania


European Portal for Small and medium enterprises -

For consultation, regarding your future opportunities - http://www.msp-
Official website of Bulgarian Small and Medium Enterprises Promotion Agency
Forum for discussion of entrepreneurial possibilities in the rural sector.
European program for rural development
Entrepreneurial information portal
Information Portal for Startup Companies -


Public and private institutions offer a variety of grants and credits to entrepreneurs in rural
areas.These are provided for entrepreneurs mainly in the field of agriculture and cattle
feeding . Up to 70% of the investment budget is provided as non-refundable grant .

Social Entrepreneurship in TURKEY:

The majority of social enterprises are launched by associations,
foundations&cooperatives in Turkey.These can be engaged in social enterprises in addition
to other activities relevant to their Statutes .They can implement projects,get public
interest and thus,tax exemption status and collect donations.They are exempt from
corporate tax. They can take advantage of other opportunities such as fundraising &
collecting donations.

Useful links for potential entrepreneurs in Turkey

Support for entrepreneurs in Turkey: (Republic
of Turkey,Small and Medium Enterprises Development Organisation)
For support and grants for rural entrepreneurs : Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs

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For general information about entrepreneurship in Turkey:
For techno-enterprises:
Erasmus Call for Young Entrepreneurs:
Social Enterprises,Best Practice Examples in Turkey:
Social Entrepreneurship in Turkey:
For establishing a company in Turkey:


Emprendetur Jvenes Emprendedores

National funding for youth in the creation of tourism businesses- 2015
Association for the development of rural areas
REDr -
It is a non-profit association whose principal objective it to promote a model of integrated
rural development
Emprender para conservar -
It is a program of the Foundation Felix Rodriguez De La Fuente whose main objective is to
promote the entrepreneurship and self-employment in rural areas and at the same time to
conserve the nature.

Asociacin de Emprendedores Rurales

The mission of this association is to promote and spread the entrepreneurial culture in rural
areas and the rural networking
Emprende Natura
The school is an initiative to encourage people to get out of town and to be an rural
entrepreneur to live a model of much more sustainable life, reconciling business, personal
life and nature.

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Sfaturi i elemente-cheie pentru deschiderea unei afaceri n mediul rural sau a unei
ntreprinderi sociale

1.Asamblarea ideii de afaceri

Adesea oamenii subestimeaz nceputul asamblrii ideii de afaceri. nainte de a ncepe cu

nregistrarea companiei i crearea planului de afaceri, trebuie s fii sigur c rolul de
antreprenor este potrivit pentru tine. Trebuie s tii c nu vei avea un program de lucru
regulat, adesea va trebui s lucrezi noaptea, n timpul vacanelor i uneori, chiar n timp ce
mnnci. Riscurile pe care trebuie s i le asumi sunt ridicate, chiar dac lucrezi aa cum
trebuie, respectnd manualul i regulile. De asemenea, trebuie s fii pregtit i pentru eec,
deoarece piaa este un spaiu imprevizibil. Deci nainte de a merge mai departe cu
nfiinarea unei afaceri, trebuie s fii gata s i controlezi stresul i s i sacrifici timpul

Munca de manager te va face s te implici la un nivel foarte ridicat. De aceea este foarte
important s gseti pentru firma ta o activitate ce i place i te face fericit. Dac urmreti
doar ceea ce este n trend pe pia i alegi doar ceea ce aduce beneficiile cele mai mari n
acel moment, dup un timp, poi constata c munca nu i aduce plcere. Dac ceea ce faci
te plictisete, clienii ti vor fi primii care vor constata acest lucru.

n acest scop, va trebui s treci n revist i s i aminteti toate activitile pe care le

practicai cu plcere ca hobby-uri i s o alegi pe cea care te face s ai cea mai mare
ncredere n tine i n forele tale. Uneori, este bine s ignori tendinele momentului n ceea
ce privete trendul pieei. Astfel, dac vrei s deschizi o patiserie n oraul tu, doar pentru
c n acel moment, muli oameni cosider c este necesar, e posibil ca n curnd s te
simi ineficient, dac vei realiza c urti s gteti i i urti munca. n schimb, dac ai
pasiune pentru patiserie, clienii ti sigur vor observa acest lucru i chiar dac mai sunt 10
astfel de patiserii pe aceeai strad, ei o vor alege pe a ta. Vei avea avantaj competitiv pe
acea pia .

Dup ce ai gsit zona n care s i nfiinezi propria companie, este bine s ncepi o
cercetare a pieei. Care sunt noile tendine? Care abordare este considerat cea mai
favorabil de ctre clieni? Adesea se obinuiete angajarea unui consultant pentru studiul
pieei, dar dac nu i permii unul, va trebui s faci singur efortul de a gsi informaiile de
care ai nevoie.

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2. nfiinarea unei noi companii

nfiinarea unei noi companii comport urmtoarele faze :


Ce trebuie s urmreti n timpul perioadei DE PREGTIRE:

studiul pieei;
analiza mediului de afaceri i a situaiei locale cu privire la ocupaii;
competiia preurilor, gsirea unor avantaje n competiie i a unui segment
favorabil de pia;
preurile de pe pia i cam ct se vinde din ceea ce plnuieti tu;
determinarea nevoilor de personale, diviziunea muncii, structura companiei;
determinarea mijloacelor de producie i a materialelor necesare;
dezvoltarea unei strategii a pieei;
gsirea preurilor i calculul costului necesarului total, realizarea unor calcule
specificarea mrimii capitalului startup-ului i dimensiunea deschiderii sale;
alegerea formei legale a afacerii, locaia i numele companiei;
scrierea unui plan de afaceri.

Ce trebuie s urmreti n timpul PERIOADEI START-UP:

nregistrarea juridic a companiei, deschiderea unui cont bancar;

obinerea autorizaiilor necesare, a licenelor i ndeplinirea cerinelor de
nregistrare n cadrul companiei;
design-ul i nregistrarea mrcii companiei, website-ului, antetului, etichetelor
promoionale, crilor de vizit etc.
consultarea cu experi (avocat, jurist, contabil etc.);
recrutarea i selecia angajailor;
cumprarea echipamentului, a mobilierului, instalarea sistemului i mijloacelor de
achiziionarea asigurrilor necesare, semnarea contractelor, a procurelor, dac este
nceperea activitii propriu-zise.

ine minte faptul c, n perioada de start-up, vnzrile i ncasrile trebuie

consolidate. Cnd sunt vndute primele produse, nu trebuie s te atepi ca ele s fie i
pltite imediat. Uneori, cumprtorii pltesc dup o perioad (de obicei perioada de care au
nevoie pentru a obine beneficii de la produs sau pentru a-l vinde, la rndul lor).
Banii ce intr sau ies din contul-cas nu reprezint ntotdeauna profitabilitatea afacerii. Nu
te lsa depit de situaia balanei cash a nceputului. Afacerea funcioneaz dac exist un
cash-flow pozitiv, iar la final, dac exist profit.

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n PERIOADA DE LANSARE a afacerii este important s ajungi la un punct
de echilibru, cash-flow-ul s fie pozitiv i s asiguri o afacere stabil.

Sfaturi pentru alegerea numelui afacerii

Alegerea corecta a numelui ntreprinderii

Numele unei ntreprinderi trebuie s fie scurt i uor de pronunat i astfel, uor de
reinut. Ar fi, de asemenea, o alegere inteligent combinarea unei imagini-logo, a unei
fotografii cu numele ntreprinderii. Un nume este cu att mai uor de reinut, cu ct este
mai vizual. Daca numele are un impact pozitiv asupra oamenilor, el va face compania ta
mai memorabil. Alt lucru important de respectat este faptul c numele trebuie s fac
referire la activitatea de baz pe care doreti s o desfori.
Utilizeaz nume scurte
Numele companiei ar trebui s conin 1 sau 2 cuvinte. Numele afacerii tale nu va
fi neaprat mai eficient dac este scurt, dar poate fi mai uor de inut minte. De asemenea,
poi lua n considerare utilizarea unui acronim, dar fii atent - dac nu este unul evident i
memorabil, folosirea unui acronim poate face ca numele s fie prea generic pentru
segmental de pia vizat.
Utilizeaz adjective
Dac numele companiei conine mai multe cuvinte, este bines s fie incluse
adjective. Culorile sunt elemente puternice n denumirea companiei, deoarece culorile
creeaz o imagine vizual (Red Dragon, Black Friday, Green Lantern).
Creeazi cuvinte noi
De exemplu, poi uni unul sau mai multe cuvinte (Microsoft -micro + soft), poi
repeta cteva litere (Peter Pan, Coca Cola, Cruise Control).
Verific concurena
F o list cu nume i compar-le cu ideile tale, pentru a gsi un nume care s ias n
Gndete-te la segmentul de pia cruia te adresezi
Doreti ca numele afacerii tale s rezoneze cu oamenii la care vrei s ajungi.
Utilizeaz ceea ce tii deja despre acetia i msoar relevana numelui.
Verific i protejeaz numele companiei
Trebuie s verifici dac numele este disponibil, s faci o rezervare la Oficiul
Registrului Comerului i s-i protejai numele companiei tale.
Un nume de afacere scurt i clar, coninnd cuvinte-cheie va fi uor de reinut.
Cuvintele dificile, mai puin cunoscute, frazele structurate trebuie evitate. Evit sunetele
dificile specific anumitor ri, de exemplu, n Polonia, sunt de evitat sunetele cu duble
consoane : d, sz, cz, i sunetele , , ce sunt dificil de pronunat. Cuvintele-cheie
trebuie s reflecte natura afacerii.

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Nu folosi numele sau prenumele copiilor ti de exemplu : ,,Frutera Mari sau
,,Neumticos Pepe, ,,Mudanzas Garca sau ,,Transportes Gil. Doar dac suntei o
persoan celebr, un astfel de nume ar avea sens.

Sfaturi pentru vizibilitate i comunicare

Creeaz un logo care s reprezinte afacerea ta (este bine ca acesta s conin cel
puin partial numele afacerii tale)
LOGO-ul de mai jos este simplu, concis, reprezentativ i recognoscibil:

Sfaturi pentru studiul de pia

Folosete metoda ,,Mystery shopping pentru a msura caitatea serviciilor i

pentru a obine informaii despre produsele tale prezente i viitoare.
Folosete-i propria experien, iar dac nu o ai, ncearc s dobndeti experien
ca ucenic ntr-o intreprindere similar cu cea pe care o vei nfiina sau viziteaz cel puin o
astfel de intreprindere i f observaii n timpul vizitei. O alt posibilitate este s colectezi
opinii de la ali intreprinztori n afacerile locale existente, cu privire la cantitateade bunuri
ce se pot vinde, la numrul de clieni etc.
Este, de asemenea, bine s faci o cercetare pe internet la scar mare, incluznd
date statistice locale i regionale, o analiz a concurenei n domeniul n care
intreprinztorul va opera, a ofertei i a volumului acesteia din partea intreprinderilor
concurente, a preurilor medii de vnzare, a standardului de calitate impus pe pia.

S nfiinezi o ntreprindere fr o cercetare solid prealabil a pieii va duce, n

mod sigur, la eecul tu n afaceri.
Atunci cnd studiezi piaa, pune ntrebrile potrivite persoanelor potrivite. Nu
folosi doar internetul pentru cercetarea pieei. Este posibil s gseti informaii incorecte,
iar informaiile gsite sunt accesibile tuturor i nu te pot ajuta prea mult. De asemenea. nu
face studiul de pia numai cu rudele, prietenii i cunotinele tale. Trebuie s contactezi
clieni reali pentru a obine rezultate realiste.
Adresaeaz-te unui anumit segment de pia (De exemplu: tineri cu vrsta de 14-29
ani, omeri).
Stabilete clar obiectivele nainte de a ncepe studiul de pia;
Verificai concurena;
Inainte de a ncepe, identific segmentul de pia int, care este numrul de
persoane pe care se va face studiul i ce date vrei s obii. Asigur-te c segmentul este
relevant pentru nevoile tale i reprezentativ pe piaa pe care vrei s intri;

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Traseaz un grafic cu datele colectate pentru a face mai simpl o analiz vizual a
Nu ignora critica, doar fiindc nu doreti s-o auzi. Poate fi cel mai valoros feedback
pe care l primeti;
Dac foloseti un chestionar, trebuie s l faci ct mai simplu i mai uor de
Asigur-te c toi participanii sunt de acord cu condiiile de confidenialitate,
pentru a ncuraja participarea;
Fii deschis la noi oportuniti i nevoi pe care nu le-ai luat n considerare nainte de
a-i ncepe cercetarea.

Sfaturi pentru management, monitorizare i evaluare

Pentru o afacere de succes i n special pentru ntrepriderile sociale, managerul trebuie

s fie lider. Leadership-ul i managementul sunt complementare, dar n aceeai msur,
vitale pentru succes. Poi alege o echip de specialiti i trebuie construieti o cultur
organizaional n echipa ta.
Monitorizarea i evaluarea sunt istrumente importante care te ajut s-i urmreti
progresul i uurina n luarea deciziilor (dezvolt o hart sau un grafic pentru datele
colectate pentru a uura analiza rezultatelor, sondaje pe internet, numr de vizitatori pe site,
numr de clieni, profit, f un obicei din a interaciona cu clienii, de a-i ntreba pentru a
obine sugestii etc).
Trebuie s fii pregtit s invei ct mai mult posibil despre operaiile de
marketing.Cash-flow-ul este hotrtor pentru bunul mers al unei afaceri, deci trebuie s
obii cash-flow imediat. Cum? Dac ntreprinderea ofer servicii profesionale, pot fi
solicitate depozite nainte de angajarea n munc cu balane n funcie de livrri. Acelai
lucru poate fi fcut i n afaceri de tip retail, sub forma plilor n avans.Trebuie s ncasm
mai mult cash dect pltim. Pentru a obine acest lucru trebuie s meninem plile i
costurile la un nivel sczut. Este mai nelept s supraestimm costurile i s subestimm
ncasrile ntr-un plan de afaceri. Trebuie, de asemenea, s te concentrezi pe vnzri i
maketing pentru a realiza profit.
ntreprinztorii ar trebui s aib o anumit sum de bani, un anumit capital, n prima
lun, pentru a acoperi toate cheltuielile. Clientul ar trebui s plteasc n numerar sau cu
cardul, n termen de 14 zile.
Dezvolt strategia de a plti n avans bunurile.
Pe ct posibil, la nceput, cheltuielile de administrare a afacerii ar trebui s fie ct
mai mici.
Monitorizeaz concurena n afaceri...
Monitorizeaz ncasrile i cheltuielile, pentru a menine balana contabil.
Angajeaz un contabil cu experien.
Analizeaz zilnic ateptrile clienilor, nevoile lor i ofer-le consultan.
Fii politicos, zmbete, atunci cnd sosesc clienii i ofer-le explicaii, pe larg.

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Monitorizarea continu a resurselor fizice, a performanei n munc i a cheltuielilor
i vor indica dac strategia este viabil sau are nevoie de corecii. Astfel, vei cunoate din
timp problemele afacerii tale i vei fi capabil s faci coreciile necesare, bazndu-te pe
informaii pertinente.
Ar trebui s efectuezi o monitorizare atent a rezultatelor din anul precedent, astfel
nct s poi actualiza obiectivele n mod eficient, pe termen scurt , mediu i lung.
Realizeaz o analiz comparativ de performan, la diverse intervale de timp.
Monitorizarea schimbrii n afaceri se realizeaz prin analiza comparativ de performan a
ntreprinderii tale. n aceste condiii, obiectivul de referin nu este important doar pentru a
evalua modul n care afacerea se compar cu celelalte, dar atunci cnd afacerea ta este n
curs de schimbare, evaluare comparativ a performanei este esenial pentru a evalua

Sfaturi pentru vizibilitate i comunicare

Poi apela la o companie de web design pentru:

Proiectarea unui site web pentru promovarea afacerii online (este o idee bun, dar
nu suficient);
Site-ul trebuie s fie unul dinamic i nu static;
Site-ul trebuie s aib afiat un numr de vizitatori;
Site-ul ar putea fi ipromovat Site-ul ar putea fi mai atractiv i uor de utilizat,
trebuie s fie gsit de motoarele de cutare;
Site-ul trebuie s fie periodic modificat.
Poi s-i promovezi afacerea utiliznd cri de vizit, fluturai, calendare etc
Poi utiliza mass-media.
Poi scrie numele companiei tale pe mainile firmei i le poi parca pe toate o dat, ntr-o
parcare vizibil.

Indiferent de dimensiunea unei ntreprinderi, este important s creasc

posibilitatea de a interaciona cu clienii. Acesta este motivul pentru care antreprenorii
trebuie s aib pagini de companie n mod regulat, actualizate pe platforme de social
media, cum ar fi Facebook, Twitter i Linkedln . Aceste reele ar fi instrumentele perfecte
pentru afaceri i pentru atragerea clienilor.

ntreprindere ar trebui s aib logo-ul cu litere uor de citit, s reflecte profilul de

afaceri i s fie uor de recunoscut. Panoul de afiaj trebuie s fie plasat n peretele exterior
al ntreprinderii, iar calea de acces ctre aceasta trebuie marcat prin indicatoare. Ar trebui
create emailuri, website-uri sau adrese de facebook, pentru a facilita comunicarea cu
potenialii clieni i pentru a promova produsele.

Resurse naionale i site-uri de profil:

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Polish Agency for Enterprise Development


Resurse naturale, faciliti i oportuniti

Bugetul Ministerului Economiei, Comerului i Relaiilor cu Mediul de Afaceri a fost

suplimentat cu suma de 1,7 milioane lei pentru susinerea micro-ntreprinderilor i a
tinerilor ntreprinztori -
Programul Naional de Dezvoltare Rural-
Antreprenoriat pentru tinerii din mediul rural Sfaturi i oportuniti
Programul european: ,,Renatere rural - Rural Renaissance - stimularea inovrii i
oportuniti de afaceri -
Start-up n mediul rural -
Finanare de la Bugetul de Stat -
Afaceri rurale - forum -
Idei de afaceri n mediul rural
Un site unde vei gsi tot ce trebuie s tii despre afaceri n Romnia.


Instituiile publice i cele private ofer o varietate de granturi i credite ntreprinztorilor

din mediul rural. Acestea sunt oferite pentru ntreprinztori, n principal, n domeniul
agriculturii i al creterii vitelor. Pn la 70 % din bugetul de investiii este furnizat sub
form de grant nerambursabil.

Antreprenoriatul social n Turcia:

Majoritatea ntreprinderilor sociale sunt lansate de ctre asociaii, fundaii i
cooperative din Turcia. Acestea pot fi angajate n ntreprinderi sociale, n plus fa de alte
activiti relevante pentru statutul lor. Ei pot implementa proiecte de interes public i, prin

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urmare, sunt scutite de taxe. Totodat, sunt scutite de impozit pe profit. Ele pot profita de
alte oportuniti, cum ar fi de strngere de fonduri i colectare de donaii.


Emprendetur Jvenes Emprendedores

Finanarea naional pentru tineri n crearea ntreprinderilor de turism - 2015
Asociaia pentru dezvoltarea zonelor rurale
Este o asociaie nonprofit, al crei principal obiectiv este s promoveze un model de
dezvoltare rural integrat
Emprender para conservar
Este un program al Fundaiei Felix Rodriguez De La Fuente al crui obiectiv principal este
acela de a promova spiritul antreprenorial i de auto ocupare a forei de munc n zonele
rurale i n acelai timp, pentru a conserva natura.
Asociacin de Emprendedores Rurales
Misiunea acestei asociaii este de a promova rspndirea culturii antreprenoriale n zonele
rurale i de a crea reele rurale.
Emprende Natura
Aceast coal ncurajeaz oamenii s ias din ora i s fie antreprenori din mediul rural,
pentru a tri un model de via mult mai durabil, mbinnd afacerile cu viaa personal i
cu natur.


1.Panna oma riidee liikuma

Inimesed tihti alahindavad oma algse idee vljendust. Enne kui asud
registreerimisele ja riplaani juurde, pead olema kindel, et ettevtja roll on ige. Sul peab
olema meeles, et sa ei saa reguleerida taegu, tihti on vaja ttada sel, phade ajal vi
isegi smise ajal. Riskid, mida pead vtma on suuremad ja seetttu mnikord isegi siis,
kui teete oma td, vastavalt juhendile, turg on ettearvamatu keskkond ja peab olema
valmis seisma silmitsi ebannestumisega. Enne, kui minna edasi peab olema kindel, et
olete valmis stressiks ja ohverdama oma vaba aega.

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Vttes arvesse varasemat tlust, olete tihedalt seotud oma tga. Seega on vga
oluline leida midagi, mis meeldib ja teeb nnelikuks. Kui lihtsalt jlgida suundumusi turul
ja valida kige kasumliku pindala sel hetkel, siis igel ajal vite avastada, et teie t ei
pakku enam rmu. Kui hakkab tegevusest igav, siis kliendid on esimesed, kes sellest
teada saavad.
Sellega seoses peaks mtlema kikidele asjadele, mida peate hobideks sel hetkel ja
valida see, mille eest tunnete kige enam enesekindlust. Vahel on hea ignoreerida praegust
suundumust. Niteks, kui soovite avada pagariri oma linnas, lihtsalt selleprast, et sel
hetkel paljud inimesed hindavad seda kasulikuks, vib peagi sattuda olukorda, kui mistad,
et vihkad toiduvalmistamist ja ka oma td. Selle asemel, kui teil on kirg kpsetamise
vastu, kliendid kindlasti mrkavad seda ja isegi kui on veel 10 pagaritkoda tnaval, nad
valivad just teie oma. Sellel turul on ka palju konkurente.
Kui olete leidnud ala, kus alustada oma ettevttega, siis on hea teha uuringuid selle
kohta. Millised on uued trendid? Millist lhenemisviisi peetakse kige soodsamaks
klientide poolt? Sageli inimesed palkavad konsultante selleks tks, aga kui seda ei saa
endale lubada, peate kasutama oma judu, et leida vajalikku teavet ise.

2. Uue ettevtte loomine

Uue ettevtte loomine koosneb kolmest etapist: ettevalmistav etapp, alustamis periood,
ning tusu periood.
Ettevalmistus etapil, pane thele jrgmisi:
turu anals;
rikeskkonna anals, valdkonna olukorras;
hinnakonkurents, leida konkurendieeliseid ja turu segmenti;
turuhinna ja mahu eeldav mgimaht;
kaardistada ttajate vajadusi, tjaotust, firma struktuuri;
mra tootmis- ja muu vajalik materjal;
mrata turundusstrateegia;
leida hinnad kikidele vajalike kulutustele, teha rahalised arvutused;
tpsustada stardikapital ja tasuvuse piiri suurust;
valida ettevtlusvorm, asukoht ja firma nimi;
koostada tegevuskava.

Alustamis perioodis:
luua firma, avada pangakonto;
omandada vajalikud load, litsentsid ja tita vajalikud nuded ettevtte
kujundada kaubamrk, veebileht, blanketid, reklaamisildid, visiitkaardid jne;
konsulteerida ekspertidega (jurist, raamatupidaja jne);
valida vlja ja palgata tle ttajaid;
osta varustust, mbli, paigaldada sideseadmed;
slmida vajalikud kindlustused, hanked, lepingud;
alustada turundust.

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Pea meeles, et alustamis perioodi ajal kik mgid ja raha laekumised tuleb
konsolideerida. Kui esimesed tooted makse, raha ei pruugi peagi laekuma, sest ostjad
tavaliselt ei maksa kohe toodete eest, nad teevad seda teatud maksethtajaga.
Sissetulevad ja vljaminevad kassajgid ei thenda alati seda, et ri on kasumlik ja
vastupidi - ei tohi olla alla tasuvust. ri on rajal kui rahavoog on positiivne ja ettevte on
Tusu perioodi ajal on oluline saavutada tasakaalu punkt ja positiivset ritegevuse
rahavoogu ja tagada stabiilne ri. ri stardikapitalli on vaja kivitamiseks firma loomisel ja
maksta makse igeaegselt.

Nuanded peale oma ri alustamist

Valides oma ettevttele nime, pea meeles, et ametlik keel Bulgaarias on bulgaaria
keel. Seega kui valite meeldejva nime inglise keeles, on vimalik, et tavakodanikud
mistavad seda valesti. Samuti oleks parem, kui nimi ei oleks liiga pikk ning raske
meelde jtmiseks.
Pea meeles, kasuta kiki eeliseid tnapeva tehnoloogia arengus. Tnu
sotsiaalmeediale on palju tasuta kanaleid info levitamiseks.
Alati pea meeles, kes on sinu peamine sihtgrupp. Kui teil on asutatud kohalik
pagariri, tuleb hoida kontakti selles piirkonnas olevate inimestega. Kui pakute
kutsehariduse teenust, olge kursis kikide organisatsioonidega, kes soovivad oma
ttajatele tienduskoolitusi. Kui teie sihtrhm on peamiselt pensionrid, ei ole hea
mte panustada sotsiaalsetele vrgustikele internetis, parem keskenduda
informatsioonile paberkandjal, nagu ajakirjad ja infolehed.
Ametlik koduleheklg on kohustuslik. Kogu infot peaks olema lihtne leida. Kige
thtsamad on nhtavad kontaktandmeid, samuti tegevuste loetelu ja varasemad
Kui teie veebileht on aktiivne, siis on soovitatav esitada seda ka ametlikus emailis.
Alati on parem, kui e-mail lpeb @, kui gmail vi Hotmail.

Nuanded rinime valimises

Nimi peab ettevttel olema lhike, lihtsa hldusega ja meelde jv. Oleks ka
mistlik kasutada nimega pilti, logo, fotot jne. Mida rohkem on nime
visualisatsioone, seda lihtsam on hoida seda meeles. Kui nimi avaldab positiivset
mju inimestele, see teeb firma nime meeldejvaks. Veel ks asi, mida hoida
meeles, nimi peab olema seotud oma ri iseloomuga.

Kasuta lhikest nime

Firma nimi peaks sisaldama 1 vi 2 sna. Ettevtte nimi ei pruugi olla thus kui
see on lhike, kuid see vib olla lihtsam meeles pidada. Vite ka kaaluda lhendit,
kuid olge ettevaatlik - kui see ei ole selge ja meeldejv, kasutades lhendit saab
muuta oma nime liiga ldiseks, et olla seostatav oma riga.

Kasuta omadussnu
Kui firma nimi koosneb mitmest snast on hea lisada omadussnu. Vrvid on
tugevad elemendid firma nimes, sest vrvid loovad visuaalse pildi. (Red Dragon,
Black Friday, Green Lantern)
Koosta uusi snu

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Niteks saab kokku panna ht vi mitut sna (Microsoft- micro + soft), vid
korrata mndasi thti (Peter Pan, Coca Cola, Cruise Control).

Kontrolli konkurentsi
Tee nimekiri ja vrdle neid, et anda sdet oma idee jaoks ja aidata arendada nimi,
mis testi silma paistaks.

Mtle oma sihtrhmast

Tahad oma rinimega mjutada inimesi, kelleni pad juda. Kasuta tedmisi oma
sihtrhma kohta oma nime vljamtlemiseks.

Kinnita ja kaitse ettevtte nime

Sa pead kontrollima ettevtte nime kttesaadavust, kanalite reserveerimist koos
Trade Registry Office'iga ja pead kaitsma oma firma nime.

ri nimi peaks olema lhike, selge, vtmesnadega, ilma keeruliste snadeta ja

struktuursete vljenditeta. Poolas nimes peaks vltima raskeid helisid topelt thtedega
nagu: dz, sz, cz, samuti klad , , mida on raske hldada. Vtmesnad peaksid
peegelduma ettevtte iseloomu.

ra kasuta oma nime, perekonnanime, ttre vi poja nime: Frutera Mari vi

Neumticos Pepe, Mudanzas Garca vi Transportes Gil. Ainult siis, kui sa oled
tuntud inimene on seda vimalust mistlik kasutada.

Nuandeid turu-uuringus
- Kasuta "Mystery shopping tehnikat" kvaliteedi mtmiseks, teenusteks ja saada teavet
oma toote ning tuleviku toodete kohta.

Nuanded nhtavusele ja sidele

Loo hea logo, mis mratleb teie ri.
See logo on lihtne, otsene, sisutihe ja ratuntav

Enne ri seadistamist, tulevane ettevtja peab olema praktikas ttanud sarnases tegevuses
vi vhemalt omama levaadet vaatlejana. Muu soovitus on vtta arvamust teistelt
sarnaselt kohalike olemasolevate ettevtjatelt, mdud kaubast, klientide arvu kohta.
Samuti on hea teha Interneti-uuringuid laiemalt, sealhulgas piirkondlikke statistilisi
andmeid, teha anals konkurentsi kohta selles tstusharus, kus ettevtja tegutsema
hakkab - juhtivate ettevttete pakkumised ja mahud, keskmised mgihinnad,
kvaliteedistandardid, mis kehtivad turul.

Ettevte loomine ilma korraliku turu-uuringuteta toob tenoliselt kaasa oma ri

lbikukkumise. Turu-uuringute lbiviimisel, ksige igeid ksimusi igete inimeste kest.
rge kasutage turu-uuringuks ainult internetti. Mitte ainult info vib olla vale, kuid ka see,
et info on kigile avatud. Samuti rge tehke turu-uuringuid ainult oma sprade, sugulaste jt
hulgas. Peaksite hendust vtma teliste klientidega, et saada parema ja realistlikuma
Juhi thelepanu konkreetse klientidele (niteks noored, 18-29 aastased, ttud);
Olge selged oma eesmrkides enne oma turu-uuringu algust;

135 | P a g e
Vaata ka konkurente;
Nimetage oma sihtrhma, palju vastajaid vajate ja milliseid andmeid soovite koguda enne
algust. Veenduge, et teie sihtgrupp on seotud teie vajadustega ja esindab turgu millele olete
Valmistage diagramm vi graafik kogutud andmete phjal, et oleks lihtsam visuaalselt
analsida tulemusi;
rge ignoreerige kriitikat, kui te ei taha seda kuulda. See on kige vrtuslikum tagasiside
mida vite saada.
Tehke oma uuringut vi ksimustiku lihtsaks ja kiiresti tidetavaks;
Veenduge, et kik osalejad on konfidentsiaalsed, et julgustada osalemist;
Hoidke oma meelt avatud uutele vimalustele ja vajadustele, mida ei pidanud enne uuringu

Nuanded juhtimises, jrelevalves ja hindamises

See on kirjutatud kikides ettevtluse pikutes ja seda tuleb korrata taas. Esimene
osa organisatsiooni juhtumises on teha strateegiat. See on kige abstraktsem osa
protsessis, nii et peab olema nii loominguline kui ka vimalik. Siin on vaja esitada
oma missiooni, visiooni ja eesmrke. Selgitada vlja, kus te nete oma
organisatsiooni 10 aasta prast. Teada saada, milline on teie konkurentsi eelis. Olge
valmis omada varuplaan, juhuks, kui midagi lheb valesti. Kujutage ette seda
pildis, kus teie organisatsioon toimib ja ennast kujutage kaptenina, kes peab leidma
sobivaima suuna.
Edukaks riks ja eriti sotsiaalseks ettevteteks juht peab olema liider. Juhtkond ja
juhtimine tiendavad ja samal ajal on eluthtsad edule. Valige meeskonda
spetsialiste. Ning teil on vaja ehitada organisatsioonikultuuri oma meeskonna jaoks.
Jrelevalve ja hindamine on olulised vahendid juhtimises, et jlgida oma
edusamme, ning hlbustada otsuste tegemist (kasuta diagramm vi graafik kogutud
andmete phjal, et oleks lihtsam visuaalselt analsida tulemusi, ksitlusi
internetis, klastajate arv kodulehel, kasumlike klientide arvu, teha tavaks ksida
klientidelt ettepanekuid igal suhtlemisel jne)
Peaksite olema valmis ppima turustamise korraldamisel nii palju kui saate.
Rahavood on olulised rile. Nii et peab saama rahavoogu kohe. Kuidas? Kui
ettevte pakub professionaalseid teenuseid, hoiuseid tohib nuda ettemaksu, mis
tasakaalustub vlgnemise kogumisi. Samuti ka e-kaubanduses tasumine ettemaksu
kujul. On vaja tuua sisse rohkem raha kui maksad. Selleks on vaja hoida kulud
madalal. On targem lehinnata kulusid ja alahinnata tulude riplaanis. Peaksite
keskenduma ka mgile ja turundusele, et suurendada kasumit.
Ettevtjal peaks olema teatud rahasumma esimesel kuul, et katta kik kulud.
Klient maksab sularahas vi 14 peva jooksul lbi pangakonto. Arendage
strateegiat tiustatud kauba maksmise eest.
Ttava ri kulud peaksid olema alguses vhemalt vimalik katta.
rikonkurentide jrelevalve.
Jlgida kik kulud ja tulud, tasakaalu hoidmiseks.
Palgata kogenud raamatupidaja.
Iga pev analsida klientide ootusi, vajadusi ja jagada neile nuandeid.
Ole viisakas, naerata, kui kliendid saabuvad, phendada selgitustele aega nii palju
kui vimalik.
Fsiliste ressursside pidev kontrollimine, t tulemused ning finantsseisundi tulemused

136 | P a g e
annavad teada, kas strateegiad toimivad vi vajad lbivaatamist. Seega, tuleb olla teadlik
ettevtte nrkustest ja olema vimeline vtma ette vajalikud parandusmeetmeid ja
muudatusi, mis phinevad tpsele informatsioonile. Peaksite lbi viima piisava eelmise aasta
tulemustest analsi, ning objektiivselt vrskendama oma lhikest-, keskmist- ja pikka
eesmrkide perspektiivi.
Vrrelda ettevtteid. Jlgides muutusi ris saavutatakse vrdlust oma
ettevttega.Vrdlemises on oluline mitte ainult hinnata ri vastavust valdkonnaga, kuid
kui oma ri siseselt toimuvaid muutusi, vrdlusuuringu hindamine on hinnang edule.
Kui omate ldist strateegiat, vite hakata arendama vikeseid tkke (planeerimist).
See on funktsionaalsel tasandil, kus peate olema nii tpne kui teadlik oma tegevustes.
Peab olema meeles, et olukord vib aja jooksul muutuda. Olge valmis olema paindlik,
ning rge jge oma vanade plaanide juurde, kui vaja midagi muuta.

Nuanded nhtavusele ja sidele

Vite kasutada web design ettevtet:

Disainida veebileheklg, et edendada oma ri internetis (see on vga hea idee, kuid
sellest ei piisa)
Veebileht peab olema dnaamiline, mitte staatiline koduleht
Kodulehel peab olema klastajate loendur;
Kodulehte tuleks edendada - peab olema meeldiv, lihtsa kasutusega, kodulehel
tuleb paigaldada otsingumootoreid;
See tuleks korrapraselt ajakohastada.
Vite kasutada reklaami ettevtteid visiitkaartide kujundamisel, flaierite, kalendrite
Vite kasutada massmeediat.
Vite kirjutada oma firma nime autodele ja parkida neid kikidele nhtavasse

Npuniteid Nhtavuseks ja kommunikatsiooniks

Sltumata ettevtte suurusest, on oluline suurendada oma klientidega

suhtlemise vimalust. See on phjus, miks ettevtjad peavad regulaarselt uuendama
ettevte leheklgi sotsiaalse meedia platvormidel, nagu Facebook, Twitter ja LinkedIn.
Need vrgustikud oleks ideaalseks vahendiks rile ja klientide kaasamiseks.
Ettevttel peab olema logo, millel on lihtsalt loetavad thed, ning
peegeldama ri profiili, samuti ka ratuntav. Reklaamikilp tuleks paigutada ettevte
vlisseinale. Teeviited peavad nitama, kuidas saada ettevtteni. ri e-mail, koduleht
vi Facebook tuleks luua, et hoida suhtlemist potentsiaalsete klientidega ja toodete

Natsionaalsed ressursid ja konkreetsed veebilehed


Kasulikud lingid internetis

137 | P a g e - Krediidi info ja -haldusksimused - Portaal ettevtetele - Notarite Koda - Maksuamet - Registrite ja Infossteemide Keskus - Eesti Maksu- ja Tolliameti kodulehklg - palgakalkulaator- kuidas arvutada neto palka vi teada saada,
millised on tandja palgakulud - palju huvitavaid t- ja maksuteemalisi artikleid, koolituste
andmebaas, seadused ning kalkulaatorid - Tinspektsioon - huvitavat lugemist ttervishoiust ja tohutusest; ning
tsuhetset ja tvaidlustest - EV Vlisministeerium


Poola Arengu Agentuur


Eelarve Ministeeriumi Majandus-, Kaubandus- ja Suhted riringkondadega on tiendatud

summaga 1,7 miljonit (RON), et toetada VKEde ja noori ettevtjaid
Riikliku Maaelu Arengu Programm
Ettevtlus noortele maapiirkonnas
Euroopa programm: "Maaelu Renessanss-stimuleerib innovatsiooni ja rivimalusi" -
Algatus maapiirkonnas -
Finantseerimine riigieelarvest -
Maaelu-foorum -
riideedele maapiirkonnas -
Saidil leidub kike, mida vaja teada ritegevusest Rumeenias


Euroopa portaal vikestele ja keskmise suurusega ettevtetele:

Konsultatsiooni, seoses oma tulevikuvimalustega
Ametlik koduleheklg Bulgaaria Vikeste ja keskmise suurusega ettevtete edendamise
Arutelufoorum ettevtte vimalustest maapiirkondades

138 | P a g e
Euroopa maaelu arengu programm
Ettevtlik infoportaal
Infoportaal Algavatele Ettevtetele


Avaliku ja erasektori institutsioonid pakuvad erinevaid toetusi ja krediite maapiirkondade

ettevtjatele. Need on ette nhtud ettevtjatele peamiselt pllumajanduseks ja karja
toitmiseks. Kuni 70% investeeringute eelarvest on stestatud tagastamata abina.

Sotsiaalne ettevtlus TRGIS:

Enamik sotsiaalseid ettevtteid on algatatud sihtasutuste ja histute poolt Trgis. Need
saavad tegeleda sotsiaalsete ettevtetega lisaks muudele tegevustele, mis on asjakohased
nende seisule. Nad vivad viia ellu projekte, saada avaliku huvi ja seega maksuvabastus,
ning koguda annetusi. Nad on vabastatud ettevtte tulumaksust. Saavad kasutada ka muid
vimalusi, nagu annetuste kogumine.


Toetus ettevtetele Trgis (Trgi Vabariigi, vikeste ja keskmise suurusega ettevtete

arendamise organisatsioon)
Sest toetused ja stipendiumid maaettevtjatele:
Pllumajandusministeeriumi ja maaelu minister
ldist infot ettevtluse kohta Trgis:
Erasmus + Call for Young Entrepreneurs:
Sotsiaalne Ettevte, parimate nidetega Trgis:
Sotsiaalse Ettevtlus Trgis:
Ettevtte loomine Trgis:

139 | P a g e

Emprendetur Jvenes Emprendedores
Riiklik toetus noortele turismiri loomiseks- 2015
Maapiirkondade arendamis hing. See on mittetulundushing, mille peamine eesmrk on
edendada integreeritud maaelu arengu mudelit
Emprender para conservar
See on programm Sihtasutuse Felix Rodriguez De La Fuente, mille peamine eesmrk on
edendada ettevtlust ja oma ettevttet maapiirkondades, ning samal ajal silitada oma
Asociacin de Emprendedores Rurales
Selle hingu lesanne on edendada ja levitada ettevtluskultuuri maapiirkondades ja
maaelu vrgustikus
Emprende Natura
Kool on algatus, et julgustada inimesi saada linnast vlja, ning olla pllumajandus
ettevtja, et elada palju sstvamat elu, t- ri, isikliku elu ja iseloomu mudelina.

Translation in Spanish

1.Articulando tu idea de negocio

A menudo las personas subestiman el inicio de la formulacin de la idea de un

negocio. Antes de continuar con el registro y el plan de negocio tienes que estar seguro de
que el papel de emprendedor que adquirirs es el adecuado para ti. Debes tener en cuenta
que no habrs regulado las horas de trabajo, as que a menudo tendrs que trabajar por la
noche, durante las vacaciones o incluso mientras comes. Los riesgos que hay que tomar
son elevados y por lo tanto a veces, incluso si haces tu trabajo de acuerdo con el manual, el
mercado es un espacio impredecible y hay que estar preparado para afrontar el fracaso. As
que antes de ir ms lejos tienes que estar seguro de que ests listo para manejar el estrs y
sacrificar tu tiempo libre.
Si has tenido en cuenta la declaracin anterior, estars muy involucrado con tu
trabajo. As que es muy importante encontrar algo que te guste y te haga feliz. Si slo te
dedicas a seguir las tendencias del mercado y a elegir la zona ms beneficiosa del momento
actual, a su debido tiempo te encontrars con que tu trabajo no te satisface. Si te aburre lo
que haces, tus clientes sern los primeros en darse cuenta de eso.
Debes pensar en todos tus pasatiempos y escoger aquel con el que te sientas ms
cmodo y seguro. A veces es bueno hacer caso omiso de la tendencia actual. Por ejemplo,
es como si decides abrir una panadera en tu ciudad porque en este momento se considera
beneficioso, pero pronto te dars cuenta que odias cocinar. En cambio, si realmente sientes
pasin para la coccin, tus clientes seguramente lo notaran e incluso habiendo 10

140 | P a g e
panaderas ms en tu calle, muchos seguirn escogiendo la tuya. De esa manera tendrs
una ventaja competitiva en este mercado.
Despus de haber encontrado el mbito en el que iniciar tu propia empresa, es
bueno que hagas una investigacin de mercado. Cules son las nuevas tendencias? Qu
enfoque se considera ms favorable por los clientes? A menudo las personas contratan
consultores para este trabajo cuando se lo pueden permitir, en caso contrario, ellos mismos
realizan la bsqueda.

2.Establecimiento de la nueva empresa

El establecimiento de la nueva empresa se compone de tres fases principales: una fase

preparatoria, el perodo de puesta en marcha y el perodo de despegue.
Durante el perodo preparatorio, presta atencin a lo siguiente:
Anlisis de mercado.
Anlisis del entorno empresarial, una situacin de ocupaciones.
La competencia de precios, encontrar una ventaja competitiva y un segmento de
El precio de mercado y el volumen del volumen previsto de ventas.
Determinar las necesidades del personal, la divisin del trabajo, la estructura de tu
Determinar los medios de produccin y materiales necesarios.
Desarrollar una estrategia de marketing.
Calcular los precios de todos los gastos necesarios, hacer los clculos financieros.
Especificar un capital inicial y el tamao de la ruptura.
Elegir el tipo de negocio, la ubicacin y el nombre de la empresa.
Elaborar un plan de accin.

Durante el perodo de puesta en marcha:

Establecer una empresa, abrir una cuenta bancaria.
Adquirir los permisos necesarios, licencias y requisitos de inscripcin de la
empresa en los registros correspondientes.
Disear las marcas, sitios web, membretes, etiquetas promocionales, tarjetas de
visita, etc.
Consultar con expertos (abogado, contable, etc.).
Reclutar y seleccionar empleados.
Adquisicin de compras, muebles, instalacin de dispositivos de comunicacin, etc.
Firmar los seguros necesarios, adquisiciones y contratos.
Empezar con el marketing.

Recuerda que durante el perodo de puesta en marcha todas las ventas y los
ingresos en efectivo tienen que consolidarse. Cuando se venden los primeros productos, el
dinero no es necesariamente devengado de inmediato porque los compradores
generalmente no pagan por los productos de inmediato, sino que lo hacen en un
determinado perodo de pago.
El saldo de caja entrante y saliente no siempre significa que el negocio sea
rentable y viceversa no debe entrar en quiebra. El negocio estar en marcha cuando el
flujo de caja sea positivo y la empresa sea rentable.

141 | P a g e
Durante el perodo de despegue es importante lograr un punto de equilibrio y un
flujo de caja positivo de las operaciones y garantizar un negocio estable. El capital inicial
de un negocio es necesario para hacer funcionar la empresa y pagar los impuestos a

Consejos despus de haber iniciado tu negocio:

Al elegir el nombre de tu organizacin, ten en cuenta que el idioma oficial de

Bulgaria es el blgaro. Por lo tanto, si eliges un nombre pegadizo en Ingls, es
posible que se malinterprete por el pblico en general. Tambin sera mejor si el
nombre no es demasiado largo y fcil de memorizar;
Recuerda utilizar todas las ventajas del desarrollo tecnolgico actual. Gracias a las
redes sociales tienes muchos canales gratuitos para la difusin;
Debes tener siempre en cuenta cul es tu pblico principal. Si has desarrollado una
panadera local, mantente en contacto con las personas de la zona. Si ests
proporcionando servicios de formacin profesional, mantente en contacto con todas
las organizaciones que requieren capacitacin para sus empleados. Si tu grupo
objetivo es principalmente la tercera edad, no es una buena idea hacer hincapi en
las redes sociales en Internet, mejor concentrarse en los medios de papel, tales
como revistas y boletines.
La pgina web oficial del negocio es una necesidad. Toda la informacin debe ser
fcil de encontrar. Lo ms importante es tener detalles visibles de contacto, as
como las actividades y la experiencia previa.
Cuando tengas activada la web, es recomendable tambin hacer un correo
electrnico oficial con el mismo dominio. Siempre es mejor, si el correo electrnico
termina en, en vez de en Gmail o Hotmail.

Consejos para elegir el nombre de la empresa:

El nombre de la empresa debe ser corto y fcil de pronunciar y, por tanto, fcil de recordar.
Sera tambin ms prudente utilizar una imagen, logotipo o foto con el nombre. Cunto
ms visual sea el nombre ms fcil ser memorizarlo. Si el nombre produce un impacto
positivo en la gente, sta tender a recordarlo ms fcilmente. Un ltimo aspecto a tener en
consideracin es que el nombre escogido tambin debe ir en concordancia con la
naturaleza del negocio.

Usar un nombre corto

El nombre de la empresa debe contener 1 o 2 palabras. El nombre de la empresa no ser
necesariamente ms eficaz si es corto, pero puede ser ms fcil de recordar. Tambin
puedes considerar el uso de un acrnimo, pero ten cuidado, ya que con un acrnimo puedes
crear un nombre demasiado genrico para ser relacionable con el pblico objetivo.

Usar adjetivos
Se pueden incluir adjetivos si el nombre de la empresa se compone de varias palabras, pues
resulta positivo. Los colores son elementos fuertes en el nombre de la empresa porque
crean una imagen visual. (Dragn Rojo, Viernes Negro, Linterna Verde).

Crear nuevas palabras

142 | P a g e
Por ejemplo, se puede construir una o ms palabras (Microsoft - Micro + soft) o tambin
puedes repetir algunas letras (Peter Pan, Coca Cola, Control de velocidad, i.e. Cruise
Control en ingls).

Comprobar la competencia
Haz una lista y compara para ganar inspiracin, despertar nuevas ideas y as ayudarte a
desarrollar un nombre que realmente destaque de la multitud.

Piense en su pblico objetivo

T quieres que el nombre comercial resuene entre toda la gente que ests tratando de
alcanzar. Usa lo que sabes acerca de tu pblico objetivo para medir la relevancia de los
nombres ocurridos hasta ahora.

Verificar y proteger el nombre de la empresa

Ante todo, debes verificar la disponibilidad del nombre de la empresa, seguidamente
realizar una reserva en la Oficina de Registro de Comercio y debes protegerlo.

El nombre de la empresa debe ser corto, claro, con las palabras clave, sin palabras difciles
y con frases estructuradas. En Polonia, el nombre debe evitar sonidos difciles de doble
letra como: DZ, sz, cz, y sonidos S, Z, ya que son difciles para la pronunciacin. Las
palabras clave deben reflejar la naturaleza del negocio.
No utilices tu nombre o apellido o el nombre de tu hija o hijo: "Frutera Mari" o
"Neumticos Pepe", "Mudanzas Garca" o "Transportes Gil". Slo si eres una persona
famosa esta opcin tiene sentido.

Consejos para un estudio de mercado:

Utiliza la "tcnica del Mystery shopping" para medir la calidad, los servicios y obtener
informacin sobre tus productos y los productos

Consejos para la visibilidad y la comunicacin:

Crea un buen logotipo que defina tu negocio. Este logotipo debe ser simple, directo,
conciso y reconocible.

Antes de la creacin de la empresa, el futuro empresario debe tener una prctica como
aprendiz en este tipo de negocios, o por lo menos hacer la observacin durante las visitas.
Otra sugerencia es tomar la opinin de otros empresarios en negocios locales similares ya
existentes acerca de la cantidad de bienes que venden y el nmero de clientes. Tambin es
bueno hacer una bsqueda en Internet en escala ms amplia que incluya datos estadsticos
regionales, hacer un anlisis de la competencia en la industria en la que se operar - la
oferta y el volumen de empresas principales, los precios medios de venta y las normas de
calidad vigentes en el mercado.
Sin la debida investigacin de mercado, la configuracin de la empresa resultar
probablemente un fracaso. Mientras haces el estudio de mercado, haz las preguntas
correctas a la gente indicada. No utilices slo Internet para el estudio de mercado. La
informacin no slo puede ser incorrecta sino que adems estar al alcance de todos.

143 | P a g e
Adems, tampoco hagas el estudio de mercado slo dentro del propio crculo de amigos,
familiares, etc. Debes comunicarte con clientes reales con el fin de obtener mejores
resultados y ms realistas.
Dirgete a un segmento particular de clientes (por ejemplo, jvenes de 18-29 aos y
S claro acerca de tus objetivos antes de comenzar la investigacin de mercado.
Comprueba la competencia, identifica tu pblico objetivo, el nmero de encuestados que
necesitas y la informacin que ests esperando recoger.
Asegrate de que tu grupo objetivo es relevante para tus necesidades y de si realmente
representa el mercado al que te diriges.
Desarrolla un cuadro o grfico de los datos recogidos para que sea ms fcil analizar los
No ignores las crticas porque no quieras orlas, ya que pueden ser la respuesta ms valiosa
que puedas recibir.
Haz una encuesta o cuestionario rpido y fcil de completar.
Asegrate de que todos los participantes sean confidenciales para fomentar la
Mantn tu mente abierta a nuevas oportunidades y necesidades que no consideraste antes
de realizar tu investigacin.

Consejos de gestin, seguimiento y evaluacin:

Esto est escrito en la mayora de los libros de texto para el espritu empresarial y tiene que
ser repetido de nuevo. La primera parte de la gestin de tu organizacin consiste en
desarrollar una estrategia. Esta es la parte ms abstracta del proceso, por lo que necesitas
ser lo ms creativo posible. Aqu es necesario que presentes tu misin, visin y objetivos
para aclarar dnde ves a tu organizacin en 10 aos? Tambin para saber cul es tu
ventaja competitiva y ser capaz de tener un plan de retroceso si algo sale mal. Imagina cul
es el marco en el que funcionar la organizacin y a ti mismo como el capitn que necesita
encontrar la direccin ms adecuada.
Para un negocio exitoso y en especial para las empresas sociales, el gerente debe ser el
lder. El liderazgo y la gestin son complementarios y, mientras tanto, los signos vitales
para el xito. Si lo necesitas, puedes elegir un equipo con especialistas para construir la
cultura organizativa en tu equipo.
El seguimiento y la evaluacin son las herramientas ms importantes de gestin para el
seguimiento de tu progreso y la toma de decisiones (el desarrollo de un cuadro o grfico de
los datos recogidos para que sea ms fcil analizar los resultados, encuestas en Internet, el
nmero de visitantes al sitio, el nmero de clientes, beneficios, haz que sea una prctica
comn preguntar a los clientes sugerencias en cada interaccin, etc.).
Debes estar listo para aprender lo mximo que puedas acerca de la comercializacin de
ventas y flujo de operaciones. El flujo de caja es crucial para el negocio, as que tienes que
conseguirlo inmediatamente. Cmo? Si la empresa ofrece servicios profesionales, los
depsitos pueden ser necesarios antes de la obra, con saldos adeudados en la entrega. Lo
mismo se puede hacer en el negocio minorista tambin, en forma de pago por adelantado.
Tienes que ingresar ms dinero del que pagas. Para ello, es necesario mantener los costes y
gastos reducidos. Lo ms inteligente en un plan de negocios es sobreestimar la previsin de
gastos e infravalorar los ingresos. El negocio tambin debe centrarse en ventas y marketing
para aumentar los beneficios.

144 | P a g e
El emprendedor debe tener una cierta cantidad de dinero para cubrir todos los gastos del
primer mes.
El cliente debe pagar en efectivo o en un plazo de 14 das a travs de la cuenta bancaria.
Debes desarrollar una estrategia de pago por adelantado de la mercanca.
Los gastos de funcionamiento de la empresa deben ser los mnimos en el comienzo.
Debes monitorizar tu competencia empresarial.
Debes monitorizar todos los gastos e ingresos para mantener el equilibrio.
Debes contratar un experto en contabilidad.
Analiza todos los das las expectativas de los clientes, sus necesidades y crea un consejo
para ellos.
Se corts, con una sonrisa cuando los clientes lleguen, dedica tanto tiempo como sea
posible a las explicaciones.
La monitorizacin continua de los recursos fsicos, el desempeo laboral y los resultados
financieros te permitirn saber si las estrategias son las indicadas o necesitan revisin. As
pues, ser un aviso de las debilidades de la empresa y debes ser capaz de llevar a cabo los
cambios correctivos necesarios basados en informacin precisa. Debes llevar a cabo un
seguimiento suficiente de los resultados del ao pasado para actualizar eficazmente tus
objetivos a corto, mediano y largo plazo.
Compara tu empresa: un cambio monitorizado en el negocio se logra mediante la
evaluacin comparativa del rendimiento de tu empresa. La comparacin no slo es
importante para evaluar la situacin del negocio en la industria, sino que adems cuando tu
negocio est experimentando un cambio, la evaluacin comparativa del rendimiento es
crtica para evaluar el xito.
Una vez definida la estrategia general, se puede empezar a desarrollar la planificacin, las
piezas pequeas. Este es el nivel operativo, donde tus acciones deben ser lo ms precisas
posible. Debes tener en cuenta que la situacin puede cambiar con el tiempo, as que
preprate para ser flexible y no te resistas al cambio.

Consejos para la visibilidad y la comunicacin:

Puedes utilizar una empresa de diseo web para:

Disear un sitio web para promover tu negocio en lnea (que es una muy buena
idea, pero no lo suficiente);
El sitio web debe ser un sitio dinmico;
El sitio debe tener un contador de visitas;
El sitio web debe ser promovido - el sitio debe ser atractivo y fcil de usar, el sitio
web debe ser encontrado por los motores de bsqueda;
Se debe actualizar regularmente.
Puedes utilizar compaas de publicidad para el negocio de tarjetas, folletos, calendarios,
Puedes utilizar medios de comunicacin de masas (mass media).
Tambin puedes escribir el nombre de tu empresa en los coches y aparcar en un sitio

Consejos para la Visibilidad y Comunicacin:

Sin importar el tamao de la empresa, es importante aumentar la oportunidad de

relacionarte con tus clientes. Es por eso que los empresarios necesitan tener las pginas de
la compaa regularmente actualizadas en plataformas de medios sociales como Facebook,

145 | P a g e
Twitter y Linkedln. Estas redes son herramientas perfectas para el negocio y la
participacin de los clientes.
La empresa debe tener el logotipo con letras legibles, fciles y que reflejen el perfil del
negocio. El cartel debe colocarse en la pared externa de la empresa. Muchos paneles
deberan mostrar la localizacin de la empresa. El correo electrnico del negocio, el sitio
web o el Facebook deben crearse para mantener la comunicacin con los potenciales
clientes y hacer publicidad de los productos.

Recursos nacionales y sitios web especficos:



Agencia Polaca de Desarrollo Empresarial


El presupuesto del Ministerio de Economa, Comercio y Relaciones con la comunidad

empresarial se ha complementado con la cantidad de 1,7 millones (RON) para apoyar a
las pymes y jvenes emprendedores -
Programa de Desarrollo Rural -nacional -
Emprendimiento para jvenes en zona rural - Consejos y oportunidades -
Programa Europeo: "Oportunidades de negocio e innovacin en renacimiento-
estimulacin rural - http: //
Puesta en marcha en la zona rural -
La financiacin del presupuesto nacional -
Asuntos Rurales-frum-
Ideas empresariales en la zona rural
Un sitio donde se encontrar todo lo que se necesita saber acerca de emprender
negocios en Rumania -


Portal europeo para las pequeas y medianas empresas:

Para consultas, con respecto a sus futuras oportunidades: http://www.msp-

146 | P a g e
Pgina oficial de la Agencia de Promocin de Empresas Pequeas y Medianas
Foro de debate de posibilidades empresariales en el sector rural:
Programa europeo para el desarrollo rural:
Portal de Informacin Empresarial:
Portal de Informacin para Nuevas empresas:


Las instituciones pblicas y privadas ofrecen una variedad de becas y crditos a los
empresarios en reas rurales. stas se proporcionan bsicamente para los empresarios
principalmente en el campo de la agricultura y la alimentacin del ganado. Hasta el 70%
del presupuesto de inversin est previsto como subvencin no reembolsable.
Emprendimiento Social en Turqua:
La mayora de las empresas sociales son puestas en marcha por asociaciones, fundaciones
y cooperativas en Turqua. stas pueden estar comprometidas con empresas sociales,
adems de otras actividades relevantes a sus Estatutos. Pueden implementar proyectos,
conseguir el inters pblico y, por tanto, el estado de exencin de impuestos y cobrar
donaciones. Estn exentas del impuesto de sociedades. Pueden aprovechar otras
oportunidades tales como la recaudacin de fondos y la recogida de donaciones.


El apoyo a los emprendedores en Turqua: (Repblica de
Turqua, Pequeas y Medianas Empresas Organizacin para el Desarrollo)
Para apoyo y subvenciones para emprendedores rurales: Ministerio de Agricultura y Asuntos Rurales
Para obtener informacin general sobre el espritu empresarial en Turqua:
Para tecno-empresas:
Erasmus Convocatoria de Jvenes Empresarios:
Empresas Sociales, Ejemplo de Buenas Prcticas en Turqua:
Emprendimiento Social en Turqua:
Para establecer una empresa en Turqua:

147 | P a g e


Emprendetur Jvenes Emprendedores: Financiacin nacional para los jvenes en la

creacin de empresas- turismo 2015
Asociacin para el desarrollo de las zonas rurales:
Es una asociacin sin nimo de lucro cuyo objetivo principal es promover un modelo de
desarrollo rural integrado
Emprender para Conservar:
Es un programa de la Fundacin Flix Rodrguez de la Fuente, cuyo principal objetivo es
promover el espritu empresarial y el autoempleo en las zonas rurales y al mismo tiempo
conservar la naturaleza.
Asociacin de Emprendedores Rurales:
La misin de esta asociacin es promover y difundir la cultura empresarial en las zonas
rurales y el trabajo en red rural.
Emprende Natura:
La escuela es una iniciativa para animar a la gente a salir de la ciudad y ser un empresario
rural para vivir un modelo de vida mucho ms sostenible, conciliar los negocios, la vida
personal y la naturaleza.




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156 | P a g e
1. fikrinizi oluturma

nsanlar, genellikle,kendi i fikirlerini formle etmeye balama ilemini hafife alrlar.

yerinizi kaydettirmek ve i plannz oluturmaktan daha nce,giriimci rolnn sizin iin
doru olduundan emin olmalsnz.alma saatlerinin dzenli olmadn, ou zaman
tatillerde, hatta yemek yerken, geceleri bile almak zorunda kalacanz hatrda
tutmalsnz. Almak zorunda olduunuz riskler daha yksektir ve bu nedenle bazen iinizi
kitabna uygun bile yapsanz, piyasa ngrlemeyen bir alan olduu iin, baarsz
olabilirsiniz. Bu yzden, daha ileriye gitmeden nce, stres ynetimini iyi yaptnzdan ve
bo zamanlarnz feda etmeye hazr olduunuzdan emin olmalsnz.

inizle ok ilgilenmeniz gerekecektir.Dolaysyla,gerekten sevdiiniz ve size mutlu eden

bir ii yapmanz nemlidir.Eer sadece pazar eilimlerini gz nne alr,ve an itibariyle en
karl alan seerseniz,zaman iinde yaptnz iin size zevk vermediini de
grebilirsiniz.Eer iiniz size skyorsa,bunu ilk nce mterileriniz anlayacaktr.Bazen
moda akmlara uymamak daha iyidir.rnein;bir ok kiinin karl olarak grd
pastaclk iine girdiinizi dnelim,belki de yemek piirmekten aslnda hi
holanmadnz anlayabilirsiniz.Tersini dnelim:Hamur ileri yapmay gerekten ok
sevdiinizi varsayalm;bu durumda,ayn cadde zerinde on tane daha frn olsa
da,mteriler sizin dkkannz tercih edecektir.Bu durumda,pazar avantaj sizin olacaktr.

Hangi alanda i kurmak istediinizi tespit ettikten sonra,piyasa aratrmas yapmak iyi bir
fikirdir.Yeni akmlar neler?Mterilerin en beendii yaklamlar neler?nsanlar
,sklkla,bu konularda danmanlk hizmeti almay tercih ederler,sizin maddi imkanlarnz
buna elvermiyorsa ,bu konuda kendiniz aratrma yapmalsnz.

2.Yeni irket kurmak

Yeni bir irket kurmann hazrlk,balang ve byme aamalar olmak zere ana
aamas vardr:

Pazar analizi
i ortamnn analizi,mesleklerin durumu
fiyat rekabeti,rekabet asndan avantajl bir pazar segmenti
Pazar fiyat ve planlanan sat hacmi
personel ihtiyalar,grev dalm ve irket yaplanmas
retim aralar ve gerekli materyallerin temini
pazarlama stratejisi gelitirme
gerekli btn harcamalar tespit edin,mali hesaplamalarnz yapn
bir balang sermayesi belirleyin
irket eklinizi,irketinizin ismini ve lokasyonunu belirleyin,
eylem plan hazrlayn.

Balang :
irketinizi kurun,banka hesab an;
gerekli izinleri ve lisanslar aln;

157 | P a g e
irketinize ait marka, website, antetli katlar, promosyon etiketleri, kartvizitler vb
uzmanlara dann,(avukat,muhasebeci,vb);
personel seimini yaparak, gerekli personeli ie aln;
ekipman,mobilya vb satn aln,ofisinize iletiim aralarn yerletirin;
gerekli sigorta ilemlerini ve kontratlar yapn;
pazarlama faaliyetlerine balayn.

Balang dneminde, tm sat ve nakit makbuzlarn konsolide edilmesi gerektiini

unutmayn. lk rnlerinizi sattnzda para hemen tahakkuk etmez,nk alclar
genellikle satn aldklar rnler iin hemen deme yapmazlar.Alclar,demelerini belirli
bir deme plan dahilinde yaparlar.

Gelir ve gider nakit dengesi her zaman iin karl, veya tam tersi olduu anlamna gelmez -
Nakit ak pozitif ve irket karl olduunda ilerin yolda olduunu dnebilirsiniz.

Bu dnemde, bir denge noktas bulmak , operasyonlardan pozitif bir nakit ak elde etmek
ve istikrarl bir i kurmak iin nemlidir. kurma sermayesi, bir irketi altrmak ve
zamannda vergi demek iin gereklidir.

inizi kurduktan sonra neler yapmalsnz?

irketinizin adn seerken anadiliniz dnda bir isim seerseniz,yanl anlalma ihtimalini
gz nne aln.
Gnmz teknolojisinin imkanlarndan faydalann.Sosyal medya sayesinde,pek ok reklam
kanaln cretsiz kullanabileceinizi gz nnde bulundurun.
Hedef kitlenizi gz nnde bulundurun.Mahalli bir i yeri atysanz,mahalle sakinleriyle
ilikilerinizi gelitirin.Eer mesleki eitim veriyorsanz,alanlarna eitim aldrmak
isteyen btn iletmelerle iliki iinde olun. Eer hedef kitleniz ounlukla yal
insanlarsa,sosyal medya aralarn kullanarak onlara erimeye almak iyi bir fikir
deildir.Bu durumda en iyi yaplacak i,gazete ve haber blteni gibi basl aralar
yeriniz iin bir websitesi kullanmak ok nemlidir.Websitesinde bilgiye ulamak kolay
olmaldr. En nemlisi,iletiim ,faaliyetler ve iletmenin gemi tecrbe hakknda bilgi
Websitenizi kurduunuzda,ayn domainde resmi bir e-mail adresinizin olmas tavsiye
edilir.E-mail adresinizin ,gmail ya da hotmail dense
eklinde olmas daha iyidir.

letmeniz iin uygun bir isim sein

letmelerin isimleri ksa,sylenii ve hatrlamas kolay olmaldr.simle birlikte

fotoraf,resim,logo vb kullanmak da akllca olacaktr.Bir isim ne kadar grsel olursa o
kadar aklda kalr.Eer bir iletmenin ismi insanlar zerinde pozitif etki brakyorsa daha
kalc olacaktr.Hatrlanmas gereken bir dier konuda,ismin yaptnz iin doasna
uygun olmas gerektiidir.

158 | P a g e
letmenizin ismi bir ya da iki isim iermelidir.smin ksa olmas iletmenizin daha baarl
olaca anlamna gelmemekle birlikte,hatrlamas kolay olacaktr.sim olarak bir ksaltma
da kullanabilirsiniz,ancak ksaltmann iletmenizin ismiyle, kolay hatrlanabilecek bir
balants olmasna dikkat edin,aksi takdirde isminiz,hedefinizle ilikilendirilemeyecek
kadar genel bir isim olabilir.

letmenizin isminde sfatlar kullanabilirsiniz

Eer iletmenizin ismi birka kelimeden oluuyorsa,sfatlar da ekleyebilirsiniz.Bir irketin
isminde renkler kullanmak,iletmenizin ismini gl klar,nk renkler grsel imajlar
yaratrlar.(Kzl Canavar,Kara Cuma,Yeil Lamba vb gibi)

Yeni kelimeler yaratn

rnein,iki veya daha fazla kelimeden oluan isimler kullanabilirsiniz:Microsoft -micro +
soft), veya baz harfleri tekrar edebilirsiniz:Peter Pan, Coca Cola, Cruise Control gibi.

Rakiplerinizin isimlerine dikkat edin

Bir isim listesi yaparak,rakibiniz olan firmalardan farkl olacak bir isim yaratn.

Hedef kitlenizi dnn

irketinizin isminin ,ulamak istediiniz kitleye hitap etmesi gerekir.Hedef kitlenizi gz
nnde bulundurarak,irketiniz iin dndnz potansiyel isimlerin onlara gerekten
hitap edip etmeyeceini dnn.irketinizin ismini kayt altna aldrn ve ismi
koruyun;irketiniz iin setiiniz ismin uygunluunu Ticari Kayt Brosunda tescil
ederek,koruma altna aln.

irket isimleri ksa ve anlalabilir olmaldr.simlerin iinde anahtar kelimeler

bulunmal,zor kelime ve szck gruplar iermemelidir.rnein Polonyada,irket
isimlerinde telaffuzu zor olan d, sz, cz gibi ikili harfler ve de , , gibi sesleri irket
isimlerinde kullanmaktan kanmaldr.smin iindeki anahtar kelimeler iin doas
hakknda bilgi vermelidir.

irketinize ocuklarnzn isimlerini veya kendi isminizi vermeyin:Frutera Mari veya

Neumticos Pepe, Mudanzas Garca veya Transportes Gil gibi... Bu seenek,ancak
nl bir iseniz ie yarar.

Piyasa aratrmas yapma konusunda tavsiyeler

rnleriniz ve gelecekte reteceiniz rnlerin kalitesi hakknda bilgi edinmek iin ,gizli
deneti tekniini kullann.

Pazar aratrmasnn nemi

159 | P a g e
Yeterli pazar aratrmas yapmadan bir iletme kurmak,byk ihtimalle baarszlkla
sonulanacaktr.Pazar aratrmas yaparken,doru kiilere doru sorular sormak ok
nemlidir.Pazar aratrmas iin yalnzca nterneti kullanmayn.nternetteki bilgiler bazen
doru olmayabilecei gibi,herkese de ak bilgilerdir.Ayrca,Pazar aratrmasn sadece
aile,arkada grubu ve alma arkadalarnz arasnda yapmamalsnz.Daha gerekci ve
isabetli sonular almak istiyorsanz,aratrmanz gerek mteriler arasnda yapmalsnz.

Belirli kesim mterileri hedef kitleniz olarak belirleyin;rnein: ya 14-29 ya aras

genler, isiz,
Pazar aratrmasna balamadan nce hedefleri konusunda ak olun;
Rekabeti kontrol edin;
Hedef kitlenizi belirleyin,piyasa aratrmanz ka kiiyle yapacanz ve ne tr bilgi
toplamaya ihtiyacnz olduunu tespit edin. Hedef grubun ihtiyalarnza uygun ve
hedeflediiniz pazar temsil ettiine emin olun.
Grsel sonularnzn analizini kolaylatrmak iin toplanan verilerden bir grafik ya da
tablo oluturun.
Eletirileri holanmasanz da gz ard etmeyin.Onlar alabileceiniz en deerli geri bildirim
Aratrmanz hzl ve kolay olacak ekilde hazrlayn, kiilerin katlmn tevik etmek iin
aratrmanz gizli kalacak ekilde yapn.Aratrma yapmadan nce dikkate almadnz
yeni fikir ve ihtiyalara kar ak fikirli olun.

kurmadan nce,giriimciler benzer bir i yerinde staj grmeli,ya da ,en azndan bu tr

iyerlerini ziyaret ederek gzlem yapmaldr.Dier bir neri de udur:Giriimci,benzer
yerel i yerlerinden satlan rn miktar,mteri says vb gibi konularda gr
almaldr.Blgesel istatistiki veriler toplamak,giriimin yaplaca alanda rekabet analizi
yapmak,alanda nde gelen irketlerin retim ve ortalama sat fiyatlarn ve pazarda geerli
olan kalite standardlarn anlamak iin Internet aratrmas yapmak da iyi bir yntemdir.

Grnrllk ve iletiim hakknda tavsiyeler

letmenizi tanmlayacak bir logo sein.
Bu logonun basit ve kolayca tannabilir olmasna dikkat

Ynetim, denetim ve deerlendirme konusunda tavsiyeler

letmenizi ynetmenin ilk adm,bir strateji planlamaktr.Bu aama,prosesin en soyut
ksmdr,bu yzden olabildiince yaratc olmalsnz.Bu evrede,misyonunuzu,vizyon ve
amalarnz belirlemek durumundasnz.Ayrca unlarda eklenebilir:On yl sonra irketiniz
hangi noktada olacak,rekabetle ba edebilmek iin avantajlarnz neler,baz eyler yanl
giderse destek plannz var m,vb.Ynetim stratejinizi, iletmenizin yapaca faaliyetleri
gsteren bir ereve program olarak dnn ve kendinizi de en uygun rotay bulmaya
alan bir kaptan gibi hayal edin.

160 | P a g e
Planlama nemlidir.Genel stratejinizi belirledikten sonra,planlamaya geebilirsiniz.Bu
aamada,iletmeye ynelik dnmeli,planlanan admlarla ilgili mmkn olduunca net
olmalsnz.Mevcut durumun zaman iinde deiebileceini gz nne almal,bu yzden de
esnek olmal ve gerektiinde orijinal planlarnz terkedebilmelisiniz.
Baarl bir i ve zellikle sosyal giriimlerde, yneticiler ayn zamanda lider olmaldr.
Liderlik ve yneticilik,birbirini tamamlayc zelliklerdir ve baar iin hayati nem
tarlar.Uzmanlardan oluan bir ekip oluturabilirsiniz ve ekibinizde, kurumsal kltr
gelitirmeniz gerekir.
Denetim ve deerlendirme, iletmenizin geliimini izlemek ve karar verme srelerini
kolaylatrmak asndan nemli ynetim aralardr.(Sonular grsel olarak daha kolay
analiz etmek iin kullanabileceiniz methodlar:toplanan verilerden oluturduunuz grafik
ya da tablolar, online anketler,websitenizi ziyaret edenlerin ve mterilerinizin says,kar
oranlarnz, mterilerinizle kurduunuz her balantda onlarn grlerini alma,vb)
Sat,pazarlama ve iletim konular hakknda mmkn olduunca ok bilgi sahibi
olmalsnz.Bir iletme iin,nakit ak ok nemlidir.Dolaysyla,nakit akn hemen
balatmanz gerekir.Bunu nasl yapacaksnz?Eer iletmeniz profesyonel hizmetler
sunacaksa,kalan para i bitiminde denmek zere,ie balamadan nce deposit talep
edebilirsiniz.Ayn eyi,perakende ticaretinde de yapabilir,ie balamadan nce n deme
talep edebilirsiniz.letmenize giren parann,kan paradan daha fazla olmas gerekir.Bunu
baarmak iin de,harcama ve masraflarnz dk tumanz gerekir. plan
yaparken,harcamalar yksekmi gibi dnp karn az olduunu dnmek her zaman daha
gvenlidir.Ayrca,karnz artrmak iin sat ve pazarlamaya odaklanmanz da gerekir.

Giriimcinin ilk ay tm masraflarn karlamak iin belirli bir miktar sermayesi olmaldr.
Mteri,satn ald rnn bedelini nakit olarak veya banka hesab araclyla 14 gn
iinde demelidir.Satn alnan mallarn demesini nceden yapmalar iin bir strateji
Giriimci,mali dengeyi salayabilmek iin gelir ve giderlerini kontrol altnda tutmaldr.
Deneyimli bir muhasebeciyle aln.
Her gn mteri beklentileri ve ihtiyalarn analiz edin ve tavsiyelerde bulunun.
Mterilerinize kar nazik olun,istedikleri konularda aklamalar yapmak iin mmkn
olduunca zaman ayrn.

Kaynaklarn,i performansnn ve mali sonularn srekli kontrol,stratejilerinizin dzgn

ilerleyip ilerlemedii ve/veya revizyona gitmeniz gerekip gerekmedii hakknda sizi
bilgilendirir.Bylelikle,iletmenizdeki aksayan,zayf noktalar konusunda bilgi sahibi
olabilir ve doru verilere dayanan gerekli dzeltmeleri yapabilirsiniz.Ksa,orta ve uzun
dnem hedeflerinizi gncellemek iin bir nceki yln sonularnn kontroln yeterince
yapmalsnz.letmenizi bakalaryla kyaslayn;bir iletmede gerekletirilen deiimin
kontrolnn yolu,iletmenizin performansn kyaslamaktan geer.Bu;sadece iletmenizin
sektre kyasla nerede durduunu deerlendirmek iin deil,ayn zamanda bir deiiklik
yaparken baary lmek asndan da byk nem tar.

161 | P a g e
Grnlrlk ve iletiim konularnda tavsiyeler

letmenizi Internette tantmak iin,bir websitesi kurun.(Bu ok iyi bir fikir

olmakla beraber yeterli deildir)
Websiteniz statik deil,dinamik olmaldr.
Websitenizde, sitenizi ziyaret eden kiileri sayan bir donanm olmaldr
Websiteniz cazip, kullanm kolay olmal ve Google,Yahoo Bing gibi arama
motorlaryla kolaylkla bulunabilmelidir.
Dzenli bir ekilde gncellenmelidir.
Kartvizit,reklam ilanlar,takvimler vb gibi tantm materyallerini hazrlamak iin
reklam firmalarn kullanabilirsiniz.
Kitle iletiim aralarn kullanabilirsiniz.
irketinizin adn tat aralarnn zerine yazdrarak,grnlrln

letmenin byklne baklmakszn,mterilerinizle a oluturmanza yardmc olacak

frsatlar artrmak nemlidir.Bu nedenle,giriimciler Facebook,Twitter ve Linkeldn gibi
sosyal medya platformlarnda srekli gncelledikleri irket sayfalar bulundururlar.Bu
alar,iiniz ve mterilerinizle iletiim kurmak asndan ok iyi aralardr.

letmenizin okunakl harflerden oluan,kolayca tannabilecek ve iiniz hakknda bilgi

verecek bir logosu olmaldr.yerinizin duvarna reklam panosu
yerletirilmelidir.letmenizin yolunu gsteren bir ok adres levhas olmaldr.Potansiyel
mterilerle iletiim kurmak,rnlerinizi pazarlamak iin i mail adresiniz,irket websitesi
ve Facebook hesab oluturmalsnz.




Polonya Gelitirme Ajans: Polish Agency for Enterprise Development


Ekonomi Bakanlnn btesine,KOBleri ve gen giriimcileri desteklemek iin 1.7

milyon euro ilave yaplmtr.
Ulusal Krsal Alan Gelitirme Program:

162 | P a g e
Krsal alanda yaayan gen giriimciler iin tavsiyeler ve frsatlar:
Avrupa program: Krsal Rnesans-Innovasyon ve i imkanlarn tevik:
Krsal alanda i kurma:
Devlet btesinden yardm alma:
Krsal alanla ilgili konular forumu:
Krsal alanda i fikirleri:
Romanyada i kurmak konusunda tm bilgileri bulabileceiniz web adresi:


KOBler iin Avrupa portal:

European Portal for small and medium enterprises:
Potansiyel olanaklar ve danma iin:
For consultation, regarding your future opportunities
Bulgaristan KOB Destek Acentas:
Official website of Bulgarian Small and Medium Enterprises Promotion Agency
Krsal alanda giriimcilik olanaklar Forumu:
Forum for discussion of entrepreneurial possibilities in the rural sector:
Krsal Alanlar Gelitirme Avrupa Program:
European program for rural development
Giriimcilik Bilgi Edinme Portal :
Entrepreneurial information portal
Yeni giriimciler iin bilgi portal:
Information Portal for Startup Companies


Kamu ve zel kurulular,krsal alandaki giriimcilere eitli kredi ve hibe destei

sunmaktadr.Yatrm btesinin 70%e varan miktar geri demesiz olarak verilmektedir.

TRKIYEDE SOSYAL GIRIIMCILIK:Sosyal giriimlerin ounluu,dernek,vakf ve

kooperatifler tarafndan gerekletirilir.Bu kurumlar,tzklerinde varolan dier aktiviteler
yansra,sosyal giriimler de gerekletirebilirler.Ayrca,bunlar projeler yapabilir,kamu

163 | P a g e
yarar ve bylece vergi muafiyeti stats kazanabilir,ba toplayabilirler.Bu
kurumlar,Kurumlar Vergisinden muaftrlar.

Potansiyel Giriimciler iin Faydal websiteleri:

Giriimci destekleri(Support for entrepreneurs in Turkey): (Republic of
Turkey,Small and Medium Enterprises Development Organisation)
Giriimci destekleri ve Hibeler(Support and grants for rural entrepreneurs) : Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs
Trkiyede Giriimcilik hakknda genel bilgi( General information about
entrepreneurship in Turkey):

Gen Giriimciler iin Erasmus Program(Erasmus Call for Young Entrepreneurs):
Sosyal Giriimcilik,iyi uygulama rnekleri(Social Enterprises,Best Practice Examples in
Trkiyede Sosyal Giriimcilik(Social Entrepreneurship in Turkey)
Trkiyede irket Kurma(Establishing a company in Turkey):


Emprendetur Jvenes Emprendedores

Turizm alannda i kurmak isteyen genler iin ulusal fonlar,2015
Krsal alanlarn gelimesi konusunda alan birlik.

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Bu kurum,kar amac gtmeyen,ana amac entegre krsal kalknmay gerekletirmek olan
bir kurulutur.
Emprender para conservar
Felix Rodriguez De La Fuente Vakfnn ana amac,krsal alanda giriimcilii ve kendi
iini kurmay,bunu yaparken de doay korumay zendirmektir.
Asociacin de Emprendedores Rurales
Bu dernein misyonu,krsal alanda giriimcilik kltrn yaymak ve krsal alanda a
oluturmay zendirmektir.
Emprende Natura
Bu okul,insanlarn ehrin dna karak, krsal alanda giriimci olmalarn tevik ederek,
bu ekilde, kiilerin,i ve zel hayatlarn doayla iie yaayacaklar,daha srdrlebilir
bir yaant srmelerini zendirme giriimidir.


1.Okrel swj pomys na biznes

Czsto ludzie nie doceniaj pocztku formuowaniu swoich pomysw na biznes. Przed
przystpieniem do rejestracji i okreleniem biznes planu osoba musi by pewna, e rola
przedsibiorcy jest wanie dla niego. Trzeba mie na uwadze, e nie bdzie ju
regulowanego czasu pracy, czsto trzeba pracowa w nocy, w czasie wakacji, a nawet
podczas jedzenia. Ryzyko, ktre trzeba podj w zwizku z tym, jest wysze. Zdarza si,
e nawet jeli praca wykonana jest zgodnie z zasadami, rynek jest nieprzewidywalny i
mona ponie porak. Wic, zanim przejdziemy dalej, potencjalny przedsibiorca musi
by pewny, e jest gotowy do zarzdzania stresem i do powicania swojego wolnego

Majc na uwadze wczeniejsze dowiadczenia, zakadamy, e przedsibiorca bdzie

gboko zaangaowany w swoj prac. Wic, jest bardzo wane, aby znale tak bran,
ktra si podoba i sprawi, e mody przedsibiorca bdzie zadowolony. Jeli mody
przedsibiorca wybierze bran z trendami na rynku w danym momencie, moe si
okaza, e po pewnym czasie praca nie bdzie dawaa przedsibiorcy satysfakcji. Jeli
znudz si pewne rzeczy, klienci bd pierwszymi, ktrzy to zauwa.

W zwizku z tym warto pomyle o wszystkich aspektach wasnego biznesu,

skoncentrowa si na takiej brany, w ktrej przedsibiorca czuje si najbardziej pewny
siebie. Czasami dobrze jest zignorowa modne tendencje na biznes.
Jeli chcesz otworzy piekarni w miecie, tylko dlatego, e w tym momencie wiele osb
rozwaa, e jest to korzystny biznes, mona szybko doprowadzi do sytuacji, w ktrej

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zdasz sobie spraw, e nie lubisz piec i nienawidzisz swojej pracy. Natomiast, jeli masz
pasj do pieczenia, klienci na pewno zauwa to, nawet jeli jest jeszcze 10 piekarni na tej
samej ulicy, bd nadal wybiera twoj. Bdzie to oznaczao twoj przewag
konkurencyjn na tym rynku.

Po znalezieniu obszaru, w ktrym, chcesz rozpocz wasn firm, warto zrobi rozeznanie
w rynku. Jakie s nowe trendy? Ktre podejcie jest uwaane za najbardziej korzystne
przez klientw? Czsto ludzie zatrudniaj konsultantw w tej dziedzinie. Jeli nie moesz
sobie pozwoli na konsultanta musisz samodzielnie znale potrzebne informacje.

2.Utworzenie nowej firmy

Utworzenie nowej firmy skada si z trzech gwnych etapw: etap przygotowawczy,

okres rozruchu i rozpoczcie penej dziaalnoci.
W okresie przygotowawczym, naley zwrci uwag na nastpujce kwestie:
Analiza rynku;
Analiza rodowiska biznesowego, analiza poszukiwanych zawodw;
Konkurencja cenowa, znalezienie przewagi konkurencyjnej i deficytowej dziedziny
na rynku;
Cena rynkowa, oraz wielko planowanej sprzeday;
Okrelenie potrzeb kadrowych, podzia pracy, struktura firmy;
Okrelenie rodkw produkcji, oraz potrzebnych materiaw;
Opracowanie strategii marketingowej;
Okrelenie wszystkich niezbdnych kosztw, obliczenia finansowe;
Okrelenie kapitau pocztkowego;
Wybranie formy dziaalnoci, lokalizacji i nazwy firmy;
Sporzdzenie planu dziaania.

W okresie rozruchu:
zaoy firm, otworzy konto w banku;
uzyska niezbdne zezwolenia, licencje i wymogi rejestracji firmy;
projektowanie znakw towarowych, strona internetowa, papier firmowy, etykiety
reklamowe, wizytwki, itp.
konsultacje z ekspertami (prawnik, ksigowy, itp.)
dokona rekrutacji i selekcji pracownikw,
zakupi sprzt, meble, dokona instalacji urzdze komputerowych i
podpisa niezbdne ubezpieczenia, umowy, dokona zamwie,
rozpocz dziaania marketingowe.

Pamitaj, e w okresie rozruchu caa sprzeda i wpywy pienine musz by

skonsolidowane. Gdy pierwsze produkty s sprzedawane, pienidze niekoniecznie
naliczone s natychmiast, poniewa kupujcy zwykle pac przelewami, robi to w
pniejszym okresie.
Przychodzce i wychodzce saldo gotwkowe nie zawsze oznacza, e firma jest rentowna.
Dziaalno firmy idzie w dobrym kierunku , gdy przepyw gotwki ma saldo dodatnie.
Firma jest wtedy rentowna.

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Podczas rozpoczcia dziaalnoci w penym wymiarze, wane jest, aby osign
rwnowag i uzyska dodatnie przepywy pienine z dziaalnoci operacyjnej w celu
stabilizacji biznesu. Konieczny jest kapita pocztkowy na starcie, aby rozpocz
dziaalno i paci podatki, oraz zobowizania na czas.

Porady po uruchomieniu firmy

Wybierajc nazw firmy, naley mie na uwadze, e jzykiem urzdowym w Bugarii jest
bugarski. Dlatego, jeli zdecydujesz si na chwytliw nazw w jzyku angielskim,
moliwe, e bdzie le zrozumiana przez og spoeczestwa. Rwnie, bdzie lepiej, jeli
nazwa nie jest zbyt duga, atwa do zapamitania.
Pamitaj, aby wykorzysta wszystkie zalety dzisiejszego rozwoju technologicznego.
Dziki dostpnym mediom spoecznociowym jest wiele darmowych kanaw do promocji
i rozpowszechniania biznesu.
Zawsze naley mie na uwadze, kto jest gwnym odbiorc. Jeli pracowae w lokalnej
piekarni, pozosta w kontakcie z ludmi z tej samej brany tworzc obszar zbytu. Jeli
wiadczye usugi ksztacenia i szkolenia zawodowego, pozosta w kontakcie ze
wszystkimi organizacjami, ktre wymagaj szkolenia dla swoich pracownikw. Jeli twoj
grup docelow s przede wszystkim seniorzy, pomys docierania do nich i promocja w
mediach spoecznociowych, czy w internecie nie jest dobry. Lepiej skupi si na
nonikach papierowych, takich jak czasopisma i biuletyny.
Oficjalna strona internetowa jest koniecznoci. Wszystkie informacje powinny by atwe
do znalezienia. Najwaniejsz rzecz jest, aby byy widoczne dane kontaktowe, a take
dziaania i dowiadczenia.
Jeli witryna internetowa jest aktywna, jest rwnie wskazane, aby zaoy oficjalny e-
mail z tej samej domeny. Zawsze lepiej jest, jeli koczy si e-mail @, ni Gmail lub Hotmail.

Wskazwki i porady dla nowych przedsibiorcw

Wybr odpowiedniej nazwy dla Twojego przedsibiorstwa.

Nazwa przedsibiorstwa powinna by krtka i atwa do wymwienia, a tym samym lepsza
do zapamitania. Dobrze byoby rwnie uycie obrazu, logo, zdj itp. Im bardziej
wizualna nazwa, to atwiej j zapamita. Jeli nazwa sprawia pozytywny wpyw na ludzi,
oznacza to, e nazwa Twojej firmy bdzie bardziej zapamitywana. Ostatnia sprawa, ktr
naley mie na uwadze: nazwa powinna by rwnie odpowiednia do charakteru

Uywa krtkiej nazwy

Nazwa firmy powinna zawiera 1 lub 2 sowa. Twoja nazwa firmy nie musi by
efektowna, jeli jest krtka, ale moe by atwiejsza do zapamitania. Mona rwnie
rozway uycie skrtu, ale uwaaj, za pomoc skrtu nazwa moe by zbyt oglna, aby
si zidentyfikowa.
Uywa przymiotnikw
Jeeli nazwa firmy skada si z wielu sw jest zasadnym uycie przymiotnikw.

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Kolory s silnym elementem w nazwie firmy, poniewa tworz wizualny obraz. ( np.
Czerwony Smok, Czarny Pitek,)
Tworzenie nowych sw
Na przykad, mona zoy jedno lub kilka sw (Microsoft -micro + soft), mona
powtrzy kilka sw. (np. Peter Pan, Coca Cola,).
Sprawdzi konkurentw
Zrobi list i porwna j ze swoimi pomysami, to moe pomc w wyborze nazwy, ktra
naprawd wyrnia si z tumu.
Pomyle o grupie docelowej
Chcesz, aby nazwa Twojej firmy przycigaa okrelon grup ludzi. Uyj znanych
informacji w grupie docelowej do pomiaru trafnoci nazwy firmy.
Musisz zweryfikowa nazw firmy, czy jest dostpna
Moesz zrobi rezerwacj nazwy w lokalnym biurze administracyjnym samorzdu

Nazwa firmy powinna by krtka, jasna, ze sowami kluczowymi, bez trudnych wyrazw i
struktur. W Polsce nazwa powinna unika trudnych dwikw z podwjn liter jak: dz,
sz, cz, a take dwikw , , , ktre s trudne do wymowy. Sowa kluczowe powinny
odzwierciedla charakter dziaalnoci.
Nie uywaj swojego imienia i nazwiska, ani tez imienia crki , czy syna: Owocarnia
Mari, lub Transport Gil. Ta opcja ma sens , jeli jeste sawny.

Uyj techniki Mystery shopping to jedna z metod badania poziomu obsugi klienta
polegajca na ocenie jakoci usug poprzez wizyty w punktach sprzeday i obsugi klienta.

Porady dla widocznoci i komunikacji

Stwrz dobre logo, ktre okrela twj biznes.
To logo ma by proste, bezporednie, zwize i rozpoznawalne.
Przed powoaniem dziaalnoci, przyszy przedsibiorca powinien mie praktyk jako
staysta w podobnym rodzaju dziaalnoci, lub przynajmniej dokona obserwacji i
spostrzee podczas wizyt. Inn sugesti jest zebranie opinii od innych przedsibiorcw z
istniejcych lokalnych biznesw o podobnym profilu na temat iloci towarw, wielkoci
sprzeday, liczby klientw.
Dobrze jest te, aby zrobi badania za pomoc internetu w szerszej skali, korzysta z
regionalnych danych statystycznych, zrobi analiz konkurencji w brany, w ktrej bdzie
operowa przedsibiorca, przeledzi oferty i wielko wiodcych przedsibiorstw,
rednich cen sprzeday, standardw jakociowych obowizujcych na rynku.
Porady w kierunku badania rynku
Zakadanie przedsibiorstwa, bez odpowiedniego badania rynku najprawdopodobniej
doprowadzi do poraki biznesu. Podczas badania rynku, naley zadawa waciwe pytania
odpowiednim ludziom.
Nie naley korzysta tylko z Internetu, gdy informacje mog by bdne, nie robi bada
rynku tylko w swoim krgu przyjaci, krewnych itp. Przyszy przedsibiorca powinien
skontaktowa si z realnymi nabywcami, w celu uzyskania lepszych i bardziej
miarodajnych danych.
Porady w kierunku badania rynku

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Skieruj ofert do konkretnych klientw (na przykad: dla modych 18-29 lat,
Jasno okrel swoje cele przed rozpoczciem badania rynku;
Sprawd konkurentw;
Zidentyfikuj grup docelow, jak wielu respondentw potrzebujesz i jakie dane masz
nadziej zebra przed rozpoczciem dziaalnoci gospodarczej. Upewnij si, e grupa
docelowa jest odpowiednia do twoich potrzeb;
Opracuj wykres z zebranych danych w celu uatwienia wizualnej analizy wynikw;
Nie ignoruj krytyki, tylko dlatego, e nie chcesz jej sysze. To mog by najbardziej
wartociowe informacje zwrotne jakie otrzymasz.
Zrb szybko badanie rynku na podstawie ankiet lub kwestionariuszy;
Upewnij si, e wszyscy uczestnicy pozostan anonimowi;
Bd otwarty na nowe moliwoci i potrzeby, ktrych nie brae pod uwag przed
przeprowadzeniem badania.

Wskazwki dotyczce zarzdzania, monitorowania i oceny

Najwaniejszym zadaniem w zarzdzaniu, co zostao opisane w wielu podrcznikach i

naley to powtrzy, jest stworzenie strategii zarzdzania. Jest to najbardziej abstrakcyjna
cz procesu tworzenia firmy, wic trzeba wykaza si du kreatywnoci. Naley
przedstawi misj, wizj i cele firmy. Zdeklarowa, gdzie widzi si swoj firm za 10 lat.
Naley dowiedzie si, co jest atutem firmy wobec konkurencji. Naley umie
modyfikowa plan rozwoju firmy, jeli widzi si zagroenia. Naley wyobrazi sobie
ramy, w ktrych firma bdzie dziaa i siebie jako kapitana, ktry musi znale najbardziej
odpowiedni kierunek.

Wskazwki dotyczce zarzdzania, monitorowania i oceny

Dla udanego biznesu, a zwaszcza dla przedsibiorstw spoecznych meneder musi by
liderem. Przywdztwo i zarzdzanie s komplementarne, ukierunkowane na sukces.
Moesz stworzy zesp specjalistw, w ktrym bdziesz budowa kultur organizacyjn.
Monitorowanie i ocena s wanymi narzdziami zarzdzania, aby ledzi postpy i
podejmowa decyzje (moesz stosowa wykresy z danych zebranych w celu wizualizacji
wynikw, ankiety w internecie, analizowa liczby odwiedzajcych witryny, analizowa
zyski, upowszechnia praktyk proszc klientw o sugestie ).

Wskazwki dotyczce zarzdzania, monitorowania i oceny

Przedsibiorca powinien by gotowy, aby dowiedzie si jak najwicej na temat sprzeday
i przepywu operacji. Gotwka ma kluczowe znaczenie dla biznesu i trzeba zabezpieczy
rodki pienine. Jeli przedsibiorstwo oferuje profesjonalne usugi, depozyty mog by
wymagane przed rozpoczciem prac. Tak samo mona zrobi w handlu detalicznym,
rwnie pobiera zaliczki na poczet zapaty. Musisz dysponowa wiksz gotwk, ni
wydatki. Aby to zrobi, trzeba zachowa koszty i wydatki na niskim poziomie. Dobrym
podejciem jest przeszacowa koszty , a nie doszacowa przychodw w planie biznesu .
Naley koncentrowa si na sprzeday i marketingu w celu zwikszenia zyskw.

Wskazwki dotyczce zarzdzania, monitorowania i oceny

Przedsibiorca powinien mie pewn kwot pienidzy na pierwszy miesic na pokrycie
wszystkich kosztw.

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Klient powinien zapaci w gotwce lub w terminie 14 dni za porednictwem rachunku
bankowego. Przedsibiorca powinien opracowa strategi wczeniejszej zapaty za towar
przed jego wydaniem.
Koszty prowadzenia biznesu powinny by jak najmniejsze w pocztkowym okresie.
Monitorowanie dziaalnoci konkurenta.
Monitorowanie wszystkich wydatkw i dochodw, aby zachowa rwnowag.
Zatrudnienie dowiadczonego ksigowego.
Codzienne analizy oczekiwa, potrzeb klientw i udzielanie porad dla klientw.
Pozostawanie uprzejmym, z umiechem podczas obsugi klientw, powicajc im jak
najwicej czasu z wyjanieniami.

Wskazwki dotyczce zarzdzania, monitorowania i oceny

Cige monitorowanie zasobw fizycznych, wydajnoci pracy i wynikw finansowych
pozwoli przedsibiorcy dowiedzie si, czy strategia jest na waciwym torze, czy naley
j zweryfikowa.
Przedsibiorca zostanie ostrzeony o sabociach i bdzie w stanie podj niezbdne
zmiany naprawcze na podstawie dokadnych informacji. Przedsibiorca powinien
przeprowadzi monitorowanie tegorocznych wynikw, aby skutecznie aktualizowa swoje
krtko, rednio i dugoterminowe cele.
Monitorowanie zmian w biznesie osiga si poprzez porwnywanie wydajnoci
Jeli posiadasz ogln strategi, mona stopniowo rozpocz rozwj poszczeglnych
etapw firmy (planowanie). Jest to poziom operacyjny, gdzie trzeba by jak najbardziej
precyzyjnym w swoich dziaaniach. Trzeba mie na uwadze zmienno sytuacji w czasie.
Dlatego naley by elastycznym i przygotowanym do zmian, jeli zajdzie potrzeba,
pomijajc wczeniejsze plany.

Porady ukierunkowane na widoczno i komunikacj

Mona zatrudni firm projektujc stron internetow:
Stworzy stron internetow, aby promowa swj biznes online (jest to bardzo dobry
pomys, ale nie wystarczajcy);
Strona internetowa musi by z dynamiczn witryn, nie statyczn;
Strona musi mie licznik odwiedzajcych;
Strona internetowa powinna by promowana strona musi by atrakcyjna i atwa w
uyciu, strona internetowa musi si znale w wyszukiwarkach, naley regularnie j
Moesz uy dla celw reklamowych wizytwek, ulotek, kalendarzy itp.
Moesz uy masowego przekazu.
Moesz napisa nazw firmy na samochodzie i zaparkowa w widocznym miejscu.

Wskazwki dotyczce widocznoci i komunikacji

Niezalenie od wielkoci przedsibiorstwa, wane jest, aby zwikszy moliwo
nawizania kontaktw z klientami. Dlatego przedsibiorcy musz mie regularnie
aktualizowane strony firmowe na platformach spoecznociowych, takich jak Facebook,
Twitter i Linkedln. Sieci te bd idealnymi narzdziami dla biznesu i przyciganiu
Przedsibiorstwo powinno mie logo skadajce si z prostych czytelnych liter i
odzwierciedla profil dziaalnoci. Logo powinno by rozpoznawalne. Tablica

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informacyjna powinna by umieszczona na zewntrznej cianie firmy. Wiele innych
znakw na ulicy powinno pokazywa drog do przedsibiorstwa. Biznesowy e-mail,
strona internetowa lub facebook powinny by stworzone do utrzymania komunikacji z
potencjalnym klientem i reklamowania produktw.

Krajowe rda informacji i konkretne strony internetowe



Polska Agencja Rozwoju Przedsibiorczoci

Przedsibiorczo na obszarach wiejskich
Dotacje dla wsi 2016


Budet Ministerstwa Gospodarki, Handlu i Stosunkw ze rodowiskiem biznesu zosta

uzupeniony o kwot 1,7 mln (RON) w celu wsparcia MP i modych przedsibiorcw
Narodowy Program Rozwoju Wsi-
Przedsibiorczo dla modych ludzi w obszarach wiejskich- Rady i moliwoci
Program Europejski: "Renesans wsi moliwoci stymulujce innowacje i biznes"
Start up na wsi
Finasowanie z budetu narodowego-
Forum spraw wiejskich -
Witryna gdzie moesz znale wszystko, co musisz wiedzie na temat prowadzenia
dziaalnoci gospodarczej w Rumunii


Europejski Portal dla maych i rednich przedsibiorstw

Konsultacje dotyczce pzryszych moliwoci
Oficjalna strona bugarskiej agencji promocyjnej dla maych i rednich firm

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Forum dyskusyjne na temat moliwoci w pzredsiebiorczoci na wsi
Europejski program rozwoju wsi
Portal z informacjami dla przedsibiorczoci
Informacyjny portal dla start- up.


Publiczne i prywatne instytucje oferuj szereg stypendiw i kredytw dla przedsibiorcw.

Dla wiejskich przedsibiorcw, wsparcie przewidziane jest gwnie w dziedzinie
rolnictwa i hodowli byda.
70% caego zadeklarowanego budetu moe stanowi bezzwrotn dotacj.

Przedsibiorczo spoeczna w Turcji

Wikszo przedsibiorstw spoecznych w Turcji jest uruchamiana przez stowarzyszenia,
fundacje i spdzielnie . Funkcjonuj jako dodatkowa dziaalno, ale w ramach statutu.
Taka przedsibiorczo moe by wdraana w realizacj projektw o charakterze
publicznego interesu, wraz ze zwolnieniami podatkowymi . Takie przedsibiorstwa mog
zbiera fundusze w postaci zbirek publicznych (Republic of


Krajowe rodki dla modziey w tworzeniu turystycznego biznesu- 2015
Stowarzyszenie na rzecz rozwoju obszarw wiejskich

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Stowarzyszenie non-profit, ktrego gwnym celem jest promowanie modelu
zintegrowanego rozwoju obszarw wiejskich
Program Fundacji Felix Rodriguez de la Fuente, ktrego gwnym celem jest promocja
przedsibiorczoci i samo-zatrudnienia na obszarach wiejskich, z jednoczesn ochron
Misj stowarzyszenia jest promocja i upowszechnianie kultury przedsibiorczoci na
obszarach wiejskich
Asociacin de Emprendedores Rurales
Szkoa jest inicjatyw suc zachcaniu ludzi z miast do tworzenia przedsibiorczoci na
wsi, inicjatywa propaguje model zrwnowaonego rozwoju, godzc ycie biznesowe i
osobiste z natur.

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To start a new company or expand your business in another EU country

you need to know the rules that apply on that country

As an EU citizen you are entitled to:

set up your own business (even as a sole trader) in any EU country;
set up a subsidiary branch of an existing EU-based business that is already
registered in one EU country.

The requirements vary by country - but the EU encourages its member countries to meet
certain targets:
setting up possible in no more than 3 working days;
costing no more than 100;
completing all procedures through a single administrative body;
completing all registration formalities online;
registering a company in another EU country online.
EU countries have made progress to reduce the time and cost of paperwork required to
start a business.
In genearal , setting up a business is simple in participating countries. In some countries
this process can be done online.
You need to know informations about institutions , number of days required to open a
business and cost.

Member States Institutions Days cost

Bulgaria Registry Agency 4 28-56

Belgium Guichet dentreprises agree 1,5 517

Estonia or Notaries 2 185

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Romania Counties Trade Registers 1-3 100

Spain PAE (Ltd&individual companies) 3 464

Poland Krajowy Rejestr Sadowy 1 120

Turkey Trade registry office/ 1

Business Types
Min. required Minimum
Form of start-up required Financial
Country Management
business capital number of liability
(euros) founders

Sole Unlimited
none 1 management
proprietor liability

The liability The company

of the shall include
organs such
a minimum is limited to as a general
capital of at least 1
Joint-stock the subscribed assembly , a
TRY 50,000
Turkey board of
company capital and
directors and
paid by the
shareholder Board.

at least one the liability of

The Board
Limited minimum shareholder the
of Directors
Liability capital of (real person shareholders
Company TRY 10,000 or legal is limited to
entity) the subscribed
capital and

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paid by the

Limited A LLC may Shareholders associate
Liability have a single control the may block
share capital
Company shareholder social parts the activity of
of 45
the company

The number
required Shareholders Decisions
Joint Stock shareholders
share capital control the shall be taken
Company must be
of RON nominal value by majority
greater than
Romania two.

NGO salary per The number There may be The Board of
(Association) economy of members elements of Directors is
must be heritage but subordinate
greater than they must be to the
three disposed of or General
used for the Assembly
purpose for
which the
NGO was set

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capital of
60,102 is Board of
required for directors: this
the is defined by
incorporation There is a the
of an SA, a minimum of companys
fourth of one articles. It
This is limited
which must individual can be made
Sociedad to the capital
be paid at the and the law up of a sole
Annima invested by
point of does not director (
(SA) the
incorporation specify a administrador
. There is no limit to the nico), two
legal time number of or several
limit shareholders directors or
specified in . even a board
Spain which the of directors
remaining (of 3 to 12
capital must participants).
be paid into
the company.

Partners are
minimum It may be
not personally
The Limited capital created by a
liable for
Liability requirements single
Company are founder and
debts; their Bord of
(Sociedad de 3,005.06, is no limit
liability is directors
Responsabilid which must on the
limited to
ad Limitada be fully number of
S.L.) subscribed shareholders
investment in
and paid-up .
the company.
at the time
that the

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company is
may consist
of credit
rights, real
property, etc.
Work is not
valid as a

Grade one
consist of at
least three
people All
The required
and/or cooperative
Cooperative, investment is Bord of
companies. members have
or Sociedad established directors
Grade two the same
Cooperativa by the
cooperatives rights.
articles of
consist of
two or more

All partners
Any form of
There is no are jointly and
activity in
minimum severally
A civil law Minimum 2 which the
partnership capital liable for the
requirement partnerships
(partners) are
jointly and

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trust between
the partners.

Each partner
represent the
Each partner
is liable for
unless the
obligations of
There is no several articles of
General minimum shareholders association
partnership capital partnership
requirement (partners)
set forth
limitation of
rules for

Each partner Each partner

is liable for may
the represent the
There is no
Limited At least two obligations of partnership
capital parteners the individually
requirement partnership
without Management
limitation of board

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If you want
to register the
tax is 35 The liability
BGN. of sole trader
However, if for the debts
Sole trader you use the of the
electric form company is
it is going to unlimited.
be less
15 BGN.

The limited and
liability representatio
Bulgaria company is n of the
Limited one or more structured in company can
liability persons bodies/organs be assigned
required as a
company through which to one or
Ltd company
it participates more
is 2BGN.
in trade. managers.

The liability Decisions in

The number
The of a joint-stock
minimum of the
shareholders company are
Joint-stock amount of shareholders
company capital of the for the made by a
company is must be at
obligations of majority
BGN 50,000 least one.
the company vote.
is limited to

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the extent of
interest they
hold in the

The capital is
18500 EUR divided into
(6200 paid at shares which
Private incorporation can be traded
The director
Limited if there are to the public if
of an private
Companies more than the consent is
one or more Limited
one member given by at
(socit prive persons Companies is
and 12400 least half of
known as a
paid at the
responsabilit manager
incorporation shareholders
if there is representing
only one
Belgium of the

Board of
Limited one or more directors
Liability 61,500 euros liability of the
people General
Companies partners

The directors
There is no
unlimited are freely
Cooperative minimum 2
liability determined
Companies capital
by the
articles of

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VAT rates in participating countries

The EU has standard rules on VAT but these rules may be applied differently in each EU
country. You must normally pay VAT on all goods and services, up to and including the
sale to the final consumer. This could also include each stage of a production process, e.g.
buying components, assembly, shipping etc.

For EU-based companies, VAT is chargeable on most sales and purchases within the EU.

VAT isn't charged on exports to countries outside the EU. In this case the VAT is paid in
the country of import. You will need to provide evidence that the goods were exported to a
country outside the EU.

The current VAT rates has thus provisions on the result of all the different compromises
Agreed by EU Ministers of Finance


The standard VAT rate is 21%, but lower rates of 6% and 12% apply to certain categories
of goods and services.


The general VAT rate is 20% of the taxable value of a good or service.
A tax rate of 9% applies to some goods and services for instance books (including
textbooks and workbooks), periodicals, accommodation services, and medicines, health
and hygiene products specified by the Ministry of Social Affairs, and medical equipment
for use of disabled persons.
A 0% VAT rate is in effect for a number of goods, including exported goods, and
consultation services provided to VAT payers in another EU member state as well as for
watercraft and aircraft used in international traffic. A 0% VAT rate also applies to services
provided outside Estonia, a number of services related to water and air transport and
carriage of goods. The supply of a number of goods and services with a social orientation
is tax-free, such as postal services, insurance, health care and social services.


The standard rate of VAT is currently 23 % (from 1 January 2011). The new rates are of
a temporary nature and shall be implemented for the period from 1 January 2011 to 31
December 2016).


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The Sales Tax Rate in Romania stands at 20 percent. Sales Tax Rate in Romania averaged
20.82 percent from 2000 until 2016, reaching an all time high of 24 percent in 2010 and a
record low of 19 percent in 2001. Sales Tax Rate in Romania is reported by the National
Agency for Fiscal Administration (ANAF).

The Sales Tax Rate in Spain stands at 21 percent. Sales Tax Rate in Spain averaged 17.71
percent from 2000 until 2016, reaching an all time high of 21 percent in 2012 and a record
low of 16 percent in 2001 .Sales Tax Rate in Spain is reported by the Agencia Tributaria,


The standard rate of VAT is 18%. There is also a reduced rate of 8% applied to: basic
foodstuffs,medical products, books and other. A super-reduced rate of 1% applied to:
agricultural products, certain residential properties, newspapers and periodicals.


Bulgaria first brought in Value Added Tax (VAT) in 1994. Legislation for VAT in
Bulgaria is contained within its Value Added Tax Act 2006. Bulgaria has integrated into its
2006 VAT Act, the VAT rules, Directives, created by the European Union, which Bulgaria
joined in January 2007. VAT is 20 % , for tourism VAT is 9%.

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When you start a new company or you want to expand your

business in another EU country it s important to know the
rules that apply on that country?

o Yes

o No


You decide to start a new company or you want to expand

your business in another EU country is an importa.Which of
the following would be a key consideration?

o language obstacle

o corruption levels

o market opportunities

o all the answers are corect


As an EU citizen you are entitled to:

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o set up your own business (even as a sole trader) in any EU

o set up a subsidiary branch of an existing EU-based business that

is already registered in one EU country

o move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States

o vote and to stand as a candidate in elections to the European

Parliament and in municipal elections in the Member State in
which they reside, under the same conditions as nationals of that


What is VAT?

o a general tax that applies, in principle, to all commercial

activities involving the production and distribution of
goods and the provision of services

o a consumption tax because it is borne ultimately by the

final consumer. It is not a charge on businesses

o charged as a percentage of price, which means that the

actual tax burden is visible at each stage in the production
and distribution chain

o all the answers are corect


Select the correct answers about VAT.

o VAT means Value Added Tax

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o in any EU country VAT is 30%

o in any EU country VAT has the same value

o the current VAT rates has thus provisions on the result of

all the different compromises Agreed by EU Ministers of


What is a business plan?

o a companys steering tool but also a living document that

helps to stay on track

o the output of the first meeting of your board of diirectors

o a formal statement about the business goal a company is

going to reach

o an accounting document to set the stategy to make your

company profitable


What are the most common reasons for writing a business


o raising capital directed at investors outside the company

o improvements or changes in the business strategy

directed internally

o an operational business plan generally directed


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o all the answers are correct


The most common forms of business in Romania are:

o sole proprietor

o joint Stock Company

o a civil law partnership

o limited Liability Company


Which of the following would not be included in a Mission


o contribution: what product or service do you provide to

your customer?

o turnover: how much is your company worth on stock


o distinction: what makes your product/servive unique, so

that the customer would choose you?

o key market: who is your target client or customer?


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Which of the following elements is not relevant when a person
is analysing a career option?

o a company organization chart

o the contribution you can bring to the chosen job and


o the work environment and the conditions applicable

o the wor skill and achievements


Which of the following is not applicable to the definition of

Sole Proprietorship?

o the business is owned and run by one individual

o the owner receives all profits

o the liability of members or subscribers of the business is


o if the business falil, creditors may force the sale of the

owners personal property


Which of the following statement is correct?

o there is no need to register a company until after it fhas

been in operation for a year

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o a company does not need to pay any taxes, just the
employees do

o in order to employ people, a company needs to pay VAT

o all companies have to provide financial reports or tax



The most common forms of business in Turkey are:

o sole proprietor

o joint Stock Company

o a civil law partnership

o limited Liability Company


Why entreprises are important to society?

o they set the rules for free movement of goods between


o the contribute to increase growth and properity

o they are essential for the creation of new jobs

o they are an important role in innovation, research and



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Most business have to pay tax. Which of the following
sentences is corect?

o corporate tax is paid by the one working for a company

and the income tax by the company

o when somebody pays cash for the work I dont need to

pay tax on that amount

o when somebody pays cash for the work I do, I dont need
to pay tax on that amount

o all the answers are not correct


Which of the following elements should be taken into

consideration while doing market research?

o total number of people working in the sector

o business organisation chart

o potential custoers and competitors

o potential to increase the efficiency of the production



Do you know where you want your business to be in one

years time and how you will do it?

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Dont know/ Havent thought about it


Does your business have a certain unique competitive

advantage recognised and valued by your customers that
differentiates your business from your competitors?



Dont know

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Examples of creative ideas with as

many illustrations, know -how and
technological explanations as

METHODS FOR INTERNET Tips and advices about efficient

ADVERTISING business advertising

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Association for Science, Culture, Ecology, Youth
and Social Integration


ASCETIS association in partnership with ColegiulTehnic Gheorghe Cartianu have a

long history in collaboration on stientific projects for environment protection.
ColegiulTehnic Gheorghe Cartianu is the owner of a patent of a nonconventional
composite material created from milted PET waste glass fiber and sand or other filling
The entire brevet can be read here
In the frame of ERA+ project they started a common research on this material utilities in
order to make it more attractive and to spread knowledge about it to as many youngsters as

Presentation of the idea

The composite material can be coloured when it is melted with oil colors in a very large
palet of colors and it cn be casted in small coloured pieces that can be used for mosaics .
Production of the composite material can be made in small quantities by using PET botttles
washed dried-up and cutted in 5-10cm diameter pieces . PET bottles can be also used if
they are squashed in a squashing machine if the melting recipient is big enough .
The melting can be done at the temperature of 300 celsius degrees that can be obtained
with methane or butane gas simple flame on a metalic pot (melting recipient).

The description of the working method with technology description

The composite material is formed by 60...90% Polyethylene terephthalate, 5...35% filling

compound from argil, chalk, sand, glass, waste of cement, briks , porceain or
ceramikceramic, , 0,2...5% glass fiber from glass wool with the wire thickness 0,01...0,05

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mm, 2% flax or sunflower oil and oil coluorin a percentage of 2,8% maximum , the
percentage is refering to the weight .

Technology description

The PET waste is washed and drown that is cut in pieces with the maximum dimension 10
cm . We can use a machine as the prototype in the picture below for smashing the bottles

The filing material is fine smashed and strained ,

In a melting-masticating machine is introduced the PET material , vegetal oil , the
process of melting is started, then is added the filling material in the form of meal and the
glass fibre when the temperature 260...320C, the melting-masticating machine has to
realise the immixture process with the use of a pallet which has to distribute also the
arming fibre glass material in all the melted mass. Colours can be added also in the

The blended material resulted is molten at a is temperature that has to be not under 130C.
A prototype of the melting-masticating machine is in the pictures below:

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The moulding of the small coloured pieces can be done either using forms either by using
a plane fine surface for the material solidification in a 2-3 mm range plane form. Then
from this can be smashed irregular form small pieces that can be used in artistic mosaics .

The benefits on short or long time, advantages, opportunities for using it in rureal
areas .
The preparation of the composite material based on PET bottles is not requiring a
special technology;
The process can be created on a simple cooking machine in a simple metallic box .

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The coloured plastic pieces can be produced with a small investment and they
have a big range of utilities .
The material can be used for creation of paving, brick or tile pieces if it is produced
in big quantities or for production of small , diverse coloured mosaic pieces if it is
produced in smaller quantities.
The production of the melting-moulding machine for family use use can be also a
business support.
The machine production requires a bigger investment but it can be also done with
a small investment if it is just assembled in a small workshop and the components
are produced in bigger enterprises on demand . The small enterprises created will
bring benefits on short time by creating workplaces and on long time by reducing
plastic bottles waste.

Examples of application
The composite material based on PET waste can be used by people in their own
establishments for creation of useful construction materials or decorations in the house as it
can be seen below .

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ASCETIS association is an association that focuses on the education of the younger

generation main activities for promotion of cultural heritage of the county of Neamt, social
integration and environmental protection. They began researching and workshops related
to entrepreneurship education to young people living in rural areas and improving their
skills AMD innovative ideas.
Research and workshops were organized in partnership with Gheorge Cartianu Technical
College Association from September 2015 of the ERA Project +.
In this context workshops focused on materials are wasted in order to create new, useful
and interesting objects and developing entrepreneurial thinking development.
PET bottles become ornaments

Presentation of the idea

Plastic bottles are a source of pollution in rural areas and natural environments and it is
necessary to increase the interest to collect them.A line engraving machine device called
Pyro is very easy to be created and can be very effective in creating ornaments ranging
from plastic bottles .This device can be created by a small business and sold with a kit
manuals and ornamental .

Description working method with technology description (links to sites more , detailed
films websites) pictu

1.oak handle-maner din lemn de stejar

2.flexible electrical cable-cablu electric flexibil
3. borne-terminals
4. tightening screws-suruburi de strangere
5. nichelina thread(fir de nichelina

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The construction of the device is simple. It contains a voltage transformer manual created
with 2 solenoids and a relay. The wire is a copper-nickel (gersdorfitte wire) with a length
of 2-3 cm, which will be hot and will come into contact with the object we want to create
ornaments.It is necessary to use a wire not too high in diameter, because the thermal
inertia (delay of temperature), we need not be large, plastic does not absorb as many
calories as it is thermal insulation and at the same time, a wire less will receive a higher
temperature in -a shorter time.

Use wire can not be too small because its mechanical strength will decrease and it will be
difficult to keep because we need ornaments.
The recommended diameter (gersdorfitte yarn is 0.5-1 mm.
Wire length (position 6 in the image above), it is also important since we need to create
models by changing its shape as shown below:

For a longer cord we need a higher voltage output transformed output..

The wire must be supported by a bail thermal insulation (grip). No one in the figure above.
We must use a light material with high thermal resistance. It can fire wood or isolated
Electrical wires must connect the transformer to the container with 220 V and 2-12 V.
thread work.
The length of these conductors will allow our workplace flexibility.
The 2-12 V wires must also be flexible to be easy to move the thread needlework.
The lenght of the wire ( position 6 in the picture above ) is also important becuse we will
need to create models by modifying its form as in the figure below .

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For a longer wire we will need a bigger voltage at the transformet output .

The working wire must be sustained by a termoisolant bail ( grip ) . Nr 1 in the figure
We must use a lightweight material with big thermical resistance . It can be fire proofed
wood or textolite .
The electric conductors must connect the transformer to the receptacle with 220 V and to
the working wire with 2-12 V .
The lenght of this conductors will allow our working place flexibility .
The 2-12 V conductors must be also flexible in order to be easy to move the working wire
by hand .

Below are some items created with this method in our workshops Project:

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The benefits on short or long time, advantages, opportunities for using it in rural

The pyro engraving device with an ornamental kit will be a very cheap and attractive
device that can be produced with a small investment and will bring benefits on short time
by creation of work places for youngsters and on long time by reducing plastic bottles
waste and increasing people motivation for collecting them.

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Examples of application

The pyro engraving device can be used by people in their own establishments for creation
of useful decorations in the house as it can be seen in the images below The working
method with this device is easy , it can be seen in thermovieant the movie will be
delivered together with the device.
The minimum age for using of this device is 5 years but it will be necessary the conduct of
an adult.
Thermal insulation protection gloves can be used by the person using the device .
The working place must be well ventilated because the flue come out from the hot plastic
can be toxic and must not be inhaled , the work is better to be done near an ventilator
Schools and kinder gardens can use this device for non formal education activities but it
also can be used for scientific demonstrations about pyro-engraving and study on diverse
materials properties .

Investment costs :
The materials for one device are:
Wire 220 V 5 m
Wire 2-12 V 3 m
copper-nickel wire 50 cm
textolite bail 1 piece
connecting terminals 2 pieces
round-nosed clamps 2 pieces
magneto-electric relay 1 piece
electrician's side-cutter pliers
electrician's pliers
Thei cost max 20 euro/device
The device can be sold with 30-70 euro together with the working manual and the
ornamental kit.
Tyme of work for creation of one device and one ornamental kit 2 hours . The worket is
paid with 5 euro/hour.


General presentation of the idea what is it new and creative about it

In Romania, bread , generally bakery products , are basic foods in population nutrition.
There are bakery products on the market but with many food additives. Our business idea
is to produce bio bakery products, traditional, in clay ovens and using only bio products

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purchased from the local market (from villagers). Orders can be taken using a web site or
by phone and products will be delivered at the doorsteps.

The description of the working method with technology description

A. The oven construction

Required materials: boulders, river rock , sand , earth, straw, clay bricks, chimney pipe.

1. Finding the right place

For a 2 square meters oven, are required about 5 square meters, for further building a
roof, for a small place to store the wood and space to move easily.

2. Building the foundation

Dig a foundation at least 30 cm, which is filled with gravel.

3. Building the support (pedestal)

There is no strict height for rising the support , but most comfortable for the chef it
would be to reach at his hips. The support can be made from any waterproof material and
resistant at the oven weight. Can be used slag concrete blocks, burnt bricks, river rock or
boulders. The bricks are stacked until it reaches the desired height. Process may be
repeated in the inside of the support for added stability. Inside pour gravel or even cement.

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4. Building the oven table

To avoid heat loss towards the bottom of the oven, you can use empty bottles, filling
the space between them with shards of tile , sand, sawdust or clay (mixture of earth ,straw,
sand and water). Then you can build the oven table , using burnt wood bricks , slightly
beaten with the hammer in the mixture below.

5. Building the oven itself

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The oven will be build of clay, a mixture of yellow earth, straw, sand and water. Bricks
are made from clay and let to dry, in the shade for a few days.

Build a whole for oven , from burnt bricks. Around the whole will stick bricks using clay.

6. Building the chimney

When building the wall, will leave a whole for the chimney and the pipe is fixed.

B. Realization of bakery products

The benefits on short and long time , advantages , opportunities for using it in rural

The benefits on short time:

Create jobs in rural areas

Buying raw materials from the local market, will increase local process avenue .
The investment will be recovered in maximum one month.

The benefits on long time

Falling unemployment in rural areas;

Development of entrepreneurship in rural areas;
Public awareness of the importance of local resources;
This business could be a permanent source of income and can extend by building new
ovens , hiring staff and expanding the area of delivery.

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The opportunities

There is no competition on the local market that provide bakery products made in clay
ovens and using organic raw materials, substances without chemicals;
A very small number of bakeries in rural areas, bakery products were brought from
urban areas;
Increased interest and demand for traditional products and also healthy, through
public awareness of the danger to health by consuming some products;
In general, peoples incomes are lower in rural areas and this is why peoples prefer to
buy bread than to produce it because the gas price is high and the wood are expensive.
Trust in bakery products made according to traditional recipes.


Cheap work market because unemployment is very high in rural areas;

In general, rural women are common with realization of bakery products ,
and this not requires special preparation;
Raw materials may be purchased directly from manufacturers areas (the villagers);
The low cost of building clay ovens increase the profit;
Products can be supplied in rural and urban areas.

Examples of application

Anyone with a home or a building in rural areas can achieve this business.Building clay
ovens do not requires high costs and the duration of construction is reduced (1-2 days).
Some households have traditionally courtyard a clay oven that can be cleaned and used.

However, it is that people who want to start this type of business should have a budget for
authorizations, raw materials, maintenance, distribution etc. Also the spaces that operates
must correspond to law.

The business operates all year and in certain periods the year production will be higher
(legal or religious holidays).


General presentation of the idea what is it new and creative about it

Raising quail is a profitable growth and can be achieved in rural areas. Quail is a little
bird (about 200g), resistance to specific diseases of birds, it does not require specialized
which its growth in cages, occupy little space (500 quail require no more than 20 square
meters) It can be used: eggs, meat and garbage. Quail egg hen egg is qualitatively higher.
Considered a delicacy can be and hip restaurants. Could Be garbage litter as fertilizer for
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plants sold florists. eggs can e distributed to food stores. In Romania, there is not no
tradition of growth because quails but demand is greater than supply, this can be a
profitable business considering the investment is very small.

The description of the working method with technology description

A. Before starting this business as indicated Increase familiarity with how to quail. With a
total investment exceeding 100 Euro of can become quail breeder, you-can already get a
daily production of eggs, canon learn very simple procedures for feeding, cleaning,
garbage etc

1. Acquisition of 15 quail - (about 40 Euros);

2.Build / acquire cage / battery for 15 quail (about 20 euros);

3. Purchase feed for quail (quail consumes only 1 kg of feed per month, about 30 g per
day!) - Price 3 Euro

4. Location battery quail in a quiet space, dry, warm and draft-free surface 1 square meter;

5. Ensure that the birds have been feeding and water two times daily (quantities is
6. Harvesting and storing eggs in optimal their conditions;
7.Cleaning garbage
After this experience you can follow the steps required to set up a business: choosing the
type and setting up a company, obtaining operating permits, distribution etc.

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The benefits on short and long time , advantages , opportunities for using it in rural

The benefits on short time

Payback shortly (each quail matured, which happens after only 40 days after
hatching, making over 26 eggs per month);
Profit is obtained easily and quickly;
Daily consumption of eggs, meat improves health quail families of those who grow
food because it includes an impressive amount of vitamins and are recognized for
their beneficial effects in solving serious health problems (heart disease, stomach or

The benefits on long time

The business could be a permanent source of income;

The deal can be extended;
Falling unemployment in rural areas;
Development of entrepreneurship in rural areas.

The opportunities:

Local market it doesn't exist because there isn't too much competition in Romania,
raising quail it isn't a tradition;
Increased interest of population especially for quail eggs;
Public Romania confidence in those products;
Confidence in natural products;
Quails its aren't anymore in the wild because they were often hunted for their meat.


No need for a space picky. A loft of 500 quails can be arranged in a space of only a
few square meters (up to 20 square meters) which can be placed anywhere: in a barn, a
loudspeaker existing in the house, down a corridor, a veranda or in an attic. The only
conditions that must be fulfilled that site are related to the existing of a relatively
constant temperatures and no noise, currents;
The volume of work required is minimal. Feed and water administered in the
morning and in the evening harvested eggs.- At the age of only 40 days, quail eggs
begin to make its productivity average is about 26 eggs per month, which, in the case
of a loft a 500 quail farms means a monthly production of 12,000 eggs;
It can be harnessed and quail meat which is particularly sought in restaurants;
Dung product quail can be exploited because this garbage is excellent as a

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and can be harvested and then dried ready in bags to be offered florists;
The only investment that must be made is the acquisition of birds and cages
You can buy and obtain fertilized eggs that can be used in an incubator;
These quails hardly get sick. There are certain diseases that birds generally do, but
not quails. They are not vaccinated, they do not need to receive antibiotics;
The marketing of eggs quail is easy. Compared are undertaken, hen egg, the quail
contains 5 times more phosphorus, 7.5 times more iron, six times more vitamin B1
and 15 times more vitamin B2. For these reasons quail's egg is used in the
treatment of various diseases based on the treatment of various diseases;
Procurement of food directly from local producers in the village;
The development of such businesses in rural areas do not disturb the
neighborhood (odor, noise, garbage disposal, etc.);
In rural areas, every household has a space that can be arranged to increase quails (a
barn, an annex etc).

Examples of application

Anyone who owns a space in rural areas can achieve this business because that investment
are very expensive and do not require very large spaces. However, people who want to
start this type of business should be documented in terms of how to increase the quails, the
necessary permits, business processes, harvesting eggs, packaging and optimal strategies
for the marketing of eggs, how the data-cutters, how recovery of manure as fertilizer. The
process is not complicated no demanding but still require a significant dose of attention,
especially in terms of hygienic conditions.
That business works all year round.

Technical College Gheorghe Cartianu


General presentation of the idea what is it new and creative about it

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The idea is to open an event management company in rural areas that provides services in
particular in rural areas but also in urban areas on customer request.

The main activity of company events like weddings, baptisms, birthdays , thematic parties
(village days), graduation proms and providing catering services, photos and videos,
music. What is new about this idea is that in rural areas does not exist such companies and
rural residents are forced to organize events themselves.

The description of the working method with technology description

Promotion services provided by the company;

Discussion with clients about the event.

Facebook page Posters

-Contacting, negotiating and signing contracts with artists who will attend the event
Contact and signing contracts with the company sound;
Carrying posters, invitations, flyers;
Script Setup for the event;
Making Event;
Getting money the event.

The organizers

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The presenters

Photos from the event

Local artists

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National artists

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Short and long benefits, advantages, opportunities to use it in rural areas

The benefits on short times:

creating jobs in rural areas;

investment is recovered immediately after the event;

The benefits on long time

this business could be a permanent source of income a source permanent income;

developing entrepreneurship in rural areas;

a drop in unemployment in rural areas;

raising living standards;

young people will spend time in the community and would not go into town;

creation of new business in rural area (more taxes);

awareness of the importance of local human resource.

The opportunities:

In rural areas there are no other companies that provide these services;
In rural areas there are spaces for organizing events (cultural centres ,bars) where you
can organize such events;
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In rural areas , in some areas are still some custom events (wedding, baptisms) to
organize customer in court so there is no problem in booking event spaces and
achievement made according to schedule;
A lot of young people traveling to the city to finish the studies, get used to the
conditions offered by urban life and return home, in rural areas, those want to benefit
all conditions to spend a free time ;
Rural areas do not deliver a lot options to spend free time;
A lot of young people from rural areas have not qualified for this, but they have the
skills to involvement organizing in events of this type.


Costs are lower paying salaries, lack of alternatives for the inhabitants of these areas in
terms of finding jobs.
In the villages of Romania , relarions within rural communities are more closed
together and will be more likely to believe in local companies ;
In rural area, local taxes are lower than in urban area;
The price of buying or renting an office in rural areas is much lower that in urban
Products can be delivered in rural and urban areas.

Examples of application

This business can be realized by anyone who has or may buy or rent a house as
headquarters in the countryside. In addition , for this type of business it requires the
development of links with sound, catering companies.

In time , the company may purchase its own equipment for making sound system. Its
should be envisaged to establish contacts with local and national artists.

Business can operate all year around but must take into account that in rural areas religious
traditions are preserved and can organize some events only in certain periods of the year
(example: the weddings do not organize durring the religious fasting).


General presentation of the idea what is it new and creative about it

The idea is to create a underground organic greenhouse in rural areas that will provide
healthy ecological products that aregrown without pesticides and using natural fertilizer. In
the greenhouse we will cultivate: tomatoes, salads, peppers , cucumbers , etc. Newness is

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that the greenhouse will be built into the ground which means it will work throughout the
year. The marketplace can be local (market, restaurant, shops). Orders can be taken via a
web site.

A.Choosing the terrain

Firstly it has to be chosen a sunny place all year around.

Land orientation must be from East to West.

B.Digging and securing walls

Dig into the ground at least 1 meter depth. The walls must be a little bit inclined outwards.
The inside must look like this \_/, so it wont collapse.

The north wall of the greenhouse must be taller than the south one, because in this way
during the winter it will get all the warmth of the sun , and during the summer it will reflect
the sun rays . The roof must be inclined 39 grades from north to south.

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The digged soil will be used for building the north wall of the green house , so it can be
solid. This wall will protect the roof from the winds coming from the north during the

The roof is simple and cheap to do considering that is only plastic and wood. For example,
if the greenhouse has a width of 3 meters than just one row of pillars in the middle is
enough to avoid heat loss, indicated is to make a double roof that have 2 layers of thick foil
with 10 cm space between them . You can do this by using thicker beams for the roof.
Also, above , around the roof , dig little ditches and use plastic tubes to create drainage
ditches. Doing this you will avoid flooding.

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The entry in the greenhouse must be protected against the rain. During the summer it can
be used for ventilation . It can be make another vent on the other side of the greenhouse to
have a proper ventilation system .

C.Interior arrangements

It must be added at least 30cm of gravel on the basis of all greenhouse and after the fertile
soil originally dug from the soil surface.The gravel will serve to drain excess water from
underground greenhouse.

Construction of 40 cm width paths , to walk among the rows of vegetables.

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D.Next step is planting, taking into account the specific rules of each plant

E.Harvesting and marketing


The benefits on short and long time , advantages , opportunities for using it in rural

The benefits on short time:

Within 2months cangetthe first production(depending on product andvariety)

The benefits on long time:

In maximum 1 year investment can be recovered;

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The business can be extended by building new greenhouses and can provide a new
permanent source of income for investment and employees.

The opportunities

The growing demandfor 100% organic products inagricultureinthe context in

whichecologicalsystemknownpresently anacceleratedevolutionin the European Union;
On the marketthere is noreal competitionbecause mostproducts are importedandare not
environmentally friendly;
Confidence indomesticfood products;
Cheap laborbecauseunemploymentis very high inrural areas;
People inrural areas thatwill be employedin this companyarealreadyaccustomedto
work in agriculture;
The fertilizer used is environmentally friendly and does not cost as it can be purchased
from the villagers, they being very pleased that we take their manure from farms;
For developing such a business there is the possibility of obtaining EU funds.


The products can be sold during the winter;

The greenhouse built in the ground does not requires heating system during the winter
because the heat stored in the ground in summer is used in winter;
The humidity is adequate and irrigation does not need to be done frequently;
You can get about 10 productions per year;
In a controlled environment it can be obtain much bigger productions than in the case of
crop fields;

Examples of application

Anyone witch has a suitable field in rural areas can do this business.
Nevertheless, it should be taken in to account that whoever who wants to achieve such a
business must provide funding for:
-construction and greenhouse equipment (100m2) : 2000 Euro
-raw materials: 100 Euro
-transport: 3000 Euro
Total investment: 5300 Euro
Minimal knowledge of agriculture are needed .
The business is working all year around.

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The Era association has proposed to show how we can transform and give artistic and
creative value to 5 pieces of second-hand furniture (2 coffee tables, 2 chairs and a stand for
The novelty lies in the use of artistic techniques, specific methods and technologies, with
varying degrees of execution difficulty, to give these functional pieces of furniture a
decorative and aesthetic role.
We will illustrate the mosaic technique, the gilding, coating, how to make patina, also
detailing the methods and materials used for work.


The coffee table, having an octagonal countertop, made of varnished oak, was purchased at
a modest price from a second-hand furniture store.

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We have decided to transform this ordinary piece of furniture into an art object, but also to
bring it extra functionality by building and incorporating a decorative lamp serving as a
shelf. To bring a touch of originality, we opted for a creative approach to decorating the
countertop surface in mosaic technique and we achieved a non-figurative composition
Next we will present the stages, working methods and materials used to achieve our goal.

1. Removal of lacquer surface

Removing the lacquer from the surface of the table top is done mechanically, by sanding it
with sandpaper (120 grit). For superior efficiency of the procedure, we will use circular

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Tip: the procedure will be repeated depending on the hardness of the lacquer surface until
itscomplete removal.

After sanding we removed the dust with a vacuum cleaner.

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2. Degreasing of the surface

Degreasing is meant to completely remove residues from sanding.

We wiped the surface using a cloth soaked in solvent for technical use.

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3. Applying acrylic base
The application of an acrylic base by brushing is necessary both to obtain a homogeneous
appearance of the surface and to obtain a color in assonance with the decorative mosaic
that will be applied later.

Adjust the viscosity of the acrylic paint by diluting it with water.
Apply 2-3 light coats of paint until complete coverage.
Respect the drying time between coats of 30 minutes

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3. Table top decoration in the mosaic technique

For the table top decoration in mosaic technique we will use coloured massglass or glazed
mosaic, glass beads,semi-precious stones - rose quartz and malachite, leaves made of
polyester resin: .

Cutting squares of mosaic into pieces (demonstration video link) to the desired size is
achieved using a special clamp, equipped with two diamond blades.

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After establishing the center of the table top surface by drawing diagonals, we traced
guiding curves oriented from the inside out.
The central area of the composition was performed using malachite pieces arranged in a
group, leaving room for building the ambient lamp. In advance, the malachite stones were
degreased by wiping them with a sponge soaked in solvent for technical use.
The stones were glued to the tabletop with transparent silicone for glazing. After applying
silicone on the back of the stone in the form of a string, this is stuck to the surface by
pressing easily.

The arrangement of stones next to each other must be done so as to get small joints.

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Next, we cut the mosaic squares in narrow strips.

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The mosaic strips were attached to the curved guiding lines drawn beforehand.

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In these areas bordered by strips of mosaic, we continued to glue malachite stones,
grouped close together in the center of the composition and we progressively made them
rare toward the edges of the table top. And here and there we inserted colored glass beads.

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We continued to apply mosaic pieces of various shapes and colors, as well as colored
glass beads to create a superior visual effect. We aimed to create a gradient between the
two dominant complementary colors, green in the center of the table top and red at the
edges. To break the rhythm of the composition, I inserted whole mosaic squares and three
golden leaves made ofresin.

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4. Building the decorative lamp body

The decorative lamp positioned in the center of the table top diffuses ambient light when it
is on, and its superior part can be used as shelf.
I mounted three equally sized threaded rods into the table top that support the top of the

The polished piece of quartz crystal with asymmetrical shape was pierced in a workshop
specializing in decorative stone cutting.

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Then we placed it on the three support rods.

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To build the lamp body we used translucent quartz, more precisely pieces of various sizes
and shapes.

They were glued together with special silicone for glazing.

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We continued placing and gluing pieces of quartz till it joined the upper part of the lamp,
namely the piece of blue quartz.

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At this stage, our working table looks like this:

5. Installing the lighting system and the table legs

The lighting system is composed of socket bulb, switch and power cord fitted with a plug.
Using an electric jig saw, I made a circular cutout in the center of the table top with the
same diameter as that of the socket.

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Then we placed the socket onto the power cord and introduced it inside the cut.

Then we mounted the switch onto the cord and I fixed it on the back of table top, 25 cm
away from the edge of the table, so as to be operated with ease.

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After painting in black and the polyurethane varnishing of the table legs made in a
carpentry workshop, we proceeded to attach these to the tabletop.

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For the decorative lamp, we used a LED bulb (3 W / 3000K), which does not emit heat
because the body of the lamp is a closed enclosure.

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With the light on it looks like this : .


The two varnished oak chairs with upholstered headboard and seat were purchased at a
modest price from a second-hand furniture store. We intend to turn them from functional
objects into design objects. To this end, we applied a gold leaf on the wooden sides and the
headboards were decorated with colored glass mosaic:

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Removing headboard and seat

To remove the upholstered elements we used a cross-headed screwdriver, with which we

removed the fastening systems.

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Removing the lacquer surface

Removing the lacquer from the surface of seats is done chemically by wiping it with
abrasive wool soaked in solvent for technical use.
The completion of this operation is signaled by the appearance of a white surface on the
wood, resulting from the dissolution of the lacquer by the solvent( ).

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3. Applying the acrylic base coat

The application of an acrylic base coat of carmine red by brushing is required to obtain a
homogeneous appearance of the surface and to provide a suitable substrate for the
application of gold and slagmetal leaf.

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Application of mixtion
The mixtion is a substance used in the gilding procedure and it is brushed onto the surface
that will be gilded. After drying, it forms a sticky and transparent surface over which we
apply the gold or slagmetal leaf. We used a water-based, quick-drying mixtion(15

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The application will be made on the surface with a soft brush with synthetic hair without
returning several times in the same place, so as not to leave any traces in the mixtion
You can notice the difference between the transparent and glossy surface of dry mixtion
and the fresh coat which is whitish.

The gilding

The gilding consists in

sticking the gold,
respectively slagmetal
leaves on the surface over
which we applied the
mixtion coat.
For these chairs we used 23
k gold leaf and slagmetal, an
alloy that mimics the gold

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The gold leaf size 8/8 cm. One bag contains 25 pieces.

Imitation of gold leaf - slagmetal

size 16/16 cm. One bag contains 100 pieces.

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The sticking of the leaves on the mixtion surface is shown in the demo
video:, .

For protection from mechanical influences, we applied 3 coats of shellac varnish that
forms a tough and resistant coat:

The final aspect after gilding the surfaces and applying the protective layers

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Mounting the headboards
After I removed the upholstery from the headboards, I mounted them into their initial
position. They will serve as support for the mosaic application. Catching them by the seat
frame was made using fastening screws.

To bring the head of the screw to the level of the headboard surface we chamfered the
plywood using a drill.

The screw fastening was made until the headboard got

close to the backrest frame using a cross-headed screwdriver.

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Applying the acrylic base on the slats
The application by brushing of an acrylic base is necessary both to obtain a
homogeneous appearance of the surface and to obtain a consistent color with the
decorative mosaic that will be applied later.

Adjust the viscosity level of the acrylic paint by diluting it with water;
Apply 2-3 light coats of paint until complete coverage;
Respect the drying time between coats of 30 minutes.

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Drawing a floral pattern and copying
it onto the slats

Drawing the floral motif was made

using a mechanical pencil with a 0, 5
mm mine on a piece of paper, adapting
its size so that it fits the size of the oval
The copying of the drawing on the headboard is made by using a sheet of indigo

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Applying the mosaic technique to the floral motif on the slats

Achieving this figurative floral mosaic involves a higher degree of difficulty than the non-
figurative composition executed on the coffee table top because we have to follow the
contour of the drawing and lay out the small pieces of mosaic by following the shape of the
petals and volumes. The materials and tools used remain the same, namely mosaic of
colored glass, malachite, cutters and special silicone for glazing.
I started with the cutting of narrow strips of mosaic ( ) and
sticking them to the outline of the headboards.

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The floral element was approached from the
top to the bottom. First we glued the pieces of
mosaic in the shadowed areas, on the petal
ribs and in the center of the flower.
To facilitate the matching of small mosaic pieces in place, use a wooden toothpick.

The arrangement of the mosaic inside the outline of the petals was made from shadow to
light and from the center of the flower toward the edges to achieve a volume effect.

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After completing the flowers and leaves, we began to fill the background, following the
oval shape of the headboard.

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The magazine stand made of varnished oak was purchased from a second-hand furniture
store. We have proposed turning it into a piece of vintage furniture
( ).

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Pickling and degreasing the lacquer surface

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For this operation we use 80 grit abrasive paper, abrasive pad, solvent for
technical use. We recommend wearing protective gloves.

The pickling of the lacquer surface is made by grinding it with 80 grit sandpaper ( ). The degreasing is made by wiping it with a sponge
soaked in solvent for technical use. This we will remove residues from sanding and we will
get a grip surface for the application of the acrylic paint.

Applying the acrylic base

The white acrylic base covers the superficial scratches resulting from the sanding of the
wood surface, ensuring a homogenous and adherent base for the final acrylic color and
helps create the patina effect.

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The application is made in two layers by brush, respecting the drying time between coats
of 30 minutes (, ).

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Applying the final acrylic color

After drying the two basic coats we applied the final colour by brushing. This was
achieved by combining white acrylic paint with ocher acrylic paint ( We applied by brush 3 layers of final color, allowing
a drying time of one hour between coats ( ).

The appearance of the object after applying the first coat of paint.

The final appearance after painting.

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Applying patina tint to the paint
Applying patina tint has the purpose of rendering the object a vintage look. For this
operation we used different grit sandpaper (120, 240, 600).

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By grinding, we removed the final paint progressively to let see the underlying layer and
the original brown color of the object. I insisted in particular on all edges of the object, but
also on the straight surfaces to create areas of wear that would have resulted from the
extended use of the magazine stand, as well as from accidental bumps ( , ).

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IV. The coffee table decorated with resin golden leaves and gold leaves
This table is made of light wood and was purchased from a second-hand furniture store.
The particular appearance is given by the curved legs, the presence of a drawer and its
vintage look.For its decoration, I used ginko- biloba leaves made of polyester resin which
were purchased from a local craftsman ( ).
As a working method, we opted for gilding with mixtion, presented in detail in the case of
the seats. I gilded the resin leaves and the table top, just to exemplify other applications of
this technique.

1.Polishing the surface countertop

Removing the lacquer from the surface of the table top is done mechanically, by sanding it
with sandpaper (240 grit). For superior efficiency of the procedure, I used circular motions.

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The dust is removed by wiping the surface with a damp cloth.

2.Applying the mixtion coat

The mixtion is a substance used in the gilding procedure that is brushed on the surface that
will be golden. After drying, it forms a sticky and transparent coat over which the gold leaf
is applied. We used a water-based, quick-drying mixtion(15 minutes).

The application will be made on the surface with a soft brush with synthetic hair without
returning several times in the same place,so as not to leave any traces in the mixtion coat.

1. Gilding the table top

It consists in sticking the gold leaves on the surface over which we applied previously
the mixtion coat.
I used 23 k gold leaf .

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Gold leaf size 8/8 cm. One bag contains 25 sheets.

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For sticking the leaves on the countertop table, we used the same method as in the case of
seats - see demonstrative video ( ).
To protect sheets from mechanical influences we applied one coat of shellac varnish that
forms a tough and resistant coat.

Sticki ng the leaves on the table top

Sticking leaves made from polyester resin on the table top was made using a special

We have distributed them on the surface of the top alternating their size to avoid getting a
symmetry (

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Gilding the resin leaves
After sticking the resin leaves on the table top surface, we proceeded to their gilding, using
the same method and materials described above, in the case of the table top.

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General presentation of the idea, what is new and creative:

Starting with an analysis of different types of businesses in the countryside, you should
already be aware of their own goals and resources that you have. This will allow you to
keep evaluation what the industry is for you. If You dont have own ground to create the
plantation, the business has to be based on other recourses and related to Your specific
skills, education and practice. One of a business idea in the countryside is the handicraft
production, among them jewelery on folk motifs.

The idea of jewelry business is based on never-ending creativeness, creative invention,

artistic imagination, artistic manual skills. The production can use various techniques and
materials. The production can be for the whole year and bring quick income. The market
place can be national and international via website, and also to local customers in shops,
open markets.

The process of making jewelery develops also personal skills (self-cognition, self-
confidence, self-esteem, self-expression) what is important for all people, but particularly
for the long-term unemployed.

For the piloting process of this kind of business , the first material will be plastic mass and
clay to avoid the huge investments of money in case of failure.

The technique of the production: Jewellery made of clay and plastic mass

The main materials: clay or plastic mass

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Clay plastic mass

Threads and wires to string the elements of jewellery

nylon thread wires: copper, gold, silver

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The fastenings for bracelets and necklaces

The fastenings for earrings

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Pins the basis of earrings

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The pins with little eye and with the head

Decorative distributors for beads

Materials used for coloring and decorating

Paintings, varnishes

Acrylic paintings

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Other types of paintings

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The fast drying colorless varnish

Tools for creating jewellery

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Round pliers

Flat pliers for seizing of beads and for flattening the clenches and fasteners

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Clippers to cut wires, pins ect.

The basic set of needed tools

Brushes to paint colors various shapes and sizes

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The tools for modeling ceramic clay and plastic mass

The mold of layer-cakes to cut out various shapes of plastic mass

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Process of working

Preparation to work

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A project of jewellery (a draft of pencil)

Forming elements of plastic mass according to the draft

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Process of drying for 1-2 days.

Polishing by the sandpaper

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Connecting jewellery by using decorative distributors and fastenings

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Final work- handmade jewellery of plastic mass

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The benefits on short and long time, advantages, opportunities for using in rural

The benefits on short time

The jewelery can be made during 2-3 days, many pieces in different styles, patterns and
they are ready for selling. The price staring from 30 PLN ( 8 Euro) for simple piece.

The benefits on long time

In maximum 2 months the business can be recovered.

The business can be developed by using new materials including stones, wood, wool, silver
and other and new techniques like decoupage, soutache. The entrepreneur can employ 1-2
people to create jewelery.

The opportunities

Cheap investments in the initial phase of business

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Quick income
Small office room for making jewelery and for doing official papers
Any level of education possible, but person with artistic sense and creativeness
Business for the whole year
EU funds possible for the developing the business

Example of application, who can start

Anyone who has got an artistic sense and budget for start up

Tools: 100 Euro

Materials: clay, ceramic, plastic mass: 150 Euro

Metal or silver elements : 150 Euro

Paints : 50 Euro

Creation the website for selling: 600 Euro

Total investment: 1050 Euro

Foundation FIS


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Tools and materials for creating wooden jewelery: wood saw, drill, wood, sand paper,
acrylic paints, brushes of different types and sizes, decorative distributors and other
decorative elements, jewelery threads, fastenings of different types.

The phases:

Designing the project of wooden jewelery on a piece of paper

Starting the work, getting know the tools and materials

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Measuring the pieces of wood

Cutting the wood for needed shape and size

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Doing the wholes by a drill

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Painting by acrylic paints

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Joinin g the elements by different types of jewelery tools

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Ready to wear jewelery

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Other techniques for wooden jewelery: beautiful pieces of wooden
jewelery for the inspiration

The benefits on short and long time, advantages, opportunities for using in rural

The benefits on short time

The jewelery can be made during 3-4 days. The price staring from 40 PLN / 10 Euro for a

The benefits on long time

In maximum 2 months the business can be recovered.

The business can be developed by using new techniques and tools for making jewelery.

The opportunities:

Cheap investments in the initial phase of business

Quick income
Small office room for making jewelery and for doing official papers
Any level of education possible, but person with artistic sense and creativeness
Business for the whole year
EU funds possible for the developing the business

Example of application, who can start:

Anyone who has got an artistic sense and budget for start up

Tools: 200-300 Euro

Materials: wooden pieces, sand papers, paints 200 Euro

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Metal or silver elements, other accessories : 150 Euro

Creation marketing materials: Business cards which you can hand out to your
friends and family and local businesses as well as at trade shows and craft fairs, the
website: 600 Euro.

Total investment: 1250 Euro


Prior stages

Cutting strips of ply in wanted sizes;

Gluing the strips of ply together to make one thicker billet;
Press the billet, so that the ply glues together in tight way;
Drilling the hole of the ring into the billet using upright drill.

Step 1. Select and fit the wooden billet / piece to your finger to make the ring.

If there is no ring billet that fits, take one with a little bit too small hole.

At this point you must file / sand the hole bigger.

Step 2. Mark the thickness of the ring to the wooden piece.

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You can make the thickness a bit bigger than you want, because the sawing trail will not be
perfect circle.

You will need: pencil, vernier caliper.

Step 3. Saw by following the marked line.

Try to keep on or outside of the mark. Avoid going inside of the mark.

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You will need: Jigsaw, sawing stand

Step 4. Start filing and sanding the desired form on the ring.

First sand the shape in outside of the ring. Then make sure that the inside of the ring is
smooth. Then lastly sand the bottom and surface of the ring.

Use rougher sandpapers (the smaller numbers) first, and proceed to the finer sandpapers
(the bigger numbers).

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You will need: Files / Sandpapers

Step 5. Decide which finish you want on your ring.

You can choose from e.g.: spay varnish, oil wax, spray-paint.
You need: piece of cloth or sponge when using oil varnish.

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Ready jewelery

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Recycled materials

Tools: 50 Euro

Paints: 30 Euro

One piece of jewelery: 5 Euro

Small business works all the year, skills/ creativeness.

It can be implemented in rural and urban areas.


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General presentation of the idea, what is new and creative

CERAMIKA MILLENA is a producer and exporter of fine Polish Pottery. It is a

successful family business located in the countryside Parzyce- Nowogrodziec, Poland,
where Polish Pottery was originated over 500 years ago. In the family factory is created
pottery from locally sourced unique clay. Each piece is shaped in the molds, then
exquisitely hand decorated and glazed. Then, the pieces are fired to over 1020 degrees
Celsius. The family factory use only certified materials, safe in dishwasher, microwave and
oven. The pottery is truly natural and ecologic. The new idea is to cultivate the forgotten

Creativeness: Each piece is handmade as an individual work of ART. Some of the

traditional decorations were inspired by the colors of the peacock's feather, employing
cobalt blue as the predominant color. The contemporary designs draw on the warm tones
of nature and the four seasons. The artists of CERAMIKA MILLENA craft designs with
flowers, leaves, stars, fruit, shells and many other shapes. Only the highest quality pottery
is offered to the customers worldwide. The factory offered mugs, cups, sugar bowls,
plates, teat-pots, vases, dishes, trays, table and kitchen articles, figurines, home dcor,
holiday item and many other products that are placed in the catalogue available on the

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Techniques of shaping

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Process of decoration/ painting

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Ceramic firing process

Products- unique handmade pottery

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The owners of the Ceramika Millena with the employees.

The factory exports pottery around the world. It is the example of successful business of
the one family.

The trade mark of the pottery business

The benefits on short and long time, advantages, opportunities for using in rural

In maximum 2 months the business can be recovered. The artistic pottery can be sold for
15 Euro per one piece starting from the smallest ones.

The business can be developed by using new decorative patterns, new equipment and tools,
creative employees-artists. The entrepreneur can employ people to develop all stages of the

The opportunities:

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- Business can be created in the countryside reaches of natural recourses of free clay.
The workshop laboratory can be located for free in the yard of your property.
Good promotion- quick income.
Small office room for doing official papers ( can be at home).
Any level of education possible, but it is for person with artistic sense and
Business for the whole year.
EU funds possible for the developing the business with good business plan.

Example of application, who can start:

Anyone who has got an artistic sense and budget for start up.

Tools: 1000 Euro

Materials: clay own recourses from a ground or buying 100 Euro for the beginning.
Paints : 350 Euro
Creation the website for selling: 700 Euro

Total investment: 2150 Euro

The process of making handmade unique Polish pottery

The website of the business CERAMIKA MILLENA
Ceramika "Millena"
Parzyce 108
59-730 Nowogrodziec
tel. +48 75 736 32 66
fax. +48 75 736 36 76
Everything You need to create Polish Pottery: TIPS
Starting a Polish Pottery Business:
Chambers of commerce in Poland that helps to create pottery business:

Step by step process to start your own pottery business in Poland

From a chamber of commerce You get:

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A comprehensive eBook that takes you through all aspects of starting Polish Pottery
Business: small or large.
Direct Contact information including email addresses to 22 Polish Pottery Factories.
Electronic versions of Polish Pottery catalogues from 6 leading Polish Pottery factories.
A business planning guide.
A sample financial analysis.
A profit and loss form.
Tutorial materials how to start a Polish pottery business without making any investment
other than your time-No need to buy inventory.
Introduction the Best Business Models-Learn about the many different ways that you can
make money on Polish pottery.

Eesti People to People


Estonia's largest and longest running Ostrich Farm located on Muhu island. Here you can
see the biggest flightless birds African Ostriches, South-American Rhea (Nandu) and
Australian Emu, also kangaroos are here, among the Muhu junipers.

In the little Ostrich shop you can see and buy Ostrich eggs, meat and products from
ostrich leather.
The shop is open from May 15th till September 15th, every day 10.00 18.00. Visits out
of season are scheduled by appointment.

This ostrich farm started Elmet and Helena Erik with their children and grandchildren in
1999. That time people thought that it is not possible to have Africanbirds in cold Estonia,

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temperature in Estonia sometimes is below -25 C. But family decided to invest money in
this strange for Estonians busuness and they succeded.

All started from few eggs brought from the tourist trip. And now Laasu farm is the biggest
ostrich farm in Estonia with hundreds of different types of ostriches and also other birds
and animals from around the world.The farm offers a unique opportunity in Estonia to
see zebras and red kangaroos.Kangaroos, alpaca and ponies live on the farm, but only as
pets.Over the years family have built a unique set of products and services around the

From one side, farm produces ostrich eggs and meat for restaurants, from other side it is
successful touristic farm with thousands of visitores every year. The greatest desire is to
see and enjoy all of the farm chapters with friends and family.

Emus are renowned for their red meat and valuable fat which is used for cosmetic products
and food. These products is possible to buy in the small shop next to the farm entrance.

Daughter Ingrem Raidje hosts summer cafe in the farm. There is a cafe garden in summer
offering treats made from local ingredients.

Farm tour prices are:

Preschoolers Pupils Adults Discount for groups

Free to enter 2.50 3.50

Did you know that even an adult human can stand on an ostrich egg without breaking it?
More information:

Photos from Muhu Laasu farm:

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: Muhu Jaanalind O

Information: address - LaasutaluLaasu, Nautsekla, Muhuvald, Saaremaakond

Phones:(+372) 503 4237; (+372) 452 8148

Nowerdays ostrich business became popular in Estonia and there are few other farms
around the country who produce ostrich eggs and meat and work as touristic farms.

Ostrich farm inImavere

The construction of Imavere ostrich Sassi farm began in the end of summer of 2002. In
addition to ostriches here are emus, peacocks and many interesting breeds of chicken. In
year 2005 Sassi farm added South-African ostriches also known as nandus to its collection.
In year 2008 first nandu chicks hatched in the ostrich farm, being the first naturally hatched
nandus in Estonia.

Tourists can become acquainted with the ostrich farm in a summer season from Monday to
Sunday. There's a dinette for 60 people, where they can enjoy different dishes, cooked
from ostrich products. Eble the pony keeps the children entertained.

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(+372) 566 57199

Kuuse Ostrich Farm

Ostrich growing began in Kuuse farm in 2002. At present the farm is one of the biggest
egg producers in Estonia.An ostrich is a very useful bird it gets used to different climates,
it endures both cold winters and hot summers. Its meat is tasty, skin special, feathers and
shells a sought-after material for artists. As bird farming is not the only activity at Kuuse
talu, it is desirable that a slightly bigger group of people come to see the birds at a time. It
is also possible to buy many different ostrich-related products and souvenirs there.
(+372) 555 40118; (+372) 472 0733

More videos about ostrich farms:

Ostrich Farming: How to Start an Ostrich Farm

Ostrich Farming


Taali Apiary

1970 was the fatal year when Tnis's father Heino Taal became the owner of two bee
colonies. Two years later, he accepted to position of beekeeper at the Rakvere
Metsamajand (Forest Enterprise), which included taking care of 100 colonies. That's how it

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all began and there's no end in sight, because the third generation is also interested in
apiculture. Taali Apiary is an acknowledged organic apiary in Estonia from 2001.
Here is possible to learn about and buy products and ask questions about apiculture. The
beekeepers' best friends, the bees, live in the forests in Alutaguse.
In addition to apiculture, farmers organise a farm day once a year where is possible to try
different tipes of honey herbs, flowers, etc.

Information: address - Tartu maantee, Roelaalevik, Vinnivald, Lne-Virumaakond.

(+372) 509 8734; (+372) 329 7175

Beekeeper's job is breeding bee colonies and the year-round care of them.Beekeepers
bought and bred bee familues and take care of them for the extraction and sale honey,
beeswax, pollen, propolis, and others bee products.

The main feature of the profession in Estonia is the need to work alone and make own
decisions. Beekeepers often have seasonal helpers.The beekeeper must be able to bee
stings or have an allergy to bee venom.

Beekeeper job depends on the time of year and weather conditions; it should take into
account the seasonality of the profession. In spring and summer, beekeepers more work,
and in the fall and winter - less. We have to work in both indoor and outdoor conditions,
including weekends and holidays, when the need arises. Field work continues beekeeper
mainly from March to November.

The main burden falls on the beekeepers in the spring and summer, but the lack of work is
in other seasons. Summer work includes primarily care for the bees, disease prevention,
recovery and evacuation of honey. Beekeeper should just add to the hive box, monitor the
size and condition of the bee family. When a hive filled with honey, it must be removed
from the hive, to pump and filter.

From November to early March beekeepers quite a lot of free time due to wintering bees.
Since the winter bees do not fly out of the hive and active work with the beehives is not
required, then it is being updated and repaired required in beekeeping equipment, involves
the sale of honey, specialized literature is studied and improved skills to practical courses
and days of beekeeping.

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A professional beekeeper is not less than 100 bee colonies and beekeepers in the large case
and 200-300 bee colonies. If more than a hundred bee colonies, then in the summer,
usually hired an assistant, or the work involved family members.In addition to honey,
beekeepers can collect pollen, beeswax, propolis, bee pollen and royal jelly sometimes.
Honey collection takes place from April to August, but it depends on the region and the
weather conditions. Pollen is produced mainly in June - in bee colonies every night collect
pollen, which is then dried in special ovens. Propolis andbee pollen is usually harvested in
late summer. Some beekeepers also collect royal jelly, which is mainly extracted in the
spring and summer. The wax is melted mostly taken out of the hive frames.Lifting heavy
boxes filled with honey combs and cases of hives physically tiring and creates a heavy load
on his back and arms. So, for beekeeper is important a good physical shape and ability to
work ergonomically designed to reduce stress on the back and arms.

Working alongside the hives, beekeepers wear a protective mask of fine mesh hat, light
colored clothing or overalls and gloves, to the greatest extent to protect against bites.

Means of labor beekeeper arebeekeeping chisel, a smoker, brush, hives, systems for
pumping and feeding of honey and systems for packaging of honey and wax melting.

When working with bees is important to maintain cleanliness to avoid spreading the
disease threatening honey bees and receive quality. purity requirement applies both to the
beekeeper, and to the territory of hives and honey collection.The work of the beekeeper is
difficult to completely avoid bee stings. For the ability to make important beekeeper bee
stings and no allergy to bee venom he himself and his family.

The work of beekeeper is very well suited to those who like to work alone and make their
own decisions.

Beekeeper should:

all year round to be able to care for the bees, performing a variety of work in the
spring, summer, autumn and winter;
know the types of hives and know how to clean, disinfect and repair the hive;
know the types of cells and be able to sort, store and store the cell;
to be able to cultivate queen bees;
be able to extract, collect and store a variety of bee products - honey, pollen, royal
jelly, propolis, bee pollen, beeswax;
understand the pollination of field and garden plants;
to know the methods of protection against pests of bee colonies;
know the anatomy and physiology of the bees and the biology of the bee family.

Since many entrepreneurs are beekeepers in Estonia, beekeeper work involves necessary
for the conduct of bee farming expertise and entrepreneurial spirit. It is important to
understand the different market opportunities and sales of bee products (such as the sale of
the house, trade fairs, sales in stores or wholesale).

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Beekeeper working alone and he plans to their working hours and duties. The beekeeper is
able to anticipate the possible successes and failures, assesses and analyzes their activities
to find the right solutions. Self-discipline is very important, because the spring and summer
to finish work on time, or the amount of the collected honey is considerably reduced.
However, at the beekeeper is much greater opportunity to plan their time than many other
agricultural producers.

Of course, the beekeeper must love nature and have a calm and patient character, since
when working with the bees can not rush or act recklessly.

Detailed qualification requirements for professional skills are described in the professional
beekeeper standard. The profession of a beekeeper can study in vocational school on the
basis of secondary education, on training courses or under the supervision of an
experienced beekeeper. Fundamentals of beekeeping are also taught as an optional subject
for agricultural specialties in higher educational institutions.

Suitable educational institution can be found in the database Rajaleidja vocational

schools.Beginners and future beekeepers need to take courses beekeeping and gain
knowledge from books or from more experienced beekeepers. Beekeepers have created the
Union of Beekeepers of Estonia and other associations that support the acquisition of
necessary equipment and provide an opportunity to share their experiences. Also, there are
numerous local meetings of beekeepers and beekeeping training days.

Income beekeeper depends on the number of bee colonies and harvest. In some years, for
various reasons (rainy summers, very cold winters, diseases of bees), honey crop may be
small, so the income of the beekeeper can not be determined unambiguously.

Income beekeeper also depends on how well it is able to organize the marketing and sale of
its products of beekeeping. Please note that beekeepers, who manage to sell their products
at home and at fairs, earn significantly more than those who sells honey to wholesalers. be
sure to consider for successful management, to whom and how the products are sold. With
an average yield of professional beekeepers income exceeds the average monthly salary in

For the development of the apiary can apply for agricultural subsidies.The benefits of this
work, of course, include a healthy effect on the consumption of honey and bee products,
the ability to manage your time and a lot of time from November to March.

Estonian Union of Beekeepers unites beekeepers and their societies and associations, and
assist them. Beekeepers communicate in the forum dedicated to the beekeeping and bee
products offered on the market of honey.Estonian Union of Beekeepers Mesinik produces
a magazine that is published six times a year and distributed free of charge to members of
the union.

Database of Estonian beekeepers:

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Organisation - KOGED


Why the need for this device?

A lot of people are killed by carbon monoxide poisoning in Turkey every year,especially
during winter months as stoves are widely used for heating households and/or heating
water especially in rural areas.The majority of fatalities by carbon dioxide poisoning
occurs due to the leakage of carbon monoxide from stoves used for heating
households.Coal is the main fuel used in stoves in Anatolia,when it is not burnt properly,it
emits carbon monoxide which has no color,nor flavour&smell.This is why it is very hard to
detect it in the air.Hence the nickname Silent Killer!.Carbon monoxide is also emitted
while burning LPG,wood,natural gas and oil;wherever one of these fuels is used for
heating,if the chimneys are defective,or there is not efficient ventilation,there is the risk of
carbon monoxide poisoning.

Our young entrepreneurs/trainees have decided to manufacture a carbon monoxide

detector for household usage.

1.Manufacturing Steps of Application Circuits

STEP 1 Desgn of the card

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The drawing of the designed cards were made on PROTEUS,an electronic drawing
program which is indispensable for persons studying&working in the electronics.

PROTEUS is a visual program which is used for designing electronic circuits.

STEP 2:Preparaton of the desgn of the card

After the design of the card,its output is taken from laser and it is pressed on copper plaque
with an iron.

It is then put into acid solution.

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The card after it is put into acid solution:

STEP 3: Makng holes

After the card is ready,it is necessary to make holes in order to solder the electronic

We use a drill to do this.

STEP 4:Solderng

After drilling,it is necessary to solder the electronic materials on to the card.The device is
placed into a box.Soldering is the process of attaching two or more metallic parts by

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melting filling metal ,which has a relatively lower melting point,and pouring it into the

Step 5: Uploadng the software and testng

After soldering is over,it is necessary to upload the program into the controller in the card.

A USB cable is used 346all346his operation. Afterwards,it is time for testing.


ARDUINO (MICROCONTROLLER) is an open-source platform used for

building electronics projects.

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is a specially designed circuit board for programming and prototyping with Atmel
MCUs(microcontrollers.)It is easy to implement applications in
electronics&robotics with it.
consists of both a physical programmable circuit board (often referred to as a
microcontroller) and a piece of software, or IDE (Integrated Development
Environment) that runs on your computer, used to write and upload computer
code to the physical board.
does not need a separate piece of hardware (called a programmer), unlike most
previous programmable circuit boards, in order to load new code onto the board
you can simply use a USB cable.
popular with users as developing a program is easy as ARDUINO can be
programmed and tested on the same card.
programming language is also easy ,as it offers a lot of examples.
has a lot of users,which means the projects you want to realise are likely to have
been implemented by others before .This facilitates communication between

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Why the need 348all348his device?

The rate of the registered persons with impaired hearing in Turkey was %5.9 in 2010*.

The population of Turkey was almost 73 million in 2010.

The rate of the persons with hearing disability according to age groups:

7-14: %17.4 15-24: %20.9 25-44: %32.4 45-64: %12 65+: %7.7

*Survey on Problems and Expectations of Disabled People, 2010, Presidency of Administration for
Disabled People,TurkStat


It can be worn on the belt and/or in a pocket;

A special button is built in the 348all next to the main door of the house;
When someone presses on this button,it sends a signal to the transmitter the person

on her/his body.The transmitter receives the signal&transfers it into vibrations;

The deaf person is warned of the doorbell ringing.


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STEP 1: Preparaton of the crcut scheme

STEP 2: The preparaton of the output of the crcut scheme

STEP 3: The transfer of the lnes onto the plaque wth ron

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STEP 4: Makng holes to nstall materals

STEP 5.Solderng materals

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Nordic Company has developed NRF24L01 wireless module, the module with low power
consumption that allows to make wireless communication in the 2.4GHz frequency.



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Bulgarian Development Agency (BDA)

Rural enterprise consultant

The idea which is going to be presented reaches a specific part of the supply-demand chain
for business in rural areas. It presents a specific actor, an enterprise, on the rural market,
whose main job is to moderate the relations between the small rural retailors and the big
companies and supermarkets. As the production of fruits and vegetables from the sole
trader is often related to a market, where he or she can sell their products and it is often the
case that they cannot sell directly to the costumers and need to make a connection with e
bigger supermarket it is often the case that this traders are lagging in their negotiation
skills. In this regard the presented enterprise is going to settle this communication,
providing communication services for agricultural traders from rural areas.

Description for the activities

The first and the most essential thing in this case is to settle the relation between the
consultant and the producer. In this regard the figure needs to be well known in the
community and to have its respect and trust. It is important to be someone, who is known
by the others and comes from the same village or small city.

Once he or she reaches their potential customers, they need to gain sufficient skills in the
art of communication, dialog and negotiations. By mastering the art of dialog (examples
are given in video links below) they can be able to reach into the next level that is the big
supermarket chains.

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After mastering the key points of communication and having additional information
regarding the market specifics, the experts will have the opportunity to get in touch with
the supermarkets. In this communication they will have the responsibility to settle the
relations between them and the producers, as well as to agree on the most satisfying
conditions for the retailer.

The benefits on short and long time, advantages, opportunities for using in rural

Benefits for short and long term

Short term benefits

In a short term this new enterprise will give solutions to two separate problems. On one
hand it helps the local producers to find new markets for their products and to sign the
most satisfying conditions between them and the supermarkets to whom they sell their
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On the other this new position will give opportunity to many young unemployed people
to find occupation without having to leave their homes.

Long term benefits

In a long term this practice will help for the development in the rural areas by increasing
the level of employment and giving an opportunity for the young to settle in the rural areas,
without having to move in the big cities.


The biggest advantage in this case is going to be for the retailers who are going to gain a
competitive advantage on the market. By using this services they are going to make better
relations with the big companies and to get the most satisfying conditions.

As for the consultants their biggest advantage is going to be the opportunity to stay
occupied in their home towns.


The main problem which the consultants serve are the unsatisfying relations between the
small retailer and the big companies. This is a major problem as it is often the case that

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their products are not paid in a manner which meets their production costs. By solving this
problem they will leave new way for development as the money saved can be invest again
in the rural economy.

Examples of application

This occupation is suitable for newly graduate university students, who want to continue
their activities in their hometowns. They can present their services to all retailers,
producing fruits and vegetables and are which are selling them to big companies.

It is suitable for all regions, where agriculture is the main area of development. The
consultants can choose if they want to dedicate their activity only to certain products, or to
focus on specific brands and supermarkets. In both cases their most essential quality is
going to be their ability to speak, communicate in a dialogical manner and to negotiate the
best conditions for their customers.

They can act locally (only in their hometown/village) or to operate in the whole region. In
both cases they will have to be able to travel and to communicate all the time and to be in
constant relations with both their clients and the supermarkets.

IT competences for rural areas

In the past few decades the question regarding the development of the rural area in
Bulgaria has been essential in the public life. One of the crucial points in the discussion is
the question weather the rural areas should follow the traditional path of agricultural
development or they should put their affords elsewhere. In this regards the education and
development of IT competences among the youth of this areas seems to be the solution,
which can provide both satisfaction for the young people who struggle to find work in their
home town and in the same time helps people form all around the world. The reason is
that, due to the internet connection in Bulgaria they can work from home, despite where
that is and furthermore are not dependent on employers situated in their region.

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The description

The basic idea behind the method is that no one should be entitled only with the job
positions available in their region. Therefore as soon as they have access to internet they
can open to new work of technology and opportunities. The creativeness in this case is
implemented not on the final product per se, rather than on the way ICT is transferred in
innovative way into the rural areas. The goal is to make the materials and skills interesting
for the trainees and to show them that this is an attractive opportunity for personal

One of the possible ways to make this field attractive is through visualization. In this
regard there is an effective amount of YouTube channels which provide useful approach
towards programing, making them challenging and involving.

Yet, as it has already been proven, only virtual

classrooms are often not enough. In this regard
the participants must be challenged with other
channels as well, in order to make the idea
attractive and challenging for them.

Therefore the face-to-face communication in this

case is extremely useful, as it involves the
participants, grabbing their attention and making the activities more involving and

Therefore the experience from the formation and implementation of the virtual platforms
for ICT education can be implemented with the
challenges of face to face communication. The

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result is a multi communicative environment, in which the trainees will participate at
home, making themselves familiar with the agenda which is going to be covered during the

Then, based on the materials, the trainees are involved in 2 hour sessions, in which the
information is presented again, in a attractive and challenging way. On this stage the
trainers are presenting the basics behind programming, application development and other
ICT areas which will give them the opportunity to either establish a company on their own
or to work as freelancers so that they wont have to leave their hometown.1

The benefits on short and long time, advantages, opportunities for using in rural

The pictures present the activities, which took place in Kazanlak, Bulgaria and are organized by ICT Center

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Short term benefits

The short term benefits of this approach are mainly related with the development of the
rural economy. Despite the fact that the future participants will not be engaged with the
local production they will be given the capacity to invest and consume in their own
neighborhood, which will stimulate the local economy.

Long term benefits

In long term the influence will spread not only through the local community, but on a
national scale. The reason is that the potential ICT developers will widen their networks
throughout the world and will give opportunity to many different business channel and
distribution of best practices.


The biggest advantage in this case is the lack of dependency with any geographical and
infrastructural obstacles. In this regard the trainees would not be dependent on climate
conditions, and will have the opportunity to explore the effectiveness of the Bulgarian
internet connection and speed.

Opportunities in rural areas

In this regard the opportunities combine all the abovementioned advantages and
perspectives. In this scenario the urbanization and migration to bigger cities would be
depressed due to the fact that the trainees can explode their new skills from home.

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Furthermore this would give the opportunity to people from rural areas to escape from their
traditional relation with agriculture and to explore new territories and to find new

Examples of application

This model can be applied everywhere, as the only requirement is to have computers,
which are easily portable and available in community centers, libraries and town hall

The only limit is the need of basic experience in English, therefore the most suitable target
group for the practice are young people. As the infrastructure can be challenging in terms
of the organizations of the seminars, they are organized with joined activities with the help
of municipalities and community centers. The time for organization of the practices is
usually during weekends and after work in order not to exclude working people with
interest in the area of ICT and technology.

M&M Profuture Trainingis


EQUAID RESEARCH is an entity that differs from the rest because it is composed by a
group of people open and eager to help through research, promotion and expansion of the

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properties and benefits of quality mare's milk. Thus, the business is distinguished by
establishing a close link between rural environment and health, since apart from being a
natural, complete and nutritious food, mare's milk strengthens the defences and helps the
immune system. It activates and provides energy and vitality and also facilitates good
digestion. The farm of equestrian research is located in an idyllic, safe and quiet area, in a
full of serenity and harmony environment, all promoted by its workers, because they have
a high awareness applied to practice in caring environment and respecting mares, also
avoiding the disruption of their system with chemicals and antibiotics.

According to historical references, horse domestication took place in Central Asia, by the
Eneolithic Botai culture. In addition to archaeological evidence, dressage and mounted
ceramic vessels of the year 3500 BC were also found with traces of certain fats that can
only be found in mare's milk. That concludes that this was already formerly consumed.
Even today, mares are milked in villages of Kazakhstan and koumiss, a drink made from
fermented mare's milk is taken, but nowadays it is also made using cow's milk.

The farm Equillet is currently located in the heart of the Vall d'en Bas, in the municipality
of Puigpardines. It is prepared to receive visits from families, groups, couples, in short,
anyone interested in discovering and researching such an old product and at the same time
so new. With the tour, people are taught how the farm works, they are shown the facilities,
milking area, room packaging, are presented mares and foals and it ends tasting mare's
milk, if desired.

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Thus, visitors are received and explained properties, benefits, applications and solutions
given by mare's milk even for certain diseases, as may be anaemia, fatigue, diabetes,
psoriasis, side effects of chemotherapy, among others. However, for healthy people, taking
mare's milk will also help improve their energy and reduce tiredness mainly. It is
especially recommended to athletes and people exposed to stress and physical exhaustion,
since it improves recovery.

On the other hand, they also have activities for the little ones in the ponivitpark: pony
trekking through the woods along the river, the discovery of animal life on the farm,
holding birthday parties, classes of initiation to horseback riding, etc.

In short, everyone learns things from the world of horse and mare's milk in a didactic
manner while enjoying a great day in the country.

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Different actors come together to work intensely with the producers in order to ensure
good quality of milk and no damage during the various processes and preserving most of
their properties. Furthermore, a guarantee seal is provided when the mare's milk meets the
conditions of quality and labelling controls to ensure that they are informing the consumer
of its content and features. These members are actively striving to find and review
scientific literature and thus research the improvements this food brings, checking and
verifying consumers opinions to make assessments of the benefits provided, to support
initiatives related to mare's milk and medicine and seek possible applications of the food
concerned in dairy products, cosmetics ...

In fact, mare milk can be obtained from different ways. On the one hand, buying online
different products and on the other, buying it in physical stores that have frozen milk.
Below you can see a map of stores in Spain with frozen milk:

Also, if you want to get further detailed information about the association and mare's milk
information, you can find it in the following links:

If you wish to contact the entity, here you are their set of social networks:

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This business has different advantages and opportunities:

Job generation and growth in the rural community;

Contribution to a sustainable development: social, economic and environmental;
Preservation of the environmental and cultural heritage and promotion of the economy;
Conservation of traditional customs and crafts;
Public fidelity;
Benefits from the market niche, therefore competition in short term is little or non-

But ... who can apply and where can it be extrapolated?

Professionals of the cattle sector with health, medical knowledge...

Rural-areas and branches in the city.



Cooperativa Olivera is distinguished by

combining the production of wines and oils
with a social integration project that includes
people with disabilities who are actively
involved in the whole process. Social action is
the hallmark of the association, because from
the workplace, together with training support
and living in a group home in an agricultural
and natural environment, this group of people will master the tasks in question to be
integrated in the future, in a company of the sector or other agricultural activities. In short,
it is a work full of life and emotional experience that leads to a good result: a range of
different wines and oils to visit and enjoy.

This adventure began in Vallbona de les Monges, in rural Catalonia. The village is a place
of small valleys and slopes and land of deep soils. All this indicates past times more
populated and productive. Thus, wisdom and hard work of different generations allow
nowadays to enjoy a magnificent landscape and in serious danger of extinction. Apart from
Vallbona de les Monges (Lleida), they are also placed in the Natural Park Collserola, in

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They work manually, almost handmade, so that people with
difficulties in the cooperative can find their space at their paces, that without forcing them,
will oblige and help them overcome themselves. However, they have been also acquiring
the required technology to work according to the style of products they want to develop.
Also, they apply the criteria of organic farming, make smooth and friendly processes and
use natural products. So they are in solidarity with the other farmers, respect nature, assure
taste and sanitary quality and seek collaboration with agents in rural areas.

Since its inception, the social action is at the core of the project. They have a service where
occupational therapy aimed at personal and social skills and occupational therapy activities
take place. They also have a steady home-residence open all year for up to 17 people.

If you want to learn about and discover l'Olivera sensorially

through their wine and oil, you can visit Vallbona de les Monges. They work with arranged
visits all weekends, holidays and weekdays. Therefore, they offer a varied set of activities:
visits to the winery, walk through the vineyards, snack pairings, mill and oil processing.
The products are available in the wine cellar of Vallbona de les Monges or their online

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Also, if you want to get further detailed information about the cooperative and its products,
please have a look at the following links:
On the other hand, if you want to contact the association, here you are their set of social

This business has different advantages and opportunities:

Job generation and growth in the rural community.

Contribution to the sustainable development: social, economic and environmental.
Respond to the various economic, social and ecological crises.
Differentiation in the environment and exploitation of the market niche.
Provide Innovative solutions to social and environmental problems.
Fast development, thanks to the support of institutions that offer them and help
them with the missing resources.
Offer new answers to new social problems.
Creation of economic value and at the same time social value.

But ... who can apply and where can it be extrapolated?

Professionals of the agricultural sector, educators, psychologists

Rural-areas and branches in the city.

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Online is a very powerful medium of advertising, it targets the correct audience and zones
in on promoting your business.
Online display advertising campaigns are great strategies that can improve the visibility of
your product and brand. It is an efficient way that can help you adapt with the demands of
the times and to evolve an effective marketing plan and strategy.

The benefits
1. It completes your branding circle. Online display advertising does not really replace
traditional methods of advertising, it completes the branding circle. The Internet with its
billions of users around the world has huge potentials to open new opportunities for
businesses to grow and expand.

2. Avoid expensive long term contracts. Advertising can cost you big time. That is made
more costly when you are forced to sign up for long term advertising when you only need
short exposures i.e. political campaigns, promotion of an event, or a coming sale. Online
display advertising can be as short as it is necessary. It costs less and can also give you the
opportunity to control and make changes in your campaign based on the performance of
the ads.

3. Give you the control to creatively personalize

Display ads give you the control to creatively personalize your online advertisements so
that you can efficiently zero in your market by geographic location. Do you deliver pizza
in your location, let the local market know how by showing a banner ad with a telephone
number to order.

4. Entice your target by knowing their interests.

If you know your target demographics, you would understand their interests and what can
captivate them. Use the knowledge to design your display ads to entice and grab their
attention. For instance, younger targets would normally be interested in the social media
and celebrity icons while young professionals would be interested in niches like health,
family, and business.

5. Get the ads featured on relevant sites. Your knowledge of the interests of your typical
customer can take you further to include the knowledge of the websites that they usually

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visit or content that they read. Placing ads on the sites not visited by your target market is a
futile and expensive exercise.

6. Use complete transparency to your advantage. Having the ability to track or getting
feedback from your ads is critical. Other advertising forms can be hard to track;
using display ads can let you in on a weekly even daily updates. This kind of information
tells you whether your advertising/marketing effort is succeeding or you need to tweak it.
Feedback reports can guide you to better strategies and more successful marketing.

7. Take advantage of A/B split testing. What constitutes a better strategy? Sometimes it is
hard to say even when you understand your market. This is why having control in your
advertising is good. You can test a strategy and change it when the feedback is not as good
as you expect. While it may work like giant billboard in many ways, stripping it down to
tweak it is not as hard and costly.

8. Enjoy lower marketing cost. Online display advertising is not at all expensive; tri-media
and use of billboards typically cost more. In fact, this kind of advertising is leveling the
playing field for small entrepreneurs with limited resources.

Some methods for internet advertising

Search Engine Optimization (SEO);

Pay per Click (PPC);
Social Media Advertising (Facebook, Twitter);
Email or Newsletter Marketing;
Affiliate Marketing;
Banner Advertising;
Rich media ads interactive media such as online video directories;
Online classified advertising;
Advertising networks.

SEO Techniques

SEO stands for Search Engine Optimization. SEO is all about optimizing a website for
search engines. SEO is a technique for:

designing and developing a website to rank well in search engine results;

improving the volume and quality of traffic to a website from search engines;
marketing by understanding how search algorithms work, and what human visitors
might search.

How Search Engine Works?

Search engines perform several activities in order to deliver search results.

Crawling - Process of fetching all the web pages linked to a website. This task is
performed by a software, called a crawler or a spider (or Googlebot, in case of

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Indexing - Process of creating index for all the fetched web pages and keeping
them into a giant database from where it can later be retrieved. Essentially, the
process of indexing is identifying the words and expressions that best describe the
page and assigning the page to particular keywords.
Processing - When a search request comes, the search engine processes it, i.e. it
compares the search string in the search request with the indexed pages in the
Calculating Relevancy - It is likely that more than one page contains the search
string, so the search engine starts calculating the relevancy of each of the pages in
its index to the search string.
Retrieving Results - The last step in search engine activities is retrieving the best
matched results. Basically, it is nothing more than simply displaying them in the
Search engines such as Google and Yahoo! often update their relevancy algorithm dozens
of times per month. When you see changes in your rankings it is due to an algorithmic
shift or something else outside of your control.
Although the basic principle of operation of all search engines is the same, the minor
differences between their relevancy algorithms lead to major changes in results relevancy.
When you start thinking of doing a business through internet, the first thing that you think
about is your website domain name. Before you choose a domain name, you should
consider the following:
Who would be your target audience?
What you intend to sell to them. Is it a tangible item or just text content?
What will make your business idea unique or different from everything else that is
already avilable in the market?
Many people think it is important to have keywords in a domain. Keywords in the domain
name are usually important, but it usually can be done while keeping the domain name
short, memorable, and free of hyphens.
Using keywords in your domain name gives you a strong competitive advantage over your
competitors. Having your keywords in your domain name can increase click-through-rates
on search engine listings and paid ads as well as make it easier to use your keywords in
get keyword rich descriptive inbound links.
Avoid buying long and confusing domain names. Many people separate the words in their
domain names using either dashes or hyphens. In the past, the domain name itself was a
significant ranking factor but now search engines have advanced features and it is not a
very significant factor anymore.
Keep two to three words in your domain name that will be easy to memorize. Some of the
most notable websites do a great job of branding by creating their own word. Few
examples are eBay, Yahoo!, Expedia, Slashdot, Fark, Wikipedia, Google, etc.
You should be able to say it over the telephone once, and the other person should know
how to spell it, and they should be able to guess what you sell.
You should be able to answer the following questions:
Why do you want to build your website?
Why should people buy off your site and not from other site?
What makes you different from others?
Who are your target audience and what do you intend to sell?
List 5 to 10 websites that you think are amazing. Now think why they are amazing.

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Create 5 different domain names. Make at least 1 of them funny. Tell them to half
a dozen people and see which ones are the most memorable. You will get more
honest feedback if the people do not know you well.
Buy your domain name that is catchy, memorable, and relevant to your business.

One of the simplest methods to improve your search engine optimization is to look at the
way you name your files. Before writing this tutorial, we did a lot of research on file-
names and found that search engines like Google give too much importance to file names.
You should think what you want put in your web page and then give a relevant file name to
this page.
Just try giving any keyword in Google search engine and you will find file names
highlighted with the keyword you have given. It proves that your file name should have
appropriate keywords.

File Naming Style

The filename should preferably be short and descriptive;

It is always good to use same keywords in a filename as well as in page title;
Do not use filenames such as service.htm or job.htm as they are generic. Use actual
service name in your file name such as computer-repairing.htm;
Do not use more than 3-4 words in file names;
Separate the keywords with hyphens rather than underscores;
Try to use 2 keywords if possible.

File Name Example

Listed below are some filenames which would be ideal from the users' point of view as
well as SEO.
Notice that the keywords are separated by hyphens rather than underscores. Google sees
good filenames as follows:
seo-relevant-filename as seo relevant filename(good)
Filenames with underscores are not a good option.
seo_relevant_filename as seorelevantfilename (not good)

File Extension

You should notice that .html, .htm, .php and any other extension do NOTHING for your
visitors, and they are simply a means of offloading some of the work of configuring your
webserver properly onto your visitor's. In effect, you are asking your site visitors to tell
your webserver HOW to produce the page, not which one?
Many Web masters think that it is a good idea to use filename without using extension. It
may help you, but not a whole lot.
From Search Engine Optimization point of view, URL sub-directory name hardly matters.
You can try giving any keyword in any search, and you will not find any sub-directory

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name matching with your keywords. But from the user's point of view, you should keep
an abbreviated sub-directory name.
Keep the following points in mind before naming your files:
Keep the web page filename short, simple, descriptive, and relevant to the page
Try to use a maximum of 3-4 keywords in your filename, and these keywords
should appear on your web page title as well;
Separate all keywords with hyphen rather than with underscore;
Keep your sub-directories name as short as possible;
Restrict the file size to less than 101K because Google chops almost everything
above that.

The website design and layout gives the first impression about your site. There are sites
which are too fancy and regular net surfers just reach those sites and come out even
without creating a single click.
Search engines are very smart but after all, they are software and not human being, who
can read the content of their interest. If you make your site too complicated, then the search
engine would not be able to parse the content of your site properly, and finally indexing
would not be efficient, which results in a low rank.

Keyword Frequency

This is calculated as how often does a keyword appear in a website title or description.
You do not want to go overboard with frequency, however, since on some engines if you
repeat a word too many times, you are be penalized for "spamming" or keyword stuffing.

In general though, repeat your keyword in the document as many times as you can get
away with, and up to 3-7 times in your list of metatags.

Keyword Weight

It refers to the number of keywords appearing on your web page compared to the total
number of words appearing on that same page. Some search engines consider this while
determining the rank of your website for a particular keyword search.

One technique that often works well is to create some smaller pages, generally just a
paragraph long that emphasizes a particular keyword. By keeping the overall number of
words to a minimum, you can increase the "weight" of the keyword you are emphasizing.

Keyword Proximity

It refers to the placement of keywords on a web page in relation to each other or, in some
cases, in relation to other words with a similar meaning as the queried keyword.

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For search engines, that grade a keyword match by keyword proximity, the connected
phrase home loans will outrank a citation that mentions home mortgage loans assuming
that you are searching only for the phrase "home loans".

Keyword Prominence

It is a measure of how early or high up on a page, the keywords are found. Having
keywords in the first heading and in the first paragraph (first 20 words or so) on a page are

Keyword Placement

Where your keywords are placed on a page is very important. For example, in most
engines, placing the keywords in the Title of the page, or in the Heading tags will give it
more relevancy. On some engines, placing keywords in the link text, the part that is
underlined on the screen in a browser, can add more relevancy to those words.
Best Places to Put Keywords
Here is a list of places where you should try to use your main keywords.
Keywords in the <title> tag(s);
Keywords in the <meta name="description">;
Keywords in the <meta name="keyword">;
Keywords in <h1> or other headline tags;
Keywords in the <a href="">keywords</a> link tags;
Keywords in the body copy;
Keywords in alt tags;
Keywords in <!-- insert comments here> comments tags;
Keywords in the URL or website address.

Finding Keywords

There are many different ways to find keywords for your website. Some good keyword
ideas are:
The potential words, people would use to find your product or service;
The problems that your prospective customers may try to solve with your product
or service;
Keyword tags on competitor's websites;
Visible page copy on competitor's websites;
Related search suggestions on top search engines;
Using an online tool such as Google Keyword Tool;
Pay attention to stemming for your keywords - particularly to what the root word is
and what Google considers to be a match for that word, when optimizing pages
over time;
You can do brainstorming to identify correct keywords for your site.

Creating Titles
Here are some best practices you should follow for creating titles on pages:

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Each page should have a unique title;
If practical, try to include your Primary Keyword Phrase in every title of every
Begin the title of your home page with your Primary Keyword Phrase, followed by
your best Secondary Keyword Phrases;
Use more specific variations to your Primary Keyword Phrase on your specific
product, service, or content pages;
If you must include your company name, put it at the end of the title;
Use the best form, plural or singular, for your keywords based on what
WordTracker says is searched on more often;
;Do not overdo it - do not repeat your keywords more than 2 to 3 times in the title;
Make sure the <title> tag is the first element in the <head> section of your page -
this makes it easier for Google to find the page.
An HTML TITLE tag is put inside the head tag. The page title (not to be confused with the
heading for a page) is what is displayed in the title bar of your browser window, and is
also what is displayed when you bookmark a page or add it to your browser Favorites.
This is the one place on a webpage where your keywords MUST be present. Correct use
of keywords in the title of every page of your website is extremely important to Google -
particularly for the homepage. If you do nothing else to optimize your site, remember to
do this!
Here are some considerations while designing the title of a webpage:
The title shouldn't consist of more than about 9 words or 60 characters;
Use keywords at the very beginning of the title;
Do not include your company name in the title unless your company name is very
well known.
Improper or nonexistent use of titles in webpages keeps more websites out of top rankings
on Google than any other factor except perhaps for a lack of relevant content on a page or
a lack of quality links from other websites that point to your site.

Unique, High-Quality Content

When people visit a website for information, they want your unique spin on a topic. How
is your material or content unique? Is that uniqueness obvious, and easy to find and to
understand? Visitors want unique, high-quality site content. It is not only your home page
content, but also all the linked pages should have useful and easy-to-understand content.
Now-a-days, search engines have become very smart and they are able to understand
complete grammar and complete phrase. Hence while ranking a page against other, the
content available on a page matters.
Sites with duplicated, syndicated, or free content are get given red flags by the search
Other Advantages of Having Great Content
It is not only SEO you need to think about. Many factors contribute to make your
site popular.
If your site is having something really unique, then people like to suggest it to their
Other webmasters like to create a link of your site on their sites.
Your site visitors start trusting on your site and they look forward for the next
content update and keep coming again and again.

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Although you are listed out by search engine, a but net surfer will click only that
page whose content snippet looks more unique and interesting.

Choosing an SEO Expert or Company

It is very difficult to choose a correct SEO expert or SEO company. However the
following guidelines can help you in this activity:
Start searching through your friends and business partners;
Post your queries in SEO Forums to get feedback from the community;
Check other sites rank which they already have optimized;
Do not go for SEO companies doing automated submission;
Do not look for cheap SEO. But take care, high price also does not guarantee high
Take guarantee if possible for a particular rank and any particular search engine.
User SEO Expert or Company name in Google to find more information about
Do not go just because of their fancy site and availability of good articles on their
Do not get fascinated by the testimonials available on their sites.
We can not list out all the factors here because there may be different situations and
different views. You should be smart enough to think what's bad and what's good.

How to Increase Link Popularity?

There are various ways of increasing your website link popularity. You can follow the tips
given below, which are easily doable.
Submit your site in popular search engines manually. Do not go for automated
Get your site listed in Open Directory Projects like, Getting
listed in these directories gives a boost in link popularity and improve search
engine ranking in other search engines;
Provide high quality content so that anyone would naturally link to your site if you
are featuring what they want, and that is not available anywhere else;
Leverage your personal relations with other webmasters. Put your site link on their
sites. One-way links often count for more than reciprocal links;
Participate in Link Exchange Programs. Find top 20 sites doing the same business
and contact them for reciprocal links. Link exchange between unrelated sites might
affect the ranking of websites in the search engine;
If you are subscribed in a forum and the forum does not have any restriction to
keep your site link as your signature, then it can help you to increase your site
Submit your site to bookmark sites like DIGG and Slashdot. Before submitting,
please go through their spam policy;
Write good articles in blogging sites and give a few references of your links within
that article;

Keep providing good content to your site visitors. Try to keep them busy on your
site. If possible create forums, newsletters, blogs, etc.

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Use Mobile SEO

A recent Google update makes it mandatory that a website should be mobile-friendly to

be effective on Mobile Search Engines. Note that a website that is not mobile-friendly
will not have any impact on regular search engines either.
Mobile Search Engine Optimization is the process of designing a website to make it
suitable for viewing on mobile devices of different screen sizes having low bandwidth.

To-Don't List To-Do List

Don't keep hidden text on your Create logs of pages and each page
webpages; should however contain a minimum
Don't create alternate image of about 200 visible words of text to
spamming by putting wrong maximize relevance with Google;
keywords; Create a Sitemap, Help, FAQ, About
Don't use meta tags stuffing; Us, Link to Us, Copyright,
Don't use frames and flash on your Disclaimer, Privacy Policy pages on
site; mandatory basis;
Don't exchange your links with Create a homepage link to each and
black listed sites; every webpage and provide easy
Don't try to fool your site visitors by navigation through all the pages;
using misspelled keyword; Pay attention to your dynamic page
Don't send spam emails to thousands URLs. Google can crawl and index
of email IDs; dynamic pages as long as you don't
Don't use too much graphics on your have more than 2 parameters in the
site; URL;
Don't create too many doorway Check your complete site for broken
pages; links. Broken links will reduce your
Don't try to create duplicate content other pages rank as well.
of pages;
Don't submit your website many
times in a single search engine;
Don't use sub-directory depth more
than 1-2;
Don't create too many dynamic
pages. Try to convert them into
static pages;
Don't nest your pages.

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Examples of rural social enterprise

and explications about how this
social entreprise help the community.

Descriptions of the needed

SOME COMPETENCES competences for the staff involved
NECESSARY FOR SOCIAL social entrepreneurship and
ENTREPRENEURSHIP suggestions on how to develop this

Questions for social entreprises and

for social entrepreneurs

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A social enterprise is a company thats core mission is to benefit and improve society be
that via the community or environment. However, unlike a charity, it is still a business
looking to run and grow independently and make a profit.

As with any company, a social enterprise will need a solid business plan, however
alongside having an aim to balance the books, equally important will be its ongoing
contribution to its social goal. While the definition of a social enterprise is constantly
developing and evolving, it can be more or less identified as a business that generates its
own income through a trade while the majority of its profits are reinvested back into a
social mission.

In social enterprises, entrepreneurial behaviour is combined with a desire to use the market
as a tool for meeting social needs, serving the general interest and common good for the
benefit of the community.

Working with social enterprises and promoting their development can result in short and
long-term gains for public budgets through reduced public expenditures and increased tax
revenues compared with other methods of addressing social needs. Social enterprises can
also often be more effective in meeting public goals than either purely private or purely
public sector actors because of their local roots and knowledge and their explicit social

Starting a social enterprise is accompanied not only by all of the challenges which any
entrepreneur must face, but also those which stem from the social dimension. This can be
compounded by unfavourable environments characterised by a lack of understanding of the
dual economic and social foci of social enterprises.

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Technical College Gheorghe Cartianu

Description of the community (demography, unemployment, environment, etc) where

the social enterprise was created and of the social problem that will be solved

Neam County is situated in the Nord-East part of Romania. According to data supplied by
the National Institute of Statistics, out of 459.372 persons who live in Neam County,
295.655 live in rural area which means a percentage of 64.40%. Neam County has 5 cities
(in the urban area) and 78 in villages (in the rural area).

In Neam County we find a migration of the population from the urban area to the
rural area because of the low living standard, unemployment, the difficult development
of a business, etc.
According to the National Institute of Statistics nation wide the share of the
households which have a computer at home is 61.90% and those who have access to the
internet at home is 61.00%. If from the households from the urban area, 72.20% are
equipped with a computer at home, among the households in the rural area the
percentage of these is 48.40%. The number of persons which use the computer in the
urban area is 1.4 times higher than the users in the rural area.

So, the number of people in the rural area who have a computer is quite high. In Neam
County, in the rural area, 143.097 persons have a computer at home. Although the number
is quite high, in the rural area there are no companies who make sell, repairs and
maintenance services for computers. For this reason, people are forces to travel to the city
or not to purchase new computers, performances to assure them access to the Internet, to
inform themselves properly, etc. According to the statistics, the purpose of purchasing
computers is to connect them later to the Internet.

Neam County comprises 5 towns and 78 communes and the vast majority of the
companies are grouped in cities. The companies from the rural area are in the public
catering business (bars, grocery stores, warehouses for building materials, agriculture). In
Neam County, the unemployment rate is higher than the rate in the country reaching 6%
(17.233 unemployed). Many unemployed are in the rural area but here there are also
persons who are not registered with an income and neither unemployed and make a living
by working the land.

Continental climate, varied terrain (mountains, hills, and plains), national roads and
county roads allow for easy movement within the county. There are also communal roads
which become inaccessible due to unfavourable conditions (rain, snow, ice, potholes, and
lack of asphalt). Any company from the rural area needs computers and peripheral

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equipment or possibly installing surveillance cameras. Schools and town halls from the
rural area cannot afford financially to hire personnel in the IT business (in many cases
there are no such specialists).

Unfortunately, the number of specialists or companies residing in the rural area which
can provide assistance for repairing computers and maintain networks is very small, reason
for both the rural residents and companies are forced to solicit these kinds of services to
the companies from the cities. The social enterprise has identified these social needs
offering IT services, by going to the home or premises of the client and by offering the
possibility of paying in instalments with zero interest

Description of the person, group of persons that initiated the enterprise, what was
their motivation?

Associate of the company with 94% social shares

Studies: Faculty of Electronics and
Telecommunications, studies in the domain of
repairing and maintaining computers the peripheral
equipments in the Cisco Academy, complete EDCL
courses, web design courses.
Hes the administrator inside the company.
He knows the activity domain very well because he
works in the domain from 1990.
Positive thinking, empathy, adaptability, trust
Sebastian Vaideanu

Associate of the company with 6% social shares.

Studies: Faculty of Physics, Informatics
postuniversitary studies, studies in the domain of
repairing and maintaining computers the peripheral
equipments in the Cisco Academy, complete EDCL
courses, web design courses.
Inside the company she deals with creating and
maintain websites
Claudia Vaideanu
Good organizer, empathy, courage, perseverance

Initially, the company was like any other ordinary computer company. Her transformation
into social enterprise has happened out of necessity of survival of the company because on
the market there are many IT companies, many hardware component sales and the
software which utilizes websites has risen. The market in the rural area is different from
the market in the urban area, the purchasing power of the people from the rural area is
lower than those from the urban area, the unemployment is high, people work in

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agriculture where the profits are lower, many people living from social help offered by the
state, there are no computer stores and the lack of the Internet leads to a poorer

Refocusing its activity in the rural area, the company had to adapt to the conditions met
so today it can call itself a social enterprise.

Both associates have a spirit of social entrepreneur because they are empathic and they
understand the peoples problems and try to resolve them. Thus among the measures are:
The sale with rates adapted to each client depending on his purchasing
power.They also do no charge interest for instalment sales.
Opening a working point in the rural area
Hiring persons from the rural area
The facility of connecting to the internet

Description of the enterprise

The name of the social entrerprise is AlfaSoft. The social enterprise is a Limited
Liability Company and it was founded in the year 2003 in Neam County. The primary
activity listed in the constitutive act and in the tax registration code is computer
maintenance and service. Also, the company offers service of connecting to the internet, IT
consultance, design and maintenance of web design and installation of surveillance
The headquarters of the company are in the urban area where it has an office but
activities are performed in the rural area at the home of the clients or at their headquarters.
The clients are physical persons or legal persons from the rural area (schools, town halls,
companies). The company has purchased a house in the rural area which transformed into a
working point so as to be closer to potential clients.
The social enterprise AlfaSoft offers consulting services, repairing services,
computer sells services and internet access services for the rural area considering that in
these areas there are not companies of this sort. Because, the incomes of the population in
rural area are smaller, the company solves this problem by allowing the payment in
instalments with 0% interest.

The company has signed contracts with schools, village-halls and companies from
the rural area. Also the company takes orders that come from physical persons not only
companies. The orders are placed/made by phone and there is no website to promote the
products/services. The persons who are calling, have heard of these services from other
person who have benefited from the companys services. In many cases, when they go the
clients home, the companys employees offer discounts in special cases and offer the
possibly to pay in instalments.

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Number and profession of the employees

The company has 2 associates and 5 employees, 4 of the employees are from the rural area
even from the areas in which the company operates.

The first associate has the following studies: Electronics and telecommunications,
studies in the computer reparation and maintenance domain and peripheral
equipments in the Cisco Academy, complete EDCL courses, web design courses.

The second associate has the following studies: Faculty of Physics, Postuniversitary
informatics courses, studies in the computer reparation and maintenance domain
and peripheral equipments in the Cisco Academy, complete EDCL courses, and
web design courses. Inside the company she deals with creating and maintaining
the websites.

An employee in the position of computer networks and system maintenance

technician which has medium studies (secondary school) but not in the IT field.
The company paid for his specialization so that the employee has studies in the
computer reparation and maintenance domain and peripheral equipments in the
Cisco Academy and web design courses.
An employee in the position of computer networks and system maintenance
technician which has medium studies (high school/secondary School) but not in
the IT field. The company was interested that the employee has speciality studies
and in this moment, he is enrolled at courses for web design. This employee is
from the rural area.
An employee which has medium studies (high school/secondary school) not
specialized in the IT domain, on the position of computer networks and system
maintenance technician. This employee is taking web design courses and will
obtain the qualification of web page designer.
An employee without medium studies (secondary school) on the position of
building caretaker which is from the rural area and his attributions consists in
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arranging and maintaining the working point of the company in the rural area.
An employee from the rural area with medium studies (high school/secondary
School) on the position of Data Processing Operator.
The employees from the rural area are living in different areas of the county, they realise
IT services in the areas where they live in but they go also at request anywhere else in the

Number and profile of the beneficiaries

The companys clients are physical persons and legal persons (schools, town-halls,
companies from the rural area)
The number of schools with which there is a service contract: 6 The number of village-
halls with which there is a service contract: 10.
There is a signed contract with a sanitation company and the collaboration with other
companies is done after formulating an intervention request. For example, it exists
collaboration with security companies, construction companies, catering companies. The
number of physical persons with whom the company collaborated is very high, average 60
persons/month. The obtain results are: IT services (contracts with 10 townhalls and with
10 school from the rural area), websites (daily designing and maintaining 6 websites
from town halls, 6 websites for schools, 1 website for a sanitation company), consulting
services, sales, supplying internet services, installing street surveillance systems, attending
auctions, etc.
When it was founded in 2014, the company had 2 employees supplying services in the
rural area and a small number of customers and it had a share capital of 1,500.00 Euros.
Nowadays the companys revenues are 60.000 Euros per year.
Many of the accomplished sales are in instalments with zero interest, people buy because
they trust, and there are no other companies that offer this kind of facility and to come to
the clients home even in bad weather or on inaccessible roads. Instalment sales are
established by mutual accord with the clients regarding the number of instalments or the
value of the interest. In the case that the income of the people is small but there is the need
for buying a computer, the instalments can be as long as 12 months.

6 cars that are used in the rural area at the clients home or headquarters

A headquarter in the rural area;

A working point in the urban area;

Computers, printers, Xeroxs, surveillance cameras, etc.

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Usually, the person that goes to the clients home, talks to him and establishes the number
of instalments based on the monthly sum that the client can pay.
The social share was deposited by the two associates who financed when the
company was needed. In general, the company is auto financing itself, the profit being
reinvested by buying and setting up a headquarter in the rural area, acquiring means of
transport, acquiring new equipments, hiring new people from the rural area, etc.

Daniel Cosmin P. - hired from august 2012 on the position of computer networks
and system maintenance technician.

Im hired at this company from the 2012, after graduating high school. I was living in
the rural area where there were no jobs. Its my first job and, although after 2 years Ive
received other hiring offers, I turned them down because in this social enterprise I feel
like in a family. The companys manager offers me trust, respect, he was interested to
qualify myself paying for my necessary studies. The manager knows that the people are
the most important resource in a company. The tools, markets, products change but what
remains constant is the human resource. An entrepreneur first of all should be able to
build a strong team around, stable as possible and which to give total trust. The manager
calls me when Im sick, he helps me in my personal problems which I have in the family.
As far as I know, only a single employee resigned because he moved with his family in
another part of the country. With a solid team, in which everybody knows his role and
feels an important part of the team, success is guaranteed.
Another characteristic of the manager of the social enterprise is granting respect
for the clients regardless of their status (primary or people with low income).
Not few times Ive seen him working together with the person who is hired on the
building caretaker position or especially with us when it requires to climb on poles to
perform the cabling necessary for the Internet connection.
There have been cases where the manager told us to realise sales without any
profit for the people who couldnt afford it.

Constantin C. - hired from 2015, on the building caretaker position

I live in the Dochia village, I am 55 years old and Im hired at this company from
January 2015. In the summer of 2014, the company purchased a house in this village and
wanted to repair/restore. It hired me because I had worked on this job before at other
company and I was unemployed. The offer was very good because I was unemployed,
nobody in my family worked, at the age of 55 years its very hard to find job and I didnt
have to migrate to the city to work. From what Ive noticed, people have trust in this
company because its from our village. The owner is a kind and understanding man, the
employees act nice and from time to time we celebrate various events together.
Although this company is a new arrival here in the village only for 2 years, its like
we know each other a lifetime with the owner and the employees. As far as I know, all the

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neighbours purchased computers in instalments from this company. They no longer
require to commute to the city. A neighbour also purchased in instalments a video
surveillance system. For example, for a family with low incomes, the company has given a
computer as a gift to their son. I have purchased a computer, although I have never
worked on a computer before and now I also have internet. I can connect with other
members of the family through Skype.

Impression from the final beneficiaries

Lcrmioara P. from Dochia village

I live in Dochia village. In March last year, my husband passed away. At this
moment I work at a company in the city. I have a son which also commutes daily in the city
to follow high school courses. Because we wanted to feel safe during the night because my
husband passed away and I was lonely I and my boy and during the day we were both gone
into the city and we wanted to know what is happening at home. So we wanted to purchase
a surveillance system. We really wanted to move in the city to stay in rent to feel secured
but we didnt had the money to pay the rent because the salary was small and I had to
support my child. AlfaSoft Company offered me the possibility to purchase a surveillance
device in 12 monthly instalments and installed the device for free. In February, my son
received a computer on which to work until he wants to purchase one. I care to mention
that my son had a computer but it wasnt powerful enough and he makes movie processing
and websites. Because he received this support, he can continue his work and to further

Lucica T., Accountant, Vleni village hall

Vleni village hall is in a poor and hardly accessible area because of the road which are
hard to access (unpaved, long distance from the city). In this isolate area, the village-hall
at which I work on the accountant position has the same needs as any village-hall. It
requires computers, internet connection, supplies, reparations of printers, xeroxs,
consultance. Sometimes it is required for an employee or two employees to intervene every
day to help us. The village hall does not dispose of the necessary founds hiring an IT guy.
Sometimes even the companys manager comes in Saturday and Sunday and stays even 10
hours to help us. In our area, agricultural registries are made and this company helps us
realise them even if they are not paid for this.

Petric Daniel M. , AlfaSoft employee

Im a hire of this company from January 2016. Last year I finished high school, I
was hired at a distribution company from Germany and at another company in sales from

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the city Roznov. They were temporary jobs which didnt fit me and because of this reason
I quit. Even I can consider myself a beneficiary of the social enterprise AlfaSoft because it
hired me even though I was from the rural area, sent me to training (web page designer).
I benefited from 2 weeks of practice/training, time in which Ive learned from an
employee of the company what I must do.

Lesson learned
During the hiring interview its track that the persons be communicative, to utilise
a civilized language appropriate to the discussions. Its an eliminatory condition because
those who are going to be hired must be capable of adapting any kind of discussion. In
some cases, there are special situations in which they must adapt, to know how to offer
support, help (various cases of poverty).

There are client categories who pay for the service. Profits from this group are
used to subsidize the service for another, the underserved group. For example, the
profit may be utilised for the payment or personalised instalments with zero interest.
There were persons who didnt passed the interview although professionally they
were sufficiently prepared, because they werent capable of adapting to a situation.

Employment and skills training

By hiring people from the rural area, unemployment drops, people become more
interested in realising the service chores/tasks because the hiring opportunities in the rural
area in the IT domain do not exist, they dont have to commute to the town/city. Also, the
company deals with the employees qualifications, paying them professional forming
courses. For example, employees went courses of computer and peripheral devices
repairing and maintaining (Cisco Academy courses), web designer courses. In this way,
the employees obtain the necessary qualifications and to the service chores/tasks easily.

Cisco diplomas

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Web designer certificates

Employees followed web design courses and designed web pages for various town-
halls and schools from the rural area. If it was to call a specialised company in web design,
the costs of designing and maintaining a website would have been higher. In this way, it
saves money and this way town halls and school afford purchasing and maintaining the
website. The town halls websites facilitates the population from the rural area, access to
informations keep in mind that the headquarters of a town hall of a county is situated in a
village and the county has several villages located at longer distance from the centre and
people cannot get all the time (lack of many, large distances) to the town-halls to obtain the
desired informations.

The business description

Strategic objectives

On the long term, the company desires to open more working points in various villages
in the county;
To hire people from the villages in which they open the working points, this way
contributing to decrease the unemployment in the rural area;
To boost the number of instalment sales and those with zero interest. Increasing the
number of sales can be done by helping an even greater number of physical and legal
persons to benefit from our services (connecting to the Internet, a larger number of
computers and peripheral devices purchased, installing surveillance systems, etc.).
Increasing the number of sales will lead to the increase of the level of civilization of
the people in the rural area;
To be market leader in her domains of activity;
To offer clients the best products and services;
To be an active an innovating partner for her clients and collaborators;
To be competitive protecting the environment
To establish working procedures which would ensure a fast and efficient response in all
To consolidate the market quota;
To promote the image and the product.

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SWOT Analysis

Strong points
The market is constantly expanding;
Increase the degree of dependence of utilizing IT products ;
The population migration to the rural area;
The increased population trust for our company;
The employees are from the rural area and people know them;
Team of creative specialists, energic who adapt to the working conditions;
Free consultance;
Variety of products which allow satisfying the clients demand and possibilities;
Delivery of new and second-hand IT products at lower prices;
Lower costs for salary payment because in the rural area the salaries are smaller.

Weak points
Cost for the payment of the qualification courses for employees;
Costs quite high for delivering to the clients headquarters/home.

There are no IT companies which have working points in the rural area;
Expanding the company by opening new working points in other areas of the
county (the west area of the county);
The legislation in Romania encourages signing contracts with mayors, schools.

The governments controls regarding copyright/licensing of software;
The high poverty degree in the rural area;
Its hard to find qualified persons in the IT domain in the rural area;
The opening of new companies in the domain, in the rural area;

Key competences necessaries for developing a social business, how to develop the
Organizational competences;
Open mind;
Sense of humour;
Leadership etc

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Association for Science, Culture, Ecology, Youth and
Social Integration

The social enterprise folkloric ensemble

Description of the community where the social enterprise was created and of the
social problem that will be solved

In Neamt county as in many other regions of Romania can be observed a development

of many folkloric centres and groups that are focusing their activity on traditions
preservation of cultural heritage and education but in the same time their entrepreneurial
activity is also based on the tradition of family events, weddings, baptisms, anniversaries.
We can count and exemplify a number of 6 folkloric ensembles only in Piatra Neamt city:

Codrii Neamului (Neam woods)

Floricic de la munte ( Mountain Flower)
Doina Ceahlului( Ceahlaus song )
Comorile Neamului (The treasures of Neam county )
Toporasul(Little spring flower).

The communities where they activate are urban communities with deep connections with
the rural areas that have benefit from the city development and modernization but are still

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keeping the ancient traditions and rural areas cultural heritage. This ancient traditions are
very important in special events and celebration days .
Specific problems of the communities where they activate that are solved by the social
A high rate of unemployment among youngsters is characteristic for this communities.
The traditional family is the base of the society , the youngsters are taking part in the
family events, affairs and activities and they receive economical support from their parents
even if they cannot find jobs and they stay inactive on the work market for many years.
The social enterprises are solving many problems of the rural-urban societies .
-they offer volunteering activities and cultural education to the youngsters
-they are creating jobs for dance instructors and artisans that of popular costumes and
traditional objects
-they have a huge contribution to the folkloric heritage preservation and revival in their
-they increase the amenity of rural areas for the tourists and this may lead to a development
of their communities on long term.

The management team of the project ERA+ inside ASCETIS association leaded by Mrs
Eleonora Dragomir initiated an exercise social enterprise for students and young graduates
by following the model of the folkloric groups specialized in family events and
organization of traditional ceremonies mentioned above. The exercise enterprise was
created with the purpose of entrepreneurial education in real work conditions.
The initiative was started from the necessity of testing the information provided by this
Step by Step Guide among the young potential entrepreneurs from rural areas and
valorisation of the local opportunities of development.
The students of Gheorghe Cartianu Technical College are most of them living in rural
areas of Neamt county and their families are very interested in keeping , revival and
respect the traditions but they have not possibilities of investment in popular costumes
creation or restoration.
The youngsters are very happy to create an informal group that can be developed and
improved as a social enterprise that will offer them work places in the future .
The staff of the future social enterprise was selected by mrs. Eleonora Dragomir and mrs
Vaideanu Claudia from Gheorghe Cartianu Technical College. They promoted the project
and its opportunities of entrepreneurial education among students or graduates.
The idea was that this enterprise has to be entirely created and conducted by the
youngsters, they have to do volunteering work in real life conditions inside of it on specific
jobs in order to gain work experience.
Mrs Eleonora Dragomir and Mrs Vaideanu Claudia are VET teachers in Colegiul Tehnic
Gherghe Cartianu from more than 15 years and they have also a long experience as social
entrepreneurs .
In the social enterprises where they work , ASCETIS association and Alfa Soft ltd. it is an
important focus on creation of work places for youngsters but they revealed that in many
cases the young candidates to the job offers they had created have lack of soft skills and
competences even if their hard skills are matching with the job requests.
The soft competences such as communication , leadership , team work , problem
solving/decision making , conviction , creativity , self-confidence entrepreneurial spirit are
less developed in schools because the traditional learning system in Romania is offering
very few learning occasions in real life conditions for development of the soft skills that
are more characteristic for the non-formal education .

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The Social Enterprise focusing on traditions and folklore preservation can be a very good
environment for development of soft skills to the participating youngsters. The artistically
activities are also an attraction for the youngsters and can be a good motivation for their
effort of personal development.
The results of the Folkloric Social Enterprise, cultural events and festivals can be also a
good opportunity for project programs and results promotion and dissemination.
In order to create the social enterprises structure and staff we started with a series of brain-
storming sessions with mixed groups of students and graduates interested in being involved
in a Folkloric Group which can become their enterprise.
They started by proposing solutions for music, costumes, rehearsal room, choreography,
and vocal soloist and for a representative name of the formation .
The name of the formation was chosen by following the advices from Chapter 1 of this
The name of an enterprise should be short &easy to pronounce and thus, remember. It
would be also wiser to use a picture, logo, photo etc. with the name. The more visual the
name is the easier to keep it on mind. If the name makes a positive impact on people, it
will make your companys name more memorable. One final thing to keep on mind is that
the name should also be relevant to the nature of your business.
The company name should contain 1 or 2 words. Your business name wont necessarily
be more effective if its short, but it may be easier to remember. You can also consider using
an acronym, but be careful unless there is an obvious and memorable tie-in, using an
acronym can make your name too generic to be relatable to your target.
Make a list and compare them to spark youre your ideas and to help you develop a name
that really stands out from the crowd.
You want your business name to resonate with the people you are trying to reach. Use
what you know about your target audience to measure the relevancy of any names you
come up with.
Dont use your name or surname ... Only if you are a famous person this option has sense.
The students analysed their possibilities and they proposed activities and names .
The final name chosen by the students was Inima Carpatilor ( The hearth of the Carpati
Mountains ) . They analized the names and activities of the enterprises in competition , the
name had to describe their activity, folklore from mountain areas of Romania , a short
name with 2 words but that has many meanings by a poetic association of words.
The mountains Carpati are a symbol of our country connected with many historical events
and a place where tourism and traditions go together for centuries. The hearth , the symbol
of love was chosen by the students to be put into the bussiness name instead of names like
flower , fir tree , treasure, forest etc. because they analized the names and activities of the
enterprises in competition and they wanted to have a name that is describing their activity:
folklore from the mountain areas of Romania with a patriotic note and with a more evident
hint to the cultural heritage coming from the past .
The students chosen a short name with 2 words that are creating together a poetic
association that has may meanings like love, eternal power of the nature the essence of
Romanian spirit , etc .

Number and profession of the employees

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The social enterprise is entirely conducted by youngsters that are doing volunteering work
but they are supervised by Mrs Eleonora Dragomir . The staff positions are :
1. One choreographer, a person with experience in folkloric groups and popular research
activity that knows the popular dances from the region.
2. One sound technician , a person with experience as a DJ and one Web-designer, IT
3. Ten dancers , youngsters that know the popular dances from their regions
4. Two vocal soloists with vocal talent and that know popular songs from their region
5. Two artistic impresarios that are enthusiastic passionate and have knowledge about the
folkloric traditions, communicative persons good organisers
6. One responsible with the popular costumes with skills for manufacture or restoration
of popular costumes
7. One general manager which is managing the group financial resources .
At the beginning the first 6 positions were occupied by youngsters but the 7 th position is
occupied by the manager of ASCETIS because the new created social enterprise has not
gaining any money and it is financially sustained by ASCETIS association.

Number and profile of the beneficiaries

The beneficiaries can be :

Local authorities that can invite the group to create cultural animation, street animation
and to participate in cultural events . In Neamt County there are 83 halls for 78
communes(villages) and 5 cities and in each of them are celebrated the commune days,
and there are also specific cultural events.
Families that are celebrating weddings , baptisms or birthdays in public locals . There
are more than 200 restaurants that are organizing weddings and other family events in
Neamt county, in each of them are programmed weddings in each Saturday and Sunday of
the year with some exceptions according with the orthodox calendar. .
Youngsters that want to become professional dancers , choreographers, scene directors
or singers can also come and get training inside the ensemble. There are many youngsters
passionate for popular dance and music in Neamt county that are aspirants to allowance in

The new created social enterprise Ansamblul Inima Carpatilor did obtained notable
results even if it is existing only from 6 months at the time of writing this article.

Result no1

Research on the folklore in the region and design of costumes . The research was made in
the past by consulting catalogues with photos from at least 100 years ago and in the present
by analysing the new folklore tendencies and production. Modernization is normal in
nowadays but it must be done with respect for the past and traditions, for the good taste of
popular art and for the cultural heritage of the region where the group is activating.

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Result no 2

Restoration of original ancient parts of popular costumes.

Creation of a restoration handbook for popular costumes and accessories. The handbook

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methods for bleaching of the ancient canvas
types of stains and the solutions for stain removal depending on the stain causes
methods for old canvas protection and restoration
wool drugget or tweed objects maintenance and restoration
restoration of natural leather objects
natural wax preparation and coloration
ancient natural leather objects maintenance .

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Result no 3

Research for the oral popular creation in the region . Creation of a folklore collection with
texts , rules and images about the folk customs and traditions of the region .
This results can be found among the annexes of this guide .

Resources: who is financing the enterprise, who is giving them other resources?

The enterprise is financed at the moment by ASCETIS association but in the future it can
become sustainable by the professionalization of the enterprise employees.

Quotes from their stories that will emphasize the abilities and competences that a manager
or a board member of a social enterprise should have .

Magic words that we discovered during our work:

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Success is a result of an act of courage;
Art is an expression of feelings and emotions and there is no art if there is not audience;
Nobody can teach an artist to create any artist is doing creation in an unique and very
beautiful way;
People love to be full-hearted, if you do this as an artist for your audience they will be
In Popular Art colours has to respect the diversity and harmony of the nature

As a manager of this kind of social enterprise, working with teenagers and with young
adults as well I can say that some hints are very important in my activity.

Control of the enterprise activity is important but the volunteers have to fill that you
respect their initiative , you appreciate their work and ideas
Never tell that the results of the group are your work , put the volunteers in front of the
lights and tell everyone how talented and dedicated they are .
Be with them as much time as possible and use your life experience to inspire their
Respect all of your words and promises
I am not the one that knows everything but I must guide, inspire and sustain the work
and initiative of my volunteers

Impression from the final beneficiaries

The final beneficiaries of this kind of enterprise are people from rural areas participating in
local or family events .

As impressions I will put here some of their posts on social networks.

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Lesson learned

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The overall business goals
-To increase the atractivity of rural areas
-To preserve cultural heritage from rural areas
-To promote rural culture among youngsters
-To create workplaces for youngsters that are living in rural areas
-To learn know-how from ancient traditional communities

The framework that was used

The frameworks we use for our social enterprises are:
Cooperative A for profit or nonprofit business that is owned by its members who also
use its services, providing virtually any type of goods or services.

The business description

The long term vision of the business

As long term vision we see our social enterprise evolution in a cultural club owned by
young popular and cultivated artists that are providing services for cultural and social
events and are also providing lessons about rural cultural heritage and know how to other
children and adults that are interested by popular art and rural communities .

How did they ensured the executive support , who are the key persons they
needed for the key jobs ?
Key persons needed in the future are young artists that need to be in a creative
environment and to develop their work .
Which was their strategy ? Add here a short business plan of the enterprise
described (1 page business plan ) To be added in virtual laboratory
What is the legislation and governmental structure that is supporting them ?
The Romanian Ministry of Culture and the Ministry of National Education and
Scientific Research with their local structures , schools , libraries, financed cultural
events may support the Social Enterprise activity by providing them the logistic
support .
What are the key investments in technology that helped them to raise up ?
Sound devices
Musical instruments
Popular costumes
Books about ancient and contemporary art
Programs for create , develop and analyse music and musical abilities on the

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Together for Social Solidarity Foundation

Description of the community where the social enterprise was created and of the
social problem that will be solved

Geographical location

The locality is situated in the east, the south-central position in the county, 12 km
away from Piatra Neamt. Svineti is located at the intersection of 46 51 'north latitude
and the meridian of 26 28' east longitude.
The village is located in Cracu - Bistrita - meadow area, it has a population of
6608 inhabitants.

Specific activities in this area

Chemical industry
Small industry

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Main economic activities
Chemical industry
Subsistence farming

The number of active people in these fields is small, Svineti having an

unemployment rate of 5.71%, below the country average 6.8% in 2015.

Description of the person, group of persons that initiated the enterprise, what was their


pr. Petru Munteanu

Petrariu Cristina

Armenici Cristina

Creative Department:

Axinte Elena

Paval Maria

Ploscaru Nicoleta

Sarma Alina

Philanthropic Social Department:

Cojocaru Mariana

Craivan Jana

Mireuta Maria

Popa Petronela

Department of Culture and Media:

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Apopi Lorian

Garbea Alexandra

Parfeni Mihai

Plus 120 volunteers

Director's Message

Motto: "If I have eight hours to cut a tree from the root, I'd spend six of them sharpening
the ax blade." Abraham Lincoln

Together for Social Solidarity Foundation has reached this year 20 years of social-
philanthropic and cultural - educational, gathering around her memories and positive
emotions that have built healthy and enthusiastic communities .

From spoken word to the new volunteers, Ms Cornelia Ungurean, former president of the
Foundation, we understand how important it is, besides the vision and action of those
involved in the activities of the Foundation, a state of prayer as a way of finding and
understanding moral principles too.

It is said that a traveler passing through a forest he met two woodcutters. One was very
upset because he could not cover the daily norm as well as his companion. His colleague
was joyful and glad.

Asked how acquired this state, the satisfied one replied:

-The man next to me does not have time ever, he is completely dissatisfied. I manage to
exceed the daily norm because, occasionally, I make time for myself and sharpen my ax.

Vision and action, intertwined with prayer, ensures effectiveness of our foundation which
proposes to strengthen and help the community.


Pr. Petru Munteanu

Description of the enterprise

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Together for Social Solidarity Foundation's mission is to combat social exclusion by

regaining human dignity, help and encouragement of disadvantaged people in the
community through solidarity and social commitment.

We intend to support the local community to improve the quality of social and cultural
life, by defending human rights and Christian moral values.


Our vision is to contribute to the materialization of Christian principles by charity,

solidarity and social peace.

Guiding principles and values

We are committed to the Christian faith and values,that ensure respect and give dignity of
the person.We believe that education must discover life as a gift from God that can be
defended and cultivated in the communion of love.We promote Christian solidarity by
ensuring a connection between spiritual life and engagement in society.

Short presentation

Created in 1995, our foundation has carried out activities, in the first 10 years, in the
city of Radauti, Suceava County. First campaigns consisted in gathering or collecting
household items from individuals or legal entities, objects that could still be used, and
their distribution to vulnerable families in the city of Radauti. Also, these families received
packages with food, clothing, school supplies, toys, as Mrs. Cornelia Ungurean says,
former president of the Foundation.

Registered in the Federation of Nongovernmental Organizations for Child, our foundation

opened in 2002 a counseling office for children with problems, organization having
employed a social worker with higher education.

Since 2004, the 46 children, social assisted by foundation, they were joined by nine more
children from Botosani, who received packages and products (food, hygiene materials).

Providing lunch free to 55 children, organizing sports and artistic activities during the
holidays, counseling troubled children, they were some of the activities of the foundation
in the early years of existence.

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Many of these actions, as well as providing scholarships, have become tradition and they
are the goals for Together for Social Solidarity Foundation for 2015 too under the
presidency of Peter Munteanu priest.

Currently, Together for Social Solidarity Foundation operates in Piatra Neamt and
Savinesti, Neamt County, and its projects have benefited in addition to the 605 children,
aged 4 and 18, and 300 families affected by difficult social situations (unemployment ,
single parent families, Roma).The entire activity of the Foundation focuses on two
coordinates: social activities (offering food at a social canteen, various material aid,
improving living conditions and providing opportunities for disadvantaged people or being
in vulnerable categories) and cultural-educative (organizing camps, arts groups,
educational and psychological advice offering, organizing training courses in various
practical areas - manufacturing of decorative candles, bakery, tailoring, embroidery, etc.)

Through our Foundation's activities we intend to serve the noblest principles of charity
and helping marginalized people, in a state of social difficulty.

Permanent projects of the Foundation

1. Social-Educationl Centre Popasul Iubirii Milostive (House of Merciful Love)

Since July 2015 our foundation took over his care about 80 children from Svineti,
coming from vulnerable social backgrounds. Our main concern is to ensure daily meals
free of charge, to these young people, and organizing educational and recreational
activities for them.The Centre operates with the support of the parish "Sfintii Voievozi"
(Holy Kings) in Svineti, City Hall, City Council and our foundation partners and donors.

The Foundation organizes in partnership with the Parish "Holy Kings" in Svineti,
Creation Camp '' Angel wings', which gathered this year 674 participants, children aged 4
to 18 years, and has invited young volunteers abroad (Moldova, Italy), which give it an
international character and engage in cultural exchange - educational generated by their
presence. The camp includes painting and drawing workshops, games, music, coordinated
by specialist teachers and young volunteers and is free for children participants between 17
to 26 August.

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2. The camp "Angel wings"

The camp "Angel wings", organized in collaboration with Solidarity and Hope
Foundation - a subsidiary Svineti and Parish "Holy Kings" in Svineti, opened its doors
on June 22, 2015.

The purpose of the camp is to discover new places, learn the beauty of colors, to know the
beauty of iconography of the Orthodox Church, to encourage children to develop new
friendships and spend a period of their holidays in a pleasant and constructive way.

3. Summer School "Angel wings"

Together for Social Solidarity Foundation in Piatra Neamt in partnership with

Secondary School "Nicu Albu" in Piatra Neamt organizes between 27 july 2015-12
September 2015 the Summer School "Angel wings".

Summer school is a complex program of fun activities for recreation, walking outdoors,
gondola lift, sports, basic courses in German and English, Base Equestrian activities at the
Youth Pool, painting, ceramics workshop, wicker twigs braiding , theater, poetry, visits
to museums, dance, hippotherapy, swimming pool and not least religious education.

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Social activities

Helping work of the most vulnerable in society (children, institutionalized elders,

people with disabilities), improving living conditions and providing opportunities for
disadvantaged people of the organization, it is a constant occupation of our foundation.

Campaigns of humanitarian aid ("Give respectfully", "The Light of Christ shines upon
all", "guardian angels") for people of all ages in need in the community and beyond.The
Foundation is actively and consistently involved in operations of financial aid (private
scholarships ) andpermanent material for needy families, emergency humanitarian
campaigns, charitable actions on certain occasions (Easter, Christmas, etc.).

Through partnerships with the Humanitarian Organization "Hilfe fr Osteuropa Todtnau -

Seelscheid eV" from Germany, Ursula Honeck Association from Piatra Neamt,
Foundation Solidarity and Hope - a subsidiary Svineti, Parish "Holy Kings" in Svineti,
and other legal persons and individuals, we collected goods, consisting of food, medicines,
supplies, sanitary products, clothing and footwear, furniture, and so on, which we
distributed in various communities, parishes, schools, kindergartens, associations, social
centers in the country.

The 'Light of Christ shines upon all "

The campaign was aimed at providing material support and spiritual support during the
Easter holidays of a large number of vulnerable people, institutionalized or belonging to
poor communities.

During April-July 2015 were donated within this campaign clothing, footwear, household
and sanitary products of 80066.07 lei to 17 parishes and non-profit organizations, which
have been distributed among their people from socially disadvantaged backgrounds, in
Neamt, Bacau, Iasi and Vaslui.The campaign was carried out with the help of numerous
associations, public institutions and Orthodox parishes, which identified poor and they
distributed the goods collected by our foundation.

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Compaign The 'Light of Christ shines upon all "

Main donors of goods were distributed Humanitarian Organization "Hilfe fr

Osteuropa Todtnau - Seelscheid e.V" from Germany, Solidarity and Hope Foundation -
Svineti subsidiary, Humanitarian Association "Ursula Honeck" from Piatra Neamt.

The 'Give respectfully "campaign

Generosity or charity, the unseen and so nourishing fruit of Christian love, when it
is done selflessly, it does not have rest, does not seek a place or certains persons to
manifest itself, but it is moving, finally toward God.

To help socially disadvantaged people, Foundation's volunteers, by director Peter

Munteanu priest initiatives, have prepared various donations to NGOs, schools,
kindergartens, parishes.

Within this campaign were donated goods worth 112,896.07 lei, to a total of 24 non-
governmental institutions and state institutions. At the same time, the humanitarian
campaign "Give with respect" targeted individuals from Svineti too. They were donated
sanitary materials, underwear, milk powder worth 31.837 lei.The number of beneficiaries
from Svineti was 350 people.

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Within the campaign was carried out and action "A clean house for everyone", through
which was distributed, to people socially affected, washable lime within the Savinesti

Most times the society faced difficult situations that can raise public awareness. Whether
we are talking about children from disadvantaged families or helpless elders, help and
respect for our fellows must come first.

Most times the society faced difficult situations that can raise public awareness. Whether
we are talking about children from disadvantaged families or helpless elders , help and
respect for our fellows must come first.

Picture with those from harghita

Kindergarten: We came to you because we are a very poor city, unfortunately very old
too, a town full of retirees, but also a peaceful town. Our kindergarten has 156 children
from families who have 8- 12 children. We have a class for which we have extended hours
for 17 children from socially disadvantaged families, aged between 1 and 3 years, which
provide them with a meal and sleep afternoon. "(Kaszta Ilona administrator of
kindergarten" Edelweiss "in the town of Balan, Harghita). Children from "Edelweiss"

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kindergarten from Balan enjoyed the clothes, toys, milk powder, and the staff who cares
for them, they got the clothes detergent to clean them.

Scholarships for families with social problems

Since July 2015, the Together Foundation for Social Solidarity developed the project
"Scholarships for families with social problems". Through this program, 54 people receive
monthly scholarships. The project was developed in partnership with people from
Germany, supporters of the Humanitarian Organization "Hilfe fr Osteuropa" who
authorized Mrs. Augusta Jumanca oversee the entire project. People from Germany have
selected grantees of the families proposed based on social surveys of the territory and its

Schoolbags festival

On 17 September 2015 took place at the social - educational centre "Halt Merciful
Love" from Svineti, an action entitled "Schoolbags Festival.

Through the partnership between the Together for Social Solidarity Foundation in Piatra
Neamt and Parish "Holy Kings" in Svineti, Neamt County we wish to improve crisis
situations of children from vulnerable backgrounds by supporting them in education and

Schoolbags festival

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Within this event were offered to a number of 83 children, backpacks, school supplies and
games, as learners can study from Svineti like their other colleagues. The value of
donated goods was 4,565 lei.

"It's been many years since I completed primary school of Svineti I live the same
emotions now at the beginning of the school year, me being around children.Sure, these
emotions are at a different level of understanding, but also emotions...At the beginning of
the school year , the Together for Social Solidarity Foundation led by director and priest
Peter Munteanu and through his care, the assiseted children from social-educatic Centre
Merciful Love Halt, where they receive a hot meal at lunch time, they received as a gift
a backpack equipped with what is necessary for the school (pencil case, pencils, pens,
pencils, crayons).It is sad to see how many children are without financial possibilities,
children from disadvantaged families, but we rejoice when we see in their beautiful little
eyes that gleam with joy at receiving a gift and their curiosity for its research.I believe it is
our duty as citizens, to help this children to follow a straight path in life, first by
encouraging them to learn, to come be worthy of the society of tomorrow together with
other children,to surround them with love, to listen to their requests, sorrows, joys, not to
feel frustrated by the shortcomings they see in their families. The actions developed within
the Foundation mean a support for these children and they take over a part of the
obligation that incumbent actually to our society and and not least the Romanian state.
"Ana Chele, Volunteer in our Foundation.

Social-educative Centre Merciful Love Halt hosted a double event, Schoolbags

Festival but also the visit of the representatives of the Inspectorate for Emergency
Situations "Petrodava" in Piatra Neamt, a sergeant major Popa Irina and Mr. Benta
Alexandru, sergeant major at the same institution. Within a checking in Savinesti, the
delegates of inspectorate had perform a preventive informing action at Savinesti Center
too, conducted through the national campaign "No to earthquake tremors."

The 'guardian angels' campaign

The 'guardian angels' campaignTogether for Social Solidarity Foundation, in partnership

with Holy Kings Parish from Savinesti, Neamt, conducted between November 8 to
December 6, socio-humanitarian campaign "guardian angels".This action was addressed to
needy people in Neamt county and not only, that due to social reasons are unable to ensure
themselves decent living conditions.In this period were donated goods worth 164,866.00
lei to various state institutions, non-governamental organisations, but aids had arrived in
some partner parishes too.

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Pr. Schiman Constantin, Parish of Saints Joachim and Anne Dumbrava Rosie and
president of the association "St. Abraham " which manages the family placement center"
Saints Joachim and Anne "in Dumbrava Rosie: Gifts that we have received here,
consisting of clothing, footwear, games and detergent, we will use for children who are in
placement center "St. Joachim and Anna ", number 11, and of course it will be nice,
especially since winter is coming and they need clothing."

Cristina Toma - social worker in the commune village hall Moca: "It's the second year
the humanitarian aid campaign with a name so beautiful and bright: <<Guardian
Angels>>, will bring a touch of joy and unconditional love in a few families in village
Moca, Iasi County.These families are receiving social assistance,are single parent
families and families with many members who face financial and social problems.I rejoice
with all my heart that I will be, for these families , a messenger of <<Guardian Angels>>
from Together for Social Solidarity Foundation.Thanks for the gifts: clothes, shoes and
toys that will bring smiles, joy and light into the souls of those who will receive them. "

Prayer for parents

Prayer for parentsSunday, December 27, 2015, Parish "Holy Kings" in Savinesti,
Archpriestship Roznov, Neamt County in partnership with Together for Social Solidarity,
has conducted social and philanthropic action:,, Prayer for Parents' Centre for the elderly
Roznov. Foundation volunteers, parishioners of Holy Kings Parish and more, Mrs.
Augusta Jumanca, president of Humanitarian Association" Ursula Honeck "in Piatra
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Neamt, Father Ioan Mihai Mariuta from St Ilie Tesviteanul in the town of Bor, Timok
Valley in Serbia, son of the village Svineti, Hierodeacon Calinic Savin the Archdiocese
of Constanta, under the guidance of Father Peter Munteanu, wanted to give a bit of the
time of their lives and a piece of soul and heart to the elders with child souls,thirsty for
unconditional love, affection, communion and sincere friendship.

Cultural-educational projects and programs

International Camp of Creation "Angel wings"

The camp "Angel wings", organized in collaboration with Solidarity and Hope Foundation
- a subsidiary Svineti and Parish "Holy Kings" in Svineti, opened its doors on June 22,

The purpose of the camp is to discover new places, learn the beauty of colors, to know the
beauty of iconography of the Orthodox Church, to encourage children to develop new
friendships, and spend a period of their holidays in a pleasant and constructive place. This
year the young participants had benefited from a few hours of riding, thanks to Mr Cezar
Ivanov, President C. S. Decebal in Bacau and initiation in ABC's rugby.

Organised in ten weekly series, tha camp has reunited on Savinesti lands 674 children and
young people from many parts of Romania, but also abroad (Italy, Moldova).Together for
Social Solidarity Foundation in Piatra Neamt had as partners in organizing and conducting
activities, Parish "St. Princes "of Svineti and Solidarity and Hope Foundation - a
subsidiary Svineti.

Regarding settlements from which participants come from, half of them are from Neamt
County,Savinesti and Roznov community had also significant percentages. Many young
people from Moldova Republic had participated this year at the creative camp, owning a

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proportion of 11% of total participants, and their number increases from year to year,
because they all left with the thought of returning to Romania, on vacation, to participate in
the camp, and accompanied two to three friends.

The first series of Creation Camp Angel wings debuted with the presence of a number
of 10 participants from the Association Light of Bacau and 9 children from Svineti and
Piatra Neamt city.Guests of Bacau received free camp, all expenses on food,
accommodation and other activities being provided by our foundation, in partnership with
two other organizations involved.

I met in The Angel wings Camp "I met in Camp" Angel wings "different people
but they have something in common: love for his friend, willingness to devote to others.And
this gives me great pleasure. I want to keep beautiful relationships established here, even
to develop them.I'm sure I can get involved with all dedication in more activities. In short:
I love it! " (Ioana Miraute, 16, volunteer in the camp)In the second series have entered in
the camp 15 participants from Social Center Together from Piatra Neamt, represented
by Ms Ana Loredana Catana companion - a psychologist or Amarici Luisa -coordinator
leisure.Also in the second series of Camp Creation "Angel wings" - the tenth edition will be
attended by 17 children from Svineti and Piatra Neamt, aged 4 to 10 years, which are
carefully monitored of the 20 volunteers of the Foundation.Between 6 to 11 July 2015, the
Center for Social Services "Merciful Samaritan" in Svineti hosted the third series of the
camp, where new educational-recreational activities were conducted, for a number of 48
participants from Svineti and Piatra Neamt."It is my first experience as a volunteer in an
art camp and I want to say that I'm impressed with everything I saw here and all the
activities in which I participated.It is actually a continuation of my work with children, but
if the school must follow a schedule, here we perform tasksthat children like more,
activities which highlight the artistic and cultural creative spirit of each child . I

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wholeheartedly congratulate the organizing team and I hope in a long-term collaboration
"(Elena Milea, teacher at Secondary School Pngrai primary education, and volunteer
within the camp).

"The camp" Angel Wings "is one of the most beautiful experiences. It's a fun atmosphere
and very recreational. You never get bored.There are always beautiful and interesting
activities. I learned new games and I made a lot of friends. It is the most beautiful camp.
"(Botomei Mihai, 11, camp participant)In the week 13 July to 18 July 2015, the Center for
Social Services "Merciful Samaritan" in Svineti hosted the fourth series Camp creative
Angel wings X Edition.This series brought together at Savinesti a number of 39 children
from Piatra Neamt, and 15 young people from Moldova Republic.

"Fourth Camp Series" Angel wings "is a dynamic, energetic and eager to learn new
things in the environment. Indoor and outdoor games were just some of the activities that
have excited children. In this series, a group of Moldovan children joined us, we were
pleased to exchange opinions and experiences with them. Knowledge games, under the
supervision of Mrs. psychologist were one of the elements that helped us get to know
ourselves and each other. Mission of the volunteers in this camp is to help child
development. I want to be part of this great team further because I will never forget the
experiences gained here. (Claudiu Ladan, 16, volunteer).

On 16 July 2014, a group of 32 people, with the camp director, Ms Ana Tofan, proceeded
to a hiking itinerary cantaining Svineti - Piatra Neamt Neam Monastery - Memorial
House Sadoveanu - the bison reservation- Neamt Fortress - House Ion Creang memorial
and back. Among hikers were young Moldovans , who were amazed at the beauty of
Neamt area. We note that the trip was made possible with the support of Neamt County
Council, the SC Trolley S.A. and with the support of Vanatori City Hall Neamt by Mrs.
Maria Petrariu, the mayor.

"If you get to come in Romania, do not hesitate to do it, because here awaits you
extraordinarily good-hearted people who are open, waiting for energetic kids, picturesque
and fascinating places, much love, goodness and beauty.From the first moments when we
arrived here my heart was pounding and I felt happy.I was deeply impressed by the warm
softness the eyes and voice of the priest Peter Munteanu; he persuaded me that kindness is
the only way that will help us to change the bad things.There were surpassed all my
expectations, we had informative hours, creative moments, happy moments and great
harmony. In a few words, it's hard to thank you who made us nice days and we have
become detached from the daily routine.I will take in my suitcase the good humor and
kindness of volunteers.I wish you luck in everything you do.You are an example to follow
for trying to consolidate the future of children "(Tusca Marcela, Moldova Republic).

The fifth series of the camp has provided to a number of 38 participants many surprises
and an unforgettable atmosphere.

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"This week, volunteers were divided into three groups: the first deals with the
administrative side, the second group games, the third group with the media.I liked most
the third group because I found it interesting to take pictures of the children and talk with
them, to make an interview.Children in this series were very nice, and some participated
last year. I love to volunteer and I will continue to do this work. "( Dumitrache Ana
tefani, volunteer)

Monday, July 27, 2015 at the Center for Social Services "Merciful Samaritan" in
Svineti, starting at 9, with the 16 young participants of the sixth edition of Creation
Camp Agel wings gathered at Svineti for know each other and to give the start of a
new week of fun end goodwill.

"I liked to play with children and rugby activity was my taste. It was a beautiful week, I
would like to come another time (Ghitescu Teodora, camp participant)

Between 3 to 8 August 2015 was held at Svineti the seventh series of Creation
CampAngel wings, which brought together in Savinesti landscape, 27 young
people.Every day, young people took part in educational-recreational activities, stone
painting, crafts, games, catechesis hours.

"I explained to the children who the Mother of God is and why it is so important to pray to
her.To make myself understood, I told the children a story from the life of Virgin Mary and
taught them the prayer "It is truly right."At the same time, I explained that Mary is the
Mother of us all, who prays for us to our Lord Jesus Christ , pointed the Deacon George

Eighth series of the camp gathered young people from the Moldova Republic, 17 people,
and a total of 50 young people from Piatra Neamt, Svineti and Roznov. Also, in this
edition Moldovan guests enjoyed a trip on the route Savinesti- Neamt Monastery-The
bison Reservation-Neamt Fortress - Ion Creang Memorial House and back.

"It was an unforgettable experience, with superb people.I liked very much the places we
visited, I met new people and I shared impressions.I liked most Neamt Fortress, where I
was introduced to another part of history. Definitely I'll go back and repeat the experience!
"(Untila Veronica, Moldova Republic)."The trip was very interesting and useful. I was for
the first time to Bison Reservation and Neamt Monastery.At the church, the priest spoke
interesting, including the icon of Virgin Mary. "(Scerbina Viorica, Moldova Republic)

In this trip I liked Neamt Fortress, but I also liked when I fed a baby deer.I liked
enormously Neamt Monastery and Bison Natural Reservation. And even if I visited the
House of Ion Creanga in Humulesti, I liked to see it again. (Tudosan Nicoleta, Moldova

Monday, August 17, 2015, began the tenth edition of Art Camp "Angel wings". In the ten
days of activities, 287 children, youth and volunteer participants enjoyed a great program.

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Whether they were from Botosani, Radauti, Piatra Neamt, Bucharest, Iasi and Moldova,
they all enjoyed together the last days of vacation in a place where the game of childhood
is harmoniously combined with philanthropy and service of God at the Holy Altar in

We want to give people a way to search, so they do not remain quartered in the virtual
universe. I hope to show children in the trip the beauty of cucutian culture.I wanted to
induce to young people need to be active observers.I am looking to prove them that they
deserve to trust in teachers.I noticed that pupils have a reluctance to play. " (Prof. Elena
Oboroceanu, Camp Director)

From the day of Friday, August 21, 2015, the camp will have young people from
Moldova.With them we will perform activities more extensive and difficult.They will
participate in workshops of history,painting, in a location which we determine by common
agreement.They will also receive free trips to cultural sites in Neamt county, will ride the
gondola lift in Piatra Neamt, so we hope that they will leave with fond memories and
unforgettable. "(Andra Avasilcai, Director in the Camp)

"We conducted adapted preschool children activities: coloring, painting, fun games,
learning songs. Children are eager to get involved in activities and excited. Thursday,
August 19, 2015, we will have a trip to Neamt.Existing location is very generous in all
points of view.We met here people with big hearts who gladly welcomed us.I found that
people return to faith, and what is done within the camp, it is done with that faith in God.
(Prof. Mona Avram from school Ion Creang in Bacau and volunteer within the camp).

The last series of this year's edition of the camp, held from 31 August to 5 September
2015, brought a splash of color. Children and young, creative camp participants, enjoyed a
few hours of study plastic arts.Under the careful guidance of the painter Cristian
Bistriceanu, little artists skilfully handled brushes dipped in the color palette. The cildren
had done some decorative paintings, paintings that were the subject of an exhibition
organized by the Association "ERA" in Piatra Neamt, partner of our foundation in the

"Our goal was to familiarize young people with this kind of traditional art, to offer an
alternative leisure activity. Within this partnership, the Foundation Together for Social
Solidarity has given us two spaces, one in Svineti and the second at the "Nicu
Albu"School in Piatra Neamt.We made courses for 4 hours a day and our target group
originally had 30 people, but other children wanted to participate and then we reached a
number of 40 participants. The paintings resulted after this course will be exhibited in the
gallery ERA in Piatra Neamt at Central Plazza". (Cristian Bistriceanu, artist)

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Summer School "Angel wings"

Since July, our foundation in partnership with the Middle School "Nicu Albu" released
Summer School "Angel wings".Summer School wanted to provide a relaxing atmosphere
in which children had had many events, fun games and also the opportunity to make new
friends.In this way we also helped the busy parents.Summer School is a comprehensive
program of fun recreational activities, outdoor rides, gondola lift rides, sports, teaching
courses in German and English. This activities were conducted at the Equestrian Base at
Youth Pool in Piatra Neamt. This year, the first edition, the summer school brought
together 22 young tots and volunteers to participate in this kind of courses.

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Sebastian Boboc: "I'm very excited, I enjoyed all the activities, but especially pottery.I
liked that I could achieve my own object (a pot), I managed to express my imagination
freely without a given model. "

Razvan Petrescu: "Pottery I liked the most, and that I played with my dear colleagues and
volunteers, as well a swimming in the pool.

Vlad-Dimitrie Hartan: "Honestly, I liked everything. I loved the pottery,to paint and play
with my colleagues and volunteers. Watching the film was a great time this week. "

Sofia Petrescu:"The volunteers, even if they are older, they played with us, I really liked it."

Ilinca Boboc: "Pottery and art classes were the most popular in this week . Hours at the
pool and riding the gondola lift complemented the experience of this summer school.

Neamt County through young eyes

During the period 1 September to 31 October 2015 our foundation developed the project
"Neamt County through the eyes of young people", a program funded by Neamt County
Council.Neamt County is one of the richest tourist targets in country and with unique and
attractive places for all ages.However, they are not known and visited by the younger
generation, because they are located in Moldova, considered a poor region, and from this
perspective, the target of prejudices regarding the quality of its cultural objectives.

In this project, collaborating with the School Inspectorate Neamt, three schools in Piatra
Neamt (National College "Petru Rares" National College "Calistrat Hoga" and Secondary
School No.2) encouraged young students to participate in this cultural and educational

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The project proposed (and succeeded) to promote cultural objectives in Neamt County
from the perspective and creativity of 30 young people an children as information and
attractiveness multipliers because they made known these cultural-religious values by
technical means of communication and specific language of their generation.

Berariu Stefania Alexandra, Gymnasium School No.2 Piatra Neamt

"I found this project through our principal and I was determined to participate because I
wanted to learn more about this county, to observe the beauty and to make new
friends.Places that I have visited are full of natural beauty and I think that they are not
properly promoted. I believe that we can fulfill this mission, to make known places in our
county, and through a volunteer project;we will make visible photos taken our trips and we
hope to be discovered by more people. "

Marina Garbea National College "Petru Rares"

The "Neamt County through the eyes of young people" meant a new challenge in terms of
experience in my development as an individual.For starters, I joined the project with great
enthusiasm, because I am an involved person in civil society and in general I participate in
such initiatives;and then knowing the team and plan to be followed in the project, I was
even more motivated to participate further.I believe that such initiatives to promote the
places in which we live are always auspicious and should be encouraged.

Manuela Berea Gymnasium School No.2 Piatra Neamt

"At first, I admit, I joined the project because the colleagues who are also some of my best
friends, advised me to sign up because I will not regret it and we'll have to share
unforgettable experiences.So I accepted their proposal and I registered myself in the
"Neamt County through the eyes of young people". Through this we discovered that this
county is more rich and interesting than I could ever believe.I learned many new

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information, which certainly will remain etched in my memory for years.Here, besides the
knowledge gained about the county and spectacular sights, I became friend with other
volunteers eventually becoming a beautiful and united family."

Sponsors and partners

Neamt County Council

Neamt County School Inspectorate
Neamt County Police Inspectorate
County Department of Sport and Youth
Department of Crime Prevention and Control of the Police Inspectorate Neamt
Center for Prevention, Evaluation and Counseling Centers of Neamt County
National Agency against Trafficking in Persons - Regional Centre Bacau
City Hall Svineti
City Hall Piatra Neamt
SC Perla Invest SRL
Technical College "Gheorghe Cartianu"
Solidarity and Hope Foundation - a subsidiary Svineti
Parish "Holy Kings" in Svineti
Foundation Vorel
Centre for Culture and Arts "Carmen Saeculare"
Humanitarian Organization "Hilfe fr Osteuropa Todtnau - Seelscheid e.V" in Germany
Association "Ursula Honeck" in Piatra Neamt
Riana Association for the development of life and family support
SC Dinamic 92 Distribution SRL
SC Arhiprint SRL
CSE Decebal Bacau

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Vanatori City Hall Neamt
SC Prodprosper SRL

Together for Social Solidarity Foundation
C.U.I.: 7933040
CEC Bank, Piatra Neam, Jud. Neam
IBAN ROL: RO46 CECE NT01 30RO N099 9002
Str. Mihail Sadoveanu, no.23
610077, Piatra Neam, Neam County, Romania

Web site:

Foundation FIS

Social Cooperative BAJKOLANDIA

It is a Polish social cooperative registered in 2010 by 5 unemployed young women in

Lezajsk Community-Podkarpackie Province.

General information

BAJKOLANDIA means the land of fairy tale" it is a daily playroom for children 1-5
years old, where the child can stay everyday or also come in, for a few hours. It is also a
good place for organizing a birthday party for children and their friends. It is fun for
children and comfort for parents. Average number of children: 18.

Other activities

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1.Hiring occasional costumes for children;

2.Classes for childbirth.

Context / Backgrounds/ History

Social Cooperative "BAJKOLANDIA" in Lezajsk was registered in December 2010. It

was created by five unemployed women directed and supported by Foundation-Academy
for Citizens. They did not know each other before, but the idea of founding a playroom for
small children was in their mind. Not all of them have pedagogical education. Among the
5 initial members of the cooperative were also people with different competencies - eg. a
person with a degree in economy who could run book-keeping and be responsible for all
financial accounts, and a person familiar with the English language, which may lead
lessons for children. It was managed to create a group of people with a flair for teaching
and organizational skills, which can cope with the daily functioning of cooperatives. The
members are young people who have own small children - running a playroom allowed
them not only to create jobs for themselves, but also to combine work with own family life.
In Leajsk operated 4 kindergartens, but there was no place where parents can leave the
child, if necessary, only for a few hours during the day. There was therefore a niche
market, which "Bajkolandia" had to fill.

Initial support cooperative members received from the District Labour Office in Lezajsk
and the Regional Development Agency. Supporting people from both institutions were not
limited only to conduct training on setting up and running a social cooperative, but also
transmitted the knowledge necessary in the initial period of activity - eg. to whom is worth
paying attention for financial support, and how to organize the promotion for the very
limited budget. About various formalities relating to proper adaptation of the building, the
team had to find out the knowledge themselves - primarily from the Internet.

Facilitation at the start was the factor that "Bajkolandia" is not kindergarten, but the
playroom, which organizes daily babysitting. That is why cooperative doesnt need a
permit from local educational authorities and no any control of them. Playroom just works
according to the rules of business.

Particularly challenging was finding premises. Initially, members of the cooperative were
looking for it on our own, but the rental costs exceed their financial capabilities.
Eventually, they managed to take over unused for a long time laundry building at a local
hospital. It was possible with the help of the director of the labor office and the local
governor. Renovation of premises consumed significant resources, and was financed by
money got to support the activities of the cooperative received by members of the
cooperative from the local employment office (3100 Euro for each member of the
cooperative). It was important to consult the modernization with a fire brigade and health
resort to achieve the standard of this kind of institution. Everything started from zero
point. Premises (approx. 140 sq. m) had to be adapted to the purpose of conducting the
playroom. Part of the work were done by the members of the cooperative. Partly, students
of the Technical School helped. The work was entrusted to a more complicated repair. The
construction team finished the work. Eventually, the cost proved to be higher than
expected. About 7000 Euro was offered by sponsors who financed purchase of equipment

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- furniture (kitchen, dressing room, office room, as well as chairs for children) and
household appliances.
"Bajkolandia" began to operate in September 2011. It was not without problems: due to
lack of promotion only few children came in. There were no money for the promotion of
cooperatives in the local community. At the beginning advertisements were in the local
newspapers and leaflets, printed by the cooperative members and putting in offices and in
the hospital. Gradually, after a few months, "Bajkolandia" began to be recognized.


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Currently, every day to "BAJKOLANDIA" came approx. 18 children at aged 1 to 5 years.
The fees are paid by their parents once a month; the amount depends on how many hours
each day the child will spend in the playroom and it is ranged from 60 Euro for 5 hours to
100 Euro for 9 hours. Care is conducted from Monday to Friday from 7.00 to 16.00.
Between these hours, the three fixed meals are organized. During the stay children learn to
dance and sing, they have art classes, develop their imagination and social competences.
An important objective is the integration of kids in the group, building and strengthening
social skills from the earliest stages of their life. It is also time for them to rest - always
after lunch.

In the "BAJKOLANDIA" you can also leave children occasionally, for hours, when a
parent needs to do something. The service costs from 2 Euro to 9 Euro.
From time to time, Bajkolandia organizes tours and events (eg. Mother's Day or Children's

In "BAJKOLANDIA" is a nice, home atmosphere. Children speak to tutors "Aunt" or

"Uncle." At the end of the day the children put toys, which previously enjoyed, so they are
learnt to maintain order. Under the care it is usually from 15 to 18 children permanently or
on several hours. In winter sometimes less, in summer while the other nursery schools are
closed, "Bajkolandia" has more kids.
Meals are prepared by the external catering company.

Art classes in BAJKOLANDIA

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Art classes in BAKJOLANDIA

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Common activities

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Educational activities

Birthday Party

Very popular are birthday parties. For this event any parent of the local and regional
community can order the organization of the party and bring to BAJKOLANDIA own
child and his/ her friends for the ceremony. It is not necessary to attend everyday classes.
The events are held on Saturdays and Sundays. Sometimes there are outdoor events.
Mostly companies and institutions ordered these events, rarely individuals - although such
a possibility also exists. Among people working together much easier is to organized a
group, interested in similar service and the organizational costs are spread over several
people. The social enterprise never can plan how many birthday parties will be ordered in a
month, so the income is also not taken into account when planning the total budget.

Birthday party offer: tickets for children for unlimited play time, color tableware birthday,
whistle, cap for each child, birthday cake, pizza, snacks, refreshment drinks and surprise to
choose: tattoos or twisting balloons.

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The rent of costumes for children
BAJKOLANDIA offers carnival costumes, fairytale costumes, ball costumes. It is very
convenient way for parents to select and have a costume for a child. Parents are very
pleased to have this opportunity and very frequent hiring the costumes for many
Price : 5 Euro for one costume.

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School of childbirth

School of childbirth helps to prepare for natural and active childbirth, parenting and infant
care by: show the role of proper nutrition in pregnant women, teaching relaxation,
breathing in order to use natural methods to relieve the pain of childbirth, to help prepare
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for breastfeeding newborn, learning to cope with care baby after the birth, the
understanding emotions that accompany parents during pregnancy and childbirth.

A series of classes - eight workshops for two hours conducted on Tuesdays from 17-19

The cost of such a cycle is 90 Euro.

Classes are run by qualified staff : midwife, rehabilitation therapist, instructor for

Poster for childbirth classes

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Activities in school of childbirth

Internal relationship and management

In Bajkolandia works 4 pedagogical staff who takes care of children and also 2 other
people under an employment contract in a different time: five of them were from the
beginning, the sixth one was employed with funds received from the Regional
Development Agency. Duties are divided fairly flexible. It also happens that you have to
be after hours or replace any of colleagues. All employees are involved in the care of
children and in organizing events; one person keep accounts, all decisions are taken

A significant role in running this kind of business, according to Paulina Nowak- the
president- is the human factor. Social cooperative should function as a democratic
community, a joint creation of all its members.
We have some strong discussions, but it does not lead to permanent conflict and division.
That is why it is important to choose suitable people to work with. In the case of
"Bajkolandia" cooperative members gathered little chance to be selected, however, they
turned out to be for each other and to be good partners creating a strong commitment to the
development of the business. From the start we had the considerable challenge with the
renovation of the building. It can be say, that the members of the cooperative were able to
develop principles of cooperation in difficult situations before playroom opened the door
and began to start normal daily life as a business.

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What means - the democratic style of management- It's not that I'm president and I'm
sitting in the office - but all of us put into this cooperative lot of work and it is important
to find a common language and understanding, all decision are made together - says
Paulina Nowak- the president.

In Bajkolandia employees are trying to develop new competences, taking trainings in the
classes, eg. in the animation of free time. They do not have funding for it, they do it on
own money trying to deepen their skills.

Cooperation with local environment

Cooperation with local institutions has always been very important to the cooperative -
thanks to the support and help of the local employment office and the county office, it was
possible to acquire the premises and develop social cooperative. Also, the fact that part of
the funds for the renovation of the building acquired from local businesses, and free help
and assistance of students of the Technical School during the renovation work, has allowed
the cooperative to survive a very difficult initial period.

At the same time it was managed to establish valuable contacts - with the director of the
hospital, on whose territory is "BAJKOLANDIA", with companies and offices, where
their workers and employees may be interested in organizing birthday parties for their
children in Bajkolandia.
Extremely important for Bajkolandia activities are the consultations with parents -it is a
simple and effective way to meet the needs of parents/ costumers and establish stable
relations with them.

In addition, cooperative members are trying to look in the local environment to find ideas
for new activities which correspond to the needs of parents of young children. Diagnosis
shall not be a formal. In Lezajsk, a small countryside region and little town community,
where networking is much faster than in larger centers, such conduct reconnaissance is
relatively simple. Permanent looking around for new ideas builds the image of the
cooperative Bajkolandia and portrayed the social cooperative as a flexible institution to
social needs.

The cooperative runs a website, advertises its activity in the local press and television,
prepares leaflets for the offices and for the hospital, but primarily Bajkolandia develops its
trademark thanks to the good care of children and good reputation in the local community.
Parents of children who come to "Bajkolandia" recommend it to friends. Word of mouth at
this stage is for the cooperative enough because "Bajkolandia" is a small enterprise and
takes a small number of children. For now, a significant increase of the charges seems to
be impossible - because of the small number of staff and small surface of the building. It
would be impossible to provide good care for more children.
The advantage of this form of promotion allows Bajkolandia to well grows into the local
community and make informal contacts, which may in the future expands the offer. In each
new activity collaboration with local institutions (administration, hospital, businesses) are
very useful, and in this way will be easier to establish good trade mark of

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Legal Form
BAJKOLANDIA is conducted in the form of social cooperatives. One of the disadvantage
of this legal form are limited opportunities to gain subsidies that could be spent on
economic activities. Mainly funds are allowed to spend on statutory activity. It is difficult
to expand the founds on other economical services.

The advantage is that the members were unemployed and they could count on individual
funding from the district labor office, for the renovation of the premises. Overall, the
creation of social cooperative was a great opportunity for people whose labor market
situation made it difficult or even impossible to find investment for open the company. In
the longer term, BAJKOLANDIA intends to apply for public benefit status, which will
allow it to use the statutory law.

BAJKOLANDIA is a young cooperative, but has already managed to stabilize the financial
and organizational matters. Its members slowly try to create new activities and extend the
The most important result is that the group of 6 unemployed was able to create for
themselves a place of work and at the same time to set up a base (children playroom),
supporting the residents of Lezajsk county to combine their professional and family life.
There is a new modern place where parents can leave a child.

It should be noted as well, that BAJKOLANDIA is open for all year, during the summer
and vacation, offering professional care also in the summer months and contributes to
expand the service offering childcare addressed to the local community. It is also very
flexible, tailored to the needs of parents - an example of this provided by the cooperative is
hours care.

In Lezajsk and surroundings was no any parental school, classes for pregnant women who
wants to learn how to be prepared for giving the birth. That is why it was strong intention
of the Bajkolandia staff to arrange and open new initiative- school of childbirth. The young
staff saw the need for local community. Big plus is, that the cooperative is located in the
hospital, so leading prenatal classes are based on the cooperation with hospital staff. And
this idea was successful. In 2013 the prenatal classes were opened.

Hints, conclusion

"Bajkolandia" has to be very flexible in relation to the needs of customers. The trends of
modern activities for children have been always in the progress and changeable. So, the
staff has to adapt very quickly new methods, techniques of children entertainment, new
kinds of events to cover parents expectation. It is important to create opportunities for
parents to report their suggestions and react on them. In this way, parents have confidence
that the staff responds to their needs, and childcare is carried as they expect.

It is difficult to assume in advance the number of children under the care orders or for
occasional events. Flexibility is also needed at work every day. In the cooperative works
only six people, it happens that you need to replace a sick colleague. The flexibility is

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possible because the staff members treat Bajkolandia like common business, express
joint interest and they are ready to devote extra time at any time.


In 2010 year BAJKOLANDIA was awarded by the President of Poland in the category-
The way for the success.

On 22 July 2013 Paulina Nowak-the president and the vice-president Justyna Solek were
awarded by deputy speaker of the Podkarpackie Region and got congratulatory letter
from The Marshal of the Podkarpackie Province for social cooperative "Bajkolandia.
This award is a tribute to the initiative of the cooperatives for people whose business has a
special dimension and importance for the local community and for the promotion of
innovative and creative solutions in the field of social economy.

BAJKOLANDIA in a newspaper- July 2013

On the left side is the representative of Ministry Department- Zofia Szalczyk, in the
middle is the president Paulina Nowak, on the right side is vice-president Justyna Solek.

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Five happy young women with prizes and own children, who created the job for
ourselves combining professional work with own private life. For the first month they
paid ourselves 25 Euro per month for each of them. For the next initial months they
didnt earn anything. Now, after 5 years they can earn quite enough money for
normal life. What a determination and success!


Price list:
One-time entrance to Bajkolandia:
The first hour of care of the child 2 Euro.
Every next hour 1,5 Euro.
Monthly fixed fee (5 days per week, paid by 10th of each month, including participation in

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daily activities).
5 hours per day 60 Euro per month
7 hours a day 75 Euro per month
8 hours per day 85 Euro per month
9 hours a day - 100 Euro per month
The cost of a one-day meals- 2 Euro

SWOT Analysis

Strong points
Very good team determinated to lead social enterprise;
Good opinion and position in local community and all regional and local
Provider of job for 6 unemployed people;
Local population trust the social enterprise BAJKOLANDIA;
The employees and workers are from the rural area and know each other;
BAJKOLANDIA team is like a one family;
Very creative and energetic staff and members of the board;
Good strategy of the development;
Good relations with all local decision makers that help as much as possible,
Variety of service for small children;
Lower costs for salary payment because in the rural area the salaries are
A lot of voluntary work.

Weak points

The playroom has got constant problem of the room equipment, especially toys
and art materials, which are used very quickly;
Limited money and grants for further developing;
Not enough surface to develop other activities for children;
Devotion a lot of private time for social enterprise.

Key competences for developing this kind of a social business:

Pedagogical education
Experiences in management
Good knowledge of book-keeping
Open mind
Strategic vision of the social enterprise
The willingness to work with small children
Serious and responsible team.

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Prepared by Katarzyna Jaworska- Stadnik- researcher in ERA+ project in Fundacja
Integracji Spolecznej FIS.

Rzeszw-Poland , 30 May 2016

More info about BAJKOLANDIA

Eesti People to People

Description of the community where the social enterprise was created and of the
social problem that will be solved

Tagurpidi Lavka
Legal Form: NGO
Date of Establishment: August 9th, 2009
Sector: Development of rural areas, environment, health
Target Group: Estonian farmers, Estonian consumers

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Social Purpose: The goal of Tagurpidi Lavka is to confront people who live in urban areas
with the question where their food comes from and to promote organic farming and fair
prices for Estonian local small-scale farmers.

Problem Solving Approach: By bringing local and organic food produced by Estonian
small-scale farmers into the cities, Tagurpidi Lavka promotes local and environmentally
friendly farming and eating. Moreover, it supports economic development in Estonias
rural areas.

Impact: Tagurpidi Lavka cooperates with about 50 local farmers and delivers their
products to a couple of hundred people living in urban areas.

Revenue Model: Revenue is generated from the sale of farming products.

In 6 hours Tagurpidi Lavka makes 200 km distance aroud Estonia and collect products
from farmers. Link to farms:

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The author of idea of Tagurpidi Lavka is Martin Varvas. Tagurpidi Lavka was established
by his friends Riinu Lepa, Madis Aija, Marek Koit, Mona Mgi, Katri Sander, Epp Sillaste,
Kristjan Tamm, Piret Kmmel and Maria Kullamgi. Later also Rista Koit and Elle and
Urmas Gratkov joined the team. Now Lavkas has many friends and volunteers aroud.
The members of the Board of Tagurpidi Lavka MT/NGOare Marek Koit, Riinu Lepa,
Mona Mgi and Epp Sillaste.

Riinu Lepa Elle Meikar

Urmas Gratkov
Tegevjuht Laojuhataja
Tel +3725035708
Tel +372 53494120 Tel +372 5073046

The goal of the social enterprise TagurpidiLavka is to make local food products of
Estonian small farms in particular more available to people living in Estonia especially
those living in cities. Moreover,TagurpidiLavka wants to make local food products their
preferred choice, so that their consumer habits would be more environmentally friendly
and support the local rural economy. In order to reach these goals, TagurpidiLavka buys
food products from small farmers in rural Estonia and sells them in and around Tallinn. It
sells the products on trade fairs, festivals and via our online store, where clients can order
products in advance and have them delivered right up to their front door. In addition,
TagurpidiLavka informs its clients and the wider public about the advantages of buying
and eating local food. To make service even more environmentally friendly,

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TagurpidiLavka reuses most of packaging and use as much biodegradable packaging as
possible. Also, it prefers organically grown and produced food products.

How does TagurpidiLavka create change in the Estonian society?

TagurpidiLavka pays local farmers and producers a fair price for their products. It doesnt
force them to accept the lowest price possible, but instead sit down with them to reach a
common agreement keeping in mind the farmers situation and market prices. The clients
in Tallinn have placed an average of 12,7 orders over the course of the last three years.
More than 210 clients have ordered products on a regular basis (every month).

TagurpidiLavka is a self-sustainable social enterprise. It used the additional entrepreneurial

income generated in previous years to expand and better equip warehouse in Tallinn.

TagurpidiLavka as a social enterprise total income in 2013 was 51.652 and

entrepreneurial income 51.652 . Number of employees was 1.

Desired impact: Estonian farmers and small producers have an increased access to the
market. Over the last 10 years, the number of farms in Estonia has decreased by 60%. Back
in 2001, approximately 140.600 individuals were working in the agricultural sector. In
2011, only approximately 57.800 were left, which means that over the last decade, 82.800
individuals have abandoned or were forced to abandon their farming activities.

The famous products ofTagurpidi Lavka are:

Dark bread from Muhu island with seeds.

Price 3,45

"Marmelade" from carrots. Price2,95

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Pasternak. Price 2,80

Birch juice Birch ginger (6 x 333ml


TagurpidiLavka primarily works with small farmers and producers. A small share of the
products make available in Tallinn also comes from producers who would be considered
large producers in the Estonian context. Thats because they couldnt find those specific
products from small farmers or producers.

TagurpidiLavka generated an average additional income of 110 per month for their local
farmers in 2013. Also, two individuals were enabled to start farming activities (producing
their own goods and selling via TagurpidiLavka). Without TagurpidiLavka, these local
farmers would not have had enough market access to even start their activities.

The story of KpsikodaKpsikoda

It was founded in 2013 by three young women who wanted to sell hand-made cookies
made exclusively of vegetarian ingredients. TagurpidiLavka met these enthusiastic ladies
on a trade fair, really liked their cookies and added them to the selection of food products
in the TagurpidiLavka online store. So far, this has been the best marketing channel for
Kpsikoda. Trade fairs dont take place often enough to generate a steady income. As a
start-up, its hard for Kpsikoda to meet the requirements of big supermarket chains.
Without an organic label, its also hard for them to sell their products in eco shops. But
with TagurpidiLavka, Kpsikoda has the opportunity to market and sell their products on a
regular basis to a wider range of clients.

Desired impact: the food found on Tallinns dining tables becomes more environmentally
friendly and supports the local economy.

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According to the most recent costumer survey, 80% of clients in Tallinn say that their food
buying habits become healthier and more environmentally friendly thanks to the service
offered by TagurpidiLavka. 83% of clients used to buy some or all of these products in
traditional supermarkets. Each week, TagurpidiLavka collect used packaging from own
clients and reuses it, like for instance jars, glass bottles, egg packaging, cardboard boxes,
plastic boxes and plastic bags.

Annelis story

Anneli has been ordering food products from TagurpidiLavka once a week since 2011. I
started ordering from TagurpidiLavka when my baby was old enough for supplementary
feeding. I wanted to give my child as much organic and fresh food as possible, says
Anneli. Some people have parents who live in the countryside and get fresh food from
them. We dont, but we get our stuff from TagurpidiLavka. I know that their products are
fresh and of high quality. I dont even remember what eggs from the supermarket taste
like, but I know that I like eggs from TagurpidiLavka much more. And if I really wanted
to, I could find out the name of the cow whose milk I drink. When asked about their
consumer habits, Annely responds We buy our food according to the season now: more
fresh stuff during summer and less during winter. The way we make food has also
changed: we plan our meals in advance and as a result throw away less food.

The activities of Tagurpidi Lavka were supported by:

Olympic Casino Online stipendium.
Telephone company EMT in Minu Eesti campaign bought small car for this social
Donations from Ilja, Maris, Berit ja Lauri, Kaili, Mirvet ja Helina .. all together
1400 Estonian kronas.
Katusekino support castomers with tickets to the cinema.
Magazine Cosmopolitan gave one year subscription for active castomers.
Shanti salong and Tarvi Massaaituba with their prices.
Estonian Social Enterprise Network

Estonian Social Enterprise Network Telliskivi 60a, 10412 Tallinn, Estonia. E-mail:

The Estonian Social Enterprise Network has currently 42 members in addition to which
they are expecting more interested organizations to join. The membership is 20 per year.
Any legal person willing to play an active role in implanting the objectives of this network
as well as meeting the statutes and the following criteria can be a member:
members are companies or a non-governmental organizations which have been
operating for at least one year;

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the objectives mentioned in the members statutes as well as their everyday
business operations are aimed at creating a positive change in our society;
members are willing to conduct a form of impact measurement;
members have made a legally binding commitment to invest 100%of their profits
and property into their statutes objectives;
members are trying to achieve the statutes objectives through the sales of goods or
services and the annual share of income based on these entrepreneurial activities
should be at least 35%;
members pay a membership fee;
members operate according to Estonian law and try to live up to the best practice
cases in their sector.
Organizations interested in joining the network can contact SEV via

The Estonian Social Enterprise Network (SEV) is constantly cooperating with international
organizations that aim at supporting the development of the social entrepreneurship and
social innovation sector (e.g. Euclid, SIX, and so on). Moreover, SEV is cooperating with
other Social Enterprise Networks and advocacy organizations around the world
(e.g. Senscot, Assist Social Capital, Finnish Association for Social Enterprises).

Priorities for international cooperation:

1) Defining, evaluation and communicating impact for social enterprises. Currently,
SEV has developed a standardized format to build impact evaluation capacity for social
enterprises and publish their theories of change / indicators / stakeholder stories in an
attractive format. In addition, SEV have developing a standardised set of outcome / impact
indicators for own members.
2) Creating positive awareness (e.g by creating consumer label) among the consumers
about the goods / services of social enterprises to increase their sales. Currently SEV is
gathering international experience and forming a team to tackle the challenge.
3) Incubating social enterprise start-ups. Estonian first incubator exclusively for social
enterprises started in autumn 2013. There have been / are going on some other start-up
programs as well. So experience exchange about effective incubation would be of great
value for SEV.

Events and activities organized by the Estonian Social Enterprise Network for its members
and individuals interested in social entrepreneurship focus mainly on the following three

Member meetings
Members come together to meet each other face to face two or three times a year.
During those meetings, the social enterprises get to know each other better, to find
possibilities for cooperation, to learn from each others success stories, and so on.
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Advice for potential social enterprises
If you have a business idea and/or a societal need in your heart, but you are not
sure how to further develop it, we offer you feedback and help you to dive deeper
into social entrepreneurship and related topics in order to help you overcome the
Lectures and seminars on social entrepreneurship
SEV team attends different events to discuss or explain what social
entrepreneurship is.

Does Estonia now have a specific legal form for social enterprises or not?
Social entrepreneurship emerges where pro-active change-makers find possibilities to meet
societal needs through entrepreneurial activities. All over the world, social entrepreneurs
are in the process to define the existing legal situation for social enterprises and to
improve it. In some countries, this process has already ended up in the institutionalization
of a new legal form for social enterprises. Great Britain for instance introduced a legal
form called community interest company.

Estonia does not have a specific legal form for social enterprises yet. Most social
enterprises operate as non-profit associations or foundations. Some social enterprises also
operate as limited-liability companies (for example Meditech Estonia and Humana
Sorteerimiskeskus). The Estonian Social Enterprise Network decided not to limit its
membership to a certain legal form. However, other criteria, such as a clear societal
purpose, no profit distribution and willingness to conduct impact analysis have to be
fulfilled in order to become a member of the network.

How can we find our way through the legal jungle?

The lawyers from legal firm VARUL have been a great help to the Estonian Social
Enterprise Network in this regard. Thank you, Martin Tamme, Triinu Kinkar and Sergei
Jegorov! They voluntarily helped us create the Legal Assistant for Social Entrepreneurs
(spring 2012) to help:
understand the possibilities for conducting viable business in the legal frame of
non-profit associations and foundations,
provide companies (LLC) with greater clarity on their possibilites for setting
themselves societal purposes and restrictions to avoid profit distribution.

Estonian Social Enterprise Network in cooperation with Statistics Estonia and Network of
Estonian Nonprofit Organizations implemented a project in 2013-2014 with the main
objective to create a methodological and technical solution for regular mapping of
economic impact of social enterprise sector in Estonia.The project was funded by
European Union.Outcomes of the project were a first statistical overview of social
enterprise sector in Estonia and a methodology for mapping the economic impact of social

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enterprises. The methodology developed in Statistics Estonia can be used for repetitive
studies in future.

The economic impact of social enterprises was surveyed mainly on the basis of
information presented in their annual reports, especially in profits and losses accounts. In
addition to this the data of age, number employees, VAT liability, benefit from income tax
incentives, existence of exports and volumes of exports were surveyed.

The sample consisted of 125 social enterprises and was composed based on data for 2012.
Data was studied for the period 2009-2012. The members of the Estonian Social Enterprise
Network and the other potential social enterprises acting in the form of non-profit
institutions and foundations were involved in the survey. Sampling was done partly using
automatic selection based on defined criteria and partly by manual selection.

As there is no definition for social enterprises in Estonia, the main features of social
enterprise introduced by European Commission were used for current project:

1) Entrepreneurial activity, i.e. income from producing goods and/or selling services.
Criterion worked out in the framework of project: annual sales revenue must exceed 16
thousands euro, which is the lowest limit for VAT obligation established by Tax and
Customs Office.

2) An explicit aim to benefit the community. Criterion social purpose of unit is found on
the basis of information of its annual report and statutes.

3) Limited profit distribution. In addition to members of the Estonian Social Enterprise

Network only non-profit organisations and foundations were involved to survey, because
these units cannot distribute profits. Among ESEN members there are some business
organisations, which have committed to no profit division to owners.

4) Social enterprise has to be independent and democratic. Criterion set for this project:
social enterprise must be independent of government, so the state-related units are
excluded. In addition, social enterprise has to be independent of enterprises, which
excludes the associations of enterprises and organisations created by enterprises or by their

The main conclusions and messages were derived based on the study results:
1) Social enterprises offer effective solutions in various fields of activities in Estonia. A
total of 54% social enterprises are spread between various activity fields, while 38% have
defined social welfare as their field of activity and 7% are operating in the field of
education. Considering the existing variety of the social enterprises, we can assume that
the capacity and potential to contribute in many fields of activity is very high.

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2) The social enterprise sector is viable and has proven its existence in Estonia. Many
social enterprises have a history of more than ten years. The average entrepreneurial
income in the sector is 66% of the total income and one third of social enterprises do not
include donations or funds as an income. The main economic indicators show upward
trend and did so also at the time of recession. The annual growth in business revenue
across social enterprise sector has been at 18% in 2009-2012, while the gain in the number
of units has averaged 7%.

3) The social enterprise sector in Estonia is very small. For opening the potential it is
needed to create support mechanisms for the escalation of the existing social enterprises
and creation of new social enterprises. So, that the societal impact that social enterprises
create, would be broad and systematic.

More about social entrepreneurship in Estonia read here:

Estonia Impact Group

The Estonia Impact Group was established in May 2013 to promote the importance of
social impact analysis and increase its practice in Estonia.
The need for social impact analysis has been accepted by all major stakeholders in Estonia.
However, there has been very slow progress in developing and implementing solutions to
widen the practice and increase its quality. The Impact Group will play a major role in
bringing stakeholders together, setting shared objectives and coordinating efforts.
The aims of the group are:
To bring together key stakeholders to work on a common vision and understanding
around the development of the social impact analysis field in Estonia
Agree a set of standardised practices around social impact analysis that can then be
agreed upon by the majority of relevant stakeholders in Estonia
A forum to exchange experience and best practice around social impact analysis
with other countries and international organisations
The current focus is developing and disseminating a web-based solution for standardised
impact mapping and communication of civil society organisations (including social
enterprises). The process involves a wide set of stakeholders, as the aim is to change the
way public benefit organisation and their supporters analyse impact.
The group is championed by Jaan Aps from Stories for Impact and the Estonian Social
Enterprise Network, an Individual Member of Social Value International. Ongoing work
related to impact mapping solution is currently financed by Estonian Ministry of the
Interior and National Foundation of Civil Society.

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The project for the Reinforcement of Womens Rights and Societal Gender Equality

If the Subject is Woman..

Description of the community (demography , unemployment , environment , etc)

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Location and Demography

Kocaeli province is located at the easternmost end of the Marmara Sea around the Gulf of
zmit.The population of Kocaeli Province is 1.722.795.The population density is 464
people per square kilometre.It is the 6th most crowded city in Turkey.

The rate of literacy is %96,7 in Kocaeli.Kocaeli urbanization rate, in terms of the overall
employment rate, is above the average of Turkey .It is the second largest metropolis after
Istanbul,and has been making an important contribution to the Turkish Manufacturing
Industry for the past 20 years.

The weight of the young population of Kocaeli province is remarkable. 40% of the
province's population is under the age of 25 in 2013 .Kocaeli annual population growth
rate in 2013 was 25.1 . The literacy rate for the population over 6 years in the same year
is 97.2 % (excluding unknown ) . The net migration rate was %9.8 in the years 2012-2013.


Industry is the dominant economic sector in Kocaeli. It is also a transportation hub, being
on the main highway and railway lines between Istanbul and Ankara and having a major

Kocaeli has a large oil refinery, major paper and cement factories.In recent years, the
province has witnessed the the growth of the Turkish automotive industry, with Ford,
Hyundai, Honda and Isuzu heavily investing in the area.Inaddition,tyre and rubber
products are produced by Goodyear, Pirelli, Lassa and Bridgestone. Turkey's largest
enterprise, the Tpra Petroleum Refinery Plant, is in Kocaeli, containing altogether 27%
of the national chemical products industry, including petrochemical products. Eighteen of

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the 100 largest enterprises of Turkey are in Kocaeli and contribute to around 17%-18% of
the national tax revenues.

Unemployment Figures

Unemployment rate was%10.1 in Kocaeli in 2013.

Trkiyestatistik Kurumu,2014GenelNfusSaymVerileri
TurkStat main Labour Force Indicators by Province,2013

Description of the person , group of persons that initiated the enterprise, what was
their motivation

KocaeliKltrelGeliimveDayanmaDernei(Kocaeli Cultural Development&Solidarity

Organisation) is a non-governmental and non-profit organisation.As its name
implies,KOGED is mainly engaged in activities aiming at the cultural development of the
community,personal development of individuals,charity actions and awareness-raising
campaigns for social issues.Hence;theorganisation has been organizing non-formal training
activities and events such as meetings&workshops to raise the communitys awareness of
the important social issues.It has also been implementing national and international
projects to achieve the previously stated aims.Amongst the issues KOGED has addressed
so far are equity,genderequality,domesticabuse,womensrights,volunteerism,vocational
guidance by professionals ,intergenerational learning,social&basic skills training such as
linguistic and ICT and the development of the civil society organisations.

Kocaeli is a big industrial city.It offers a wide range of job opportunities to people with
skills&qualifications and also those without skills.This is why the city always receives
many immigrants from the other parts of Turkey,especially the
eastern&southeasternAnatolia.Despite the abundance of jobs,thereis still a large number of
unemployed people which makes them socially and economically disadvantaged,especially
the girls and women in such families.Also,the issue of gender equality is often ignored in
such fields as education and employment which are the two of the leading human rights.
Konu Kadnsa was inspired and written with the thought of raising the public awareness
of the human rights of women.

The organization applied to the United Nations Joint Program forPromotingthe Human
Rights of Women,whichwasthesecondjoint program
fundedsolelybytheSabanciFoundation,aleading CSO in Turkey,andwasimplemented in 11
pilot citiesbetween 2012 and 2015.

The said Programme wa simplemented by :

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United Nations Development Program (UNDP)
United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN
Sabanci Foundation
Ministry of Interior
Ministry of NationalEducation
Ministry of FamilyandSocialPolicy
Union of Municipalities of Turkey

The Program Objective

The main objective of the Programwas to accelerate the implementation of gender equality
commitments at the local level and to improve the capacity of local governments, public
authorities and NGOs that work in the area of gender equality in order to contribute to the
reinforcement of womens rights.

For further info:

Description of the Project

Having been coordinated by KOGED,the project had two other partners :

KocaeliUniversity ,Kadn Sorunlar Aratrma Merkezi (Research Center for Womens

problems ,KASAUM)
BaiskeleBelediyesi Kent Konseyi Kadn Meclisi(,Baiskele Municipality City Council
Women Assembly,BKK KM)

The number and profession of the employees

One person,namely,the chairperson of KOGED and a teacher herself,worked full-time on

the project.Fouremployees workedpart-time on the project, two of whom were university
lecturers from KocaeliUniversity.One employee was also a teacher and the remaining
employee worked for the Municipality.

One volunteer gave linguistic training to the trainees on a part-time basis.

The headmistress of a local primary school,an affiliateof KOGEDs in the project, also
provided invaluable support during the project duration.

The description of the Target Group, number and profile of the beneficiaries

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The project aimed to address 1.000 people for awareness- raising activities.It involved 150
people in the planned training activity.The training was delivered to 20 girls and 20 boys
between the ages 12 and 15, 20 staff member male personnel-of Basiskele Municipality,
25doubly disadvantaged women and 50 parents.Thedefinition of
doubledisadvantages is that not onlyweretheselectedtargetgroup women,but
somewere disabled
ostalleconomicallydisadvantaged.All of thewomenwereregistered at

Aims of the Project

to raise the publics awareness of 1)the human rights of women&girls and 2)societal
gender equality.
to ensure womens participation in local and national decision-making processes
to strengthen the collaboration and dialogue between CSOs championing for womens
rights in the community.
to establish a network among the above-mentioned civil society organisations.

The Description of the Activities

The partners organised a series of meetings and events to promote and disseminate the
project throughout the project lifecycle.They invited the local press and media
representatives to the kick-off meeting and other large-scale workshops and publicity
events they organised for the local stakeholders.

Before the actual societal gender equality training started,the lecturers implemented a pre-
training questionnaire to understand how the trainees perceived of gender equality.The
post-training assessment questionnaire gave the partners an overall idea about if the
training had made a difference in the trainees perception and interpretation of gender

150 trainees were trained by the two university lecturers within a period of 6 months.

As a result of the training,the lecturers had an understanding of how they could practice
gender equality principles at school and parents and students had an understanding of how
they could implement this approach within their households.

An e-group was formed with the members of other women organisations active in Kocaeli
and this platform was used to invite the members to the project-related events and to keep
them up-to-date with the latest developments in the project.

Baiskele is a relatively new rural settlement,the main livelihood of the community are
fishery and agriculture. In addition,the town has a large number of immigrants who lead a
secluded life within their households.The project partners decided to organise handcraft
training for the target women so that they could produce cloth bags for use in the kitchens.
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25 disadvantaged women,who were also trainees at the societal gender equality
training,attended a three-monthhandscraft training to make small cloth bags for the storage
of grains in the kitchens and they sold them later to earn money.The materials for the bags
were funded by the project.The bags were put on sale on the project and the Municipalitys
website.The project partners also helped the women to market their bags.Some 200 bags
were sold at once. Some trainees still embroider these bags and have been selling them

Another activity was to write and direct a theatrical play concerned with the project
topic.The trainees acted in the play .This was one of the highlights of the project and it
was so highly-praised that the women performed twice on two different days to the great
applause of the audience.It was also a huge boost to their self-confidence.

Arts and essay-writing competitions focusing on the project topic were organised at
ehitSelukGkda Primary School.

Social activities such as local excursions-daytrip to Istanbul&Bursa-, brunches on

Mothers Day & the World Womens Day were organised for the target group.

The results & outputs

Further recognition and raised awareness of the project topic in the beneficiaries,the
target group and wider community;
Personal&social development of the target group and all the project beneficiaries;
Increased self-esteem in the target group;
Personal and professional development in the trainers and the project staff;
Improved relationships with elevantlocal &national organisations , increased possibility
for further cooperation;
good publicity for the partner organisations;
at the end of the project, a model was developed for the Equality Department that
would be established within the premises of Basiskele Municipality;
A print booklet with an electronic version was published at the end of the project. This
booklet contained information about the project, results of the survey on gender equality,
the methodologies adopted, the proposed risks and solutions;
Special appearance on BakAsprogramme on TV41 ,a regional TV channel with
about 1 mil viewers

Quotes from the Project Staff

Saime from KOGED,technical staff and volunteer:

I learned new things about the project topic,namely,societal gender equality.I have also
been impressed with the working methodology of the grant provider.As I am a teacher and
have male students,I have been sharing with them whatever new experiences I have .

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We have established a network with the local CSOs and Women Councils ,which have
contributed further to my knowledge of the subject.I also noticed that there is a lot to learn
about societal gender equality for all of us;we have gained the ability in this project to
share what we have learnt with the others.

Glhan from KOGED,the project writer and the manager:

Societal gender equality is a new topic for me ,too.I am a teacher,through this project,I
have had a better insight into what my attitudes towards boys and girls should be .My
perception of societal gender equality before the project was vague,I understand what it
involves better now that we have completed the project.I think that many people are like I
used to be;they have a vague idea about what societal gender equality means but they need
to know more about it.

As the project coordinator,the most important quality I put into use was patience.I and my
teammates were sometimes frustrated as some trainees were unwilling to attend the
training at times.We had to use our persuasion abilities at such times.Also,I and my
colleagues had to be sympathetic at all times,our target group were vulnerable and easily
offended due to their special conditions.We were extra careful not to hurt their feelings.

Some unexpected problems occurred within the project lifecycle,such as shortage of funds
for certain activities of the project,the unplanned changes in the time table of the training
due to the work of the Municipality staff etc.I believe that I and my colleagues have
improved our conflict resolution skills due to these unexpected and unplanned for

The project has improved my managerial skills and it was a new experience for my
organisation.As it was selected by Sabanc Foundation as a successful project,we have
been invited to many events where I had the opportunity to disseminate the project and
increase the visibility of KOGED.We have expanded our network through our joint work
with the University and the Municipality.

znur from BaiskeleMunicipality,the assistant to the project manager:

This project has enabled me to analyse how much the women around me are aware of
their own rights and how much they have been benefiting from the execution of these
rights. I believe that this project has changed people.It has opened up new ways to change
peoples perception of gender equality.

This project has also made it possible for me to get to know people better.I have noticed
the my male colleagues positive and negative attitudes to women.I have also noticed how
unaware our target group of women are of their own rights.

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I wrote and directed the play for the project.It has contributed to my capabilities of writing
and directing.

As I was the assistant to the coordinator in the project,my position has honed my
managerial skills.As in the case of all staff,I sometimes needed to use my persuasive

AyeglGkalp,lecturer/trainer/academician from Kocaeli University:

It was the first time I worked with a disadvantaged group.I had had no experience at all.I
thought about how I was going to train them at the beginning.Their educational level was
so low and their knowledge of human rights was almost nil.Yet,they were so enthusiastic
about the project.We created good synergy in the training.I adjusted the curriculum
according to their level.I am so happy to be part of this project,it has been a great
experience for me.

ElifKaragn,lecturer/trainer/academician from Kocaeli University:

Each woman I met in his project has been a new experience for me.I believe that I have
gained a lot in terms of knowledge and experience.Also,the university has assigned me to
new projects concerned with abused women thanks to my participation in this project.I
believe that thia has made a positive impact on my career.I also became a member of
KOGED.I participated in another activity organised by a colleague I worked with in this
project.The project targeted disabled children. I met new people thanks to this project and
my network has grown .

Yasemin, learner/trainee/beneficiary:

aged 35,mother of two,she stayed at a shelter for women

I am very happy to be included in this project.I have noticed that there are some people
out tere working for me.I have also realised that I am also an individual and valuable.I
now know what my rights are and what kind of behaviours and attitudes are considered to
be abusive.I have self-confidence now.I visited Istanbul for the first time in my life thanks
to this project.

(Yasemin has got a job after this project and she is still working.)

Raife,learner/trainee/beneficiary:Aged 40,disabled,uses wheelchair

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I did not want to take part in the project at first.It was hard for me to get out,especiall in
bad weather.However,the Municipality provided transport for me to go to the project
activities.I became more sociable once I started going out.I started to feel better.I liked the
handcraft classes a lot.I earned money for the first time in my life.I noticed that I was
capable of doing things.I went on daytrips with the target group and the project staff.I wish
the project had continued.I have still been talking to Mrs Butun,the Chairperson of
KOGED.I met new people,we are still in contact on the Internet.

(Raifewas one of the most skilled trainees,she is still making money from embroidering
cloth bags and selling them)

Lessons learned

The project staff gained more experience and insight into :

how to launch social entrepreneurship projects which have high-potential of significant

positive social impact;
direct energy and limited resources to efficiently launching those projects with the most
how to encourage the target groups,who were unwilling at first to share their views with
others, to converse with a larger audience;
how to overcome setbacks&challenges to motivate the target groups and local
how to make achievements against many odds that came up within the project lifetime,
howto adapt models or processes from different similar projects and regions for
successful implementation with local conditions;
how to foster the development of good organizational values, vision, and ethics for all to
follow as well as the ability to build trust;
how to encourage community cohesion by bringing persons from the different segments
of the community together;
how to engage with the local community thanks to the project work;
how to help encourage better integration and change perceptions;
how to create and implement a social entrepreneurship project;
what the local community, represented by the target groups of the project ,think of
societal gender equality issues and other related topics.

The project staff at KOGED gained or put into use the following skills:

Leadership. Because they they took the initiative and action to solve a specific problem
in the community;
Grit. The project staff tested their abilities for perseverance, passion, and hard work
the relentless drive to achieve goals, complete commitment to achieving their task;
Resilience in the face of adversities, obstacles, challenges, and failures;
Creativity and innovation. The project staff learned how to see new possibilities and
think in unconventional ways in the face of challenges and obstacles;

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Empathy. The project staff tested their sense of empathy by putting themselves in the
shoes of others, and imagine their perspectives other than their own;
Emotional and social intelligence. The staff tested their skills in connecting with others
and building strong relationships.

The project staff also learnt and experienced at first hand how social entrepreneurship is
vital to the progress of societies and why it should be promoted.They expect their project
to set an example for other civil society organisations to get involved in similar projects.

The beneficiaries learnt and /or improved important life skills and realized that they can
create change for themselves and for their community.

The picture story of Konu KadinsaSA

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Konu Kadnsa Kick-off Meeting,Kocaeli University,September 2013

Events & actvtes

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World Women s Day,8th MarchEnglish course for the Trainees

Gender Equality Workshop with male traineesKonuKadnsa Theatre Group

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The project team on TV41 Workshop with Pioneer Women

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Project dissemination at the NGOs PlatformDissemination at Kocaeli CSOs Platform

The Training,trainer&KOGED ChairpersonEnd of the training,award-ceremony

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KOGED Chairperson,as one of the three panelists at the Program Advisory Council Meeting
of the United Nations Joint Program for Promoting the Human Rights of Women ,funded by
Sabanc Foundation, on 23 February 2015

From the press:

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Bulgarian Development Agency (BDA)

Description of the community (demography, unemployment, environment, etc) where

the social enterprise was created and of the social problem that will be solved

Northwest Region, Bulgaria

Quick facts about Northwest region

In Bulgarian (Native transliteraion):

Other transliteration(s): Northwest, Northwestern
Region: North-Western planing region of Bulgaria
Latitude: 43.2412012
Longtitude: 24.0655518

The North West planning region includes Districts of Vidin, Montana, Vratsa, Pleven and
Lovech. This is the weakest region in terms of economic strength, contributing about 6.2%
(2001) to the country`s Gross Value Added. The main industries are in the energy and chemical
sectors. The leader in the energy sector is the nuclear power plant "Kozlodui", generating 43%
of the total electricity in the country.

The Northwest region includes the districts of Vidin, Montana, Vratsa, Pleven, Lovech and
included them in 51 municipalities. The area covers the western part of the Danube plain,
locked between the Balkan Mountains and the Danube. It borders with Romania and Serbia.

People GDP
with per
Regions Territory Population Municipalities Cities GDP* nt
higher capita
education *

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. number % number number lv. %

Bulgaria 111 002 7364570 ?! 264 257 70 511 9395 63.9
Northwest 19 070 847138 14,8 51 45 5 057 ?! 58.5
Vidin 3 033 101018 13,9 11 7 501 4730 53.0
Vratsa 3 620 186848 14,9 10 8 1 509 7797 58.6
Lovech 4 129 141422 15,6 8 8 841 5684 60.9
Montana 3 636 148098 12,2 11 8 749 4894 57.8
Pleven 4 653 269752 16,2 11 14 1 458 5088 59.5
Main characteristics of the region

Source: NSA
*Data for GDP is for 2010

The area of the region is 19,070 km or 17% of the country.

The population of the region in 2011 was 847 138 e., A population density of 44.42 g /
km, significantly lower than the national average 65.7 percent (2011, NSA). These are the
lowest figures among all regions. The area is sparsely populated territory in certain parts of
nature depopulated territory. In the period 2001-2011, the population decreased by 190
thousand. E., Or 18.3%. This is the largest absolute and relative decline in population of all


The favorable geographical position, preserved natural beauty and cultural heritage are
an opportunity for tourism development and growth potential of the tourism industry;
The quality of the environment increase the attractiveness of the area for living, business
and tourism;
Transport infrastructure - trans-European transport corridors - 4 and 7 (Danube),
ports and ferry complexes, multimodal transport and the second bridge over the river.
River at Vidin - Calafat are potentials for business development and tourism, as well as for
effective cross-border cooperation;
The Danube River has serious transport and energy potential and water resources is
essential to the economic development of the region;
Availability of quality and efficient use of land resources.

Vratsa Software school

The social enterprise is established in 2015 by two software university students Emilian
Kadiiski and Teodor Kostadinov. Their mission is to create an IT environment in the city
of Vratsa and to spread quality education. By doing so, they will be able to help the local
economy and the people from Vratsa to be able to work from their own town.

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The main motive behind their actions is mainly the will to improve the poor economic and
social development of the city. Having in mind that Vratsa is a part of the poorest region in
European Union, it has been an underachiever both in terms of employment (including
youth employment) and education. In this regard Vratsa Software School is suitable for all
people, who are living and this city and want to gain new skills, that would make them
more competitive on the market.
Both of them were born in Vratsa, and after their graduation moved into the capital Sofia
in order to continue with their university education. Both of them chose Sofia University,
and as Teodor was studying Software engineering, Emilian was studying Informatics.
After their graduation they found a job in Sofia but despite that they decided to help the
city from which they came from.
Two years ago they started to lead courses in informatics in school, later on they expand
their activities for adults as well. In 2014 they enter a competition from the program The
Change, which they win with the project to establish an IT community and IT center in
Vratsa. The 9th months traineeship is available for both young and elderly people which
want to gain new competences in the field. After the end of the course they have the
opportunity to be employed in the company, established by Teodor and Emilian and to find
a workplace without leaving their hometown.

How is the enterprise structured?

Emilian and Teodor are the only people leading the course. In 2015 there were 213 people
sign for the course in programming. At the moment they offer different types of training
1. Programming for Android
2. Introduction in programming with Java
3. Algo PMG
4. Websites with Word Press
5. Web programming with PHP & MySQL
6. Work with PHP software
7. Children academia

Among the 213 people sign for this course there are people from all age groups, genders
and background. There are no limitations for previous education and employment. The
only thing they have in common is that they are citizens of Vratsa and want to learn new
Among the guest lecturers they invite are people beyond the IT sector Justin Toms, ABC
Design and Communication, leading a lecture in entrepreneurship, other lectures refer to
the topics of mathematics, app development, etc.
Their main task is to present a different point of view and to widen the prospect of the
trainees, signed for the course. In this case the final success of the course is not limited just
to start working in a IT company, but to conceder the idea of opening an enterprise on their
After all the main objective of the social enterprise is not only to teach IT but to create an
IT community in Vratsa, which can help overcome the poor economic performance of the
As for the financial part, they manage to start Vratsa Software school, winning The
Chainge contest. After the start of their activities, they manage to gain extra 10 000 leva
(5 000 EU) for development of their activities.

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The overall business goals

The pictures are taken from the website of Vratsa Software School, on 25.05.2016

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In the beginning of the whole idea lies the community. The overall success of the practice
is possible firstly due to the fact that the two boys are experts in their field but secondly
because they feel as a part of a particular goal. As it was already mentioned in Chapter 1
the essential thing which everyone needs to do before creating a company is to answer the
basic questions:
Who am I?
Where am I heading?
What do I want to achieve?
The first question stands for the idea that a successful entrepreneur know his strengths and
weaknesses but he also knows what is the group of which he is a member. In this case the
example of Vratsa Software School matches perfectly the theoretical background. As both
Emilian and Teodor are born and raised in Vratsa. Due to that fact they can associate
themselves with the community which in the future would motivate them to practice their
activity in exactly this city. This is how the question Who am I? connects with the
general vision of the organization.
On the other hand both of them are specialists in the field of IT development. This is a
specific competitive advantage that is still rare enough on the Bulgarian labor market to be
one of the fields where the demand for such specialists is higher than the supply. That
being told it makes it even more clear how essential the task of Vratsa Software school is.
In this sense the founders of Vratsa Software school follow exactly the first steps in
creating a business strategy. And before proceeding with the actual output of their work, is
very important to quote some of their words, regarding the motives behind taking the
initiative: "IT education in Bulgaria has advocated a more abstract and theoretical level and
not to spend time on a true realization"3 sais Teodor. And yet behind it stays the idea that
not only the educational institutions should and could be involved in teaching key
competences. And the result is only one of the many arguments for that.
In this regard the end of a course in IT technology is not the goal of the organization, the
goal is to create a community with an interest in this field. And it is often the case that for
one reason or another the IT has been considered as something overly complicated and not
accessible for the average person. By spreading their work, making it available for the
general public, they are breaking this myth.

The business description

At this stage the main goal is to develop courses available. However, in a long term the
task is to create a community with interest in the field of IT development. It can grow
beyond the borders of Vratsa and to spread its activities even on a global scale.
This will be crucial not only for the local economy, but will have its social and political
benefits as well. This practice can improve the situation in Northwest Bulgaria and to give
not only career opportunities but also confidence to the people in the region.
Having in mind the early stage of the organization (it has been established only in 2015) is
still hard to describe the legislation obstacles towards their activities. Furthermore, as the
field of social entrepreneurship is still relatively new in Bulgaria, it would need some time
before it has the needed legislative framework behind it.
At this point their activity can be seen mainly as an educational center and it is hard to
include its other influences and perspectives which may have their legal specifics.

The quote is from an interview which they gave on 13 March 2015 for Capital magazine

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From a financial point, there have been two major investments firstly the contest The
Change and then the further investment of 10 000lv. On the website of Vratsa Software
School there is a donation button, which improves the financial situation of the
organization as well.
As this is the general idea of the courses, the investments were made mainly in favor of
proper computers and software. In this regard the technology which the organization needs
is again located mainly into this basic tools, as well as the building in which the courses
take place.
The other important factor in this regard are the guest lecturers, whose presence is
inevitable for the outputs of the social enterprise.

Key competences necessaries for developing a social business, how to develop this
The basic competence which everyone needs in order to establish a social business is
empathy. Without it the whole idea takes completely different direction, focusing on other
aspects such as profit and recognition. Generally there are courses which are focused
especially on training empathy and how to express it, but this is rather a branch of the
psychological field.
On the other hand the idea needs to be shaped in a attractive manner. As it is usually the
case the funding is based on grants and donations so it is essential for the idea to be
attractive and for the presenters to be as persuasive as possible. In this regards there are
many available incubators, courses and trainings, focusing precisely on how to pitch your
As it was already mentioned it is also very important for the entrepreneurs to feel as
members of the community in which they are going to focus their idea. This is important in
terms of recognition of their basic needs and specifics, but it is also necessary condition in
order to evaluate which project idea can be suitable for them and which- wont.

M&M Profuture Trainingis

Social entrepreneurship and voluntary work - solutions for areas of sustainable rural

LA FAGEDA "from social success to business success"

Description of the community and the social problem

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La Fageda was born in 1982, at the joint initiative of a group of professionals in the field of
psychiatry and the Psychiatric Hospital of Girona, given the need to cover a welfare gap
and accept people with intellectual disabilities and mental illness in the region of the
Garrotxa. It is a Catalan pre-Pyrenees region that is located in the northeast of Catalonia,
between the Alto Ampurdn and
Ripolls. It is divided into two
distinct parts: Upper and Lower
Garrotxa. It is a land of nature,
varied vegetation and unique
wildlife. In fact, La Fageda
respects the environment by
making studies of energy use and
by reducing and recycling the
produced waste. On the other hand
the region also has a priceless
cultural heritage: medieval
villages, Romanesque churches, Roman road, etc.

La Fageda is in the middle of the legendary beech "Jord" next to the playing Volcanoes
Natural Park of Volcanic Zone of the Garrotxa, an immense
forest of exquisite beeches to get lost and wander, either on
foot or by bicycle, horse and carriage. Working in the
middle of the nature, in contact with living beings (animals
and plants), is part of the project objective: to help these
people regain somehow their lost dignity. This cooperative
has launched a process of rehabilitation or reconstruction of
people with impaired psychological structure, dependent,
not valued, unrecognized... who by working recover self-
esteem, feel useful, important, recognized by the other's

People are treated with full dignity and they do not talk
about disabled or diminished people, but about people with
different capacities. Thus, they have done away with the
problem of labour integration: they started with 14 people
and now they have hired all the necessary ones.

Start main reasons

La Fageda was founded in 1982, although the idea began ten years ago when Cristbal
Coln, the current president of the cooperative, worked in the department of occupational
therapy Zaragoza Psychiatric Hospital, at the start of psychiatric reform movement which
aimed to dignify life of thousands of people admitted in institutions called asylums. In the
workshops called "occupational therapy" ashtrays and other objects that were made were

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piling up because they did not have much use for anyone, "it was like pretend to be
working. Practice told them that the world of work could be an extraordinary means to
meet the needs of these people, but they needed to launch a real, authentic project, in which
useful things were made. Creating a business challenge that could not be developed in a
hospital setting, was necessary why they decided to launch a separate project that would
create real jobs.

Thus, in 1982 they created the Garrotxa a cooperative with 14

people with severe mental disorders. Olot City Council believed in
the project and gave them the facilities nobody used and there they
began to perform gardening work for the council. In 1984 they got
enough funding to buy a country estate near Olot. In 1985 they
initiated the activity of livestock launching a housing of dairy cows
and two years later they put into operation nursery. When the
project was five years old, the economic capacity and the capacity to
create jobs was consolidated.

In 1992, with the incorporation of the Spanish State into the EEC and the implementation
of fees on milk production, they face a threat to the viability of the farm, with economic
consequences and loss of work posts. It was necessary to find an alternative and a good
solution could be the transformation of the base product. It was to decide which products
could be accommodated in a market. Hospital and institutional market was a good
consumer of yogurts and desserts, which could be accessed. However, conventional mass
market was occupied by a brand with an absolute leadership, as well as the difficulties of
incorporating new products retail distribution. But precisely this monolithic presence of the
big brands and the homogeneity of its products, the sense was that there was room to
incorporate different, artisans, non-industrial products. They made the decision to start the
project to build a small production facility in the same building where they had the other
facilities, based on two complementary lines where to operate. First in the institutional
market, and then in retailing: in 1993 they began to manufacture the first yogurts and
puddings for a single client, Vall d'Hebron Hospital in Barcelona, and fairly quickly
incorporate other hospitals. Then they talked to the distribution companies which had
facilities in the region with the idea of starting in the big consumer market.

Company description

La Fageda was born as a cooperative, but over time they realized they could not carry out
such different functions within the same legal entity. Thus, they decided to separate on the
one hand everything connected with the business world (La Fageda Cooperative Society)
and secondly all activities of social character (Foundation for Relief Services). Finally,
they created La Fageda Fundaci in order to protect the heritage, the brand, the property...

To summarize, La Fageda is a project that consists of three legal entities. Despite having
different functions, the three companies pursue the same social purpose of getting people

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in the region suffering from mental illness or mental disabilities fully integrated into
society through a decent and fair pay. Productive activity (manufacturing and marketing of
dairy desserts, ice creams and jams, and sections of Gardening and Farm) is developed
from La Fageda Foundation. For its part, the Foundation of Assistance Services groups
Service Occupational Therapy, household-area residence and work support and integration
service in the Community.

Based on years and with the help of many, it has become an

economically viable project respectful with people, animals
and the environment. This dairy brand makes people feel
proud and means a contribution to the more than 270 workers
and members of the organization. In fact, they provide work
for all adults in the Garrotxa having mental disability
certificate and are available for work, unique in the whole
state, where this group meets an almost universal rejection of
the economic and social partners. The integration of disabled
people is one of the challenges that most companies do not
accomplish enough, despite the existence of a legal
framework. The existence of organizations designed to
provide jobs for this group often has neglected the commercial soundness of the product.

The productive activities of the cooperative are eminently agricultural and develop within
the administrative framework of a Special Work Centre: a nursery, a dairy farm for milk
production, dairy processing plant products and the gardening section. Care activities,
occupational therapy service, assisted homes for workers and leisure activities, aim to
improve the most of the quality of life of its members.

"Our sustainable development model allows us to produce 30 million yogurts a year

respecting people, animals and the environment"

Production activities employ about 270 people, 60% of

whom suffer mental disabilities or chronic mental
illness. The rest are selected people without disabilities,
as well as their ability to perform the work of the
company, its capabilities to deal with these people. The
corporate team is made up of a technical director, a
psychologist, a labour inserter, a social worker and as
many monitors as productive areas, all to ensure the
improvement of employee skills as improving the company's products. The processing
plant of yoghurts and desserts is composed of 52 workers and has also supported the staff
of central services and the welfare department. The ice cream maker La Fageda has 8
disabled workers, one instructor, one psychologist, one social worker and one manager.
The farm has 6 employees and the gardening section is formed by a group of 30 disabled
workers, a technical specialist in gardening and 4 monitors. In addition, La Fageda has a

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workshop on "Dit i Fet" holding various craft activities. This section employs 30 people. In
relation to their daily work, La Fageda has a team of professionals (instructors, educators,
psychologists) serving the healthcare needs of workers.

Regarding the region, they have finished with the problem of labour integration: they
started with 14 people and now we have hired all necessary. With regard to monetary
benefits, annual turnover in 2014 was 15,284,487 Euros.

Besides being a cooperative, La Fageda is a special workplace. They receive a grant from
the Administration, as this dictates the Law of the Disabled Integration. So, they are
financed by this source, with the economic benefits themselves and with contributions
from other private entities. For years, the Caja Madrid offers its support and commitment
to the Catalan cooperative, together with Flix Llobet Nicolau Foundation to carry out their
most important investment. TNS and Accenture Foundation have also enabled La Fageda
to have leading tools in management and information that, without their help, they would
have not been able to reach. La Obra Social Caixa Sabadell, FUNDOSA, the Caixa
Foundation and Obra Social Caixa Girona have also collaborated on various projects and
investments, both cooperative and their welfare foundations.

The Success of social entrepreneurship

To the question posed to them by numerous companies and institutions on how to reconcile
business success with a truly social project, they decided to write the "Model La Fageda".
In the same key for success of a social enterprise working with risk groups while seeking
the feasibility and economic autonomy is marked. Thus, the model is not a La Fageda or
care business model, nor an organizational model. It is the complete model of values and
beliefs (culture), and the organizational structure is derived. It is the model that sees a
genuine and real social enterprise. It is, therefore, the model of a social enterprise, which is
characterized by three essential aspects: will to solve social problems, to solve the problem
through a company and to be a non-profit company. The key to understanding the Model
La Fageda is that this is a systemic model. The relationships established between the
different elements make it possible to understand the model as a system that operates only
from the full interaction of these elements.

When we speak of a non-profit, it refers to an organization that does not base its business
on a personal enrichment of the people who govern or are proprietary, but a collective
enrichment. The benefits that the organization generates, essential for their viability,
contribute directly to fuel the growth of its people, and at the same time the territory in
which it is located. While at all times they watch over care for a group of people with a
specific problem, we cannot forget that it is also necessary to promote the mechanisms of
any company, the aim of which is to make a competitive offer of products or services and
make profits . It is for this reason that the person, or team, to lead the project must have a
high moral authority and strategic long-term visions to be able to intervene and to build
synergies between business and health care without never forget that the first is at the

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service of the latter. Naturally, this task can be utopian if you do not have the necessary
knowledge of both areas, thus knowing what time it is necessary to urge everyone to
maintain the proper relationship. Thus, the formation of the people running the project
must be necessary to address both areas. And is that when combining these two realities
(care and business), often contradictory, it is necessary that leadership is provided with the
authority and competence (which also will be recognized) that allow you to make decisions
that, although they are positive for the smooth running of the project, can sometimes be
"unpopular" because it violates one of the areas. Only if you have managed to create an
atmosphere of trust, they may accept the decisions relying on the judgment of the leaders.
People from La Fageda know that they have to compete in a market where, although the
rules are the same for any business, they are based on a different situation. Our needs are
always greater than our resources (time, space, money), so the role of leadership is to
allow, at any time, see what the real priority for the continuity of the project. The key is the
balance between social and economically sustainable business. That is, for the assistance
project to work, the company must sell and make money. Their workers, who suffer a high
percentage mental disabilities or mental illness, are proud to work for a successful

Part of the success of La Fageda is

precisely the following: people know
that what they eat is natural because
it comes from milk from the farms of
the cooperative. Another part of the
success is the size. Because the
market is limited to Catalonia and it
ensures proximity perception by the
customer. If we grew too much and
we sold out brand La Fageda
wouldnt be as authentic, which has
some attributes and a local
imaginary. The same can be said of the organization. The quality of interpersonal
relationships is essential for the good health of the organization and this can only be
achieved with a relatively modest size. The element that most favours attracting talent is
the strong entrepreneurial culture, the workplace, the environment, the fact of working on a
project that transcends individuality and gives meaning to their lives.

Who we are (staff)

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Our main staff

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Nuestro personal de produccin

Nuestro equipo de social y asistencial

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Nuestro equipo en la granja

Nuestro personal en la fbrica

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Nuestro equipo de jardineros

Opinion and consumer profile

Success with customers and consumers is due to the quality of products, and they all buy
them, first of all, not for social compassion, but by the quality craftsmanship. Its product
range is reduced and yogurts are 40% more expensive than its competitors, but every day
we sell more. No advertising is done, product quality and factory tour are two of the pillars
of consumer WOM. Thus, they differ from industrial natural yoghurt, presenting the
consumer as they are authentic and so distinguished from other brands. People buy them
because they are good, reliable and ultimately for social project behind.

"The consumer perceives a high degree of consistency between what we say we are and
what we really are"

General objectives and framework used

The first general objective of La Fageda is to create a corporate structure as a tool, as a

means to cover and meet the needs of the group, which has the capacity to create jobs for
all users and workers, and to be strong and solid to become the heart of our project. The

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more business success, the more social
success obtained. It assumes that work
can act as a key element in the
rehabilitation process of the person, as it
increases their self-esteem and changes
their role in the family and in society,
from being a passive element to a person
who is actively contributing to society.
Therefore, they consider that the work
must meet the following conditions: be
real, be useful to society and be paid fairly. In La Fageda targets are set, good work is
recognized, it is committed to innovation and quality. Its activity meets the ISO quality and
environmental standards.

The common framework used by this type of social company is a cooperative. We find
ourselves in front of a work cooperative in which all people who work there are members
and therefore owners of at the same time. La Fageda currently consists of three separate
legal entities, which are responsible for developing and managing various activities and
services but share the same management committee and one venue. It is a cooperative that
works on two axes, the productive activity and the provision of care for people.

Business description

Like business entrepreneurs, social entrepreneurs are fully identified with what they do,
and their work is part of their personal project. Usually they engage in long-term initiative.
Christopher Columbus explains it very clearly: "La Fageda is the result of my vital project,
which is the sum of a personal project -Give sense to my work and a professional project -
Give sense to the work of others."

Many of the twenty-first century business organizations have workforces and very
discouraged workers, people who simply go to work << >>. Work occupies a very
important part of people's time. Therefore, take the time in << healthy >> organizations
that encourage their employees and make them pleased to work on them is critical to the
success of any business initiative in the long run.

The biggest challenge they face is to demonstrate that it is possible to carry out an
economic activity that a strong social vocation is taken into account as a priority, led by
people able to reconcile social and commercial synergies of the business. Coln wondered
if he could keep the medium and long-term competitive position while maintaining the
original spirit of La Fageda project. For him the most important thing was to keep the jobs
that allowed the social and professional integration of people with mental disabilities. To
manage that, two necessary conditions were identified: know the people with whom you
work and prepare them as well as possible.

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Throughout the years, the leading role has been carried out in different ways. In the hard
beginning, it was one person who developed this role. Although he came from the health
care world, he noted the need for training in the business area and thus made the project
possible. But as the project has grown, it has been necessary to create another form of
leadership: The Steering Committee. In this way they have created an interdisciplinary
team that has jurisdiction over the respective fields, and has the vision to bring together a
single project of two realities.

Its business strategy includes the promotion of a product where the company is present in
the whole process and management of human capital focused on the integration of people
with disabilities. La Fageda has diversified the types of yogurts sold and has also created a
line of ice cream. It also approved a strategic plan 2010-2012, which is produced mainly
by the Steering Committee, agreed with the governing bodies of the three companies
involved in organizing and setting short- and medium term. However, the years pass and
Columbus recognizes that the cooperative has not done good business planning. The
company needs further analysis. "It was all very intuitive and we have to improve for better
results in leadership styles," he says.

Legislation and governance structure

Regarding legislation and governance structure that is supporting them is the law of
Cooperatives of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia itself:

Key investments in technology

Despite the many advantages of the location, until recently it was a territory without
coverage, so that both professionals and users of La Fageda were being forced to approach
Olot to connect to the Internet. The situation, according to the Director of Administration
and Finance of La Fageda, Jaume Coquard, was an "unbearable". Working with technology
that was clearly insufficient given that some customers such as Caprabo, El Corte Ingles,
Carrefour or Mercadona, develop many of its processes electronically. Therefore, La
Fageda suffered serious deficiencies that the cooperative has managed to overcome thanks
to the arrival of WiMax technology, "we skipped the official channels and invested about
4,000 Euros at an intermediate repeater that makes transmitter / receiver and, that since
early 2008, it offers a connection of four Mbps with a maintenance fee of 100 Euros ".

Coquard notes that "in the transmission of bills we used to spend three hours and now we
only need five minutes and we have just hired a responsible for Information Technology,
since logically, new possibilities arose, as for example intercommunication between
headquarters or teleworking".

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Key skills for social business

Every social entrepreneur must have a certain profile, certain characteristics to act as such
in the development of their projects. We are referring to entrepreneurs who besides having
a business vision, have the interest and drive to make real changes in society and the
planet. Today these entrepreneurs are the ones who are changing the concept of success;
and are also the ones attracting the attention of investors. Social entrepreneurs are true
revolutionaries. They know that things can get better, but they should not wait for someone
else to solve the problems. They think of possible solutions and put them into practice. For
them there is no word "impossible"; anything is possible if done in the right way. They
must develop the creativity needed to do more with less. The key to a
company is making money, and this is no exception in social enterprises.
Therefore, these entrepreneurs know how to create models that in addition
to promoting the company and contribute to the environment are cost
effective for its founders and investors. They also have a real purpose:
successful social business whose mission is to make this a better world.
Both the model and its strategies and objectives are focused on improving
the quality of life of people or reduce problems. They are motivated and have a special
power: being an entrepreneur is not easy. Therefore, companies with social or
environmental focus should have solid leadership, able to motivate and inspire the team
and potential customers and investors. Successful social enterprises are those that develop
models that can be replicated elsewhere under different conditions. They care about
everyone involved: a company with real social vocation ensures that all participants in the
supply chain gain the final product and make profits to boost development. It is for this
reason that a social entrepreneur goes beyond himself seeking good for their employees,
partners, customers, suppliers and investors. Entrepreneurs must always be willing to take
risks (financial, personal, etc.) to launch and maintain your project. This quality is
probably more entrenched among social entrepreneurs, who know that the challenges are
greater, but with the awareness that with effort, dedication and passion anything is
possible. Social entrepreneurs must have discipline, be consistent and persistent. So what
are the skills needed for the development of a social business? Ingenuity, innovation, social
responsibility, commitment, self-confidence, risk-taking, leadership and tenacity are some
of the main.

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Social Cooperative "OPOKA"

It is Polish cooperative registered by the two legal entities after the amendment of
the act on social cooperatives.

General information:

The social cooperative was created to help disabled people and long-term
unemployed in the region Malopolska in the countryside Klucze, where the rate of
the unemployment was at that time 20 %. This area is not industrial developed, no
working places, particularly for countryside women with low education and long-term
unemployed. This situation lead to very low income household for the families,
increased the poverty, causes stagnancy, regress and professional and intellectual
inactivity. The answer on this situation, on this social and economical l backgrounds
the social enterprise was created in 2009.

OPOKA is very actively operating entity of the social economy in the catering
industry and trainings for community, where 16 people were employed in the
beginning ( 2009) up to 42 nowadays (2016) coming from a difficult social
situation, mainly long-term unemployed and disabled. It is serious and responsible
partner for local government, social welfare institutions and other organizations
which aim is to activate the unemployed, the homeless, the sick and the disabled.
OPOKA is reliable contractor for commercial enterprises. It is also the place of
vocational and social reintegration of employees and associated people. OPOKA is
the organizer of the comprehensive study visits across Poland demonstrating good
practice in the social economy and effective cooperation between the local
It is also the contractor of the Social Welfare Centre for feeding adults and their
families in 2010-2016 for more than 400 people. OPOKA conducts the Support Point for
4 districts of the province of Malopolska in the framework of the project "Infrastructure of
the Social Economy in Galicia".

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The first award in the competition "Leader of Malopolska Social Entrepreneurship

Salt Crystals "in the category" Economic stimulation and civic society "- awarded by
Malopolska Marshal ( Dec.2010)

The social background and the history of Social Cooperative OPOKA.

The Social cooperative OPOKA was created of 2 local associations:

1) Association for sustainable Development and Socio-Economic

Development and

2) Christian Charity Association.

1) The first entity was founded in 2003 and had the status of a public benefit organization.
It operated mainly in the sphere of social assistance and social and professional
activation, counteracting poverty and social exclusion, conducting extensive
environmental prevention, promoting the idea of volunteering and European integration
and the social economy. The association has run since 2005 Local Self-Help House for
the chronically mentally ill and intellectually disabled. The association implemented
dozens of projects funded from various sources: the Ministry of Labour, Foundation of
Social Initiatives, European Social Funds, Malopolska Regional Authority and was
engaged in social activities and charity.
It took various forms of partnerships with organizations and institutions in the
Malopolska region.

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The seat of the Association for sustainable Development and Socio-Economic

Traning room and office

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2) The second entity has operated since 1999. Since 2004 has got the status of a public
benefit organization. It operated mainly in the sphere of social assistance and social and
professional activation, involved in all sorts of charity events, distribution of clothing and
food, support the poor and the unemployed.
It performed many forms of prophylactic measures to prevent perpetuating and expanding
the homelessness.
Since 2002 in Klucze village the charity association has run the Hostel "House of Hope"
for the homeless and for Therapy Workshops.
Throughout the country Christian Charity Association has 24 regional branches, 5 local
branches, 19 shelters for the homeless, 3 therapy workshops classes, 4 Centers for Social
Integration. It has got nearly 400 members. The association was engaged in various types
of partnership and took initiatives to foster local development.

The seat of the association

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The meeting and traning rooms

In 2009 these 2 described above associations, strongly already established in the field of
social reintegration together with the Centre for Social Welfare in Klucze village, and
local government Municipality of Klucze decided to start a social cooperative. During
the founding meeting on 11 August 2009 a resolution to establish a Social Cooperative
OPOKA has been signed. The founding committee during the voting created and
confirmed the Statutes of the social cooperative and choose the members of the board: the
president- Mrs. Agata Swedziol, vice-president- Mrs Agnieszka Scigaj.

According to the statutes, the main objective of the social cooperative is: re-integration to
the labor market and social inclusion by running the joint venture and enable the
unemployed their professional activation.

Cooperative OPOKA offers

1. Servant beverage and catering;

2. Comprehensive study visits and integration trips;
3. Comprehensive organization of trainings, seminars, conferences;
minor construction services, completion and cleanup work, care services, rehabilitation
4. Vocational trainings: cook, waiter and kitchen help.

The most important activities of the cooperative OPOKA :

1.Providing food for adults and their families in 2010-2016 on the order of the Social
Welfare Centre Klucze, preparing lunch service and hot meals for over 400 people to7
points in the commune Klucze clients of Social Welfare Center.

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Cooks in the social enterprise OPOKA

2. Catering service organized for the Regional Centre for Social Policy in Cracow.
3. Implementation of activation programs for social and professional integration for
local people together with the Municipal Social Welfare Centre in Klucze and 2 other
Social Welfare Centers nearby.
4. Completing organization of study visits showing good practice in the field of
social economy entities and effective cooperation between NGOs and local government
from all over Poland.

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Employees and workers in social cooperative, seminars running by

The first workers in social cooperative OPOKA were from 2 former NGOs ( creators of

OPOKA)- the unemployed and the disabled.

Cooperative employs mainly long-term unemployed, registered at the District Labour

Office. Currently works 42 people including 20 disabled.

For example, Mrs. Grazyna is an employee of the cooperative since April 2010. Her
responsibilities include office work, human resources services for all employees.
She was a long-term unemployed, with physical disability that made her impossible to
work in a commercial company.

In spite of her disability, since the beginning of her job, she is a reliable, conscientious and
very mandatory employee, and Ms. Grazyna thanks to this work, "grown her wings",
which added her self-confidence and the belief for optimistic tomorrow.

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My name is is Grazyna Solecka. I am employee in social enterprise OPOKA. I was 4

years unemployed without money for living. It was the worst period of my life. Because of
my disability nobody wanted me for work. The chance appeared in social enterprise
OPOKA. I started to work in 2010 and still work. I am the administrative person who has
to take care of all paper work, information service, organization of lectures and workshops.
Thanks to this job my life has changed. I earn some money for my life expenses. It helps
me to live on a normal level without debts. Besides, I change my attitude to life, I want to
work and live like other people. Social enterprise helped me a lot. I also spend a lot of my
free time working as volunteer if any need. My job brings me a lot of pleasure and I exists
in a group of peole that understand each other. I help other people as much as possible,
because I know their suffer due to lack of job.

Other workers has got jobs as cooks in kitchen belongs to social enterprise OPOKA

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The other cook team works in the kitchen run by social cooperative in Chechle village

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Kitchen staff prepares catering service

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One of the first major orders - final conference about EU project - Krakow, Villa

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One of the major orders - a conference on the occasion of the World Day Against
Tuberculosis - Jaroszowiec, March 2013

OPOKA team involved with catering preparation

Social Cooperative OPOKA in media

6 TV reports in 2010 about the cooperative OPOKA , which brought enormous publicity
and advertising for the whole country : TVP Katowice, TVP Lublin, Fuga Mundi
Foundation, Chanel One in Polish TVP, TVP Krakw, Polish Radio, dozens of articles
about cooperative in the Official Polish newspapers such as : Gazeta Krakow, Olkusz
Review, Echo Klucze, trade press es, etc. Dozens of information about cooperative at
various sites and portals on the Internet.

Next initiative created by OPOKA: Department of Professional Activity

OPOKA the financial surplus earned in 2011 invested in re-decoration and adaptation old
building in Klucze village for the department of professional activity. The work has been
done by a building team operated in the cooperative.

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Department of Professional Activity is run by a social cooperative, what is a
precedent in the area of social economy in Poland. 20 disabled people with severe and
moderate degree of mental disability in the professions: cook, waiter, kitchen help was
educated there and got a job.

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In addition to learning the profession of persons with disabilities, the Department
organized workshops of social and medical rehabilitation.

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Social integration of staff and workers in OPOKA during the EASTER breakfast

In 2014 year OPOKA opened next social enterprise/ venture the restaurant OPOKA. It
was awarded as social enterprise of The YEAR 2014.

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Restaurant serves to customers delicious and traditional dishes prepared daily with only
fresh products. Apart this restaurant recommends freshly squeezed juices, smoothies and
fruit desserts, hot and cold snacks.

Agata Swdzio the president of OPOKA

Psychologist, therapist, coach. For 7 years works as employee for NGO organizations,
starting from the position of a psychologist to the head of the Center of Social Integration.
Actively participates in the creation of local entities for professional support, prepares of
project applications. Coordinator of several EU projects , among them project of ESF.
Longtime coach in obtaining EU funds and creator of social economy entities. Permanent
collaborator of many social organizations, co- executor of projects in the field of social and
professional activation and the social economy.

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Agnieszka Scigaj the vice president of OPOKA

Sociologist, 20 years working in the field of broadly understood social policy, expert and
consultant in the field of social economy and local development. Co-founder of several
NGOs working in the field of social policy, among others, Association for Sustainable
Socio-Economic Development "Klucze". Longtime coach and coordinator of projects co-
financed by the ESF, addressed to employment services and social inclusion. Coordinator
of the project "ABC of Social Economy". Longtime employee in government institutions
(Regional Labour Office in Klucze). Consultant of the Ministry of Labour and Social
Policy in the Social Integration Program for the province of Malopolska, lecturer at the
Pedagogical University in Krakow and coach for NGOs and employees of institutions of
Social Integration.

Currently Head of the Department of Professional Activity "Opoka".

Anita Ozga assistant project manager in OPOKA

Sociologist. Project Coordinator System for Social Welfare Centre in Klucze.

Coordinator of the project "Social cooperative opportunity for everyone." Organizer and
coordinator of the study visits in the Social Cooperative OPOKA.

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Wiesaw Pietras adviser for the social economy

Engineer-electronic, 23 years working in the area of the health and social policy, expert
and consultant in the field of social economy. Co-founder of several NGOs working in the
field of education and social policy. Longtime director of the Nursing Home in Olkusz
town. Trainer in the field of Social Economy. Assistant Coordinator of the project " Active
Disabled in the labor market." Since 2010 he has been working with the Foundation for
Social Initiatives in Krakow as an expert - adviser to the social economy.

SWOT Analysis

Strong points

Very strong position in a local labour market;

Good opinion in local society and all regional and local authorities;
Provider of job for disability people and unemployed in local region;
Local population trust the social enterprise;
The employees and workers are from the rural area and know each other;
OPOKA team is like a one family;
Very creative and energetic staff and members of the board;
Good strategy of the development;
Good relations with all local decision makers,
Good promotion and dissemination of the achievements;
Variety of service, trainings, products delivered by the enterprise;
Lower costs for salary payment because in the rural area the salaries are smaller;
Lower costs of catering service and meals in the restaurant;
High rate of voluntary work.

Weak points

Limited money and grants for further developing;

Not enough rehabilitation rooms with new modern equipment;
Costs of rehabilitation staff;
Devotion a lot of private time for social enterprise.
Key competences for developing this kind of a social business

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Experiences in management;
Good knowledge of book-keeping;
Open mind, strategic vision of the social enterprise;
The willingness to help disabled and unemployed;
The willingness to work together with disabled people;
Serious and responsible treatment unemployed and disabled people.

Prepared by Alina Stadnik- researcher in ERA+ project in VESUVIO Association

Rzeszw- Poland , 23 May 2016



The creation of the Cultural Centre must be replaced in it historical and political context.
This non-profit organisation has its origin in a private and personal vision of a wealthy
local citizen. Mr Muller wanted to take care of kids after school and to propose activities to
learn and play. As often in those private projects, the succession is difficult but the will of
some local citizen, associations and political world created a recognised Cultural Centre
ruled by specific laws.
At the time of Mr Muller, in the 70s, the villages around Habay-la-Neuve were still mainly
rural with a low pro-capita revenue in comparison with the rest of the country. Beside
agriculture, forestry, a few nearby steal and coal industries (30 km), there were no job in
the region.
Things changed from the 80s with the fast development of the financial and bank sector in
Luxembourg (tax heaven). The neighbouring country needed high educated workforce that
he took around him inn Belgium, France and Germany but it was not enough.
Many workers came from other Belgian city and farer to work in Luxembourg. Some of
them settle down in a more natural and less expensive environment like in Habay. They
also wanted to stay in the same cultural, educational and health system.
This positive moment of population caused a fast inflation of the houses price and
constructible land and generated what we call the two speeds Province of Luxembourg
with newcomer having high revenue and more ancient inhabitants with lower salaries
suffering from the housing pressure. In the meantime, the local public authorities had to
face rising demands in new schools, infrastructures like water pipe, sport field, while the

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newcomer working in Luxembourg were not paying taxes in Belgium to finance those
The Habay community with its 10 villages increased his population in the last 30 years,
going from 6 200 inhabitants to 8 500 today. The average age became one of the lowest of
Belgium so that Habay counts 2 200 students in its schools, primary and secondary. One
quart of the population is not at school but the 10 primary schools and the secondary
school also attracts students and pupils from neighbouring communities.
There are no high schools on the territory.
With the increase of the population, the demand for culture, sport, workshops and local
lifelong learning increased. We can also add the change in the habits / consumption of
activities. More and more persons want to follow a kind of self-development activity
beside work or school. The aim can be to develop a friendship or relationship network, to
learn new thinks, to acquire competences, practice a sport, an artistic discipline or simply
to leave home for a few hours per week.
The offer in such activities comes from NGO organisation located on the territory and from
a few private companies highly specialized. Within the NGO, some are purely coming
from citizen initiative and some have their origin in the public sector : city, province,
region and state.


The case of a Cultural centre is exotic in this landscape as a Centre is the combination of
private and public initiative.
Like in many occidental legal structures, the gear is in the hand of the General Assembly
the one is composed of two chambers:
The public chamber with 11 representatives of different public authorities: the city, the
Province and two inspectors of the State (Communaut franaise de Belgique).
The private chamber includes the representing of any local association willing to
integrate the structure. This chamber can also accept expert persons in art, citizenship,
culture, etc
The General Assembly delegates the management of the Centre to the Conseil
dAdministration (Board of Directors). In this structure, there is an equal number of
representatives from both General Assembly chambers. The articles of association
tells that the number of members cannot be over twenty two, eleven for the public
sector and eleven for the private one.
Within the public chamber, the repartition is the following one, according to the
articles of association and the federal laws :
Communaut franaise de Belgique : 2 reprsentatives (2 inspectors)
Province of Luxembourg : 2 representatives
Community of Habay : 7 representative (majority and opposition of the city council,
according to the dHondt repartition mathematical key)
Beside both assembly, the NGO employs two category of workers: occasional and habitual
The occasional workers includes the persons in charge of the workshops (theatre, art,
language, sewing, cooking ) and the actors, musicians, artists programmed on stage.
This represents about fifty persons working
The usual workers execute the general missions defined by the Board of Directors and the
different laws. The workers have a wide liberty in implementing the missions defined.
They report both to the inspection and the association board. The association employs five

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peoples: one technical, one bookkeeper, two persons specialised in animation and one
Historically, the first aim of the Cultural centre is to offer theatre, concert and other
diffusion activities on the territory. This work includes offering the same service
specifically for the schools. As the association has one origin in the Cercle culturel, the
new created structure took over the former activities such as workshops.
The General Assembly also asked the staff to develop other and new workshops. The
association developed more offers: culture and languages (Spanish, English,
Luxemburgish, Italian, even Chinese), art (painting, coaching), theatre lessons, Impro
theatre, cocking, personal development, sewing
As in more and more families both parents work outside, the demand for kids quality
workshop is growing during the schools holidays. The Centre adapted its offer and propose
now specific activities at every school holiday for the kids between 3 and 12 years old.
The organisation of theatre and concerts in the territory is one of the Cultural centre
mission as explained in the U.N. agreement (Fribourg Declaration 2007) and in the Decree
of November 2014: having the possibility to see shows in their area. Every year, about 30
shows are programmed in the town.
The Cultural Centre also helps association in their own organisations. It supplies with
equipment, helps to fill-in legal forms, to write summary document, to integrate
compulsory procedure (fire regulation, insurances, security), to find public sponsoring
The fourth axe consist in what we call in Belgium Education permanente also known as
Education populaire in France. This approach aims to help, coordinate, emulate citizens
in their understanding of the world. The objective is a path going with the citizens from the
vague curiosity to a real interest into the comprehension and action. A delicate equilibrium
must be maintained between driving the group and leaving the autonomy. This request a
long experience in project management and group psychology.
acting on the world evolution, locally and , influencing the decision makers on its
evolution and
The Cultural Centre had also inherited different documents from the Documentation
Centre, a municipal department who handled, collect, archived and classified historical
data about the municipality, its villages, edit publications (Haba din the tin) and synthetic
materials. The Documentation Centre used to employ two people and also organized the
theatre for the local primary schools. In 2014, a new structure took over the Documentation
Centre: the Centre de Recherche du Pays de Habay.

The Centre culturel association received financing from different public sectors and
generates one part of its revenues through its activities and actions. The association aim is
not to maximise the profit but to offer a maximum of activities and services with the
association budget. This follows the Belgian NGO regulation (1901 law)

The public financing was supposed to follow the inflation so that the volume of actions
would remain identical from one year to another. Unfortunately with the finance crisis, the
Belgian state had to refinance the bank and insurance sector so that the subventions are
frozen in the cultural sector since 2009.
Regarding the other side of the balance, the usage of the budget, here is the repartition:

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The main budget part became the salaries paid to the employees, followed by artistic and
cultural investment for the schools and the community (concerts, theatre, exhibitions,
conferences). The part dedicated to pay salaries increased drastically since 2009. By
law, the salaries have to follow the Belgian inflation rate and also respect the sectors
convention sign by the social sector. This convention is a contract that impose to its
members to apply a salary increase of about 1.5% every second year of employment.

The impact in terms of employment has to be divided in three:
Direct employment:
The association employs five persons for a total of 4,5 full time equivalent. The team has
long term contract with the association.
Indirect employment:
The association organises activities having an impact on the employment in the region. The
concerts and theatre plays organised by the association are mainly proposed by
The workshops (more than 50 a year) are both proposed by volunteers and professionals,
creating jobs in Habay and the region.
The workshops are giving useful skills that are used in the professional or private live of
the participants. We speak about competences in language, art, culture, cooking, theatre

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According to the Oxford dictionary, a social entrepreneur is a person who establishes an

enterprise with the aim of solving social problems or effecting social change sounds
perfect for anyone who grew up with superhero aspirations.

1.Ability to identify social problems

2.Ability to lead and develop others

3.Conflict resolution skills

4.Ability to relate/evaluate the feasibility of/implementation of business plan

5.Ability to manage administrative work

6.Creative use of minimal resources

7.Ability to communicate with customers, suppliers and other stakeholders

8.Identification with the idea, actors and activities of the social economy

9.Confidence to succeed at challenging task


1. Ability to identify social problems

This competence is crucial because to identify social problems represent the main scope of
activity of social enterprises and social innovations.
2.Ability to lead and develop others
This competences can be explained by the fact that for the proper functioning of social
enterprises a strong leader is necessary regarded as a change agent who supports the
changes,stresses and implements them, and is involved in conducting and coordinatingthe

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project. At the same time, he is characterised by high motivation, relevant skills and the
ability to inspire others.
3.Conflict resolution skills
Managers can lead to confl ict especially in an emergency situation, when decisions have
to be made quickly and effi ciently, bypassing the democratic decision-making process.
The ability to resolve confl icts is also crucial for the proper functioning of a social
enterprise, as when conflict arises employees no longer create a well-functioning

4.Ability to relate/evaluate the feasibility of/implementation of business plan

It can be explained by the fact that the management has to be able to translate the mission
into very tangible objectives, identify the scope of social enterprise activity and take into
account the missions, objectives, and resources of the organisation as well as the tensions
between the social aim and the economic requirements. Furthermore, it is necessary to seek
global performance indicators specifi c to the social enterprise in order to evaluate the
reach of very different goals.
5.Ability to manage administrative work
The ability to manage administrative work can be explained by the fact that, similarly to
managers operating in the commercial sector, social entrepreneurs must also plan,
motivate, organise, make decisions, delegate, coordinate, report, supervise and manage fi
nance. No matter how meaningful the objective of a social enterprise, one must not forget
about the mundane reality.
6. Creative use of minimal resources
Managers need to be aware of diverse sources of financing and the possibility of obtaining
grants from various sources (the state, foundations, companies, private sponsors etc.) and
develop different scenariosin case of receiving or not receiving subsidies.
7.Ability to communicate with customers, suppliers and other stakeholders
An important element determining effective functioning of a social enterprise is the ability
to work with business partners and other organisations, such as public sector organizations,
the business sector, socially responsible organisations, and other social economy entities.
Stakeholder relationship management is a diffi cult task as stakeholders often have goals,
which can ometimes even seem contrary to goals of social enterprise. Therefore, the
manager needs to try to reconcile different stakeholder expectations and solve emerging
problems in this field.
8. Identification with the idea, actors and activities of the social economy
Managers of a social enterprise should know, understand, and position the social economy
within its general context (e.g. in relation to the market, the public sector, the possible
competitors, etc.). Moreover, they need to understand different concepts, particular to
social enterprises, such as the non-profit,social economy, social enterprise, third sector,
etc., as well as to understand the legal environment surrounding social enterprises (such as
legal forms a social enterprise can have and their strategic advantages). It also seems

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necessary to be familiar with public regulations (specifi c legal constraints, public policies,
public revenue sources, etc.).
9.Confidence to succeed at challenging task
Another competence identifi ed by the respondents is the confidence to succeed at
challenging task. This is connected with the fact that a social entrepreneur by recognizing
and exploiting opportunity in the environment creates social value. This opportunity
often has the form of an obvious or not so obvious social problem or an unmet social need,
and sticking with it requires consistency and perseverance.

10. Optimism
Manager must be optimistic in the fight against social problems and promoting innovation
on a large scale

Running a social enterprise is no easy feat, as your business will have to compete with both
charities and purely commercial businesses for financial support, market share, and
attention. It involves many of the same steps as running a normal business such as
researching your market, testing your idea, establishing a strong brand, monitoring
cashflow and managing staff all whilst trying to hit a social target.
Therefore as a social entrepreneur you must be prepared to be flexible, able to balance a
multitude of tasks, and as your business is advertising itself as having a social mission
you must be transparent in communications, and attentive to the law for both, social
enterprises and regular companies.
People generally learn from past experiences. By realising their mistakes or thinking about
what they did well help her to make improvements to our performance in the future.
Reflective practice is a successful evaluating tool as it allows an individual to develop and
learn from real life situations rather than just rely on theory. Reflective practice allows an
individual to analyse not only what actions they took to handle a particular situation but
also how they were feeling during this time, this helps contribute to a better understanding
of a situation, develops a sense of responsibility and helps promote lifelong learning for an

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1. What are social enterprises?

2. What are some examples of social enterprises?

3. In which parts of the economy do social enterprises


4. Is a social enterprise the same as an ethical business?

5. Are social enterprises not-for-profit and therefore not

intended to make a profit?

6. What legal structure does a social enterprise have?

7. Are there fundamental differences in the people who go

to work for a social versus not-for-profit startup?

8. What are the things that keep potential social

entrepreneurs from succeeding to fulfilling their potential?

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9. Government or society encourage social


1. What social problem have you identified and how are

you responding to it?

2. What is your added value?

3. What is your development strategy?

4. What is your economic model?

5. How do you accelerate your development by

collaborating with other stakeholders of society?

6. How do you measure your social impact?

7. What is the best organizational model for your project?

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8. What is your plan for capital and growth?

9. How will you tell your story?

10. Indicate some competences necessary for social


Annex 1

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STUDY ABOUT THE POLICY AND Information about laws and

LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR SOCIAL regulations on Entrepreneurial



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The concept of social entrepreneurship in the social
economy in Europe, has been so far associated with
the existence of the social enterprise. The term social
enterprise is American in origin and distinguishes
from non profits by having moved away from reliance
on more traditional forms of income, such as grants,
towards a more entrepreneurial and business-like
approach to raising revenue. .

At the European level, two definitions for social enterprises are widely recognized. The
first was developed by the British government, in 2002, in the paper entitles Social
Enterprise: A Strategy for Success as a business with primarily social objectives whose
surpluses are principally reinvested for that purpose in the business or in the community,
rather than being driven by the need to maximize profit for shareholders and owners. The
second belongs to EMES (European Research Network) in 2006, which considers social
enterprise as organisations with an explicit aim to benefit the community, initiated by a
group of citizens and in which the material interest of capital investors is subject to limits.
They place a high value on their independence and on economic risk-taking related to
ongoing socio-economic activity(EMES - European Research Network 2012). Unlike the
UK definition, the EMES definition takes into account various national traditions and
sensitivities present in the European Union, as it is the result of an extensive dialogue
among scholars from different disciplines and countries of the continent. In Europe, the
concept of social enterprise has become known starting the 1990s, when a new type of
(social) cooperative organizations have been approved by law by the Italian government.


Social enterprises are an important driver for inclusive growth and play a key role in
tackling current economic and environmental challenges, according to a report published
by the European Commission.

Sixteen European countries have some form of legislation that recognises

and regulates Social Enterprise activity, either by creating Social Enterprise
Forms or Social Enterprise Legal Statuses, in a variety of different ways.

However, in most jurisdictions, the vast majority of Social Enterprises tend to use and
adapt Legal Forms which are not specifically designed for Social Enterprises and which
enjoy no legal recognition as a Social Enterprise.

The following table illustrates the typical characteristics of different Legal Forms, mapped
against the different criteria of the operational definition given by the Mapping Study, in
line with the Social Business Initiative definition. It also indicates where it may often be

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possible for Social Enterprises to adapt Legal Forms. Of course, Legal Forms are subject to
variation in different Member States and so the table is illustrative only.

The precise characteristics of the different Legal Forms and Legal Statuses differ between
Member States. However, as shown in the table opposite, the commonalities are
sufficiently clear and strong for Legal Forms and Legal Statuses to be formed into types
with shared characteristics. We therefore identify three main types of Legal Forms used
by Social Enterprises, namely:
Type 1: Non-Profit Organisations which may be democratic or controlled by managers,
do not distribute profit and trade in furtherance of a social purpose;
Type 2: Co-operatives which are generally owned and controlled on a democratic basis
by members, distribute profit from trading activities to members and may have a social
purpose beyond benefitting members written into the constitution or carry out a service of
general interest; and
Type 3: Share Companies which are generally owned and controlled by shareholders on
a pro rata basis and which may trade in furtherance of a social purpose and may have other
governance features to subordinate profit to purpose.

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The policy and legal framework for social

enterprise in Turkey

Inadequacy of legal structures is an impediment to social entrepreneurship

in Turkey.
Current fiscal regulations also bring about unfavourable consequences in
the operations of social enterprises.

The lack of any regulation in the legislation corresponding to social enterprises causes the
establishment of social enterprises as associations/foundations, cooperatives or companies,
which leads to social enterprises operating in structures that do not fully suit their functions
or methods.
Non-profit economical entities that work for public benefit are treated
the same as commercial ones by the tax regulations. As such, new tax regulations that treat
organizations in accordance to their aims and social contributions are needed.
Lack of an interlocutor in public institutions is a common concern of all organizations
in the third sector. Social enterprises are finding it hard to make their needs and demands
heard in an environment where there is no institutional correspondent in the government.
Hence, problems are evaluated individually and through different institutions.
Additionally,social enterprises complain about excessive bureaucratic procedures at
various stages oftheir operations.
Awareness raising activities on social enterprises are needed. Many universities and
institutions support social enterprises through trainings, awards and capacity enhancing
activities, and they could easily add an awareness raising dimension to their endeavours.
Programs that support commercial entrepreneurship should also include a social
entrepreneurship dimension. In recent years, commercial entrepreneurship has been
supported by both the public and private sectors and universities in various ways. Adding
social entrepreneurship to those special programs and tools would benefit the social
enterprise sector greatly.
Tax legislation should be reformed in order to encourage the financial sustainability of
civil society organizations and social enterprises. Currently financial enterprises of

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associations and foundations are taxed the same way for-profit companies are. Tax
exemptions should be provided to the financial enterprises of associations and foundations.
In addition, the public benefit status should be expanded both in terms of its scope and
Commercial enterprises and private sector should assist social enterprises development
through knowledge and experience sharing, financial support etc. It is imperative that
financial institutions and investors supply financial support and credit to social enterprises,
and companies, in addition to financing, give assistance through knowledge and experience
sharing. Moreover, online and face to face communication needs to be enhanced through
various programmes, platforms and means between private sector actors and social
Existing support infrastructures and communication networks need to be further
strengthened. These networks have functions that no social enterprise can achieve
individually and will act as a multiplier effect by acting as a bridge that connects social
enterprises with private and public sector, raising public awareness and creating models
out of good examples.
Public Benefit Company or Non-profit Company should be recognized as separate
legal entity. A new legal entity model that is consistent with the social enterprise structure
should be recognized and established in the related legislation. Otherwise, social
enterprises which operate as associations, foundations, cooperatives or companies will
continue to encounter problems in implementation
Private sector should develop more long-term programmes to support the development of
social enterprises. A code of conduct among NGOs, social enterprises and companies is
needed, as well as efforts towards lifting infrastructural barriers that companies face while
transferring wealth to social enterprises and NGOs.

The policy and legal framework for

social enterprise in Romania

As a member of the European Union since 2007, Romania has taken up fully the
challenge of developing its social economy, while embracing the largely accepted views
regarding this on the continent. Next to the term of social economy, which is new for

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Romania (known to the general public after the EU accession), the sector itself is younger
than some of the existing members of the European Union. With a history of civil society
oppression and communist totalitarian regime, Romania has a young social economy
sector (in the real meaning of the word). Although some of the traditional forms of social
economy were present during this regime (cooperatives, mutual societies associations),
they were state governed and controlled. Only starting with 1990, after the revolution, the
real third sector has begun to develop. Romania recognized by law and encourages all the
basic forms of social economy: associations, foundation, cooperatives, mutual societies
and recently, social enterprises. Along with Romanians accession to the European Union
and the emergence of the concept of social economy in our country, a series of steps to
identify both the social economy actors (according to the European view) and the social
enterprises have been noted. Although not legally defined and visible, social enterprises in
Romania, have the benefit of taking various shapes among the organizations of the social


Currently, the concept of social enterprise is not defined in legal or policy terms. A
definition of social enterprise has been proposed under the draft Law on Social Economy.
However, awareness and understanding of the concept of social enterprise generally
remains low.
In Romania, there is poor recognition of the concept of social enterprise. Besides
there is no policy framework encouraging or supporting the creation and development of
social enterprises. Access to financing and fiscal incentives are limited. Associations and
foundations carrying out economic activities are treated similarly to regular companies in
terms of administrative burdens and fiscal regime. Access to public funding, except for a
very few dedicated ESF grants schemes, does not place the social enterprises forms in
privileged positions against regular companies.
Social enterprise status should be certified by granting a certificate in order to
recognize their contribution to the development of social economy organizations.

Definition(s) and concepts

There is no official or commonly accepted definition of social enterprise in Romania.
However, recent efforts to create a Law on Social Economy have generated awareness and
stimulated debate on the concept and the way it is operationalized. The draft law defines a
social enterprise as any juridical entity of private law which undertakes activities falling
under the social economy sphere and which respects the principles of social economy.
Different concepts and definition of social enterprise exist in literature. The common
elements of these definitions are: (i) social mission, and (ii) the commercial nature of at
least part of the activities (prevalent approach, but not uniform).

Policy and legal framework

Recent steps to create a social economy law in Romania, currently in public

debate, include new legal categories assimilated to the social enterprise: the
social cooperative and the enterprise of social integration.

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Currently, the concept of social enterprise is not defined in legal or policy terms. A
definition of social enterprise has been proposed under the draft Law on Social Economy.
However, awareness and understanding of the concept of social enterprise generally
remains low.

Public support and initiatives

Public policies targeting this sector either lack coherence and consistency, or are
almost entirely absent. Although the authorities have shown some interest in the non-
governmental sector over the last 20 years, Romania is still in a transitional and institution
building phase.

Networks and mutual support mechanisms

Only a few examples of networks of social enterprises have been identified in

Marks, labels and certification systems

There are no marks or labelling schemes for social enterprises in Romania. The legal
draft previously discussed has laid down some provisions on certification of social

Social investment markets

The market for financing social enterprises in Romania is underdeveloped. The key
source of funding so far has been the European Social Fund.

Spectrum of social enterprise

Social enterprises typically adopt the following legal/ organisational forms in
Mutual help associations / credit unions; and
Sheltered workshops run by NGOs.

Scale and characteristics

It is estimated that there are ~7,000 social enterprises in Romania that would meet
the criteria laid out by the SBI definition. Associations and foundations represent the
biggest proportion of social economy entities in Romania, however in 2012 only around 12
per cent (4,058) of these performed economic activities. In 2012, the following sectors had
the highest share of economically active associations and foundations: forestry (51% of
total associations and foundations operated in this sector); agriculture(31%); professional
(12%), followed by education, cultural and development/tourism sectors (each with 9%).

Factors constraining the start-up and development of social enterprise

In Romania, there is poor recognition of the concept of social enterprise. Besides
there is no policy framework encouraging or supporting the creation and development of
social enterprises. Access to financing and fiscal incentives are limited. Associations and
foundations carrying out economic activities are treated similarly to regular companies in
terms of administrative burdens and fiscal regime. Access to public funding, except for a

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very few dedicated ESF grants schemes, does not place the social enterprises forms in
privileged positions against regular companies


The policy and legal framework for social

enterprise in Bulgaria

Definition(s) and concepts

The awareness and recognition of social enterprises among government, businesses and
local stakeholders in Bulgaria has improved in recent years, not least as a result of the
development of the National Social Economy Concept. This defines social enterprises as
businesses which produce goods and services for the market economy and allocate part of
their resources to the accomplishment of social and economic goals.

Policy and legal framework

The policy framework for social enterprises is set out in the National Social
Economy Concept. This is accompanied by the Action Plan for the Social
Economy which supports the implementation of the National Social
Economy Concept and sets out a series of priority actions aimed at
facilitating the development of social economy (including social enterprises)
in Bulgaria.

There is no specific legal form for social enterprise in Bulgaria. Consequently, social
enterprises adopt a variety of legal forms, the three most common ones being non-profit
legal entities (NPLEs) such as associations and foundations; cooperatives for people with
disabilities, and specialised enterprises for people with disabilities.

Public support and initiatives

In general support to the sector in Bulgaria is weak and stakeholders note that social
enterprises would benefit from more government funding, targeted assistance through

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dedicated financial instruments, as well as support from the municipalities, the media and
the sector itself.

Networks and mutual support mechanisms

There are no networks of social enterprises in Bulgaria at present.

Marks, labels and certification systems

There are no marks, labelling schemes or certification systems for social enterprises in
Bulgaria. However, the development of rules for the introduction and application of a
kitemark (social enterprise product) is included as one of the actions under Priority 1 of
the Action Plan for the Social Economy.

Social investment markets

There are no specialist investor, intermediaries or financial instruments for social
enterprises in Bulgaria.

Spectrum of social enterprise

The traditional form of social enterprises - cooperatives focusing on work integration of
people with disabilities - is still predominant, but social enterprises are increasingly being
set up by associations and foundations.

Scale and characteristics

There are no official estimates of the scale of social enterprise in Bulgaria. It is estimated
that there are 200 to 430 social enterprises in Bulgaria that meet the EU definition. This
estimate comprises specialised enterprises and cooperatives for people with disabilities,
enterprises set up by Non-profit legal Entities (associations and foundations) and workers
producers cooperatives.

Factors constraining the start-up and development of social enterprise

Barriers experienced by social enterprises when starting up or scaling up their activities
include access to finance, a lack of government support and difficulties in accessing
markets (including public procurement opportunities)

National Social Economy Concept lays out a series of priority actions aimed at facilitating
the development of social economy (including social enterprises) in Bulgaria:
Priority 1: Raising awareness among stakeholders about the nature and functioning
of the social economy;
Priority 2: Establishment of support structures for the social economy and social
Priority 3: Information about the social economy;
Priority 4: Creation of favourable conditions for education, training and research in
support of the social economy;
Priority 5: Creation of a favourable environment that encourages the development of
the social economy.
Other strategic documents which foresee measures to support the development of the social
economy (including social enterprises) in Bulgaria include:
The National Reform Programme 2011-20157 which foresees measures such as the
development of a Handbook on legal forms for social enterprises, National Concept
for Active Live of Elderly People, support in the form of social housing for

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vulnerable, minority and people on social assistance, as well as support for new and
existing social enterprises;
The National Youth Strategy 2012-20208 which states that public-private
partnerships and social entrepreneurship in the sphere of services for young people
should be encouraged, in order to raise awareness and improve the career
development of young people;
The National Strategy for Poverty Reduction and Social Inclusion 20209 and the
Long-term Strategy for Employment of Disabled People 2011-2020.

There is no exclusive legal form for social enterprise in Bulgaria. Consequently, social
enterprises adopt a variety of legal forms, the three most common ones being:
Non-Profit Legal Entities (NPLEs) such as associations and foundations;
Cooperatives for people with disabilities;
Specialised enterprises for people with disabilities.

According to the National Social Economy Concept support to the social economy sector
in Bulgaria will come from a variety of public financial sources, such as:
Grant schemes for the establishment and development of social enterprises and
social platforms;
Tax relief in the form of extending the existing provisions for corporate businesses to
social enterprises, as well as introducing new provisions especially for social
State subsidies admissible under the so-called Block Exemption Regulations for
State Aid;
Access to credit and social funds;
Defining additional specific criteria in favour of social economy enterprises when
they participate in public procurement procedures;
Encouraging donations in favour of the social economy through tax relief for donors.

There are no networks of social enterprises in Bulgaria at present, though one could argue
that the Ministry of Labour and Social Policys social economy website could serve as the
base for establishing one in the future.


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The policy and legal framework for social
enterprise in Spain

Definition and concepts

In Spain, there is no formal definition of what constitutes a social enterprise and the
usage of the concepts of social enterprises and social entrepreneurship in public
discourse, policy and in general in the society is rather rare. Instead, the concept of social
economy prevails in public discourse, academic field and policy, in particular since 2011
when the Law 5/2011 on social economy was enacted.

Public support and initiatives

Both, at national and regional level, public support mainly initiatives focus
on social economy and not on social enterprises specifically. There is an
institutional framework geared towards social economy. More specifically,
the central government consists of a specific Directorate General (DG)
devoted to social economy within the Ministry of Labour and Social
Security. In addition, at the regional level, all Autonomous Communities
have departments dealing with social economy and entrepreneurial issues.
In general, public support initiatives can be grouped into four main
categories: tax breaks, reduced social security contributions and similar
measures, budget support, technical assistance, employment policy.

Networks and mutual support mechanisms

The concepts of social enterprise and social entrepreneurship are quite unknown in Spain
in comparison with other European countries and the type and density of existing network/
support mechanisms reflect it. There is one umbrella organisation integrating 28
organizations developing various economic activities in the field of social economy and
some international network (i.e. EMES) are also present in Spain.

Marks, labels and certifications systems

There are no formal identification schemes, marks or labels for social enterprises in Spain.
Social investment markets Social investment is at an early stage of development in Spain.
There appears to be relatively little debate and data on investment into social economy
entities/social enterprises. At the same time, there seems to be the consensus that access to
credit remains the key constraint to the development of social enterprises. The impact of

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the financial crisis has most likely contributed to the perceptible increase in interest in the
social impact investment.

Spectrum of social enterprises

There are 3 institutionalised forms of social enterprise in Spain: Social initiative
cooperatives under National law 27/1999 and regional laws, Sheltered Employment
Centres (Law 13/1982) and WISE (Law 44/2007).In addition, organisations that fulfil the
EU operational criteria of social enterprise can be found among Worker-owned companies
and some non-profit organisations with commercial activities.

Scale and characteristics

The available estimate of social economy produced by CEPES suggests that there were
44,500 of social enterprises as of 2013. However, estimation where EU operational criteria
were applied based on the CEPES statistics suggest much lower number of around 8,000
(excluding social initiative cooperatives).

Factors constraining the start-up and development of social enterprise

Key factors constraining the start-up and development of social enterprises in the Spanish
context relate in particular to:
The lack of adequate support from the Spanish Government;
Limited awareness among public institutions about the concept of social enterprise;
Lack of developed practice of social public procurement i.e. inclusion of relevant
nonmonetary selection criteria in public procurement;
Difficulties in access to finance.

Regarding the concept of social enterprise, a study carried out in 2012 on the social
economy in the EU shows that Spain is one of the EU countries with the widest recognition
of the concept of social economy (Monzn and Chaves, 2012). In contrast, the notion of a
social enterprise enjoys much less recognition in Spain. This may be because, without the
possibility of constituting as social enterprises (there is no legal entity), only a few of the
social enterprises or social entities seen themselves as social enterprises or social
entrepreneurs. Instead, the concepts of Third Sector, Social Third Sector or Social
and solidarity economy actors are used. However, the concepts of social enterprise, social
entrepreneurs and social innovation are increasing in importance. Media have already
reported about this new reality and related-concepts, talking about social entrepreneurs that
aim to improve society while carrying out an economic activity. As stated above, although
a definition of social economy has been provided by the law, there is no official
delimitation of the notion of social enterprise. At the academic level, one can distinguish
three different perspectives that have been taken on social enterprise sector.
Legislative efforts began in the late 1970s. he promotion of cooperatives was already
included in the 1978 Spanish Constitution. The notion of social economy developed further
in the 1980s and later culminating with the adoption of the Law on Social Economy in
2011. The concept of social economy contained in this law largely corresponds to the idea
of social enterprises put forward by the European Commission in its Communication

The concept of social economy is also present at institutional level: the central government
counts on a specific Directorate General (DG) devoted to social economy within the

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Ministry of Labour and Social Security. This DG is in charge of promoting legislative and
public plans of support for the social economy, as well as of designing the supporting
schemes and programmes for enterprises pertaining to the social economy. It is also
responsible for collecting and publishing statistics on worker-owned companies (sociedad
laboral) and cooperatives. At the regional level, all Autonomous Communities have
departments dealing with social economy and entrepreneurial issues; the Autonomous
Communities have also exclusive competences in some crucial issues related to social
economy, such as cooperatives and mutualities. Indeed, most of the Autonomous
Communities have adopted their own legislation in these areas.
Public policies towards social enterprises can be classified as:
Institutional measures including acknowledgement of the sector, juridical and
financial measures;
Financial measures seeking to develop, to professionalize and to reassure the social
Technical support and non-financial services or help: assessment, information,
networking, education.


The policy and legal framework for social

enterprise in Poland

Definition(s) and concepts

There is no official definition of social enterprise in Poland. The term social enterprise is
not much used in Poland. Instead the concept of social economy is more prevalent.
Social enterprises are often perceived as a constituent of the social economy, a broader
concept that itself does not have an official or commonly accepted definition in Poland.
Official documents on the use of EU structural funds operationalise the term social
economy entities by listing legal and organisational forms.

Policy and legal framework

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The draft Act on Social Enterprise- which if enacted - will introduce a social
enterprise status and organisations will be able to register themselves as
social enterprises (regardless of their legal form) if they fulfil certain
There is a specific legal framework for social cooperatives; this legal form is
however, narrowly restricted to a special type of social enterprises engaged
in work integration activities.

Public support and initiatives

The eco-system for social enterprise has developed strongly during the last few years,
driven mainly by a substantial allocation of resources from the EU funds (specifically,
European Social Funds). Public funding has so far, mainly targeted the building of
institutions forming the social enterprise (and social economy) ecosystem such as
institutions providing advisory services, engaging in promotional activities, carrying out
research on the topic, etc. Relatively less emphasis has been placed on publicly funded
initiatives directly supporting social enterprises. Moreover direct support schemes have
mainly concentrated on the specific legal form of social cooperatives and on start-up and
early phase of activities of social enterprises.

Networks and mutual support mechanisms

Social enterprise benefits from the existence of the relatively well established and linked
group of cooperating stakeholders and individuals promoting the social economy in
Poland. There exist several umbrella organisations grouping different social enterprises
Pro-social certificate currently available in four voivodships.

Marks, labels and certification systems

There are quality certification schemes for social enterprises:
covering the whole Poland and Pro-social certificate currently available in four

Social investment markets

Social investment market is underdeveloped. The factors behind this include: low internal
capacities of social enterprises and their limited understanding of financial instruments;
relatively easy access to grant financing; and several supply-side constraints, including the
specificity and diversity of social enterprises, which makes it difficult for mainstream
financial institutions to assess their credit risk; and a relatively small pool of potential
borrowers and small size of individual social enterprises (and their
financing needs) making the market unattractive.

Spectrum of social enterprises

Organisations meeting the EU Operational Definition exist under several legal forms in
Poland. These include non-profit organisations carrying out economic activity, social
cooperatives, cooperatives of the blind and the disabled, Professional Activity
Establishments (ZAZ) and non-profit companies.
Scale and characteristics There are no official estimates of the number of social enterprises
in Poland. This study estimates that there are around 5,200 entities (2012) in Poland that
could be classified as social enterprises by applying the EU Operational, employing around
70,000 people. This represents around 0.3 per cent of all registered and active enterprises

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(including one-person enterprises) and around 0.4 per cent of the total employment in the
economy. Social enterprises play an important role in work integration activities for groups
endangered with social exclusion, such as disabled. They also provide a wide variety of
services of general economic interest such as for instance education, social care services as
well as other specialised services.

Factors constraining the start-up and development of social enterprise

Limited knowledge of the offer of some social enterprises or indeed on the existence of
such enterprises is clearly a factor negatively affecting their growth prospects. Negative
connotations tied strongly to the narrow perception of social enterprises as tools for work
integration also inhibits their development. Lack of entrepreneurial spirit and know-how
and skills on key business-related issues are some of the main internal constraints facing
social enterprises. Finally, there are gaps in public support measures for established social
enterprises, as public schemes tend to focus on start-ups.

The draft Act on Social Enterprise- which if enacted - will introduce a social enterprise
status and organisations will be able to register themselves as social enterprises (regardless
of their legal form) if they fulfil certain conditions. There is a specific legal framework for
social cooperatives; this legal form is however, narrowly restricted to a special type of
social enterprises engaged in work integration activities.

In 2008, the Prime Minister established a dedicated advisory body, the Council on
Systemic Solutions in the Field of Social Economy with the Minister of Labour and
Social Policy acting as the Chairman and composed of representatives of relevant
ministries, local government, and the social economy sector. The Council was
assigned the following tasks:
To draft an Act on Social Enterprise;
To develop proposals for financial instruments addressing the needs of the social
To prepare proposals for formal and non-formal education on social economy;
To prepare the draft National Programme of Social Economy Development;
To present opinion on draft government documents, draft strategies and national
programmes, as well as proposals of EU regulations regarding social economy.
In July 2013, the Council published the following key documents:
Draft Act on Social Enterprise;
National Strategy of Social Economy Development;
Compact between social economy movement and the Government.
The draft Act on Social Enterprise - currently under the inter-ministerial consultation -
introduces a social enterprise status and defines rules for receiving and losing that
status9 . According to the draft Act, the social enterprise status can only be by entities
whose business activity is aimed at:
Professional reintegration of vulnerable groups;
Providing social assistance;
Providing childcare;
Conducting non-public kindergartens or other forms of pre-school education;
Mental health;
Providing support for people with disabilities.
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Further conditions to obtain a social enterprise status include:
The requirement to set up a consultative-advisory body with representation of those
employed and providing voluntary work for the company.
In the case of enterprises working towards employment re-integration of
disadvantaged groups: there are lower limits on the share of (formerly)
unemployed (50 per cent) or disabled (minimum 30 per cent), and there are limits
on profit distributions.
There is a wage cap for employees (three times the Polish average salary in the
enterprise sector).
The operational strategic document focusing on social economy and linked to the
National Development Strategy 2020 is the draft National Programme of Social
Economy Development (KPRES). It provides a definition of a social enterprise. The
Programme defines certain objectives and indicators pertaining to social enterprises,
but all its priorities and actions refer to the broader social economy concept. The policy
framework attempting to define social enterprise status and some policies towards it is
being developed in the dialogue with several stakeholders. Hence, the emerging
framework appears to be generally reflective of various stakeholders perspectives.

The policy and legal framework for social

enterprise in Estonia

Definition(s) and concepts

There is no official definition of social enterprise in Estonia. Traditionally, social
enterprise has been the activity of associations and foundations, offering a range of
services, including work integration, previously provided by state enterprises. The concept
of social entrepreneurship has now been introduced. Current definitions of social
enterprises in Estonia are in a large part coherent among stakeholders. Aspects receiving
wide agreement are that a social enterprise is: working towards a societal aim, has a viable
business model and if not financially self-sustainable already, should be moving towards

Policy and legal framework

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There is no formal policy or legal framework specific to social enterprise.
Public support and initiatives
There are no formal policies specifically defined to support social enterprise.
There are initiatives to better promote and support the sector, especially
from the National Foundation for Civil Society.

Networks and mutual support mechanisms

Networks have been established for associations and foundations and for social enterprises,
e.g. through the Network of Estonian Non-Profit Organisations (NENO) and ESEN.

Marks, labels and certification systems

There are no formal social enterprise marks or reporting. ESEN is promoting through a
handbook an impact measurement methodology and practice among its members. The aim
in the network is to have impact reports of all members publicly available. The EU is
funding a pilot statistical report of social enterprises in Estonia and a methodology for
regular reporting.

Social investment markets

There are no specific financial instruments directed to social enterprises in Estonia. The
interest of the investment community in social enterprise is low.

Spectrum of social enterprise

The most common legal form for social enterprises is the associations and foundations
association.Limited companies registered as members of the Estonia Social Enterprise
Network (ESEN) are also part of the spectrum.

Scale and characteristics

There are an estimated 300 to 450 social enterprises, based on assumptions, estimated by
the author. Associations and foundations represent the main business model for social
enterprises; but with new models starting to be developed and tested, including hybrid
models where two legal forms are adopted (e.g. an association/ foundation for the societal
activities and a private limited company for entrepreneurial activities).

Factors constraining the start-up and development of social enterprise

These generally are the same as for new/small businesses. Lack of investment funds is a
constraint. The market is constrained by the inability of public procurement to effectively
reflect social and environmental objectives.

There are no legal forms which are tailored specifically for use by social enterprises in
Estonia. This means that although there are no specific regulations or legislation that
restricts their establishment, there is also no legal form which allows for a social
enterprises particular characteristics. Potential legal barriers to establishing social
enterprises have been overcome through social entrepreneurs interpretation of the law
regarding associations and foundations organisations which presents several potential risks,
mainly concerning taxation. The most common legal form for social enterprises is the
associations and foundations association. In the Estonian language the associations and
foundations association has a confusing name which implies a negation on earning income
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and therefore a restriction on any economic activity. Further, under the Non-Profits
Associations Act, the objective or main activity of associations and foundations cannot be
earning income from economic activity. If economic activity becomes the main activity of
an association or foundation, the association can be dissolved by a court ruling. Although
no organisation has ever been dissolved for this reason, the Acts vague wording causes
significant confusion as to the extent to which the economic activity is allowed if at all, or
how to determine the main activity of the association.


The policy and legal framework for social

enterprise in Belgium

Definition and concepts

There is no official or commonly accepted definition of social enterprise in Belgium. The

concepts of work integration social enterprise (WISE) and social economy are more
popular in different parts of the country. The terms social enterprise and WISEs are often
used interchangeably, especially in Flanders. In Wallonia, the concept of social economy is