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Chemistry Laboratory: Synthesis of Hydroalcoholic Gel

By

Anon Durongpisitkul
Karis Katekovit
Thanon Thamvorapol
Chanon Anekthanasup
Varun Saketharam

To
Ms. Patraphorn Sanguansat
Advanced Chemistry 1109
Mahidol University International Demonstration School
Abstract
The main purpose for doing this lab is to identify and learnt the function of

each compounds involved in the making of hand gel. Students as a group formed a

hand gel using different chemical substances to form a gel following certain

procedures laid down by the lab instructor. After performing the experiment, it was

observed that the gel was too liquid. The cause of this might be from the excessive

amount of aroma oil put into the solution. To conclude, it would be successful in

establishing hygiene among people because due to the aroma scent. Improvement

that could have been made to make the gel more sticky is to add less aroma oil and

color.

Objective
To study the formation of hand gel.

To Improve laboratory skills.

To Improve teamwork among teammates.

To learn about the function of each compound upon the process of making a

gel.

To improve the communication between the group members.


Introduction
Nowadays, there are numerous pathogens present all around us, which could

be the ultimate cause of disease- something that humans do not want to get infected

with-. The most popular ways human use to prevent infections from pathogens are

washing hands with normal water. However, the drawback of this method is that

water tap is not available everywhere. The solution to this could be to use hand gel

to wash their hands. This is because the hand gel is portable and could kill

pathogens much more efficiently.

There are many different types of alcoholic substance that serves different

purposes in our daily life, in this report in particular hygienic purposes will be

focused ons. Some of alcoholic substance including Ethanol, Methanol and

propanol etc. Some of the substances involved are triethanolamine, propylene,

Ethyl alcohol and Carbopol.

Ethanol is the combination of aliphatic group Alkane with alcohol group.

It is also known as ethyl alcohol. The alcohol is antiseptic that is used to kill

bacteria. Carbopol is a substance thats used as a thickener. Triethanolamine - a

compound that belongs to the family of Alkylamines - is used as a gel forming

agent. It is a thick oily liquid with a hint of an ammonia odor. Propylene Glycol is

a colorless oily organic, used for making the gel moisturized.


Ethanol specifically, is a clear, colorless, and volatile liquid that is prepared

by the process of fermentation of carbohydrates such as glucose and the process of

hydration of ethylene. Ethanol contains the functional group alcohol because it has

the hydroxyl group attached to the molecule. Ethanol has 2 carbon backbone from

its prefix etha. Ethanol has many uses in the real world: antiseptic, hand sanitizer

and hairsprays.

Materials

Chemical: Amount

Carbopol 940 1.5 g (Thickening agent)

Distilled water 128 ml (Solvent)

Ethyl alcohol 95% 370 ml (Antiseptic)

Propylene glycol 5 ml (Moisturizer)

Triethanolamine 1.5 g (Gel forming agent)

Coloring agent (Food grade)

Aroma essential oil


Laboratory apparatus: Amount

Hot plate 1

Magnetic bar 1

600 ml Beaker 1

Stirring rod 3

weighing paper 1

10 ml cylinder 1 propylene glycol

50 ml beaker 1 triethanolamine

100 ml beaker 5 adjust colour + odor

dropper 1

Container 1
Procedure:

1. Dissolve 1.5 grams of Carbopol 940 with 128 ml of distilled water

2. Heat at 100 C, Stirring for 5-10 minutes by using magnetic bar

3. Add 370 ml of ethyl alcohol and 5 ml of propylene glycol, further

blend for 5 minutes

4. Gently drop 1.5 grams of triethanolamine until it mix well

5. Leave at room temperature at least 15 minutes, gel should form during

this time.

6. Adjust color and essential oil

7. Hand in sample, labelled with your name group, the name of

compound and the date to the lab instructor.

Results

Hydroalcoholic was synthesized from hand gel from combining Carbopol

940, ethyl alcohol, propylene glycol and triethanolamine. The gel received as a

product initially was a colorless substance and had to go through a coloring and

scenting phase before getting out the final products. Which is sufficiently sticky

and makes people want to watch their hands before they used it. The odor added

was too strong due to the accident when pouring the odor additives, and the color
was very similar to blood because too much coloring additives were added. So the

gel making phase turned out ok, but the scenting and coloring phase was not.

Discussion

Each chemical in this experiment has a different role. The first one is

Carbopol 940, which is a thickening agent. The distilled water acts as a solvent in

this experiment. Ethanol here is used as an antiseptic (killing bacteria) and will

make our hands dry after using it. Therefore, Propylene glycol must be added

because it acts as a moisturizer. The Triethanolamine is added to form a gel.

Lastly, the aroma additives were added, but it didnt go as expected, making it to

have a grandma-like smell. However, with the use of too much aroma essential oil,

it took longer than the usual time to form a gel substance. It took almost two days

to for the solution to form a gel.


Conclusion

In conclusion, the alcohol successfully reinforced more hygiene, because it

makes people who use it want to wash their hands. For future experiments, to

improve our experiment and decrease the rate of error, we would want to be more

careful in choosing the color and odor.


Bibliography

National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database;

CID=7618,

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/7618 (accessed May 25,

2017).

National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database;

CID=702,

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/702 (accessed May 25, 2017).