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Jazimin Rivett

Szetela

English 1010

May 14th 2017

Every animal, human, religion, government and culture has dark secrets; skeletons in the

closet so to speak. They all share one common taboo all across the Animal Kingdom

cannibalism! What forces a species to eat its own kind? It is unnatural for human to eat another

human but looking at when animals do it, in many cases it is for survival and humans are guilty

of this as well. In many cases throughout human history, many individuals were subjects to harsh

environments and situations where people were forced for survival to eat another human being.

But, in other cases cannibalism is a form of ritual, and is done to honor the gods. I chose to do

my research paper on what causes a species to eat its own kinds.

Starting in the animal kingdom the praying mantis partakes in cannibalism and this is a

large part of their species. For a little history on this, a female praying mantis will eat their sexual

partners. In the article Praying Mantis Cannibalism Explained -In females those who ate their

mates, there is an increase in the number of eggs produced subsequent to cannibalism they had

also found out that Sexual cannibalism... increases male investment in offspring, more babies

were produced when the mother had eaten the father. Cannibalism is why this species has

survived the test of time and their reason is for continuation of their spices.

Next heading down to the dark corners of every house hold, spiders. The black widow is

notorious for eating their mates, but, they are not the only ones that do it. Among others the Wolf
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spider, Red Back spider, and the Jumping spider also commonly eat their mates. Researchers

have found a common factor about this. It's all about size. If males are small, they're easier to

catch and therefore more likely to be prey, say Shawn Wilder and Ann Rypstra from Miami

University in Ohio. Big females eat their puny mates simply because a) they're hungry and b)

they can. This is from the article Food vs. Sex: Why Some Female Spiders Eat Males Before

Mating. Another research project that was studying cannibalism in female spiders has found

that, While docile females attack inferior males and prefer to mate with superior males,

aggressive females kill males regardless of their condition, which demonstrates their inability to

distinguish males as sources of sperm or food, indiscriminately cannibalizing them," study

author Rubn Rabaneda-Bueno told the Spanish news agency SINC this week. When in the

same article they discussed We reached the conclusion that there are aggressive genetics which

vary among females and make them act aggressively, both when they feed off prey, and when

they approach a male in courting," study director Jordi Moya Larao told SINC. "Others are

docile in both contexts, highlighting the existence of different personalities." This is from the

article Creepy Cannibalism: Why Female Spiders Eat Mates. So for female spiders it has been

found that both for nutrients for their young they cannibalize just like the praying mantis along

with survival of the fittest, and last but not least because female spiders can.

Moving to the water the Tiger Salamanders are cannibalistic, When the salamander

becomes cannibalistic, and eats non-relatives, it removes some of the competition for valuable

resources. As an example, by eating the non-relatives, the relatives have more food available.

Also "Then they make their living preying primarily on other salamanders," says James Collins,

a professor and chair of Arizona State University's Biology Department. Studies conducted by

Collins and Cornell University's David Pfennig show that salamanders growing up among
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relatives are less likely to become cannibals than those raised with non-relatives. Their results are

published in the April 29 (1993) issue of the international journal Nature. This is from koppes

the author of He aint tasty hes my brother. For Tiger Salamanders this article suggests that

it is for survival of the fittest that Tiger Salamanders cannibalize. But, they are not the only tigers

in the water to be cannibalistic.

Also in the aquatic, life Tiger Shark are known to be cannibalistic but on a completely

other level. Its a tough world from the moment of conception for a sand tiger shark. When a

female gets pregnant, its usually with multiple offspring of several different male sharks. As

soon as the fetuses are old enough, they begin a cannibalistic battle for primacy in utero, with

only one surviving. says the article written by Eilperin. Its still unclear whether the

evolutionary strategy works because the most-aggressive fathers get their offspring growing in

utero before others, thus giving them a developmental advantage in the cannibalistic battles to

come, or if they produce offspring that gestate more quickly. From the article For sand tiger

sharks, a deadly, cannibalistic battle inside the womb is part of evolution. Not all sharks are

joined in on the cannibalistic nature Some of the sand tiger sharks close relatives, including

great white and mako sharks, consume unfertilized eggs while in utero, too, but they do not eat

their hatchling brothers and sisters. This adds to the questions University of North Florida

biology professor Jim Gelsleichter, an expert in shark reproduction who was not involved with

the research, said it just opens up so many questions because now scientists must figure out

whether sand tiger fathers end up winning the evolutionary battle because they inseminate their

partner first or because they produce the fastest-developing embryo tiger sharks are ferocious

from the moment of conception. They are listed near the top of the food chain when it comes to

aquatic life. Cannibalism from their siblings has been linked to the nutrients needed to survive in
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the mother womb, along with the survival instincts that are created within side the womb. Like

many other shark mothers, female sand tigers abandon their young after giving birth. Given the

fact that their babies are nearly half their size and are experienced killers, Chapman said the

mothers probably run a mile. From the article For sand tiger sharks, a deadly, cannibalistic

battle inside the womb is part of evolution. The tiger shark is deadly and it is a part of their

nature to be cannibalistic.

Going to the sweet farm in the middle of nowhere, cannibalism is everywhere. Chicken

take part in cannibalism but, they take on for more of a social aspect than a survival tactic to

survive. Within flocks, chickens and other types of poultry have a social hierarchy referred to as

a pecking order. Mild pecking is normal in the establishment of this order. Feather pecking

occurs when one bird pecks or pulls at the feathers of another. Feather pecking can damage

plumage and injure a birds skin, and sometimes this behavior leads to cannibalism. The physical

texture and appearance of feathers have been shown to play a role in feather pecking and eating.

Laying hens tend to peck short feathers more frequently than long ones, and there is some

evidence to suggest that hens laying brown-shelled eggs are more likely to engage in feather

pecking than hens laying white-shelled eggs. from the article Feather Peaking and Cannibalism

in Small and Backyard Poultry Flocks. It was also discovered that if you keep them confided in

close tight spaces they will also begin to peck and fight with each other. Cannibalism is defined

as the pecking, tearing, and consuming of skin, tissue, or organs of flock mates. It is a problem

that can occur among birds of any age and of any breed. Cannibalism can affect many different

types of poultry, including chickens, ducks, turkeys, quail, and pheasants. Cannibalism can occur

in all types of housing systems, including cages, floor pens, aviaries, and free-range systems.

says the author Jacquire.


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In the rivers of Africa and the safari we find that hippopotamus are added to the list of

cannibals. I was in the southern end of Kruger National Park in South Africa when crossing a

river we saw two hippos in the water with a quite decayed, dead hippo surrounded by crocodiles.

This was not initially that unique a sight until we saw one of the hippos feeding from the

carcass, says author I have also found that Since then he has been collecting evidence of

hippos eating impala, baby elephants and even their own kind. While the cannibalistic incidents

still number fewer than a dozen, they have occurred across the animals range, from South Africa

to Uganda. from the article The truth about hippos: herbivore or cannibal? If carnivore is

driven by dietary deficiencies in hippos then they may become more dangerous during droughts

or other times when their access to food is restricted and trying to understand if this is the case

will be important, said Leejiah Dorward who studies the interaction between poor communities

and their environment. Hippos are known to be vegetarian and with there being very little very

little evidence to support the who, what, when, where, and why of this animals behaviors one this

is for certain that they do cannibalize each other from time to time. A well said quote form the

author Davies I think the important thing is that this demonstrated how much we still have to

learn about nature in general, and even some of the largest and most charismatic wildlife species

on the planet, he said.

To the jungles we swing to when we come across our closest cousin, the chimpanzee. It

was a grisly sight: a murdered chimpanzee, his body beaten, bloodiedand partially

cannibalizedby members of his former social group. Researchers have found more than just

cannibalizing their leader they also kill their young So much for the hippy chimp. Bonobos,

known for their peaceable ways and casual sex, have been caught in the act of cannibalism. An
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account of a group of wild bonobos consuming a dead infant, published last month, is the first

report of cannibalism in these animals making the species the last of the great apes to reveal a

taste for the flesh of their own kind. quotes from Hippy apes caught cannibalizing their

young. Fowlers team lost sight of the apes not long afterwards, but early the following day

he saw Olga join them carrying Olivias body, which had already begun to decompose. It was

smelling, limp and wet, he recalls. Olga and seven others spent the rest of the day devouring the

corpse. Are chimpanzees smart enough to know what they are doing? Though bonobos mostly

eat fruit and leaves, they are known to hunt monkeys and the small antelopes called duikers. But

Fowler noted signs that this meal was somehow different. More individuals got a taste of the

infant than is typical when the apes share meat. They also spent 7 hours eating the body

longer than they take over a similar-sized monkey. Some even played with it. If they just think

of it as another piece of meat, why do they behave differently with it? he asks. Also I have

found that Chimpanzees: Of all the great apes, chimpanzees resort to cannibalism most often.

Typically, males will kill and eat the infant of another female, usually in their own group but

occasionally in another. When chimps kill adults from other groups in a fight, they do not eat the

body. This is a strange accordance to find with chimpanzees but they are not the only mammal

to cannibalize. Gorillas: In the 1970s, primatologist Dian Fossey found remains of two gorillas

in the faeces of a mother gorilla and her daughter. Nothing has been reported since. And to add

to that Orang-u-tans: Two instances of cannibalism have been documented in orang-utans living

wild in Sumatra. In both cases, the mothers ate their infants after carrying their corpses around

for several days. David Dellatore of Oxford Brookes University in the UK, who observed both

events, thinks they were due to stress. These are all found in the article Hippy apes caught

cannibalizing their young. Many mammals that are similar to us, in physiology and phycology
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cannibalize for a list of different reason, survival being the top of the list. But they also

cannibalize for dominance and a show of alpha. Humans are not far from apes. They are the

closest relative to us in more ways than one.

Last but not least we head to cannibalism in humans. There is a plethora amount of research done

on this particular topic. But, unlike all the other animals we do not eat our own species out of

need for survival. We also do this because of ritualistic reasons as well. What sets us apart from a

shark or a chimpanzee. William Kelso, chief archaeologist at the Jamestown Rediscovery

Project , found the remains and Douglas Owsley, division head for physical anthropology at the

Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, used marks on the girls skull and tibia to

show that she had been the victim of cannibalism. Her skeleton provides the first tangible

evidence of this in Jamestown, corroborating existing written accounts. this is from the Scarred

skull revels cannibalism at Jamestown colony. Cannibalism is nothing new to our species and

has been told from ancient times like the stories from Greek mythology KRONOS (Cronus) was

the King of the Titans and the god of time, in particular time when viewed as a destructive, all-

devouring force. This story has more than one telling of it, but basic plot line is In fear of a

prophecy that he would in turn be overthrown by his own son, Kronos swallowed each of his

children as they were born. Rhea managed to save the youngest, Zeus, by hiding him away on

the island of Krete (Crete), and fed Kronos a stone wrapped in swaddling clothes. This is a story

told from year of past to the present. This also shows that even the ancient civilizations knew the

horror of cannibalism but, they knew what it was. Survival was not the main point of this story it

was out of fear that he had swallowed his children. Is it fear that drives humans to cannibalize?

Grisly human remains litter the American Southwest. Broken, burned skulls and shattered bones

with crude cut marks--as if the flesh had been scraped away--have been found at sites inhabited
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by Pueblo Indians centuries ago. The pueblo remains are a highly controversial because there is

little evidence than what the remains say.. Arizona, Utah, and New Mexico, anthropologists

have found skulls with their tops smashed in and brains apparently removed; some are scorched

with burn marks. Other broken bones bearing cut marks were found with stone blades that may

have done the job. "Turner's great leap is that this is preparing food for consumption," Darling

says. "You have to consider alternate explanations, this is said by Fisherman. That entailed

"corpse pounding" with large rocks, Darling says, coupled with mutilation and chopping up the

body. Some of these events took place at "kivas," or ritual houses, which fits much better with a

curing ceremony than with cooking, says Darling, who directs the Mexico-North Research

Network in Chihuahua, Mexico. What's more, he says, "there's actually a great fear of

cannibalism throughout Pueblo society." from the article Cannibals and Witches Have Scientists

Gnashing Their Teeth. The diet of an Aghori is truly enough to make most people cringe. They

will eat rotten food, putrefied garbage, and even excreta such as human feces or urine. Often

these items will be consumed out of a human skull bowl or some other dish made from human

bones. While most people will see this as revolting, the Aghori believe that the consumption of

such things kills the ego and defies the human perception of beauty. Besides, since they do not

believe that anything can be pure or impure, it does not matter to them whether the food is

filth or something that would be more palatable to outsiders. To an Aghori, eating garbage is all

the same as eating anything else. To a more detailed and documented source of cannibalism the

Aghori is a ascetic sect of Hinduism, specifically they are Shaivites, meaning they are devoted

to Shiva, a powerful Hindu god of death and destruction often ominously referred to as The

Destroyer and The Transformer. They take part of cannibalism to find enlightenment. To

Become one with oneselve, they give up everything that ties them to this world, such as families.
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They partake in the taboos of society, not bathing, not keeping them selves clean, and

cannibalism. At cremation grounds, the Aghori gather ash with which to cover their bodies.

Indeed, often Aghori will wear nothing but human ash smeared all over them, with some only

wearing a very small piece of cloth just large enough to barely cover their private parts. They

will occasionally wear jewelry or trinkets made from human bone fragments, and some make use

of walking sticks made from a human femur. It is also not uncommon to see an Aghori with a

grisly bowl fashioned from a human skull, called a kapala, which they will use either as a

drinking vessel for liquor, a dish for food, or as a begging bowl. Cannibalism is a part of

everyday life. Cemeteries is not the only place they get their remains to eat though. The corpses

are mostly gathered from the bodies of the dead floating down the sacred Ganges River. In India,

many bodies are cremated, but in Hinduism there are certain types of people that are not to be

cremated. These include children, holy men, pregnant women, unmarried women, and those who

have died of either leprosy, suicide, or snake bites. Rather than cremation, these bodies are cast

upon the holy waters of the Ganges River to be carried away and have all sins washed away.

This adds to the taboo and horror of the Aghori they will basically will eat anything just like a

animal. The human flesh that is consumed is cut from corpses and then either eaten raw, cooked

over an open flame, or sometimes even in a putrid state. For this certain tribe cannibalism is for

ritualistic and religious reasons. The Donner Party wasn't going swimmingly before being holed

up in the mountains. They took a really crummy route to get West -- where they literally had to

break ground for the wagon trail as they went, at one point -- and were caught in a desert for 80

miles (129 kilometers) before even getting to the point of no return in the California-Nevada

mountains by November 1846. By Christmas, the pioneers were eating those who had died,

and there were several accusations among the group that people were being killed (or at least
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being neglected) so flesh would, ahem, be at hand [source: Diamond].- 10 True Stories of

Cannibalism. The Donner party is a notorious show of cannibalism in North America This is a

case of survival when the necessities of life were more important than to be morally subjective.

They say the west was built on stories and folk lore of glorious adventures. But, this is one case

where expositions out to the west has left a stain on the United States a part of our history that is

not talked about.

In conclusion all animals have practice in cannibalism survival is their main goal to be

reached in the animal kingdom but with humans we tell a different tale. Out tale is travailed with

the taboo of though, religion, rituals, and dark secrets meant to stay in the dark. But there are

accounts have been talked about with the tiger shark, chimpanzee, hippopotamus, chicken, tiger

salamander, spiders, and praying mantis these are all for survival purposes. Humans also

cannibalize for survival and have been for centuries. This is not a common accordance and there

is no evidence to support that this will stop.


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