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Introduction

Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) is an advanced applications which,


without embodying intelligence as such, aim to provide innovative services
relating to different modes of transport and traffic management and enable
various users to be better informed and make safer, more coordinated, and
'smarter' use of transport networks.

Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS)

Advanced traffic management systems (ATMS) seek to reduce, or at least


contain, traffic congestion in urban environments by improving the efficiency of
utilization of existing infrastructures. These systems typically seek solutions to
congestion problems occurring on urban freeways and surface streets through
the deployment of state-of-the-art sensing, communications, and data-
processing technologies. Problems considered include both congestion caused by
regular traffic patterns (congestion management systems) and traffic problems
caused by stalled vehicles or other unpredictable incidents (incident
management systems). ATMS typically attempt to take advantage of information
that can be provided by roadside traffic sensors. These systems typically attempt
to use available traffic information to develop optimal traffic control strategies
addressing traffic needs at a single intersection, along an arterial or freeway,
along a given corridor, or throughout a given area. Real-time solutions capable of
automatically adjusting to changes in traffic conditions are often sought. These
systems also frequently rely on variable message signs or other information
dissemination technologies to provide relevant traffic information and travel
recommendations to travelers. Specific ATMS tasks will include

Predictive traffic flow modelling


Traffic congestion monitoring
Coordinated signalized of surface street lights
Ramp metering onto congested highways
Opening of reserved lanes and reversible lanes
Road access monitoring and control
Advanced Traveller Information Systems (ATIS)

ATIS is any system that acquires, analyses, and presents information to assist
surface transportation travellers in moving from a starting location (origin) to
their desired destination. A key support system in the ATMS architecture is the
Advanced Traveller Information System (ATIS). The goal of ATIS is to provide
every traveller with real-time access to information on traffic conditions, travel
options, special event updates, and route information for a given metropolitan
area. In addition, information on accommodations and services would be
provided to travellers staying in the area. Components of ATMS includes,

traffic management decisions


Model predictions
Traffic congestions reports
Police/public safety reports
Event schedules, attendance, & status
Transit, airport, ship line schedules and status

However, ATMS and AITS are liked with each other. A simple picture below will
give a clearer picture. This information provides a comprehensive view of the
current state of the transportation environments and forms the core database
which directly supply travellers with information on:

The best routes to take


The best mode of transportation available
The existence and availability of services
In-vehicle hazard warning and road signing
Parking availability
Predicted congestion areas by time of day

Technolo How it Operates Advantages Disadvantages


gy
Signposts (beacons) are located at Proven, well- -Need signposts
Signpost & Signpost &

"active"
"passive" Odometer Odometer
specific points along the route, each established wherever AVL is
signpost transmitting a unique signal. technology. to operate.
Vehicle reads signals to determine -Not effective for
location (Vehicle usually interpolate vehicles off-route
Each vehicle transmits a unique signal to Proven, well- -Need signposts
various signposts, located at specific established wherever AVL is

points along the route (or signposts read technology. to operate.


transponders affixed to the vehicles). The - Potentially - Location only
signposts then transmit the vehicle's reduces the given when
A network of satellites in orbit transmits -Can be operated - Signals can be
Differential Positioning
Based System
Global

signals to the ground. Special receivers on anywhere GPS blocked by tall


each vehicle read the signals available to signals can be buildings, tree
them and triangulate to determine received. cover, tunnels, or
location. If the agency expects there to be -Does not require overpasses.
Network of radio towers on the ground -Can be operated -Can be blocked
Radio Ground-

transmits signals. Special receivers on anywhere signals by hills and tall


(e.g., GPS)
(and

each vehicle read the signals available to can be received buildings


them and tri-angulate to determine -Does not require -Incomplete
location. Ground-based radio is purchase, coverage in U.S.
sometimes
The vehicle supplemented with odometer
uses its own odometer and a installation, no or
-Requires -Not as accurate
compass to measure its new position from significantly less as other location
Dead Reckoning

its old (known) position. Dead-reckoning is purchase and technologies


often supplemented by map-matching - maintenance of without
comparing expected position with a equipment if supplements
computerized map, and adjusting signposts are used
measured position if the vehicle is not on as a supplement.
a road. Dead-reckoning is often
supplemented with readings from another
location technology, like signposts or GPS.

Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO)

Commercial Vehicle Operations is an application of Intelligent Transportation


Systems for trucks. A typical system would be purchased by the managers of a
trucking company. It would have a satellite navigation system, a small computer
and a digital radio in each truck. Components of CVO include:

Fleet Administration

Electronic Clearance

Commercial Vehicle Administrative Processes

International Border Crossing Clearance

Weigh-In-Motion (WIM)

Roadside CVO Safety


On-Board Safety Monitoring

Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS)

Advanced public transportation systems (APTS) seek to apply transportation


management and information technologies to public transit systems to increase
their efficiency of operation and improve the safety of public transportation
riders. Examples of APTS applications include real-time passenger information
systems, automatic vehicle location systems, bus arrival notification systems,
and systems providing priority of passage to buses at signalized intersections.

APTS is basically to help develop, evaluate, and publicize these opportunities, the
Federal Transit Administration (FTA) has established the Advanced Public
Transportation Systems (APTS) Program. FTAs objective is to increase the
industrys knowledge of successful applications of advanced technologies with
the expectation that this will lead to their widespread adoption. APTS
technologies are a collection of technologies that increase the efficiency and
safety of public transportation systems and offer users greater access to
information on system operations. The implementation of APTS technologies is
transforming the way public transportation systems operate, and changing the
nature of the transportation services that can be offered by public transportation
systems. The goal is to provide public transportation decision-makers more
information to make effective decisions on systems and operations and to
increase travellers convenience and ridership. APTS technologies can be
organized into five broad categories that describe the technologies' relevance to
transit applications. Each category is comprised of a variety of technology
choices that are available to help transit agencies and organizations meet
travellers service needs while increasing safety and efficiency. The five APTS
technology categories are:

Fleet Management Systems aid in boosting the efficiency of transit


systems, reducing operating costs, and improving transit services through
more precise adherence to schedules. Fleet management systems do this
by using technology to monitor the fleet's effectiveness in meeting
customer demand, identifying incidents, managing response, and
restoring service more effectively. More efficient planning, scheduling, and
operations can also increase ridership as customers can better depend on
transit.
Traveller Information Systems combine computer and communications
technologies to provide vehicle information to travellers at home, at work,
on the roadside, or at bus and rail transit stations. The information allows
travellers to choose the most efficient and convenient modes of travel.
Travelers can access real-time schedules and congestion information
through telephones, cable television, variable message signs, kiosks, or
personal computers. The result is more convenience for routine or
occasional travellers in using and choosing transit.
Electronic Payment Systems are installed to make fare payment more
convenient for travellers and revenue collection less costly for transit
providers. These systems combine fare media, such as magnetic stripe
cards or smart cards, with electronic communications systems, data
processing computers, and data storage systems to more efficiently
collect fares. Cards can be used for regional travel on buses, subways, and
rail. These systems can also be used to report real-time travel demand for
better planning and scheduling of services.
Transportation Demand Management refers to a set of techniques and
programs employed by transportation agencies and organizations to more
effectively manage and utilize the capacity of the existing infrastructure.
The goal of demand management is to maximize the capacity of the
current transportation network to meet the increase in the demand for
transportation services. The techniques and programs utilize advanced
technologies to monitor capacity and manage the system in real time, as
well as provide information and incentives for travelers to find alternative
solutions to traveling alone. An example is the use of High Occupancy
Vehicle (HOV) lanes on freeways in which cars with 2 or more passengers
can drive. The objective of such a program is to encourage carpooling on
congested highways.
The Transit Intelligent Vehicle Initiative (IVI) is a research and development
effort that is seeking to develop technologies that help prevent crashes.
Advanced safety and information systems are applied to help drivers
operate transit vehicles more safely and effectively. The current focus of
Transit IVI is to test these technologies on buses and paratransit vehicles;
rail vehicles will be considered in the future. For buses, the FTA has
identified the five most frequent crash types (comprising approximately 87
percent of all crashes involving buses). Based on this information, Transit
IVI technologies are being tested to reduce these types of crashes.

Transit Application APTS Technologies


Fleet Management Automatic Vehicle Location Systems
Systems Transit Operations Software
Communications Systems
Geographic Information Systems
Automatic Passenger Counters
Traffic Signal Priority Systems
Traveler Information Pre-Trip Transit and Multimodal Traveler Information Systems
Systems In-Terminal/Wayside Transit Information Systems
In-Vehicle Transit Information Systems
Electronic Payment Smart Cards
Systems Fare Distribution Systems
Clearinghouse
Transportation Dynamic Ridesharing
Demand Management Automated Service Coordination
Transportation Management Centers
The Transit Intelligent Lane Change and Merge Collision Avoidance
Vehicle Initiative Forward Collision Avoidance
Rear Impact Collision Mitigation
Tight Maneuvering/ Precision Docking

Advanced Vehicle Control Systems (AVCS)

Advanced Vehicle Control Systems (AVCS or AVEC) is part of the "Smart Highway"
initiative (also known as Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS) or Intelligent
Transportation Systems (ITS) now receiving considerable study worldwide. If
being able to take a snooze on the way to Schenectady were the only advantage
of an automated car guidance system, it would be unlikely that the very
substantial development and deployment costs for such a system would be
justified in the relatively near future. An automated system can have major
advantages over the current system in the areas of highway space utilization and
safety as described below.

AVCS Space Utilization Advantage - Human drivers are extremely inefficient in


their use of highway space. A typical automobile, when parked in a garage,
occupies about 100 square feet of space. Adding "overhead" in the form of areas
to open the doors and walk around the car brings the total to perhaps 175 square
feet. Yet this same automobile, when operated on the highway at 70 miles per
hour requires over 5000 square feet of space.
AVCS Safety Advantage - The existing automobile/highway system is extremely
mature technology having been under continuous development for 100 years. As
such we would expect safety advances to be governed by the limitations of
"diminishing return". If we plot accidents, injuries, or deaths per vehicle mile as a
function of time (data are available since 1935) we would expect to see
incidence decreasing exponentially and approaching a fixed value as the
automobiles and highways approach "perfect" and we approach a condition
where all accidents are caused by drivers and no other system faults.

AVCS Feasibility Considerations - A vehicle guidance system capable of delivering


on the promises outlined above would necessarily have to be highly
sophisticated and presumably involve substantial electronics, computers, and
software. But, vehicle guidance is a very safety critical function. We certainly
arent going to deploy a new system that we couldnt prove is safer than the
existing system. At the same time, cost is going to be a major factor. Is our
technology up to this task? Keep in mind that the potential benefits of AVCS are
extremely large. The savings in highway construction cost, real estate required
for highways, pollution, travel time, and reduced injury and death will justify
rather large development and deployment costs. Would you rather have a
manual Mercedes or an automated Chevrolet that would get you to work in half
the time with half the hassle?

Conclusion

In conclusion, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) have the potential to provide


three key benefits for all road users businesses and society, which is safety,
productivity and environmental performance.