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Instructor’s Resource Manual to accompany ELECTRONIC DEVICES, Sixth Edition and ELECTRONIC DEVICES: ELECTRON FLOW VERSION, Fourth Edition Thomas L. Floyd Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Columbus, Ohio Copyright © 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department. Instructors of classes using Floyd, Electronic Devices, Sixth Edition, and Electronic Devices: Electron Flow Version, Fourth Edition, may reproduce material from the instructor’s resource manual for classroom use. 10987654321 Sexonin(e sy eral ISBN 0-13-092257-9 Contents Solutions for End-of-Chapter Problems Chapter 1 3 Chapter 2 6 Chapter 3 18 Chapter 4 26 Chapter 5 35 Chapter 6 46 Chapter 7 61 Chapter 8 2 Chapter 9 79 Chapter 10 87 Chapter 11 100 Chapter 12 107 Chapter 13 119 Chapter 14 126 Chapter 15 134 Chapter 16 140 Chapter 17 145 Chapter 18 151 Results for System Applications 157 Summary of EWB/Multisim Circuit Files 167 Test Item File 185 Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1-1 Atomic Structure 1. Anatom with an atomic number of 6 has 6 electrons and 6 protons 2. The third shell of an atom can have 2n’ = 2(3)? = 18 electrons Section 1-2 Semiconductors, Conductors, and Insulators 3. The materials represented in Figure 1-40 in the textbook are (@) insulator (6) semiconductor (©) conductor 4. An atom with four valence electrons is a semiconductor. Section 1-3 Covalent Bonds 5. Ina silicon crystal, each atom forms four covalent bonds. Section 1-4 Conduction in Semiconductors 6. When heat is added to silicon, more free electrons and holes are produced. 7. ‘Current is produced in silicon at the conduction band and the valence band. Section 1-5 N-Type and P-Type Semiconductors 8. Doping is the carefully controlled addition of trivalent or pentavalent atoms to pure (intrinsic) semiconductor material for the purpose of increasing the number of majority carriers (free electrons or holes). 9. Antimony is a pentavalent (donor) material used for doping to increase free electrons. Boron is a trivalent (acceptor) material used for doping to increase the holes. Section 1-6 The Diode 10. The electric field across the pm junction of a diode is created by donor atoms in the m region losing free electrons to acceptor atoms in the p region. This creates positive ions in the n- region near the junction and negative ions in the p region near the junction. A field is then established between the ions. 11. The barrier potential of a diode represents an energy gradient that must be overcome by conduction electrons and produces a voltage drop, not a source of energy. Chapter 1 Section 1-7 Biasing the Diode 12 1B. To forward-bias a diode, the positive terminal of a voltage source must be connected to the p region. A series resistor is needed to limit the current through a forward-biased diode to a value which will not damage the diode because the diode itself has very little resistance. Section 1-8 Voltage-Current Characteristic of a Diode 14, 15. To generate the forward bias portion of the characteristic curve, connect a voltage source across the diode for forward bias , and place an ammeter in series with the diode and a voltmeter across the diode. Slowly increase the voltage from zero and plot the forward voltage versus the current. ‘A temperature increase would cause the barrier potential to decrease from 0.7 V to 0.6 V. Section 1-9 Diode Models 16. 17. (a) The diode is reverse-biased. (b) The diode is forward-biased. (©) The diode is forward-biased, (@)_ The diode is forward-biased. = {50M _\isv_swe3 © re-(Saea)ov Sade 0) Ms © % OM Section I-10 Testing a Diode 18. 19. (a) Since Yp = 25 V =0.5V, the diode is open. (b) The diode is forward-biased but since Vp = 15 V = Vs, the diode is open. (©) The diode is reverse-biased but since Vq= 2.5 V = 0.5Vs, the diode is shorted. (@) The diode is reverse-biased and Vz=0V. The diode is operating properly. Vy = Vou = 425 V Vs -0.7V Chapter 1 i EWB/Multisim Troubleshooting Problems The solutions showing instrument connections for problems 20 through 28 are available in the Solutions folder for Chapter I on the CD-ROM provided with the textbook. The solutions may be accessed using the password EDSFLOYD. The faults in the circuit files may be accessed using the password book (all lowercase). 20. Diode shorted 21, Diode open 22, Diode open 23. Diode shorted 24, No fault 25. Diode shorted 26. Diode leaky 27. Diode open 28. Diode shorted Chapter 2 Diode Applications Section 2-1 Half-Wave Rectifiers 1, See Figure 2-1. 43 ° © Figure 2-1 Vnw-0-7V _5SV-0.7V_43V 2 @) 2M aT = AS* 915m R 472-70 a Yu =07V _S0V-0.7V _493V _ iy ging R 33kKQ °° 33kKQ Be Fogg = MV yy; = (0.2)115 V = 23 V rms 4. Voge = 2V 5; = (0.5115 V = 57.5 V rms Vice) = 1.414(57.5 V) = 81.3 V Voteeey _ 81.3V Voy = te = SY. -959y Cpu) -0:7 VF _ (80.6)? Pup =D =25W ‘un R, 20a ly, > Pa, = Canton). 259V" _ 505, «2200 Section 2-2 Full-Wave Rectifiers y, 5 @ % 25 © ® nav--5 . -63v--> © o Figure 2-8 10 Chapter 2 24, 25. 26. 21. 28, See Figure 2-9. See Figure 2-10. See Figure 2-11. “WW -asv--» @ mmay--~, 93. © Figure 2-9 Figure 2-10 nay, ° o Figure 2-11 a7v. a -1ov---) oy ony, Lf > 07 » el NSN o sov- ir ° 9 av ® (@) A sine wave with a positive peak at 0.7 V, a negative peak at -7.3 V, and a de value of -33V. (b) A sine wave with a positive peak at 29.3 V, a negative peak at ~0.7 V, anda de value of +143. (©) A square wave varying from +0.7 V to ~15.3 V with a de value of -7.3 V. (@) A square wave varying from +1.3 V to -0.7 V with a de value of 40.3 V. (@) A sine wave varying from -0.7 V to+7.3 V with a de value of 43.3 V. (b) A sine wave varying from -29.3 V to +7.3 V with a de value of +143 V. (©) A square wave varying from -0.7 V to +15.3 V with a de value of +7.3 V. (@) A square wave varying from ~1.3 V to +0.7 V with a de value of -0.3 V. u Chapter 2 Section 2-5 Voltage Multipliers 29. Vour = 2V pin) = 2(1.414)(20 V) = 56.6 V See Figure 2-12, Figure 2-12 Vourigaaay = 4¥ pm) See Figure 2-13. so Vor 848 V | f - i | Pv=s66v Tiler L li h “Ble re Quadruple Figure 2-13, Section 2-6 The Diode Data Sheet 31. The PIV is specified as the peak repetitive reverse voltage = 50 V. 32, The PIV is specified as the peak repetitive reverse voltage = 400 V. 33. Use the specified Irsy= 800 A. s0V Ragpiniy = 22Y = 625 mo mse) S00 A ™ 2 Chapter 2 Section 2-7 Troubleshooting 34. 35. 37. Ifa bridge rectifier diode opens, the output becomes a half-wave voltage resulting in an increased ripple at 60 Hz. 2(115 V)(1.414) = =104V ‘The output of the bridge is correct. However, the 0 V output from the filter indicates that the surge resistor is open or that the eapacitor is shorted. (@) Correct (b) Incorrect. Open diode. (©) Correct (@ Incorrect. Open diode. Paes BEY 223 vine Vgc = 1.414(23 V) = 32.5 V ‘The peak voltage for each half of the secondary is Foiscey _ 32.5V 2 2 “The peak inverse voltage for each diode is PIV = 2(16.3 V) + 0.7 V=33.2V ‘The peak current through each diode is =163V Vrue _g7y 1,=—2 = 163V-07V W473 ma a R, 3302 ‘The diode ratings exceed the actual PIV and peak current. ‘The circuit should not fail. System Application Problems 38, (a) No voltage between TPI and TP2: Possible causes: fuse blown or power cord not plugged in Corrective action: check fuse and power plug. Replace fuse or insert plug. (b) No voltage between TP3 and TP4, 110 V from TPI to TP2: Possible causes: open primary or shorted secondary. Corrective action: check windings with ohmmeter. Replace transformer. (©) 50 V between TP3 and TPA, input voltage correct: Possible causes: partially shorted primary or wrong turns ratio. Corrective action: check primary winding and transformer rating. Replace ‘transformer. (@ 25 V between TP3 and TPA, input voltage correct: Possible causes: partially shorted secondary or wrong tums ratio. Corrective action: check secondary winding and transformer rating. Replace transformer. Chapter 2 39, 40. (©) Full-wave voltage with peak of 50 V from TP7 to ground: Possible cause: Filter capacitor open. Corrective action: check capacitor with ohmmeter. Replace capacitor. (® Excessive 120 Hz ripple at TP7: Possible causes: leaky filter capacitor or excessive loa Corrective action: check capacitor and load. Replace capacitor or correct load condition. (g) 60 Hz ripple at TP7: Possible cause: open diode in bridge. Corrective action: check diodes with ohmmeter and replace defective one. (h) No voltage at TP7: Possible causes: open surge resistor, blown fuse, open winding, shorted C. Corrective action: check all and replace defective component. Something must be causing a diode to open. Check all the diodes for opens this time. You will most likely find one. The PIV or the maximum surge current must have been exceeded. Excessive PIV could be caused by some shorted primary windings which would produce an excessive secondary voltage. If caused by excessive surge current, a small limiting resistor will have to be placed in series with C,.. Ifthe top diode in textbook Figure 2-87 were reversed, two forward-biased diodes would be placed in series actoss the secondary during the negative half-cycle which, most likely, would blow the diodes open and result in no voltage at TPS. Advanced Problems 4. lot 1 a Jom sya ae (120H2)(3.3kQ\(0.5 V). 14 Chapter 2 1 1 . Gav HAC. OKAYA—0.935) ~ GaOTIaLoKRO0eT) ‘Then 2 uF v, SN =| | _]isv=2v RRC) ™ \ 120Hz\(1.0kQ)(62.2 uF), ‘The capacitor input voltage is Voginy= (1.414)(24 V) = 14 V =32.5 V ‘The nearest standard value is 680 mQ. See Figure 2-14. The voltage at point A with respect to ground is, V,= 1.4149 V)=12.7V ‘Therefore, V_=12.7V-0.7V=12V .05 V5 = 0.05(12 V) = 0.6 V peak to peak c= rp 5 (ama)? V =245 uP PRY, (120 Hz)(680.2)(0.6V), The nearest standard value is 270 jiF. Let Rue = 1.0.9. Rv Instn) = = ZA were) TOD Jo= BY 2 176ma 6809 PIV = Wynn) 0.7 = 24.0 V eco ~ae soot Chapter 2 45. 46. 47. See Figure 2-15. Tujyae)= 100 mA = 2 90 100mA V,=1.414(0.25 V) = 0.354V V,=2(0.35 V) = 0.71 V peak to peak v,={(—_1__py (20FADHE c=—__2v__ G20 FA(90A}O.71V) Use C= 1200 gi. Each half ofthe supply uses identical components. IN4O01 diodes are feasible since the average current is (0.318100 mA) = 31.8 mA. Rargs™ .0 0 will limit the surge current to an acceptable value. = 1174 nF ~ ale wy a ‘AI INAD01 Figure 2-15 Both positive and negative limiting of a sinusoidal voltage is not achievable with a single de source. Voy = (1.414)(110 V) ~ 0.7 V= 155 Vex= 2(1.414)(110 V) — 2(0.7 V) =310 V 16 Chapter 2 a EWB/Multisim Troubleshooting Problems ‘The solutions showing instrument connections for Problems 48 through 56 are available in the Solutions folder for Chapter 2.on the CD-ROM provided with the textbook. The solutions may be accessed using the password EDSFLOYD. The faults in the circuit files may be accessed using the password book (all lowercase). 48. Diode shorted 49. Diode leaky 50. Diode open 51. Bottom diode open 52, Reduced transformer turns ratio 53. Open filter capacitor 54. Diode leaky 58. Dy open 56, Load resistor open Chapter 3 Special-Purpose Diodes Section 3-1 Zener Diodes 4 Cree o—||# yyy a 85 5.65V-5.6V__ 0.05V Al, 30mA—20mA 10mA Al,= 50 mA ~25 mA =25 mA AV, = AliZz = (425 mA\(15 Q)= 40.375 V Vz.= Voy + AVe=4.7 V+ 0.375 V = 5.08 V AT= 70°C ~ 25°C = 45°C (68 V\0.0004°C) Ve" 68V+ 45°C =68V+012V 92 Section 3-2 Zener Diode Applications 6 oA Viva) = Vo-* Tag = 14 V + (1.5 mAY(S60 ©)= 14.8 V A Ve = (nr lex)Ze= 28.5 mAY20 2)=0.57V Vour = Var -AVz= 14 V 0.57 V = 13.43 V Vinay = Lrg + Vour = (1.5 mA)(S60 2) + 13.43 V= 14.3 V AV 2= IeZz = (40 mA ~30 mAY30.Q)= 0.3 V Vp=12V + AV2=12V+03V=123V _ Viv-Vp _ 18-123 V 40mA 40mA. =180 Chapter 3 ee 9 ¥,=12V+03V=123V See Figure 3-2. Figure 3-2 10. Vagsiay = Vz—AlaZz = 5.1 V ~ (49 mA ~1 mA)(7 Q) 1 V - (48 mA)(7 Q)=5.1 V - 0.336 = 4.76 V Ve=8V-4.16V=3.24V =e 2 324V ogra, R20 Tiggas) = 147 mA ~ 1 mA = 146 mA Veggys) = 5-1 V + (70 mA ~ 49 mA\7 Q} V_=BV-SA4V=2.56V = 258N. 20 Tupin) = 116 mA — 70 mA = 46 mA. = 116 mA 5.44V-4.76V 4.76V uu x 100% = 14.3% 2 6V-5.1V 292 Vour= Va AlbZz= 5.1 V ~ (35 mA ~ 31 mA\(7 Q) = 5.1 V - 0.028 V=5.07V With no load and Vy = 12 V: Vin —Ve _12V-5.1V =31mA k =238mA 292 Voor = Vz Aledz= 5.1 V + (238 mA ~35 mA\7 Q)=5.1 V+ 1.42 V=652V % Line regulation = “Your. 199% = SS2V=5.07V 199% = 24.2% Mx 12V-6V 13. % Load regulation % 100% = 3.13% 14. %Line regulation = 4Vour 6V-34V 15. % Load regulatio x 100%= 26V=34Y. 199% = 5.88% 34V 19 Chapter 3 Section 3-3 Varactor Diodes 16. AtSV,C=20pF At 20 V, C= 10 pF AC =20 pF ~ 10 pF = 10 pF (decrease) 17. From the graph, Ve =3 V @ 25 pF 18, 4° (2mH)(1MHz)" Since they are in series, each varactor must have a capacitance of 2C; = 25.4 pF 19, Each varactor has a capacitance of 25.4 pF. Therefore, from the graph, Vr = 2.5 V. Section 3-4 Optical Diodes 20, Assuming Ve= 1.2 V, 2AV-12V f= AVN 233.5 ma 6809 ™ From the graph, the radiant power is approximately 80 mW. 21. See Figure 3-3. SV-0.7V = NOT 2143.0 30mA Use nearest standard 1% value of 147 Q or $% value of 150 0. L Figure 3-3 lov 2. k= =50 z00Ka 5°“ 20 Chapter 3 23. (a) R= $= =30kQ (b) R= =857kQ. © =5.88kQ 510 uA 24, ‘The microammeter reading will increase. Section 3-5 Other Types of Diodes AV _ 125mV-200mV _-75mV AT 0.25mA—0.15mA 0.10mA 2% OR = 7500 26. Tunnel diodes are used in oscillators. 27. The reflective ends cause the light to bounce back and forth, thus increasing the intensity of the light. The partially reflective end allows a portion of the reflected light to be emitted. Section 3-6 Troubleshooting 28. (a) All voltages are correct. (b) Vs should be 12 V. Zener is open. (©) VM; should be 110 V. Fuse is open. (@) Capacitor C; is open. (e) Transformer winding open. 29. (a) With Ds open, Your = 30 V (b) With R open, Vour=0 V (©) With C leaky, Vour has excessive 120 Hz ripple limited to 12 V (@) With C open, Your is full wave rectified voltage limited to 12 V (©) With Ds open, Your has 60 Hz ripple limited to 12 V Wit D, opto, Your as 60 Bx ripened to 12 V (g) With Topen, Four (h) With F open, Your v 30. The voltage reading is too low. Inspection of the circuit board reveals that the second diode from the top is connected backwards. 31. The input voltage is correct but there is 0 V at the rectifier output. Possible causes are open fuse, open transformer, or open resistor. Cannot be isolated further with given measurements. 32, The LED (Dg) will not light when any of the following faults occur: Dg open, Ry open, Re open, fuse blown, transformer winding cpen, Ds shorted, or C shorted. 2 Chapter 3 ES 33. ‘The photodiode D; will not respond when there is: No de voltage Ry open Dy open ‘A short in the threshold, counter, and display circuits. theck for 5.1 V de. : Check for a de voltage at the D; cathode. Step Step Data Sheet Problems 34. 38. 36. 37. From the data sheet of textbook Figure 3-7: (a) @ 25°C: Poxaay = 1.0 W for a IN4738 (b) For a 1N4751: @ 10°C; Pog) = 1.0 W ~ (6.67 mW/C\(20°C) = 1.0 W = 133 mW = 867 mW = 1.0 W - (6.67 mW/°C)(50°C) = 1.0 W~ 333 mW = 667 mW () @ 25°C: fay = 1 W/27 V = 37.0 mA fora 1N4750 (©) Zz = 700 2 - 7.0 Q= 693 2 for a IN4740 ( @25°C: Vegms) = 6.8 V + (4 mV/PC\(25°C) = 6.8 V + 100 mV = 6.9 V for a IN4736 (8) @ 75°C: Vegoin)=20 V + (15 mV/°C\( 50°C) = 20 V + 750 mV = 20.8 V for a IN4747 From the data sheet of textbook Figure 3-22: (2) Vaqoay) = 60 V for a INS139 (b) Fora INSI41 @ 60°C; Pons) = 400 mW ~ (2.67 mW/°C)(35°C) = 400 mW ~ 93.5 mW = 307 mW (©) Fora 1N5148: @ 80°C; Pony = 2.0 W ~ (13.3 mW/°CY(S5°C) = 2.0 W ~ 732 mW = 1.27 W (@) Cy =21 pF fora IN5148 (e) For maximum figure of merit a 1NS139 is best. () For Vz = 60 V, C= 13.5 pF/2.8 = 4.82 pF for a INS142. From the data sheet of textbook 3-31: (a) 9 V cannot be applied in reverse across an MLEDS1 (b) When 5.1 V is used to forward-bias the MLEDB1 for Jp = 100 mA, Vp = 1.42 V IV=-142V _ 3.68V 100mA 100mA (©) At45°C maximum power dissipation is 100 mW — (2.2 mW/°C)(20°C) = 100 mW — 44 mW = 56 mW If Vp= 1.5 V and Jp = 50 mA, Pp =75 mW. The power rating is exceeded. (@) For fp = 30 mA, maximum axial radiant intensity is approximately 4.3 mW/sr. (©) For Jr = 20 mA and 6= 20°, radiant intensity is 90% or maximum or (0.9)(20 mW/sr) = 18 mWisr = 3682 From the data sheet of textbook Figure 3-36: (a) With no indicent light and a 10 kO series resistor, the voltage across MRD821 is approximately equal to the reverse bias source voltage. (b) Reverse current is greatest at about 940 am. (©) At T= 60°C, dark current is about 40 nA. 22 Chapter 3 er EEN EI ERRRRE rere EEE EERE (@) Sensitivity is maximum for 2 = 940 nm. (©) At 900 nm the sensitivity is about 80% of maximum (0.8)(50 “A/mW/em") = 40 wA/mWiem* (f) For 2=900 nm, @= 40° and an irradiance of 3 mW/em* Tp = (0.8(0.87)(50 wA/mW/em?)(3 miW/em?) = 104 uA Advanced Problems 38. See Figure 3-4, Yours 39. Voura BV, Youre 40. Fora 1.0 kO load on each output: S8Y 268ma 10K Toure = 74 = 24 ma L0ka 37 mA for Vez 10.5 mA for Vor 8 mA +24 mA +37 mA + 10.5 m ‘The fuse rating should be 100 mA or 1/8 A. Touray L 78.3 mA 41. See Figure 3-5. k ‘ov Use a 1N4738 zener. av) Jp=35 mA +31 mA=66 mA 2400 _ 24V-82V 66mA =290 INGT38 & Figure 3-5 23 Chapter 3 ———_—_$_—————————————s 42. Use a 1NS148 varactor diode. From the graph in textbook Figure 3-22, the maximum and minimum varactor capacitances are roughly Cy = 80 pF @ 1 V and Cryin = 12 pF @ 60 V Use these capacitance values to calculate an inductance range for 350 kHz and 850 kHz: 1 1 Luin ™ | — = 2.58 mH = VCoux J Choose L = 2.7 mH and calculate required Cyin and Coax: a Coin = | ——= | = 13 (eeu) re 1 cm (Sg) “77 } =2.92 mH From the graph in Figure 3-22, the reverse voltages for these capacitance values are approximately: 50 V for 13 pF Prunny = 1.2 V for 77 pF Let Pains = 100 V. R Freniny = 7 Vi ww (eax om RAR Vrs) = st Mt, w= (ee Vr Let Ry + Ry + Ry + Rs = 100 kQ. ainin (Re +Ry + Re+Rs) _1.2V(L00KQ) _ Voss) R= 1.2kQ Voias 100V yx econo lett RRs) _p _ SOVOOK _ 1 9.6 4K0 Vouas 100V 0k. 00 KQ — $0.2kQ = 49.8 kQ Let Rs = 1.2 kQ. Ry = 49.8 kKQ — 1.2 kQ= 48.6 kQ Use R2 = 47 kQ. All other component values are the same as in textbook Figure 3-24. Chapter 3 ———— EE 43. See Figure 3-6. Vp _12V-0.7V ZT 20mA = 5652 ‘Use standard value of 560.0. anv Figure 3-6 44, See Figure 3-7. 42v Figure 3-7 EWB/Multisim Troubleshooting Problems ‘The solutions showing instrument connections for Problems 45 through 48 are available in the Solutions folder for Chapter 3 on the CD-ROM provided with the textbook. The solutions may be accessed using the password EDSFLOYD. The faults in the circuit files may be accessed using the password book (all lowercase). 43. Zener diode open 46. Capacitor open 47. Zener diode shorted 48. Resistor open 25 Chapter 4 Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT Section 4-1 Transistor Structure 1 2 Majority carriers in the base region of an npr transistor ate holes. Because of the narrow base region, the minority carriers invading the base region find a limited number of partners for recombination and, therefore, move across the junction into the collector region rather than out of the base lead, Section 4-2 Basic Transistor Operation 3 6. ‘The base is narrow and lightly doped so that a small recombination (base) current is, generated compared to the collector current. Iq = 0.021g = 0.02(30 mA) = 0.6 mA Je=Ip—In=30 mA = 0.6 mA = 29.4 mA ‘The base must be negative with respect to the collector and positive with respect to the emitter. Te= Ip— In = 5.34 mA — 475 wA= 4.87 mA, Section 4-3 Transistor Characteristics and Parameters cA 10. Mu. Poc= Ie Ig = Ie —Ie= 20.5 mA ~ 20.3 mA = 0.2 mA = 200 A Iq _20.5mA == 21025 Pros T= 200 uA Tp= Ie + Ip = 5.35 mA + 50 A= 5.40 mA = Je _535MA _ p99 ZT, 540mA Io apcle = 0.96(9.35 mA) = 8.98 mA. 26 2 13. 14, 15. 16. Chapter 4 a Mec SV [en = SV = Re 1.0K Je _ SmA = = 2™ -10 Poo 7 50 uA 10 _ 4.99 101 4V-07V _33V GEA = 702 kQ 47k is ‘oo Ven, _24V-8V _ gina Re 4702 Ip= Ie In = 34 mA + 702 UA = 34.7 mA 34mA 702 us 3V-(0.7V) _-23V R 27K 27kQ Teo= Pocls = 125(-85.2 A) =—10.7 mA. Vex = Veo —IcRe= -8 V —(-10.7 mA)(390 0) = -3.83 V 83 V)=3.13 V 85.2 WA Te= Pools = 50(1.1 mA) = 55 mA. TeX lew ‘Therefore, the transistor is not saturated. 27 Chapter 4 () Levan = 20.5 mA % 852 R HA Te fool = 125(85.2 #A) = 10.7 mA Teo _10R) _ 47k0 Pocininy 00 Feu) = = SY 6.88ma 10. a. RotR, 2.18kQ TovaoRe = (6.88 mA)(680 Q) = 4.68 V Vegas) + 0.7 V = 4.68 V + 0.7 V=5.38V (abet )sy =5.38V RR | Boks (R. | BocRe)(1S V) = 5.38 V)(R, + Re BocRe) (8 | BocRs)C1S V)~ (Re | Books) (6.38 V) = RiS.38 V) (B, || Bock) (15 V ~ 5.38 V) = (22 kOV(5.38 V) _ 22 KQY5.38 © 15V=5.38 1 Bock, 123kQ 1 102kQ~ 12.3kQ ro-(—% yoo =( ZR )isv = 1asyv R+R, 24kQ. Ve=125V-0.7V=0.55V Ve _ 05SV jp= Ye = OSV - g09 Rea MA Te 809 pA Vor = Voo~ IcRe ~ Ve= 15 V ~ (809 HA)(1.S kQ + 680.2) = 13.2 V 36 Chapter 5 — EEE a rae( Ella -( sect) py -inv Ry RelBooRe 47KQ+ TS KOYCL1OV(.0K), Ve=Vq 0.7 V= 1.97 V-0.7V=127V _ Ye _127V © Re LOK Vo= Voo= leRe= 9 V ~ (1.27 mA)(2.2 Q) = 6.21V irr) wy ez =1.27mA. 13. See Figure 5-2. ana E2240 Figure 5-2 = 14, (@) Rrvoae) = Poche = 50(560 0) = 28 k2 5.6K] 28k 4.672 o- (eee Jeew -( 2) 12¥) = 1.49V (©) Risgone) = 50(1120 ©) = 56 KO Mex 5.6kQ| 5.6kQ cnv-(3 09 kQ 33kN+56KQ] 5.60 15. (@) Veg= Va + 0.7 V=-1.49 V+0.7 V=-0.79.V Ve, _-0.79V Re 5602 Voq = Veo ~ loRe=~12 V ~ (-1.41 mA)(1.8 k) = 9.46 V Vceq = Veo - Veq = -9.46 V - (-0.79 V) = -8.67 V (©) Poininy= Loq¥ceq = (-1.41 mA)(-8.67 V) = 12.2 mW Ie 1.41 mA Section 5-3 Other Bias Methods 16. Van = Vec; Ve=0V Voo-0.7V _12V-0.7V Ry 2kQ -22kQ To= Bocls = 90(514 A) = 463 mA Vou = Veo ~ eRe = 12 V ~ (46.3 mA)(160 9)=7.37 V I 17. eq= 180(514 uA) = 92.5 mA Veeg = 12 V = (92.5 mA)(100 2) = 2.75 V 18. Ic changes in the circuit with a common Voc and Vga supply because a change in Voc causes Jp to change which, in tum, changes Ic. 7 Chapter 5 SSE! 19, [px YannVan 9V-0.7V = 553 uA 15kQ 10(553 A) = 27.7 mA. c 25(553 uA) Veu= Veo —IcRe= 9 V ~ (69.2 mA)(100 2)= 2.08 V Since Jc < cgay for the range of inc, the circait remains biased in the linear region. 20. mA ALO°C: Boc= 110 ~ 110(0.5) = 55 Voo—Vas _ 9V~ Iga “BE = = 553 Ry 15kQ Ls Ie 5(553 uA) = 30.4 mA Vee = Veo ~IcRe= 9 V ~ (30.4 mA)(100 2)= 5.96 V At 70°C; 110 + 110(0.75) = 193 553 WA Te= Bocla = 193(553 A) = 107 mA Jc> Iccaty therefore the transistor is in saturation at 70°C. feqay ~ Jor) = 90 MA ~ 30.4 mA = 59.6 mA AVce = Verw ~ Veen) = 5.96 V - 0 V=5.95 V 21. Assuming Vs =0 V, 43V 2.2kQ+22kQ/100 2.42kQ = 1.78 mA. Vp = (17.8 wA)(22 kQ) = -391 mV 391 mV ~0.7 V=-1.10V ‘co — eRe = 5 VW ~ (1.78 mA)(1.0 KO) = 3.22 V 22. Assume that at saturation, Ves =0 V. Since Ve=—1.10 V and Voway = Veisuy SV=CHIOV) «gpa 1.0kQ = 6392. 38 Chapter 5 24. 28, 27. 28, 29. ‘At 100° C: Vag = 0.7 V (2.5 mV/°C\75°C) = 0.513 V SV-0513V 5 gy ma 22kQ f= ASY = 1.95 ma 2.2kQ Alp = 2.04 mA — 1.95 mA = 0.09 mA ‘A change in fic does not affect the circuit when Rr >>Re/Boc- Since —_ Vos, Re + Re! Boc In the equation, if Ro/oc is much smaller than Re, the effect of foc is negligible. Ie Assume foc = 100. fez ig= VnaYe -__10V-07V__ agg ma R, 470Q+10kQ/100 Ver = Ver — Voc ~ Ic(Re + Rp) = 20 V ~ 13.1 V=-6.95 V Vs=0.7V Voo—Vog 3V-07V = <= 1.06 ma Ro+Ry! Boo 18KQ+33KQ/90 Vo = Veo ~ IeRe = 3 V ~ (1.06 mA)(1.8 kQ) = 1.09 V Te 06 mA from Problem 26. Ic = 1.06 mA - (0.25)(1.06 mA) = 0.795 mA. = Nec Vor © Re+ Ra! Boo Ro= Veo —Var —1oRe! Boo _ 3V — 9.7 V — (0.795 mA)(33kQ)/90 Te 0.795 mA Jc=0.795 mA from Problem 27. Vex = Veo —IcRc= 3 V ~ (0.795 mA)(2.63 kO) = 0.989 V Praia) = Veele = (0.989 V)(0.795 mA) = 786 uW aay See Figure 5-3. je~ —Veo— Yon 12V-07V a eyma 12a Ro+Rg/ Boo 12KQ+4TKAI20 Vo =Voo~ IcRe= 12 V ~ (7.87 mAY(1.2kQ) = 2.56 V Ba, =200 aha. Figure 5-3 39 Chapter 5 Section 5-4 Troubleshooting 30. 31. 32. 33. W=07V, K=0V _8V-07V_07V ly = 221 wA-70 wA= 151 ZA KO Hi uA Mw BkO Je=200(151 A) = 30.2 mA sv : Tegan = <8 = 3.64 mA, 90 Ve Ve= 0 co 22 somes If the problem is corrected, y=(_ Wen _ Jev= 10kQ+33K0 Va=Ve= 186 V-0.7V=116V 86. V (a) Open collector (b) No problems (©) Transistor shorted from collector-to-emitter (@) Open emitter For foc = 35: ( LSkQ 145kQ, For ioc = 100: (222) 0 _ 15.17kQ. ‘The measured base voltage at point 4 is within the correct range. Ve=-31V+0.7V=-24V =24V Vo Jet) BV 34V lez he= =-3.53 mA Vo = 10 V ~ (3.53 mA)(1.0 kQ) = -6.47 V Allowing for some variation in Vag and for resistor tolerances, the measured collector and emitter voltages are correct. (@) The 680 0 resistor is open: Meter 1: 10V Meter 2: floating Meter 3: n-( Meter 4: 10V 10V) =-3.59V sho.) 15.6kQ. 40 Chapter 5 ES () The 5.6 KO resistor is open. = 93 sag ua 10k +35(680 0) To=35(275 uA) =9.6 mA Tew) = 22% = 5.95 ma 16800 ‘The transistor is saturated Meter 1: 10 Meter 2: (5.95 mA)(680 0) = 4.08 V Meter 3: 4.05 V+0.7 V = 4.78 V Meter &: 10 V ~(5.95 mAY(1.0 KO)= 4.08 V (©) The 10 kO resistor is open. ‘The transistor is off. Meter 1: 10V Meter 2: 0V Meter3: 0V Meter 4: 10V (@) The 1.0 kQ resistor is open, Collector current is zero. Meter 1: 10V 5.6kQ] 6809) 10kQ+5.6 kK] 680.0 Meter 2: 1.27 V -0.1V=087V Meter 4: floating Meter 3: (OV) +07 V=057V+0.7V (©) A short from emitter to ground. Meter 1: 10V Meter 2: 0V. Meter 3: 0.7V 10V Togag = = = 10 mA. cia = 9g = 10m The transistor is saturated. Meter =0V (®) An open base-emitter junction. ‘The transistor is off. Meter |: 10 Meter 2: 0V Meter 3: ( ea 15.6kQ. Meter 4: 10V Jaovy =3.59V 41 Chapter 5 ————— ———— ‘System Application Problems uM 38. 36. V,Ve= Veo=91V Faults that will cause the transistor of textbook Figure 5-30 to go into cutoff: R, open, Ry shorted, base lead or BE junction open. Roxas) = 70(470 2) = 32.9 KD Ry = 2.7kQ| 32.9kO = 2.50 KO r=( 2.50kQ sav (2 250KN+5.6K2 8.102 Ve=157V-0.7V=0872V 0.872V 402 1 V~ (1.86 mA)(1.0 KO) = 3.24 V V=157V So, fe = = 1.86 mA Vo= ‘The following measurements would indicate an open CB junction: Vo=Veo= 49.1 V Vy normal Ve=0V Data Sheet Problems 38. For T= 45°C and Ry =2.7kQ Riveease) = 2-7 kQ || (30)(470 Q) = 2.7 kQ || 14.1kOQ = 2.27 kO min Riviease) = 2.7 KQ || (300470 Q) = 2.7 kQ | 141 kQ = 2.65 kQ max Vanin= ( 2.27kQ pay =(2208 aaa ral pay =2.62V 2.27kQ+5.6KQ, 787 Von) =2.62 V ~0.7 V=1.92V 192V oz fg= 122¥ 24.09 mA a 4709 Venu) =9-1 V = (4.09 mAY(1.0 KO) = 5.01 V fons) = {25 O_o. py = (26512 oy = 2.92 2.65k2+5.6kQ. 82540 Veiga) =2.92V =0.7 V= 2.22. $0, fe fe= 2229 24.73 ma 4702 Veqnia) = 9.1 V — (4.73 mA)(1.0 kQ) = 4.37 V 42 Chapter 5 For 55°C and Rp = 1.24 kQ: Reytase) = 1.242] 30)(470 2) = 1.24 KO | 14.10 = 1.14 KO min Revue) = 1.24KO2 | (300)(470 O) = 1.24KO |] 141kQ = 1.23 kA max run = (KO lo iy = tia bv =154V T14kO+5.6K0, 674k Vegniny = 1.54 V ~ 0.7 V = 0.839 V So, fe fe= 9832V = 178ma 4702 Vewoas) = 9-1 V = (1.78 mAY(1.0 kQ) = 732 V Vireo = | O_ pay (Bi bav -1o4v 123k045.6K0 683k Veins) = 1.68 V ~0.7 V = 0.938 V 80, fe=1e= 2238V =2.0ma 4709 Veouisy = 9.1 V = (2.0 mA)(1.0 kQ) = 7.10 V 58°C for minimum foc: 01 V ~ 1.92 V)(4.09 mA) = (3.09 V)(4.09 mA) = 12.6 mW, °C for minimum foc: Pons) = (7:32 V = 0.839 V)(1.78 mA) = (6.48 V)(1.78 mA) = 11.5 mW For maximum beta values, the results are comparable and nowhere near the maximum. Poymax) = 625 mW — (5.0 m/*C)(30°C) = 475 mW. No ratings are exceeded. 40. For the data sheet of Figure 5-51 in the textbook: (a) Fora 2N2222A, Jens) = 800 mA continuous (b) For a 2N2118, Posi = 5.0 V for reverse breakdown of Vasa = 2.6 V for saturation 41, Fora 2N2222 @ T= 100°C: Prxnus) = 0.8 W ~ (4.57 mW/°C)(100°C ~ 25°C) = 0.8 W ~ 343 mW = 457 mW 42. If changes from 1 mA to 500 mA in a2N2219, the percentage change in foc is, oc = (2 3 jos =—40% Advanced Problems +sv 43, See Figure 5-4, . . Rex Lee— Vora _ ISV=SV Loe nox = ria Too 3mA Assume foc = 100. axes Figure 5-4 43 Chapter 5 45. See Figure 5-5. Assume fic = 200. Inge 122 2 OA. «55 yy Boc 200 Let Ry = 1.0 ko Rex ZV =(60 HAML.OKM)~0.7V _11.3V * 10mA. 10mA _ 2V-C12V+113V+4V) _ 8.7 10mA OmA 870 Q and 1.13 KO are not standard values. Re= Re= 1.2 KO give log = 9:38 mA, Vorg= 5.05 mA. “nv -2N3904 Re Figure 5-5 See Figure 5-6 Pocwsiny = 70. Let Rp= 1.0 kO. Ve= [pe = 1.5 mA(1.0 kQ) Vo=15V+0.7V=2.2V foo Vee Ve _9V-15V-3V Ly ig 15mA Heo __®V___ 2. 57min Tecan leg SMA=1.5mA Asssuming BpcR>>Ro, ‘R_68V R 22V R,=3.09R: Ri + Ry= Ry +3.09R, = 2.57 KO 4.098, = 2.57 kQ ov = 257K _ weg ; 4.09 So, R; = 620 and Ry = 1.92kQ=2 KO. From this, Be 0(1.0 kA) = 70 KA>> Ra ( eae Jove2asy 2.62k2 130.7 V=143V Be Sa 148V 21.43 ma, 10K + + Veeg= 9 V =(1.43 mAY(1.0kQ+3 kO)=328V SV Re Rit R= Figure 5-6 44 Chapter 5 46. 49, 50. See Figure 5-7. Proc = 75. 10mA “Y fog= OBS = 133 ba 55 uA Yeo Yeu - SV“1SY 2359.6 (ase 3600) fy Ke Teg 10mA 62k = x00 Vog-0.7V _155V-0.7V aa aanenree 6 K2 (use 6.2 k2) avon Iog= NOV 9.71 ma 1 3602+ 6.2KOI75 - Veeq = Ve= 5 V ~ (9.71 mA)(360 2) = 1.50V Figure 5-7 ‘The 2N3904 in textbook Figure 5-49 ean be replaced with a 2N2222 and maintain the same voltage range from 45°C to 55°C because the voltage-divider circuit is essentially 8 independent and the Aoc parameters of the two transistors are comparable. For the 2N2222 using the data sheet of Figure 5-51 and Figure 5-52 If the ADC loading of the temperature conversion circuit changes from 100 k2 to 10 kQ, the Qpoint will have a reduced Vera because the current through Rc will consist of the same Ic and a larger f,. cq is unaffected in the sense that the transistor collector current is the same, although the collector resistance current is larger. The transistor saturates sooner so that ower temperatures do not register as well, if at all. It is not feasible to operate the circuit from a 5.1 V de supply and maintain the same range of output voltages because the output voltage at $4°C is 7.06 V. EWB/Multisim Troubleshooting Problems The solutions showing instrument connections for Problems 51 through 56 are available in the Solutions folder for Chapter 5 on the CD-ROM provided with the textbook. The solutions may be accessed using the password EDSFLOYD. The faults in the circuit files may be accessed using the password book (all lowercase). 51. 52. Reopen Reopen Ry open Collector-emitter shorted Re shorted Base-emitter open 45 Chapter 6 BJT Amplifiers Section 6-1 Amplifier Operation 1. Approximately 1 mA 2. From the graph of Figure 6-4, the highest value of de collector current is about 6 mA. Section 6-2 Transistor AC Equivalent Circuits 3 a 2SMV _ 25MV _g a3 7, 3mA 4. 5 Ay (0.99 7 25mV _ 25mV 6. Section 6-3 The Common-Emitter Amplifier 7. See Figure 6-1. 45 22Ka 22a ara S140 min Sana S10 equivalent ac equivalent Figure 6-1 46 8 9. 10. 1. 2. Chapter 6 4.7kQ Va <——— |I5 V =2.64V @ ( ma) 94 mA, _25mV _ 25mV _ sy 9q fe Rintare)= Balt, + Re) = 100(1012.9 2) = 101 kQ (B) Rus = Rintare | Ry | Re (© 4= Re, = 22k0 Rtn 12029 01k | 22kO2| 4.72 (@) Rixdax = Bact, = 100(12.9 2) = 1.29 k2 (0) Ry = 1.29kQ] 22kQ| 4.7kQ = 968.0 Bac, = 100(12.9 ©) = 1.29 ko .29kO| 22kQ | 4.7kQ = 968.2 2.2kQ| 10k no 12.99 140 @ v= (Rel Pocky, -(_12K21 750.040) _ ©) To | RR Becks) ~ (ATRA+12KA] 750.010) 0) Ye= M07 V=2.55V @ n= % Re @) c= he= 2.55 mA Voc = IeRe = 18 V = (2.55 mA\3.3 kQ) = 9.59 V 159 V - 2.55 V= 7.04 V sy . Vourz) = OV Voq)= 587V (@) If Cy is open, the gain of stage 2 changes to R 47kQ A ame OEP NNST 6 TIOOC =3.74 Thay + Ry+R, 37.6Q42202+1.0kQ Vous2) = (2 MV)(27.1)(3.74) = 203 mV rms. Vog) = 5.87 V (©) If the Q, collector is internally open, no signal reaches the base of 3. Vo = OV Vea) = 5.87 V (f) If the Q; emitter is shorted to ground, the transistor saturates. Vouw=0V Vea) =0V Im ( 22042] (200)0.22k9) Jogo y 100 kQ + 220 KO || (200)(1.22 kA) Ve 4.83 V-0.7V=4.13V jp= AABN 3.38 ma 1220 n= 25RV_W7390 338mA Veo) = 9 V ~ (4.7 kQ)(3.38 mA) =-6.9 V The transistor is saturated, so Vay = 0 V. 2kO Veay= v= oe ( 92 iy (2) Q is in cutoff. () Va=9V (©) Ver is unchanged and at 5.87 V 56 Chapter 6 —_—_—_— as Data Sheet Problems 42. 4B. From the data sheet in textbook Appendix C: (a) for a 2N3947, Bacgniny = Myxminy = 100 (©) For a 2N3947, rjqigy cannot be determined since Hai is not given. (©) For a 2N3947, rininy cannot be determined since hain) is not given. From the 2N3947 data sheet in Appendix C: (@) For a 2N3947, Bags) = 700 (0) Fora 2N3947, riggy = lt = 228 = go. Ie 5048 » Tye t1_ 20x10 +1 (©) Fora 2N3947,taoay = 4 20kQ For maximum current gain, a 2N3947 should be used. In the circuit of textbook Figure 6-53, a leaky coupling capacitor would affect the biasing of the transistors, attenuate the ac signal, and decrease the frequency response. See Figure 6-4. DC equivalent citeit Figure 6-4 7 Chapter 6 47. 48. See Figure 6-5. Figure 6-5 Re> (100)(330 2) = 33k To prevent cutoff, Yc must be no greater than 12 V — (100)(1.414)(25 mV) = 8.46 V In addition, Yc must fall no lower than 8.46 V ~ 3.54 V = 4.93 V to prevent saturation. Ro= 100(R, +73) ,_25mV ne Te 12V~ [R= 8.46 V TeRe=3.54V Te(LO0(Ry +71)) =3.54V 1 100 3300+25"¥) 23.54 Te (83 kOe +2.5 V=3.54V [= 314 pA, , . 25mV 314 uA Re = 100330 2 +797 Q)= 113 kA Let Ro= 120 kQ. Ve= 12 V~ (31.4 HAY(120 kQ) = 8.23 V 3.23 V - 3.54 V= 4 =7970 Very 31-4 A)(68 kQ) = 2.14 V 2.14V+0.7 V=2.84V 284V _ 9 519 R= 0.310R). FR, = 20K, Re = 6.2kQ. ‘The amplifier circuit is shown in Figure 6-6. 38. Chapter 6 49, 50. 51. ‘The amplifier circuit is shown in Figure 6-6. From the design: . ( 62k ony 2Vv =2.84V 26.2kQ. Qc IN? ue 106 or 40.5 dB = 7952+3300 2. V — (31.3 A)(120 KO) = 8.24 V ‘The design is a close fit. Figure 6-6 See Figure 6-7. Rin = 120kQ | 120KQ | (100)(5.1kQ) =53.6 kO minimum o10v Figure 6-7 See Figure 6-8. See Figure 6-9. 6V-07V__iyina 510.2+2kO/100 Te= This is reasonably close (3.3% off) and can bbe made closer by putting a 7.5 © resister in series with the 180 © collector resistor. Figure 6-9 59 Chapter 6 SSS! 52. The cutoff frequency of Cs is 1 45 Hz, 2n(10 HE)Q2 K+ (100KO2] 22 KO] (200,220 2+ 33 O)) ‘The cutoff frequency of C, is 1 2(10 piFV(L.OKA] 27 2) C, must be increased to = 606 Hz = 606 uF (nearest standard value is 680 uF) = 400, 25mV 25mV EWB/Multisim Troubleshooting Problems ‘The solutions showing instrument connections for Problems $4 through 59 are available in the Solutions folder for Chapter 6 on the CD-ROM prov:ded with the textbook. The solutions may be accessed using the password EDSFLOYD. The faults in the circuit files may be accessed using the password book (all lowercase). 54. Czopen 58. C, shorted 56. Re leaky 87. Cyopen 58. Cropen 59. Csopen Chapter 7 Field-Effect Transistors (FETs) Section 7-1 The JFET 1 3. 4. (2) A greater Vos narrows the depletion region. (b) The channel resistance imereases with increased Vos. ‘The gate-to-source voltage of an n-channel JFET must be zero or negative in order to ‘maintain the required reverse-bias condition. D D ce -@ c © 8 8 rchanel channel See Figure 7-1 Figure 7-1 See Figure 7-2. Noo op Figure 7-2 Section 7-2 JFET Characteristics and Parameters 5 1 8 Vos = Vp =5 V at point where /p becomes constant, Vesa =—Vo=-6 V ‘The device is on, because Ves = 2V. By definition, fp = Iss when Vos = 0 V ‘or values of Vos > Ve. ‘Therefore, Jp = 10 mA. Since Vos > Vosom, the JFET is off and ip = 0A. 61 Chapter 7 9. Ve=—Vosom=--4V)=4V The voltmeter reads Vos. AS Vop is increased, Vps also increases. The point at which Jp reaches a constant value is Vos = Ve =4 V. 10. See Figure 7-3. ~VesV) 7-6 $4 32d Figure 7-3 62 Chapter 7 Ip Ves = Vesiom| 1 ‘os = Vose -f } 2.25 mA SmA Vos=-8 vt - ) -8 V(0.329) = -2.63 V Vos tm aelie] Yescom B. et sof Hes 1600 1S Fos Y= B= 1429 4S 14, Ry= Ye = 10 = 20000 Toss STA 15. Vos=-3V: In=8 Vos=—4V: In=8 Vos=-5 Vi Ip= 8 Section 7-3 JFET Biasing 16. Vos=—IpRs (12 mA)(100 )=-1.2V 8 Chapter 7 19. 20. a. 2. (@) Io= Toss = 20 mA ) k (©) Jn increases (@) Vs= (1 mA)(1.0 kQ) =1V (b) — ¥s=(S mA\(100 9) = 0.5 V Vp= 12 V~(1 mA\(4.7kQ)=7.3 V V -(5 mA)(470 2) = 6.65 V v Vos=Vo-Vs=0V-1V=-1V Vo-Vs=0V-05V=-05V Vps=7.3 V-1V=6.3V Vos= 6.65 V-0.5V=6.15V (©) Vs=(-3 mAY(470.Q)=-1.41V Vo=-15 V — (3 mA\(2.2kQ)=-8.4V Vo=0V -Vs=0V-(-141 V)=141V Vs =-8.4 V ~(-1.41 V)=-6.99 V Yosem _=10V _ ro3y 3.414 3.414 Since Vg =0V, Vs= Vo. BV =~ =419.0 (The nearest standard value is 430 0.) 7mA 24V-12V TmA Select Rg = 1.0 MQ. See Figure 7-4, = 1.7 KQ (The nearest standard value is 1.8 kQ.) way 1ako Re R Ma > sa Figure 7-4 Chapter 7 24, 25. 26. 27. 1.65 From the graph in Figure 7-61 in the textook, the Q-point is Vos =—0.95 V and Ip = 2.9 mA For Ip =0, Vos=0V For Ip=Inss= 10 mA, Vos = —IpRs = (10 mA)(390 2) =3.9 V From the graph in Figure 7-62 in the textsook, the Q-point is Vos = 241 V and fp =5.3 mA Since Fp, =9V-SV=4V Yay __4V. Ry 4.7kQ Vs= IpRs = (0.85 mA)(3.3 kQ) = 2.81 V vee( & Po «(2262 )pv =1.62V In= 0.85 mA, RR 122MQ. Vos = Vo-Vs= 1.62 V-2.81 V=-1.19V Q-point: fp = 0.85 mA, Vos = -1.19 V For Ip=0 Vow = (282 \ev =48V 55MQ = 1.45 mA ‘The Q-point is taken from the graph in Figure 7-64 in the textbook. Ip=1.9 mA, Vos=-15V Section 7-4 The MOSFET 28. See Figure 7-5. ® ® ©® © chanel DMOSFET channel D-MOSFET n-channel E-MOSFET — p-channel E: MOSFET Figure 7-5 6 Chapter 7 29. An n-channel D-MOSFET with a positive Ves is operating in the enhancement mode. 30, An E-MOSFET has no physical channel or depletion mode. A D-MOSFET has a physical channel and can be operated in either depletion or enhancement modes. 31. MOSFETs have a very high input resistance because the gate is insulated from the channel by an SiO, layer. Section 7-5 MOSFET Characteristics and Parameters 32. (@)_—_nchannel ) } -032ma 3V 3) =2.88 mA $V ov) gma =sv 2 2) =15.7 mA =sv AY) 25.9 ma =v (©) See Figure 7-6. Ves(¥) “<2 |o 24 Figure 7-6 66 Chapter 7 mete 10mA Cos ~VesuyY (12V+3 VP (0.12 mAV?)(-6V +3 VY = 12 mA/V? Section 7-6 MOSFET Biasing 35. (a) Depletion (b) Enhancement (©) Zero bias (@ Depletion 36. (a) Vos=(1°M® | ro v=68v ‘This MOSFET is on. i4.7M0. Loma . ©) Vos= ( Tae Jes V)=-227V This MOSFET is off. 37. Since Vas = 0 V for each circuit, fy = Inss= 8 mA. (a) Vos 38. (@) oyen= 3 MA @4 V, Voseay = 2V rw -(9) wv 147MQ. 3mA__ 3mA (@V-2VvyP QV? Ip = K(Vas — Vesiw) = (0.75 mA/V7\(3.2 V - 2 VY = 1.08 mA Vos = Von — IR 10 V — (1.08 mAY(1.0 kQ) = 10 V - 1.08 V = 8.92 V 75 mAV? ©) fon) =2 MA @ AV, Vosay= 15 V Vos=|—% Yoo = (SOM SV =25V RR, 20MQ, aswy To = K(Vos ~ Vosqiy)" = (0.89 mA/V7i(2.5 V ~ 1.5 VY = 0.89 mA Vos = Voo ~ InRp = 5 V — (0.89 mA)(1.5 kQ) = 5 V- 1.34 V=3.66 V or Chapter 7 —_— ees 39. (a) Vos=Vos=5V 12V-5V _ 22k 18mA ©) Vos = Ves =3.2.V 8V-3.2V, 47kQ .02 mA Von — IR = 15 V ~ (1 mA(8.2 kQ)= 6.8 V Vos —IoRq = 6.8 V ~ (50 pA)(22 MQ)= 6.799 V Section 7-7 Troubleshooting 41. When Ip goes to zero, the possible faults are: Ro or Rs open, JFET drain-to-source open, no supply voltage, or ground connection open. 42. If Ip goes to 16 mA, the possible faults are: ‘The JFET is shorted from drain-to-source or Vpp has increased. 43. If Von is changed to ~20 V, Jp will change very little or none because the device is operating in the constant-current region of the characteristic curve. 44, The device is off. The gate bias voltage must be less than Vosiay. The gate could be shorted or partially shorted to ground. 45. The device is saturated, so there is very little voltage from drain-to-source. This indicates that Vos is too high. The 1.0 MQ bias resistor is probably open. System Application Problems 46. With the 100 ,aF capacitor open, power supply noise or ripple could affect the sensor outputs, producing false readings and alarms. 47. From the graph in textbook Figure 7-53: For pH For pH 48. A possible problem is that the voltmeter has an input resistance of 1 MQ instead of 10 MQ and is loading the sensor output. 49. Vour= 5. V- (2.9 mA(1 kM) 15 V-2.9 V= 12.1. V Data Sheet Problems 50. The 2NS4S7 is an -channel JFET. 68 Chapter 7 51. From the data sheet in textbook Figure 7-14: (@) Fora 2NS457, Vesiom = -0.8 V minimum (b) Fora 2NS457, Posin (©) Fora 2NS458 @ 25°C, Pom) =310 mW. (@ Fora 2NS459, Vosges) =-25 V maximum. 52. oyna) = 310 mW ~ (2.82 mW/°C\(65°C — 25°C) = 310 mW ~ 113 mW = 197 mW 53. 54, 58. From the data sheet in textbook Figure 7-41: Minimum Vesa) = 1V 56, For a2N7008 with Vos = 10 V, Jo = 500 mA 57. From the data sheet graph in textbook Figure 7-52: 13 mA 0.4 mA 58. y= 1500 pi at f= 1 kHz and at f= 1 MHz for both the 2N3796 and 2N3797. “There is no change in yz over the frequency range. 59, Fora 2N3796, Vosem = ~3.0 V typical Advanced Problems 60. For the circuit of textbook Figure 7-71: vr Y To= Toss| 1~ where Vos = Ips Vos From the 2NS457 data sheet: = 1.0 mA and Vosom = -0.5 V minimum 6.3 WA ~(66.3 uA)(5.6 KO) =-0.371 V Vos = 12 V — (66.3 UA)(10 kQ+ 5.6 kQ) = 11.0 V 61. For the cirouit of textbook Figure 7-72: Ve= (z = oy = (0.248)(9 V) = 2.23 V From the equation, Inp= 1—Vesiom Ip is maximum for fossena and Vosiom max, so that 6 mA and Vasian = ~8.0 V 58 mA 2.23 V ~ (3.58 mA)(1.8 kQ)= oof Fe) where Vos= Vo — Ios Joss: V-645 V=-4.21V 0 Chapter 7 62. 64. From the 2N5457 data sheet: Tossiin)= 1.0 mA and Vosom = 0.5 minimum Toya) = 66.3 UA Voscmax) = 12 V (66.3 wA)(15.6 kQ) = 11.0 and Tossinas) = 5.0 MA and Ves = ~6.0 maximem Fryenasy = 677 WA. Vosinin)= 12 V — (677 HA)(15.6 KO) = 1.4V +300 mv (2.9 mA)(1 + 0.3 V/S.0 VY = (2.9 mA)(1.06) Vos= 15 V ~ (3.26 mA)(2.76 k®) = 15 V8.9 V = +6.01 V (imA)R, J imA= tn - ‘os ma = 29ma{1- CA oaas~ (1- Ca¥) =05V (imayR, =05V 0.413 = CMAs =05V 06 k2 Use Rs = 2.2 kO. Then I= 963 1A Vos = Vs= (963 UAY(2.2 kO)= 2.19 V $0, Vy = 2.19 V+4.5 V=662V Ry = 2V=68V 247k 963A Use Ry = 2.4 kO. $0, Vos = 9 V ~(963 UAY(4.6 2) 0.587 4s7V 70 Chapter 7 ES 65. Letlp=20mA. Ro= Y_ =2000 mA Let Vg=2V. = =) = 1000 mA For the 2N7008: = ——foe _ -_500mA_ gy may? Cosson ~ Yasin) (10 V-1 VY Let f= 20mA. 2 20 Vos—1 v= —20N__ 23.24 (os Y= Sama Vos-1V=18V Vos=2.8V Vo=Vst28V=48V For the voltage divider: ‘R12 RB 438V Let R= 10 KO. Ry =(1.5)(10 kQ) = 15 kO EWB/Multisim Troubleshooting Problems ‘The solutions showing instrument connections fo: Problems 66 through 74 are available in the Solutions folder for Chapter 7 on the CD-ROM provided with the textbook. ‘The solutions may be accessed using the password EDSFLOYD. The faults in the circuit files may be accessed using the password book (all lowercase). 66. Re shorted 67. Ry shorted 68. Re shorted 69. Ryopen 70. Drain-source open 71. Rpopen 72. Re shorted 73. Drain-source shorted 74, Ry shorted n Chapter 8 FET Amplifiers Section 8-1. FET Amplification 1 (6000 18)(0.6 V) = 3.6 mA (6000 4S)(1 V)= 6 mA l4.2mS = 14.2 4. Ra= Rp | ri, =4.7KQ| 12kQ =3.38kQ = By _ (4.2 mS)(3.38kQ) 1+g,R, 1+ @2mS)(L0kQ) = 293 Section 8-2. Common-Source Amplifiers 5. (a) N-channel D-MOSFET with zero-bias. Vos =0V. (b) P-channel JFET with self-bias. Ves = Ios = (-3 mA)(330 2) = -0.99 V ‘N-channel E-MOSFET with voltage-divider bias. 47kQ 14,7kQ. =-(_” = © Vos= ( Rik Ve = av =3.84V 6& (a) Vo=0V, W=0V Vo = Voo~ IpRp = 15 V - (8 mAX(1.0 KO) =7V ~ToRy = ~3 mA)(330 Q) = -0.99 V Vo = Von ~ Ino = -10 V ~(-3 mA(I.S kQ) = -5.5 V © Vo=(—2 Yoo = (ATH ia Vaasa v R+R, 14.7kQ, Vs=0V Vp = Voo ~ IpRp = 12 V ~ (6 mA)(1.0 kQ) = 6 V Chapter 8 1 10. ML. 2 2B. 4 (a) n-channel D-MOSFET (b) n-channel JFET (©) p-channel E-MOSFET From the curve in Figure 8-18(a) in the textbook: Tag) =3.9 MA ~ 1.3 MA = 2.6 mA From the curve in Figure 8-18(b) in the textbook: Tage) = 6A ~2mMA=4 mA From the curve in Figure 8-18(c) in the textbook: SmA-13mA=3.2mA Ra = Sq (Rp || R,) = 5000 pS(1.5 12] 10k2) = 6.52 Vrpiou) = (2:828)(50 mV)(6.52) = 920 mV mR 15kQ| 1.5kQ = 7500 (5000 1éS)(750 Q) = 3.75 AWViq = (3.75)(50 mV) = 188 mV rms imRa= &q(Rp | R,)=3.8 mS(1.2kO |] 22k) = 3.8 mS(1138 Q) = 4.32 (0) A,=BeRs= &u(Ro | R,)=5.5 mS(2.2 kA | 10kQ) = 5.5 mS(1.8 kQ) = 9.92 Sce Figure 8-1. Pion 200 moa Sm toma = 200 oma, © deguivalent ~ © cogil Figure 8-1 B Chapter 8 ———$_—— 16. 17. 18, 19. 20. a. 2. Vo 7.5 mA)(220 2) = 1.65 V 2lpss _ 2(1SmA) esx] fu= (7.5 mS)(1 — 1.65 Vi4 V) = 4.41 mS Bay _ 441 m$)(8200)]3.3kQ2) _ (4.41mS\(657) _ © T+ gas 1+ (4.41 mS)(2200) 140.97 =7.5 mS 1.47 A,= Gg = (4.41 mS)(8200 | 3.3kO| 4.74) = (4.41 mS)(576 O) = 2.54 Jp= fs = 2A @45ma 2° 2 Vos = =IpRs = ~(4.5 mA)(330 Vos = Von ~ In(Ry + Rs) = 9 V ~ (4.5 mAY(133 kQ)=3 V rn (Ro || R,) = 3700 1S(1.0k2 | 10 kA) = 3700 uS(909 2) = 3.36 Vou = AsVin= (3-36(10 mV) = 33.6 mV rms Yoo =( a pov =548V 24.8kKQ. = —/o_____18mA _ Gos Vos (WOV=2.5 VP K (Vos ~ Vesey)” = 0.32 mA/V*(5.48 V - 2.5 VY = 2.84 mA. 10 V — (2.84 mAY(1.0 KO) = 17.2 V 32 mA? Ry = 10 MO 600MO = 9.84 MO 15 mA 4 V ~ (15 mAY(1.0kQ) = 9 V See Figure 8-2. 9068 v so my, % You ov. ov. 8932 68 mV Figure 8-2 4 Chapter 8 fom ___8mA _ Wes—Ves) (2V-4VY (Vas — Vosuus)’ = 0.125 mA/V*(9 V - 4 VY = 0125 mv? 13 mA. Section 8-3 Common-Drain Amplifiers 24, 2 kal 10MO =1.2ka (6500 48\(1.2kQ) + ($500 pS)(L.2KQ) SMI 23 x10" 50 pal 1oMa| 3x10" @ =10Ma 25. R= 1.2kQ|10MQ =10MQ —&aR, (3000 4)(10M2) Tra,” 1+G000 4S)(10MQ) Ryy= [468] =| 15) 23 x 10 Toss| |50pA R= 10MQ| 3x10" Q =10MQ 26. (a) Ry= 4.7 kQ| 47kQ =4.27kO Sul (3000 uS)(4.27 kQ) A= = 0.928 + aR, 1+ (3000 S)(4.27 Q) (b) R= 1.0kQ} 1002 =90.92 Apa Sa (4300 18)(90.92)_ 9 >9) +R, 1+ (4300 1S\(90.92) 7. @R 7kOQ|10kQ =3.2KQ Sak, _ 3000 4S)3.2KQ) _ A =o. +£qR, 1+ (8000 18)3.2k2) (b) R,= 100.2] 10k2 = 99.0 mR, __ (4300 18)(99.2) “+ (4300 18)(99.9} A, 8 Chapter 8 Section 8-4 Common-Gate Amplifiers 28. 29. 30. A,= Ba = 4000p8(1.5 kQ) = 6.0 Resoures = gals = 350048(10 kQ) = 35 1 1 reo el ()-22801 (sso Section 8-5 Troubleshooting ai. 32, (@) Yor = Yoo: No signal at Q; drain; No output signal (b) Yo: =0 V (floating); No signal at Q, drain; No output signal (©) Vosi=0V; ¥s=0V; Vox less than normal; Clipped output signal (@) Correct signal at Q, drain; No signal at Q; gate; No output signal (©) Poo = Yoo; Correct signal at Q; gate; No Q2 drain signal or output signal (2) Vau=0°V if Cis open. (b) Av = gus = 5000 S(1.5 kQ) = 7.5 a= She - 75 T+ gq, 1+ (5000 28)(4702) (7.5)(2.24) = 16.8 16.8)(10 mV) = 168 mV (©) No effect on Vig unless Mp is so low that clipping occurs. (@) No Vou because there is no signal at the Q, gate. ‘System Application Problems 33. 34, 38. ‘The 10 uF capacitor between the drain of Q and the gate of Qs is open. At test point 2: 250 mV is correct At test point 3: 800 mV is approximately correct At test point 4: 530 mV is too low At test point 5: 2.12 V is too low but consistent with TP4 Most likely, the coupling capacitor between stage 1 and stage 2 is leaky. Replace. 2. V ~ (5.10 mA)(1.5 kQ)=4.35 V 100 mV)(2200 148)(1.5 kQ) = 330 mV 330 mV)(2600 14S)(1.5 kO)= 1.29 Vrms 76 Chapter 8 Data Sheet Problems 36. ‘The 2N3796 FET is an n-channel D-MOSFET. 37. (a) For a 2N3796, the typical Vosom = -3.0 V (b) For a 2N3797, Vosia) = 20 V (©) At Ty =25°C, Poynsy = 200 mW (@) For a 2N3797, Vesinny = #10 V 38, Py = 200 mW ~ (1.14 mW/°C(55°C - 25°C) = 166 mW 39. For a 2N3796 with f= 1 KHz, gq = 900 8 minimum 40. At Vos=3.5 Vand Pos = 10 V, Toya) = 9.0 MA, Top) = 14 MA, Toga) = 18 MA 41. Fora zero-biased 2N3796, Ingyp) = 1-5 mA 42. Ay) = (1800 15)(2.2 kQ) = 3.96 Advanced Problems 43. Ragin) = 1.0kQ| 4KQ = 800.2 Avene) = (2.5 mS)(800 2) = 2.0 Ragoas) = 1.0K] 10kO = 909 2 Agia) = (7.5 m$)(909 Q) = 6.82 44, Ipssinn) = 2.9 mA y+ Rs= 2Y 2.9mA Vos = 24 V = (2.9 mA)(3.9 KO) = 24 V- 11.3. V=12.7V The circuit is a common-source zero-biased amplifier with a drain resistor of 3.9 kO. 45. To maintain Vs = 12 V for the range of Ipss values: For Iossini)= 2 mA. R= BY 610 2mA For Iossinay) = 6 mA R= PY = 210 6mA ‘To maintain A, = 9 for the range of gq(,) values: For gun) = 1500 4S 1 R= = 1500 4S For ganas) = 3000 1S y= = 3000 iS A drain resistance consisting of a 2.2 kQ fixed resistor in series with a 5 kQ variable resistor ‘will provide more than sufficient range to meintain a gain of 9 over the specified range of gu values. The de voltage at the drain will vary with adjustment and depends on Inss.. ‘The circuit cannot be modified to maintain both Vos = 12 V and A, = 9 over the full range of transistor parameter values. EWB/Multisim Troubleshooting Problems The solutions showing instrument connections for Problems 46 through $4 are available in the Solutions folder for Chapter 8 on the CD-ROM provided with the textbook. The solutions may be accessed using the password EDSFLOYD. The faults in the circuit files may be accessed using the password ook (all lowercase). 46. 41. 48, 49. 50. Drain-source shorted Cropen Cy open Rs shorted Drain-source open Ry open Ro open Reopen Cyopen B Chapter 9 Power Amplifiers Section 9-1 Class A Power Amplifiers Woo = (aes) Vv =3.722V 1.0kQ+330kQ Ve= Vy — Vag = 3.72 -0.7 V=3.02V 3.02V RytRg 8224369 Veg = Veo (le)(Res + Rea + Ri) = 15 V (68.4 mA(8.2.0+ 350+ 100.9)=5.14V 1 68.4 mA, 1009 (b) A, = LT ®) Ry +h 82040379 Rin= PedRer*1.) | Ry || Re = 100 (8.2.2 +0.37.Q) | 3300] 1.0kQ = 1920 ‘The computed voltage and power gains are slightly higher if r! is ignored. 2. (@) IER; is removed, there is no collector current; hence, the power dissipated in the transistor is zero. (b) Power is dissipated only in the bias resistors plus a small amount in Re, and Res. Since the load resistor has been removed, the base voltage is altered. The base voltage can be found from the Thevenin equivalent drawn for the bias circuit in Figure 9-1. Ry =248.0 Vn 372, Bur awoia=4420 Figure 9-1 Applying the voltage-divider rule and including the base-emitter diode drop of 0.7 V result in a base voltage of 1.2 V. The power supply current is then computed as =12V _ISV-12V 13 gma R 10kQ 9 Chapter 9 Power from the supply is then computed as Pr TecVec = (13.8 mAY(IS V)= 207 mW (©) Ay=11.7 (See problem 1(b)). Vin = 500 mVzq = 177 MV. Vig = (11-7177 mV) = 2.07 V P= Yat. = 297" = 42.8 mW R, 1002 3. The changes are shown in Figure 9-2. The advantage of this arrangement is that the load. resistor is referenced to ground. ex H3V V5 $00 Vp LOK: Figure 9-2 4. ACC amplifier has a voltage gain of approximately 1. Therefore, pw Bu 22K "Rw 50Q 5S. (8) Rinne) = Boc(Rr + Rea) = (125)(79.7 )= 9.96 kQ Since Rrvgue) > 10R>, it ean be neglected. v= | |p, ={ 32 _|py_( 02 joy -siay R+R, 680.2+510Q 11902, Ve=Va-0.7 V=S.14V-0.7 V=4.44V 12. V (65.7 mA)(100.2)= 6.43 V 43 V 4.44 V= 1.959 V Re= Re|R, =100 Q|| 100.0 = 500 Veatewopy = Veg + IeqR: = 1.99 V + 55.7 mA(50 Q)= Since Vogg is closer to saturation, [cis limited to 78 Veen _1.99V Tay) = “222 = 1:2 = 398 ma TR, 50D Vau is limited 10 Vouapy = Veg = 1.99 V 80 Chapter 9 —_—_____ EEE (©) Roveoase) = Boc(Re: + Rea) = (120)(142 Q) = 17 kQ Since Rouse) < 1ORs, it is taken into account. R|R 4.7kQ|17kQ Pad Ronen Veo = __ATKALITEA 1 y R+Ry| Rives) 12kQ+4.7kQ] 17kQ Ve= Vp -0.7V=282V-0.7V=212V Tog = Ig = VelRe = 2.12 V/142 Q= 14.9 mA Voc = IoqRe= 12 V ~ (14.9 mA)(470 0) = 5.0 V Veg = Veq- Ve= 5.0 V -2.12 V=2.88V Re=Re | R, = 470.Q| 470.9 =235Q Veaeuagy = Vow * lege = 2.88 V + 14.9 mA(235 2) = Since Veeq is closer to saturation, J. is limited to Tay = Le = 288V TR, 235Q Vou is limited t0 Vow Vs 82V 2.3 mA = Veg = 2.88V 6 @4= «(&) R_Re|R,_100Q]1009_ 500 _ 196 RRR, _ 4700] 4709 _ 2350 (eo Ry Re 2a 2a Riy= 12kQ| 4.7 KQ| (120)(22 ) = 12 KO] 4.7 KO] 2.64 kQ = 1.48 kK Ay = (10.7) 1482) _ 561 4702 81 Chapter 9 ES 7. Rexase)= BooRe = 90(130 2) = 11.72 Re | Revease) = 1.0 KO] 11.7 kQ = 9210 RR | Rrow ly, 9212 \ogy = R +R | Repase) 5.62 kQ. V_= Vp -0.7V=3.93V-0.7V=3.23V Ve _ 3.23V R 1302 Vo= Veo~ TegRe = 24 V ~ (24.8 mAXS60 9) = 13.9.V Vorq= Vo~ Ve= 13.9 V-3.23 V=10.7V fooV cag = (24.8 mA)(10.7 V) = 265 mW 93 V 4.8 mA Jog Pryesiay = Pog 8 From Problem 7: Icq= 24.8 mA and Veg = 10.7 V Vegeuepy = Veen + IogRe= 10.7 V + (24.8 mA)264.0.=17.2V ‘The Q-point is closer to cutoff than to saturation. Pou = 0.5TeqR, = 0.5(24.8 mA)'264 Q= 81.2 mW Pu __P, B, 81.2mW off= Fe = Fou Fou Poo Veokco Vecleq (@24V)(24.8mA) Section 9-2. Class B and Class AB Push-Pull Amplifiers 9%. =(Me)-14V _9V-(-9V)-14V =83 mA R+R, TOKQ+1.0kQ v 9v (©) Four= Vig = 5.0°V rms > a Pam Gaol 590" wosw R, 502 10. Lay = Yee = 28Y = 180ma i R, 500 200 oad ine Veacuop=9 V fea ine 150 ‘These points define the ac load line as shown (mA) in Figure 9-3. The Q-point is at a collector ‘9 current of 8.3 mA (see problem 9) and the de ‘ load line rises vertically through this point, 7 - bl Keni) Figure 9-3, 82. Chapter 9 ee ale I (a) Mon =7.5V+0.7 V=8.2V Vaa)=75V -0.7V=68V 1SV-14V 1.0kQ+1.0kQ = 68 mA, (©) Vin= Vou = 10 Vop = 3.54 V rms Py= GO. CS4YY" «167 mw R52 12. (@) Maximum peak voltage =7.5V,. 7.5 V,=5.30 Vrms Paina = CO = G30)" 2375 aw R52 (b) Maximum peak voltage=12V,. 12V, _ GF _B48vy R752 3.48 V rms 960 mW Prissy 13. (@) C,open or Qs open (b) power supply off, open Ri, Q; base shorted to ground (€) Q; has collector-to-emitter short (d) one or both diodes shorted 14. ‘op — Ini(Ry + Re) = 24 V ~ 455 wA(5.6 kQ) = 21.5 V 22.2V Pop “Ve. = AV=2.2V 1 54m R+R, LKQ Va= Vason ~ Vasion = 2.75 V ~ (2.75 V)=55V tne 83V_ 3.3540 Te 1.64mA 25mV 1.64mA 15kQ 11529 Vou = AsVin = 130(50 mV) = 6.5 V 2 (65VY ____ es ° 100 __1000__10.000 100.000 ib) dere) Figure 12-2 33. (8) Aotnis = 30 dB + 40 dB +20 dB = 90 dB tan (OH ) =-s6.6° 600 Hz] tan SB 113° 50xiiz) ~ian( SEE) 286° 200 kez, 86.6° ~ 11.3° ~ 2.86° ~ 180° Be 34. (a) 0 dBidecade (b) -20 dB/decade (©) -40 dB/decade (6) -60 dB/decade Section 12-8 Closed-Loop Response R, 38. (8) Aagy= (4 -{S3) =-309; — Agy(4B) = 20 log(30.9) = 29.8 AB 1 1 (6) Ags) = 4 =—— + ©) Aa” 5 TS KAITSKA 5.75 Acgxi(6B) = 20 log(15.7) = 23.9 dB (©) Acie) = 15, Aerye(@B) = 20 log(1) = 0 dB These are all closed-loop gains. 36. BW = BW + Bact) 500 Hz{1 + (0.015)(180,000)] = 4.05 MHz, 113 Chapter 12 37. 39. 40. A,(AB) = 89 dB Sete) S.SKHz Unity-gain bandwidth = Aa = (3843)(5.5 kHz) = 21.1 MHz (@ Aavo BW = faa = Unity=stin BY _ 28MHz > g ty Au 1 100k a = 45.5 (0) daw = - 39K = 61.6 kHz 12KQ 1 =I ©) Aw = 14 EG BW= 2eMie = 215 kez fac = EO 2S BWV = fucy = 2.65 MHz _ L0MQ = 100 (195,000)(50 Hz) _ 100 BW = fue = 97.5 KE 14 Chapter 12 —-