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LONDONS GLOBAL UNIVERSITY

by S. Minas and C. Huang.

CEGEG020/CEGEM020: Introduction to Seismic Design of Structures


Tutorial on load calculation
Ref. Calculation Output
1. Structure layout
A 2-storey 2-bay reinforced concrete moment resisting frame will be
designed for an office. Building layout is shown in Fig1.
y
x
4000

3000
8000

6000
Regularity
4000

criteria

3000
satisfied!

5000 5000 5000 5000


10000 10000
Plan (unit:mm) Elevation (unit:mm)

Fig. 1 Structure layout

2. Design specifications
Material: C25/30 concrete; Grade 500 steel.
The ground type of the site is D.
Type of spectrum is Type A.
The ductility class of the frame is DCM
Building is regular in plan/elevation.
Building important class is Class II with 1=1.0
The sizes of beam and column are shown in Fig2.
500

350

250 350
Beam Column
(unit:mm)
Fig. 2 Cross-section (Unite of
EC1- area/
Annex We will carry out linear analysis according to EC8 on two planar model volumn)
A1 (one on each horizontal direction).
Concrete
EC8 3. Dead load, live load and load combination 25kN/m3
4.2.5 I. Dead load
P52 Assume: Finishes
Concrete density =24kN/m3+1kN/m3(add per reinforced 1.0
concrete)=25kN/m3; kN/m2

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by S. Minas and C. Huang.

Outer
Floor finishes 1.0 kN/m2; walls 3.25
kN/m2
EC1 Outer walls are placed along the perimeter of the building
Annex 1 layer bricks 10cm thick: 0.118=1.8 kN/m2; Inner walls
A1 1 layer blocks 10cm thick: 0.112=1.2 kN/m2; 1.7
1 layer (internal) plaster 12mm thick: 0.01221=0.25 kN/m2
kN/m2;
total=1.8+1.2+0.25=3.25kN/m2; Slab
300kN
Inner walls-single leaf 100mm blockwork, plastered both sides
1 layer blocks 10cm thick: 0.112=1.2 kN/m2; Floor finish
2 layers plaster 12mm each: 0.02421=0.5 kN/m2; 80kN
total=1.2+0.5=1.7kN/m2
Beams
Slab depth 150mm: 0.15(5+5)(4+4)25=300kN 168.75 kN

Floor finishes: (5+5)(4+4)1.0=80kN Column


27.56
Beams: 0.250.50(310+38)25=168.75kN kN/m
(Ignore the overlap material of primary beam and secondary
beam at the joint.)
Total walls
Column (external and internal): 0.350.35925=27.56kN/m 442.8kN

Outer walls: 2(10+8)33.25=351kN


Perimeter
Inner walls: 1 (10+8)31.7=91.8kN
(Ignore the overlap material of inner walls at the junction.)
Total walls: 351+91.8=442.8kN

Table 1 Weight calculation


Load Load/m2
Floor Content Calculation Mass(t)
(kN) (kN/m2)
2 a. Slab a+b+c+dstorey height/2 590 60.20 7.38
b. Finishes =300+80+168.75+27.563/
c. Beam 2
d. Column
1 a. Slab a+b+c+dstorey height +e 1074 109.44 13.42
b. Finishes ==300+80+168.75+27.56
c. Beam 3+442.8
d. Column
e. Walls
Total 1664 169.64 20.80

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by S. Minas and C. Huang.

II. Imposed load


Office building (Category B): imposed loads on floor qk=2.5kN/m2
Table 2 Live load calculation
table4. Load/m2
Floor Content Calculation Load(kN) Mass(t)
2 in (kN/m2)
1~2 Live load Areaqk=1082.5 200 20.387 25
EC8
total 200 20.387 25

III. Seismic mass


Seismic masses considered in seismic design should be
associated with the seismic load combination:
G+E,iQk, where E,i= 2,i
Seismic
2,i=0.3 for quasi-static actions
mass
from table4.2 in EC8 Roof =1.0 E,i=10.3=0.3
m1=115.6t
1st Floow =0.5 E,i=0.50.3=0.15
m2=66.3t
Assume to keep worst case of the two, therefore,
E,i=10.3=0.3
Load combination becomes: G+E,iQk=G+0.3 Qk
Table 3 Seismic mass calculation
Floor G(kN) Q(kN) Ei Qk(kN) G+Ei Qk(kN) Mass(t)
2 590 200 60 650 66.3
1 1074 200 60 1134 115.6
total 1784 181.9
m2=66.3t
3000

m1=115.6t
3000

EC8 T1=0.29s
Eq4.6
Fig. 2 Seismic mass distribution

EC8 4. Seismic base shear


Table I. Natural Peiod
3.1 Ct=0.075 for moment resistant space concrete frame
Table H=3+3=6m
3.2 For buildings with heights of up to 40m, T1 can be calculated as
followed
EC8 Eq T1=CtH3/4=0.07563/4=0.29 (s)
3.14 Check if T14Tc and T12s
II. Response spectrum
The parameters are S=1.35, TB=0.2s, TC=0.8s, TD=2.0s.
EC8 The building must resist a design earthquake with PGA = 0.3g,
5.2.2.2 therefore, agR=0.30g. Sd(T1)=
The design ground acceleration 2.55 m/s2
ag=1agR=1.00.39.81=0.3g=2.943m/s2.
TB<T1<Tc Sd= agS2.5/q
0.2s<0.29s<0.8s

For multi-storey, multi-bay frame system with moderate ductility


EC8 (DCM)
u/ 1=1.3
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by S. Minas and C. Huang.

4.3.2.2 q0=3.0u/ 1=3.01.3=3.9


(1) kw=1.00
The upper limit value of the behaviour factor q= q0
kw=3.91=3.91.5 (Satisfied)
Therefore, Sd(T1)= agS2.5/q=2.9431.352.5/3.9=2.55 m/s2.

III. Seismic base shear force


Fb=Sd(T1)m
Because T1=0.29s < TC=0.8s< 2TC=1.6s, =0.8
EC8 But building does NOT have more than 2 storeys, therefore
4.3.3.2. =1.0
3 Fb=Sd(T1)m=2.55181.91.0=463.85kN
(3) Net horizontal force is 463.85/1784100%=26% of total weight

5. Load distribution and moment calculation


z m
Fk Fb k k
z jmj
j

Table 4 Load distribution


Height mass zk mk Force Fk moment Fk z k
floor z k (m) mk (t) (mt) (kN) (kNm)
2 6 66.3 397.8 247.8 1486.8
1 3 115.6 346.8 216.0 648
total 181.9 744.6 463.8(Fb) 2134.8 (Mb)
The ratio of total base moment to the base shear gives the effective
height of the resultant lateral force heff=Mb/Fb=2134.8/463.8=4.6m
above the base, and heff/h=4.6/6=0.77.
F2=247.8kN
3000

F1=216kN
3000

Fig. 4 Seismic mass distribution


Slab ratio= 5/4<2, therefore, the slab is a two-way slab (working in
both direction).

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by S. Minas and C. Huang.

Load corresponding to the shaded area


y
x

4000
8000 1 2

3 4
4000

EC0
6.5.3

5000 5000
10000
Plan (unit:mm)

Area
=4m2
Area=6m2
Fig. 5 Slab load distribution

For 2nd floor beam, dead load :7.38kN/m2


Live load: 2.5kN/m2
For x-direction interior beams:
G=7.38(46)/10=17.71kN/m
Q=2.5(46)/10=6.00kN/m

Q=6.00kN/m
G=17.71kN/m

Fig. 6 Beam loads


Load combination as required by EC0-6.5.3 and Annex A1
Static: (1.35G+1.50Q)
Seismic x: (G+0.30Q+EQx)
Seismic y: ( G+0.30Q+EQy)

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