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This illusion of confidence is now called the

Dunning-Kruger effect, and describes the

cognitive bias to inflate self-assessment.

One day in 1995, a large, heavy middle-

aged man robbed two Pittsburgh banks in
broad daylight. He didnt wear a mask or
any sort of disguise. And he smiled at
surveillance cameras before walking out of
each bank. Later that night, police arrested
a surprised McArthur Wheeler. When they
showed him the surveillance tapes, Wheeler
stared in disbelief. But I wore the juice, he
mumbled. Apparently, Wheeler thought that
rubbing lemon juice on his skin would render
him invisible to videotape cameras. After all,
lemon juice is used as invisible ink so, as
long as he didnt come near a heat source,
he should have been completely invisible.

Police concluded that Wheeler was not crazy

or on drugs just incredibly mistaken.